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1. Khan N, Oriuchi N, Higuchi T, Endo K: Review of fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the follow-up of medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Cancer Control; 2005 Oct;12(4):254-60
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  • [Title] Review of fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the follow-up of medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of posttreatment follow-up for medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancer (MTC and ATC) is the early diagnosis of recurrence or metastases.
  • However, routine follow-up protocols, including physical examination and clinically oriented investigations, are not standardized, and their sensitivity in accurately detecting recurrent or metastatic disease is often suboptimal.
  • METHODS: We review the role of FDG-PET imaging in the follow-up of patients previously treated for MTC and ATC.
  • RESULTS: Based on the encouraging literature data, FDG-PET appears to be useful in detecting recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with MTC and ATC, providing a higher sensitivity (66% to 100%) and specificity (79% to 90%) than conventional imaging methods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Supporting evidence indicates that FDG-PET has a significant role in the follow-up of patients with MTC and ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16258498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-2748
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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2. Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Ortiz JM, Lairmore TC, Duesbery NS, Mitchell IC, Nwariaku F, Frankel AE: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Jan;9(1):190-201
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  • [Title] Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) typically succumb to their disease months after diagnosis despite aggressive therapy.
  • A large percentage of ATCs have been shown to harbor the V600E B-Raf point mutation, leading to the constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
  • ATC invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis are in part dependent on the gelatinase class of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP).
  • The explicit targeting of these two tumor markers may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ATC.
  • The MMP-activated anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx), a novel recombinant protein toxin combination, shows potent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibition in gelatinase-expressing V600E B-Raf tumor cells in vitro.
  • However, preliminary in vivo studies showed that the MMP-activated LeTx also exhibited dramatic antitumor activity against xenografts that did not show significant antiproliferative responses to the LeTx in vitro.
  • Here, we show that the MMP-activated LeTx inhibits orthotopic ATC xenograft progression in both toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant ATC cells via reduced endothelial cell recruitment and subsequent tumor vascularization.
  • Therefore, the MMP-activated LeTx could be used not only in the clinical management of V600E B-Raf ATC but potentially in any solid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Bacterial / therapeutic use. Bacterial Toxins / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / blood supply. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzenesulfonates / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Endocytosis / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Pyridines / pharmacology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20053778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AI000929-05; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AI000929-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / anthrax toxin; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS162016; NLM/ PMC2806504
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3. Liu T, Mansukhani MM, Benson MC, Ennis R, Yoshida E, Schiff PB, Zhang P, Zhou J, Kutcher GJ: A feasibility study of novel ultrasonic tissue characterization for prostate-cancer diagnosis: 2D spectrum analysis of in vivo data with histology as gold standard. Med Phys; 2009 Aug;36(8):3504-11
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  • [Title] A feasibility study of novel ultrasonic tissue characterization for prostate-cancer diagnosis: 2D spectrum analysis of in vivo data with histology as gold standard.
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel 2D spectrum ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) technique for prostate-cancer diagnosis.
  • A pilot study was conducted on four prostate-cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomies.
  • Cancerous and noncancerous regions of interest, identified through histology, were compared using four 2D spectral parameters: peak value and 3 dB width of the radially integrated spectral power (RISP), slope and intercept of the angularly integrated spectral power (AISP).
  • For noncancerous and cancerous prostatic tissues, respectively, our investigation yielded 23 +/- 1 and 26 +/- 1 dB for peak value of RISP, 7.8 +/- 0.5 degrees and 7.6 +/- 0.6 degrees for 3 dB of RISP, -2.1 +/- 0.2 and -2.7 +/- 0.4 dB/MHz for slope of AISP, and 92 +/- 5 and 112 +/- 6 dB for intercept of AISP.
  • Preliminary results indicated that 2D spectral UTC has the potential for identifying tumor-bearing regions within the prostate gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography / methods. Ultrasonography / standards

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  • (PMID = 19746784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA114313; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114313
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2832027
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4. Ishihara T, Tsuda H, Hotta A, Kozaki K, Yoshida A, Noh JY, Ito K, Imoto I, Inazawa J: ITCH is a putative target for a novel 20q11.22 amplification detected in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Cancer Sci; 2008 Oct;99(10):1940-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ITCH is a putative target for a novel 20q11.22 amplification detected in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most virulent of all human malignancies, with a mean survival time among patients of less than 1 year after diagnosis.
  • To date, however, cytogenetic information on this disease has been very limited.
  • During the course of a program to screen a panel of ATC cell lines for genomic copy-number aberrations using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a high-level amplification of the ITCH gene, which is mapped to 20q11.22 and belongs to the homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxylterminus ubiquitin ligase family.
  • The expression of ITCH was increased in 4 of 14 ATC cell lines (28.6%), including 8305C in which there was a copy-number amplification of this gene, and six of seven primary cases (85.7%).
  • Among the primary thyroid tumors, a considerable number of ITCH high expressers was found in ATC (40/45, 88.9%), papillary thyroid carcinoma (25/25, 100%), and papillary microcarcinoma (25/25, 100%).
  • Furthermore, knockdown of ITCH by specific small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the growth of ITCH-overexpressing cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of ITCH promoted growth of ATC cell lines with relatively weak expression.
  • These observations indicate ITCH to be the most likely target for 20q11.22 amplification and to play a crucial role in the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20. Gene Amplification. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19016753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / ITCH protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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5. Schubert I, Köster I, Lehmkuhl G: The changing prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate prescriptions: a study of data from a random sample of insurees of the AOK Health Insurance Company in the German State of Hesse, 2000-2007. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2010 Sep;107(36):615-21
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  • [Title] The changing prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate prescriptions: a study of data from a random sample of insurees of the AOK Health Insurance Company in the German State of Hesse, 2000-2007.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of this study is to assess changes in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and methylphenidate prescriptions over the period 2000 to 2007 on the basis of data from a German statutory health insurance carrier.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a random sample of insurees of the AOK health insurance company in the German state of Hesse for the years 2000 to 2007.
  • Per calender year, 50,000 to 63,000 children and adolescents were retrospectively observed with respect to the documentation of ADHD diagnosis (ICD-10 diagnosis F90) and the prescribing of methylphenidate (ATC: N06BA04).
  • CONCLUSION: The 1% prevalence of methylphenidate use among children and adolescents that was found in this study is the same as that reported in other European countries, such as Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Norway.
  • A drawback of our study is its limitation to a single insurance carrier in a single region.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology. Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use. Methylphenidate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Cross-Cultural Comparison. Cross-Sectional Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data. Female. Germany. Humans. Infant. Male. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data. Sex Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Dec;107(51-52):919; author reply 919-20 [21249142.001]
  • (PMID = 20948775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 207ZZ9QZ49 / Methylphenidate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947846
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6. Chiacchio S, Lorenzoni A, Boni G, Rubello D, Elisei R, Mariani G: Anaplastic thyroid cancer: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;33(4):341-57
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare aggressive tumor arising from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland (as does well differentiated thyroid cancer, WDTC), but ATC cells do not retain any of the biological features of the original follicular cells, such as uptake of iodine and synthesis of thyroglobulin.
  • In this article the Authors review the pathology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options of ATC.
  • ATC incidence typically peaks at the 6-7th decade of life (mean age at diagnosis 55-65 years), women representing 55-77% of all patients.
  • ATC represents 2-5% of all thyroid tumors, with a decreasing trend with respect to the incidence of WDTC.
  • The histologic patterns of ATC include giant-cell, spindle-cell and squamoid-cell tumors; these subtypes frequently coexist and are not predictive of patients' outcome.
  • ATC may arise de novo, but in most cases it develops from a pre-existing WDTC, especially the follicular subtype.
  • Most ATC patients complain of local compressive symptoms, such as dysphagia, dysphonia, stridor and dyspnea in addition to neck pain and tenderness; in over 70% of the patients the tumor infiltrates surrounding tissues, such as fat, trachea, muscle, esophagus, and larynx.
  • The clinical course of a rapidly enlarging mass that is firm and fixed to surrounding structures in an elderly patient is quite suggestive for ATC.
  • Diagnosis can be confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology or, in doubtful cases, by histology on core biopsy.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful for defining the local extent of disease and for identifying distant metastases, as is also positron-emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]FDG.
  • Because of its aggressive behavior, the latest American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual classifies all ATCs as T4 and Stage IV tumors, regardless of their actual overall tumor burden.
  • Treatment of ATC has not been standardized because it is not clear whether or not therapy is effective in prolonging survival; most patients die within six momths from diagnosis, primarily because of asphyxiation caused by local tumor invasion.
  • When employed alone, surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy are seldom adequate to achieve overall control of the disease, but a combination of these treatments may improve local control.
  • Surgical treatment of local disease offers the best opportunity for prolonged survival if the tumor is intrathyroidal.
  • When the tumor is extrathyroidal, the surgical approach to ATC is controversial.
  • Tracheostomy should be performed in patients with impending airway obstruction when death is not imminent from other sites of disease, and if patients are not candidates for local resection or chemoradiation.
  • Interventional bronchoscopy, including Nd-YAG laser and airways stenting are alternatives to surgery in inoperable ATC-induced tracheal obstruction.
  • Although very rare, ATC is a highly aggressive tumor that belongs to the group of killer tumors with median survival time not longer than 6-8 months.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the conventional therapeutic strategies performed in the attempt to improve survival.
  • Unfortunately, very often they do not succeed any clinical benefit but only palliative RESULTS: New therapeutic strategies based on molecular approaches are desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prevalence. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


7. Demidchik IuE, Fridman MV, Pisarenko AM: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis]. Vopr Onkol; 2007;53(1):37-45
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis].
  • A multivariate study was carried out of prognostic factors for 32 in-patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (1995-2005).
  • Out of 20 features of prognostic importance, only three proved to affect survival: incomplete removal of tumor, pockets of differentiated cells and pseudo-histiocytic type of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • No correlation between survival, on the one hand, and tumor size, leukocytic index of intoxication, age, gender, etc., on the other, was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17649732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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8. Fernandez NJ, Clark EG, Larson VS: What is your diagnosis? Ventral neck mass in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol; 2008 Dec;37(4):447-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is your diagnosis? Ventral neck mass in a dog.
  • On physical examination, numerous abnormalities were found, including a large ventral neck mass (100 cm(3)) in the area of the thyroid gland.
  • Fine-needle aspirates revealed 2 apparent populations of cells: one suspected to be a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the other consisting of large pleomorphic to spindloid cells suggestive of sarcoma.
  • A full necropsy was not performed, but examination of the head and neck revealed a well-encapsulated mass adjacent to the cranial trachea and larynx.
  • A section of the mass was evaluated histologically and a diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was made.
  • Immunohistochemical evaluation with antibodies to thyroglobulin, cytokeratin, and vimentin confirmed distinct populations of malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal cells, and the diagnosis was amended to thyroid carcinosarcoma.
  • Thyroid carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm in dogs in which the cell type comprising the mesenchymal component can vary.
  • Immunochemistry to demonstrate the 2 cell types may be necessary to differentiate thyroid carcinosarcoma from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19055583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Suzuki S: [Differential diagnosis and strategy for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2079-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis and strategy for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is most aggressive and poor prognosis among solid neoplasmas.
  • Unfortunately, effective treatment for ATC is not established until now.
  • We recommend new strategy for the treatment of ATC based on new UICC staging.
  • If tumor become decreasing by these chemoradiation, salvage surgery will be preformed for complete resection.
  • But survival period is not longer over 20 years, so the establishment of new treatment is desired.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18018574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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10. Oktay MH, Smolkin MB, Williams M, Cajigas A: Metastatic anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid mimicking squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case of a challenging cytologic diagnosis. Acta Cytol; 2006 Mar-Apr;50(2):201-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid mimicking squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case of a challenging cytologic diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The probability of anaplastic transformation in a differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is <2%.
  • Admixture of DTC and undifferentiated carcinoma can occasionally be found in thyroidectomy specimens, or the undifferentiated tumor may develop in metastatic foci months or years after removal of the primary tumor.
  • CASE: Anaplastic transformation of a metastatic DTC was diagnosed at autopsy in a 71-year-old female.
  • At the time of her total thyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma, she already had several lung nodules, which diminished in size upon 131I treatment.
  • Five years later the patient developed a new, pleura-based lung mass.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the paraspinal mass resulted in a diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Two months later the patient died.
  • Histologic evaluation of the lung nodules and pleura-based mass revealed areas of follicular carcinoma intermixed with a various patterns of undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The paraspinal and kidney mass consisted entirely of anaplastic tumor, including areas of squamoid differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with a history of DTC who develop a rapidly growing mass elsewhere, a possibility of metastatic DTC with anaplastic transformation must be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


11. Kurukahvecioglu O, Ege B, Poyraz A, Tezel E, Taneri F: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with long term survival after combined treatment: case report. Endocr Regul; 2007 Mar;41(1):41-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with long term survival after combined treatment: case report.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is associated with an almost uniformly rapid and lethal clinical course.
  • ATC grows rapidly and invades surrounding tissues at an early stage.
  • Despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, few patients with ATC live more than 1 year follow-up diagnosis.
  • Treatment of ATC is still controversial because of its rarity and advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.
  • We report herein an unusual case of ATC, 35 year old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17437344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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12. Laco J, Ryska A, Celakovský P: [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland with chondrosarcomatous component]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jan;41(1):34-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland with chondrosarcomatous component].
  • [Transliterated title] Anaplastický karcinom stítné zlázy s chondrosarkomatózní komponentou.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed with the conclusion of a sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland; biopsy was recommended.
  • The patient was operated on and died six months after operation with metastatic dissemination in lymphatic nodes and lungs.
  • Histologically, an invasive high-grade tumor composed of irregular, sometimes bizarre spindled or polygonal cells intermingled with foci of chondroid tissue was seen.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid anaplastic carcinoma with chondrosarcomatous component was established.
  • Differential diagnostics of this tumour is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15816122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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13. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Oxley K, Sosa JA: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):425-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Primary leiomyosarcomas of the thyroid gland are rare.
  • The preoperative differential diagnosis included medullary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and primary versus metastatic sarcoma.
  • The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, bilateral central neck dissections, and cervical thymectomy; she is currently being treated with ifosfamide and adriamycin.
  • We review the literature on leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid, including the differential diagnoses, pathology, and alternative treatment strategies, including surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Necrosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18346004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Haas V, Čelakovský P, Brtková J, Hornychová H: Unusual Manifestation of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove); 2008;51(4):233-236

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual Manifestation of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The authors present a rare case of a patient with symptoms consistent with retropharyngeal abscess.
  • The diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer was made after surgery and subsequent histological examination.
  • The patient had pronounced swelling of the left side of her neck.
  • The histological examination of the lymph nodes identified metastasis of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of diseases affecting deep neck structures can be very difficult.
  • Symptoms of inflammation dominating in the clinical picture do not exclude the possibility of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 28113058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic / Metastasis / Retropharyngeal abscess / Thyroid cancer
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15. Koya S, Li Y, McDaniel SA, LoBuglio AF, Krontiras H, Carpenter J, Nabell L, Bland K, Falkson C, Forero A: Safety and effectiveness of dose dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11566

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  • [Title] Safety and effectiveness of dose dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III breast cancer.
  • : e11566 Background: NSABP B-18 randomized women with operable breast cancer to receive chemotherapy (AC) either pre- or postoperatively; in the study there was no significant difference in disease free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS) among patients in either group.
  • Dose dense adjuvant chemotherapy (ATC) has shown a statistically significant improvement in DFS and OS.
  • METHODS: We performed a single institution review of pts enrolled in a neoadjuvant trial and who received dose dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy (doxorubicin 60 mg/m<sup>2</sup> IV Q2wks x4, paclitaxel 175 mg/m<sup>2</sup> IV Q2wks x4, and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m<sup>2</sup> IV Q2wks x4) to assess response rates, safety, and DFS.
  • Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, T ≥ 3cm, any N, M0 were enrolled.
  • RESULTS: Since 02/2003, 43 pts were enrolled (mean age 47.6, range 28-64) and received dose dense chemotherapy.
  • Forty one pts completed dose dense chemotherapy and proceeded to surgery.
  • Up to November 2008, 7 pts who did not have a pCR have relapsed (4 triple negative, 1 Her2+, 1 ER/PR positive and 1 ER negative, PR positive) with a relapsed free survival rate of 85%.
  • Non-hematologic grade 3 or 4 toxicity consisted of mediport thrombosis in 2 pts, hyperglycemia in 2 pts, syncope in 1 pt, neuropathy in 1 pt, and varicella zoster in 1 pt.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that dose dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieves a pCR (breast + node) in about 1/3 of patients (34%) with tolerable toxicity; although the number of patients is limited, our data suggest that triple negative breast cancer seems to be the most sensitive tumor to this regimen.

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  • (PMID = 27964074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Green LD, Mack L, Pasieka JL: Anaplastic thyroid cancer and primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of these rare thyroid malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):725-36
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer and primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of these rare thyroid malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: To review the current literature on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and thyroid lymphoma (TL).
  • RESULTS: Both anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) and TL represent rare forms of thyroid cancer.
  • ATC behaves in a highly aggressive manner, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Although ATC has been relatively chemo resistant, newer agents such like taxotere show promise.
  • The role of surgery in the treatment of ATC continues to evolve, presently it should be reserved for patients who have shown an initial response to multimodality therapy and in patients in whom a complete macroscopic resection can be achieved with minimal morbidity.
  • The successful treatment of TL currently lies in accurately diagnosing the histological subtype.
  • MALT lymphomas with there more indolent course may be amenable to single modality RT or total thyroidectomy if diagnosed at an early stage IE.
  • DISCUSSION: Although both ATC and TL are rare, it is important for surgeons to be aware of the need for multimodality therapy when treating these patients and to understand the limited role surgery plays in diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma. Lymphoma. Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Vincristine / administration & dosage


22. Niedziela M: Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Jun;13(2):427-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in children.
  • According to the literature thyroid nodules are quite rare in the first two decades of life.
  • However, there are some exceptions, relating to areas with an iodine deficiency or affected by radioactive fallout, where the risk of nodules and carcinomas is increased.
  • Therefore, it is a great challenge for the physician to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions preoperatively, and not only in these areas of greater risk.
  • A careful work-up, comprising the patient's history, clinical examination, laboratory tests, thyroid ultrasound, scintigraphy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and molecular studies, is mandatory to improve the preoperative diagnosis.
  • The differential diagnosis should also include benign thyroid conditions such as: (i) congenital hypothyroidism due to dyshormonogenesis or ectopy, (ii) thyroid hemiagenesis, (iii) thyroglossal duct cyst, (iv) simple goiter, (v) cystic lesion, (vi) nodular hyperplasia, (vii) follicular adenoma, (viii) Graves' disease and (ix) Hashimoto thyroiditis, all of which can predispose to the development of thyroid nodules.
  • The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from the follicular cell (papillary, follicular, insular and undifferentiated (or anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma), whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma derives from calcitonin-producing cells.
  • Inherited forms of thyroid cancer may occur, especially in relation to medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • FNAB is a critical factor in establishing the preoperative diagnosis.
  • However, we should keep in mind the fact that a conventional cytological evaluation can miss the neoplastic nature of a lesion and the employment of immunocytochemical and molecular studies of aspirates from FNAB can give us a more precise diagnosis of neoplasia in thyroid nodules once they are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Humans. Radionuclide Imaging. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / therapy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16728572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 246
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23. Kontic M, Stojsic J, Kacar-Kukric V, Jekic B, Bunjevacki V: Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Exp Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma.
  • AIM: To employ multidisciplinary approach in order to make the correct diagnosis of lung carcinoma clinically and morphologically mimicking lymphoma.
  • RESULTS: Tumor cells expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) without thyreoglobulin positivity.
  • Further, tumor cells expressed neuroendocrine mar kers: synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD56/NCAM, CD57/Leu-7 and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5).
  • Direct sequencing analysis of exon 6 of the p53 gene revealed ATC to ACC mutation at codon 195.
  • Final diagnosis of large cell lung neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) was established.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphological pattern of tumor complied with large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but large cell lung carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was proved immunohistochemically and confirmed by genetic analysis of p53 mutations in tumor tissue sample.
  • Multidisciplinary approach in diagnosis of lung carcinoma is useful for its final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20693974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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24. Fridman MV, Demidchik IuE, Gedrevich ZE: [Synchronous polyneoplasia of the thyroid gland: problems of diagnosis and therapy]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(3):309-14
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  • [Title] [Synchronous polyneoplasia of the thyroid gland: problems of diagnosis and therapy].
  • Thyroid carcinoma concurrent with synchronous polyneoplasia is quite rare and not fully understood.
  • There are 15 cases of such carcinoma on the records of the Center (2000-2005) (papillary and medullar - 9, papillary and follicullar -3, papillary and anaplastic - 1, papillary - 1 and unidentified well differentiated carcinoma - 1).
  • Still another patient had a combination of Hodgkin's disease (nodular sclerosis, cellular stage) and papillary microcarcinoma dicceminated to lymph nodes.
  • Problems of diagnosis and therapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17191704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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25. Korb K, Hummers-Pradier E, Stich K, Chenot J, Scherer M: [Implementation of recommendations for the diagnosis of heart failure. [corrected]]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2010 Jan;135(4):120-4
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  • [Title] [Implementation of recommendations for the diagnosis of heart failure. [corrected]].
  • BACKGROUND: National and international guidelines for the management of congestive heart failure (HF) suggest a variety of procedures for establishing its diagnosis and monitoring its course.
  • The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate which of these recommendations were actually implemented and documented in the setting of general medical practice.
  • METHODS: Patients receiving at least one cardiovascular drug (World health [WHO] anatomical chemical classification [ATC] class C) were identified from electronic medical records from 5 general practices from 1.4.2001 to 1.10.2004.
  • Those patients with the documented diagnosis of HF were selected.
  • All patients' records were reviewed and those diagnostic procedures and clinical findings were recorded on a standardized data extraction form that had been used to establish the diagnosis of HF.
  • CONCLUSION: Only a few of those clinical signs and diagnostic procedures recommended by guidelines for diagnosing HF were recorded in general practice.
  • The reasons for this finding remain unclear.
  • Even under the assumption that not all observed clinical signs and diagnostic procedures were documented, these findings reflect the actual diagnostic strategy in daily practice.
  • On the one hand, there is a need for improving the diagnostic approach to HF; on the other, guidelines need to set priorities of the recommendations for diagnosing HF.
  • [MeSH-major] Guideline Adherence / standards. Heart Failure / diagnosis. Quality Assurance, Health Care / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ambulatory Care. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / blood. Cardiac Catheterization / standards. Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use. Comorbidity. Cross-Sectional Studies. Documentation / standards. Echocardiography / standards. Electrocardiography / standards. Family Practice / standards. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Medical Records Systems, Computerized / standards. Middle Aged. Patient Admission. Physical Examination / standards. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010 Jan;135(4):119 [20101553.001]
  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010 May;135(20):1036 [20461664.001]
  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010 May;135(20):1036 [20461666.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2020 Feb;135(8):329
  • (PMID = 20101554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiovascular Agents; 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor
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26. Payne R: Recognition and diagnosis of breakthrough pain. Pain Med; 2007 Jan-Feb;8 Suppl 1:S3-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recognition and diagnosis of breakthrough pain.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review major clinical issues related to recognition and diagnosis of breakthrough pain.
  • ISSUES: Persistent pain and breakthrough pain (BTP) are distinct clinical entities that should be recognized, diagnosed, and treated individually.
  • BTP is common in patients with cancer and a variety of other chronic diseases.
  • It is most commonly defined as an abrupt, short-lived, and intense pain that "breaks through" the around-the-clock analgesia that controls persistent pain.
  • The three subtypes of BTP are incident, idiopathic, and end-of-dose failure.
  • Appropriate assessment of the patient takes into consideration source, severity, pattern, subtype, and cause of pain.
  • Successful treatment is important because BTP has a profound impact on the patient's quality of life, as well as cost of health care.
  • Additionally, and for reasons not entirely clear, many physicians and other health care providers place a low priority on pain management and underrecognize the occurrence of BTP in patients with persistent pain.
  • CONCLUSION: Greater knowledge and awareness of BTP in cancer and nonmalignant conditions will lead to improved recognition and diagnosis of BTP and ultimately to more effective treatment and enhanced quality of life for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pain / classification. Pain / diagnosis. Pain Measurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'

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  • (PMID = 17280600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2375
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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27. Maatouk J, Barklow TA, Zakaria W, Al-Abbadi MA: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising in long-standing multinodular goiter following radioactive iodine therapy: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):581-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising in long-standing multinodular goiter following radioactive iodine therapy: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive, undifferentiated carcinoma that may arise on top of normal or abnormal thyroid.
  • Making the diagnosis by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid with a long-standing history of multinodular goiter (MNG) is not uncommon.
  • We report a case discussing the cytopathologic findings and the relationship with long-standing goiter and thyroid exposure to radioactive iodine treatment.
  • CASE: A 90-year-old male patient presented with a > 45-year history of MNG that was associated with thyrotoxicosis and multiple courses of radioiodine (I-131) treatment.
  • FNA was performed revealing highly anaplastic cells with a colloid background and presence of neutrophils.
  • The diagnosis of ATC was made.
  • The patient refused any kind of management and was discharged upon his request.
  • CONCLUSION: ATC is an aggressive, undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma that can be diagnosed by FNA and save the patient a surgical intervention.
  • A background of MNG and history of radioactive iodine therapy is not uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 19798888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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28. Stock SA, Redaelli M, Wendland G, Civello D, Lauterbach KW: Diabetes--prevalence and cost of illness in Germany: a study evaluating data from the statutory health insurance in Germany. Diabet Med; 2006 Mar;23(3):299-305
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  • [Title] Diabetes--prevalence and cost of illness in Germany: a study evaluating data from the statutory health insurance in Germany.
  • OBJECTIVE: This population-based study assesses the prevalence and cost of illness as a result of diabetes mellitus in Germany by retrospectively analysing routine health insurance data.
  • The insured with diabetes were identified via ICD-9 diagnosis and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) code for regular medication prescriptions.
  • CONCLUSION: In accordance with the results of recent studies using routinely collected health insurance data, our study suggests that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased steadily in the past years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cost of Illness. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Hospitalization / economics. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / economics. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Insurance, Health / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Population Surveillance / methods. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16492214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3071
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabet. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents
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29. Stock S, Redaelli M, Luengen M, Wendland G, Civello D, Lauterbach KW: Asthma: prevalence and cost of illness. Eur Respir J; 2005 Jan;25(1):47-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and cost of illness of asthma in Germany by retrospectively analysing routine health insurance data.
  • Insurants with asthma were identified via the International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision) diagnosis and the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System Code for regular medication prescriptions.
  • The results of this large study show the prevalence of asthma in the German social insurance system to be approximately 6%.
  • The study also indicates that there is room for substantial savings in the German social insurance system, with indirect costs amounting to 74.8% of total costs and payment of sick benefits through the sickness funds amounting to 58.3% of indirect costs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cohort Studies. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Hospital Costs. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prognosis. Registries. Respiratory Function Tests. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15640322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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30. O'Neill JP, O'Neill B, Condron C, Walsh M, Bouchier-Hayes D: Anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid cancer: improved insight and therapeutic strategy into a highly aggressive disease. J Laryngol Otol; 2005 Aug;119(8):585-91
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  • [Title] Anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid cancer: improved insight and therapeutic strategy into a highly aggressive disease.
  • BACKGROUND: This review article discusses the clinical and diagnostic implications of anaplastic thyroid cancer, recognizing the aggressive nature of the disease and extensive disease progression upon diagnosis.
  • We question the pathological evolution of anaplasia as a 'de novo' disease or a post malignant transformation or dedifferentiation and the therapeutic implications of p53 mutation.
  • METHOD: An electronic search on Medline and Pubmed was performed under 'anaplastic thyroid carcinoma', 'anaplastic thyroid carcinogenesis', 'anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treatment reviews'.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Neck Dissection. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16102210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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31. Batori M, Chatelou E, Straniero A, Ruggieri M: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case of a young women that reports a survival exceeding 6 years. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2007 Jan-Feb;11(1):69-71
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case of a young women that reports a survival exceeding 6 years.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an uncommun and highly aggressive malignancy.
  • Differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas account for most (80-90%) thyroid malignancies with ATC accounting for less than 5%.
  • A diagnosis of ATC is usually fatal with a mean survival of 3-9 months and only 10-15% alive at 2 years.
  • Histologic examination reveals that many of them contain a papillary structure or follicular components in focal areas and genetic alteration is the driving for genesis of cancer and progression.
  • These studies showing that ATC represents a terminal "de-differentiation" of pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.
  • The aim of the present study has been to review a case of a young women with ATC that reports a survival exceeding 6 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Survival. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17405351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Kharchenko VP, Tsallagova ZS, Kotliarov PM, Mikheeva NV: [Ultrasound study in the differential diagnosis of thyroid focal lesions of various origin]. Vestn Rentgenol Radiol; 2007 Jan-Feb;(1):25-30
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound study in the differential diagnosis of thyroid focal lesions of various origin].
  • The present study deals with the ultrasound differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
  • A hundred and ninety-two patients, including 130 patients with benign diseases (nodular colloidal goiter) (36.9%), chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (30.7%), and adenomas (32.3%) and 62 patients with malignant diseases (thyroid cancer (88%), lymphoproliferative diseases (6.4%), and recurrent thyroid cancer) (4.8%), were clinically examined.
  • The diagnosis was verified from cytological and histological findings with mandatory morphological confirmation.
  • Interdisease comparison has shown that USS is both a screening and diagnostic technique in revealing thyroid changes and determining their site, sizes, and structure.
  • Ultrasound pathognomonic signs were detected in different morphological types of adenomas, thyroiditis, and nodular colloidal goiter, in the classical, pseudoadenomatous and pseudocystic types of thyroid cancer.
  • At the same time there were characteristic ultrasound parameters at the stage of pronounced changes in undifferentiated thyroid cancer (pseudothyroiditis), lymphoproliferative diseases, and acute thyroiditis.
  • The exception was the diffuse form of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in which both thyroid lobes were always altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 18274138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Rentgenol Radiol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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33. Mendelson E, Mandelboim M, Grossman Z, Ram D, Hindiyeh M: [Laboratory diagnosis of influenza H1N1 2009 at the Central Virology Laboratory in Israel during the first 12 weeks of the pandemic]. Harefuah; 2009 Oct;148(10):677-81, 735
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  • [Title] [Laboratory diagnosis of influenza H1N1 2009 at the Central Virology Laboratory in Israel during the first 12 weeks of the pandemic].
  • BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of new emerging viruses in Israel is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health's Central Virology Laboratory (CVL).
  • AIMS: Development and application of a diagnostic test for H1N1 2009, diagnosis of cases in an outbreak setting and data analysis.
  • Arrangements were made to allow around-the-clock testing of hundreds of samples without compromising other laboratory services.
  • Most of the cases were found in the central part of Israel and around Jerusalem.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Outbreaks. Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / isolation & purification. Influenza, Human / epidemiology


34. Hunt JL: Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2005 Sep;5(5):725-34
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  • [Title] Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis.
  • The most common thyroid neoplasms are either follicular derived (papillary, follicular and Hürthle cell lesions) or C-cell derived (medullary carcinoma).
  • The diagnosis of these tumors can usually be made at the histologic level, with immunohistochemical stains necessary in some circumstances.
  • Specific molecular mutations have been described that can be diagnostically useful or explain, in part, their pathogenesis, including the well-known Ret/PTC and PPARgamma-PAX8 translocations, point mutations in the Ret, Ras and BRAF genes, and loss of heterozygosity of multiple different tumor suppressor genes.
  • Some unusual tumors of the thyroid gland are more difficult to diagnose.
  • These less common thyroid tumors include tall cell and cribriform-morular variants of papillary carcinoma, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, mucoepidermoid and sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • The diagnostic features of these rare tumors, including the histology, immunohistochemical expression profiles and the known molecular mutational profiles of each, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16149875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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35. Pichardo-Lowden A, Durvesh S, Douglas S, Todd W, Bruno M, Goldenberg D: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a young woman: a rare case of survival. Thyroid; 2009 Jul;19(7):775-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a young woman: a rare case of survival.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare but one of the most aggressive human cancers.
  • It is characteristically diagnosed in patients older than 60 years.
  • We report the case of a young patient with ATC, in whom disease-free survival exceeds 2 years, and review the related literature.
  • A neck computed tomography scan showed a 3.5-cm left thyroid mass extending into the lateral neck.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed a malignant tumor.
  • A subsequent core biopsy showed an undifferentiated epithelial carcinoma.
  • Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed an ATC.
  • Postoperatively, the patient received radiation with concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Serial follow-up imaging studies showed no evidence of residual or recurrent disease or metastases, and patient remains alive, free of disease, over 2 years.
  • CONCLUSION: ATC is usually a disease of the elderly but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient who presents with a rapidly enlarging anterior neck mass.
  • This unusual case highlights that this aggressive thyroid cancer may occur in the young.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19583489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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36. Niedźwiecki S, Stepień T, Kuzdak K, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Seehofer D, Rayes N, Ulrich F: Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 May;393(3):275-80
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  • [Title] Serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in thyroid cancer patients.
  • Therefore, we performed a prospective study, analyzing IL-1ra in thyroid cancer patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured preoperative IL-1ra serum levels of 52 consecutive patients with thyroid cancer, 15 with benign adenoma and 27 healthy volunteers.
  • The final histological diagnosis revealed 21 patients with papillary and 8 patients with follicular carcinoma (FTC), while 12 cases of medullary and 11 cases of anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) were observed.
  • RESULTS: Compared to the control group, serum concentrations of IL-1ra were significantly higher in ATC and FTC patients.
  • Concerning gender differences, this effect reached significance only in women with ATC and FTC.
  • Except for the stage IV disease in ATC, there was no correlation between IL-1ra levels and International Union Against Cancer staging.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings of our study indicate that IL-1ra may play an important role in the development of ATC and FTC.
  • Future efforts should focus on the possible application of IL-1ra as a biomarker for the above-mentioned thyroid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009 Mar;394(2):401-2; author reply 403 [18825404.001]
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  • (PMID = 18064485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IL1RN protein, human; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
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37. Prasad ML, Pellegata NS, Huang Y, Nagaraja HN, de la Chapelle A, Kloos RT: Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid tumors is critical for clinical management; however, tumors with follicular architecture often present problems.
  • We evaluated the diagnostic use of the protein expression of four genes that were found to be upregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal thyroid (LGALS3, FN1, CITED1 and KRT19), and of the mesothelial cell surface protein recognized by monoclonal antibody HBME1 in thyroid tumors.
  • Tissues from 85 carcinomas (67 papillary, six follicular, eight Hürthle cell and four anaplastic) and 21 adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of these gene protein products, for example, galectin-3 (GAL3), fibronectin-1 (FN1), CITED1, cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and HBME1.
  • The expression of all five proteins was significantly associated with malignancy, and highly specific (> or = 90%) for carcinoma compared to adenoma.
  • GAL3, FN1 and/or HBME1 expression was seen in 100% of carcinomas (85/85) and in 24% of adenomas (5/21).
  • Coexpression of multiple proteins was seen in 95% of carcinomas and only 5% of adenomas (P<0.0001).
  • Coexpression of FN1 and GAL3 (FN1+ GAL3+, 70/85) or FN1 and HBME1 (FN1+ HBME1+, 53/85) was restricted to carcinomas, while their concurrent absence (FN1- GAL3- or FN1- HBME1-, 18/21 adenoma) was highly specific (96%) for benign lesions.
  • Among non-neoplastic thyroids, adenomatous hyperplasia frequently expressed GAL3 (n=16), CK19 (n=9) and CITED1 (n=7), but the expression was predominantly focal in contrast to the diffuse expression in carcinomas.
  • An immunohistochemical panel consisting of GAL3, FN1 and HBME1 may be useful in the diagnosis of follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibronectins / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins. Statistics as Topic. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 15272279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00034
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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38. Westhoff CC, Karakas E, Dietz C, Barth PJ: Intrathyroidal hematopoiesis: a rare histological finding in an otherwise healthy patient and review of the literature. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;393(5):745-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathyroidal hematopoiesis: a rare histological finding in an otherwise healthy patient and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multinodular goiter represents the most common thyroid disease in Europe and the United States.
  • Calcifications have also been detected by microscopic investigation of thyroid tissue.
  • However, true bone formation is uncommon and to date only two cases of metaplastic bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in the thyroid have been reported in the literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a case of total thyroidectomy due to multinodular goiter harboring an area of mature bone and hematopoiesis in an otherwise healthy female patient.
  • Furthermore, we reviewed and summarized for the first time all available cases from the literature.
  • RESULTS: We report the third case of metaplastic bone formation with foci of hematopoietic tissue in the thyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Isolated extramedullary hematopoiesis seems to be more frequent in the thyroid gland than metaplastic bone formation with hematopoiesis, particularly in older people with underlying hematologic disorders.
  • It also represents an important differential diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid, particularly in intra-operative frozen sections and fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / physiology. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Ossification, Heterotopic / surgery. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Metaplasia. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Cites] Thyroid. 2003 Sep;13(9):877-80 [14588103.001]
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  • (PMID = 18299884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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39. Trimboli P, Ulisse S, Graziano FM, Marzullo A, Ruggieri M, Calvanese A, Piccirilli F, Cavaliere R, Fumarola A, D'Armiento M: Trend in thyroid carcinoma size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective study of 500 cases diagnosed over 20 years. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1151-5
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  • [Title] Trend in thyroid carcinoma size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective study of 500 cases diagnosed over 20 years.
  • Recently, the Italian Network of Cancer Registries analyzed 5101 cases of thyroid carcinoma showing a reduction of mortality rate of 4%/year.
  • This prompts us to evaluate the temporal trend in tumor size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective analysis of 500 thyroid cancers diagnosed over 20 years.
  • Thyroid cancers were divided in two groups.
  • The first included 193 cases diagnosed from 1985 to 1994, and the second 307 from 1995 to 2004.
  • In particular, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) size decreased from 28 +/- 1.2mm to 14 +/- 0.8mm and follicular carcinoma from 40 +/- 6.3mm to 17 +/- 4.5 mm.
  • Age at diagnosis of all carcinomas increased significantly from 40 +/- 1.3 years in the first group to 48 +/- 0.9 years in the second group.
  • Analysis of the histological types revealed a significant increase of PTC rate in the second decade from 82% to 92% and a concomitant reduction of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) from 3.7% to 1.0%.
  • In conclusion, it may be speculated that the above mentioned decreased mortality rate for thyroid carcinoma could be related to the significant reduction with time of cancer size, to the progressive increase of PTC rate and to the reduction of ATC rate.
  • These data, if confirmed in other series, underscore the importance of evaluating thyroid nodules smaller than 10mm and corroborate recent findings suggesting that age be reconsidered as an independent prognostic factor for differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Mortality / trends. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17123342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Novosel I, Bulimbasić S, Ramljak V, Matkovic B, Dosen D, Separović V: [p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in the diagnosis of insular thyroid gland cancer. Case report with a review of literature]. Lijec Vjesn; 2006 Sep-Oct;128(9-10):264-7
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  • [Title] [p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in the diagnosis of insular thyroid gland cancer. Case report with a review of literature].
  • The report covers the first case of insular thyroid cancer recorded in Croatian medical literature.
  • A 71-year old female patient presented to our hospital with symptoms of inspiratory stridor.
  • Clinical examination disclosed an expansive tumor mass.
  • US guided FNA indicated anaplastic cancer and total thyroidectomy was accordingly indicated.
  • Pathohistological analysis of H/E biopsies disclosed a tumor mass with a characteristic insular growth pattern of monomorphic tumor cells.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed diagnosis by a diffuse positive reaction to thyreoglobulin, focally to TTF-1, and scant to cytokeratin, while calcitonin, FVIII, CD34 and LCA were clearly negative.
  • P53 and bcl-2 were expressed in 35.9% and 85% of tumor cells, respectively.
  • The proliferation index for Ki-67 was 4.19.
  • According to our survey we suggest a panel of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing insular cancer.
  • Even if partly present, insular cancer should be mentioned in the pathohistological description because of its prognostic meaning.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17128663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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41. Chung KW, Yang SK, Lee GK, Kim EY, Kwon S, Lee SH, Park DJ, Lee HS, Cho BY, Lee ES, Kim SW: Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):660-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area.
  • BACKGROUND: Between 10 and 30% of the fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules are diagnosed as 'indeterminate'.
  • A molecular diagnostic method is needed to reduce unnecessary surgery in this group.
  • In Korea, most thyroid cancer is the classic papillary type and the BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent.
  • AIM: To evaluate the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent geographical area.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 specimens of FNAB (107 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC); 2 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas; 25 benign lesions), both direct DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP were used for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was present in 93 (83%) of 112 thyroid cancers.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of this molecular method in only the 25 indeterminate nodules was 76% (19/25).
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in FNAB specimens refines the FNAB-cytology diagnosis, especially in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17054470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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42. Daneshbod Y, Omidvari S, Daneshbod K, Negahban S, Dehghani M: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report. Cytojournal; 2006;3:23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure.
  • Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice.
  • Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned.
  • After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed.
  • Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

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  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 1999 Jun;26(3):316-23 [10375088.001]
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  • (PMID = 17052355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1630693
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43. Müssig K, Kaltenbach S, Maser-Gluth C, Hartmann MF, Wudy SA, Horger M, Gallwitz B, Raue F, Häring HU, Schulze E: Late diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Apr;114(4):208-14
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 17ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • We report on a rare case of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency diagnosed in late adulthood.
  • A 39-year-old male patient presented for workup of infertility.
  • The patient's steroid metabolism showed markedly increased levels of adrenal androgens, in particular of 17-hydroxyprogesterone amd 21-deoxycortisol.
  • The CTP21A2 gene analysis revealed the mutation I172N (ATC --> AAC) in exon 4 of allele 1 and a large gene deletion in allele 2.
  • Cases of 21-hydroxylase deficiency diagnosed in late adulthood are rare; however, clinicians should be alert of this possibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Point Mutation. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adult. Androgens / blood. Cortodoxone / blood. Exons / genetics. Humans. Infertility, Male / blood. Infertility, Male / complications. Infertility, Male / diagnosis. Infertility, Male / genetics. Male

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  • (PMID = 16705555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 641-77-0 / 21-deoxycortisol; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; WDT5SLP0HQ / Cortodoxone
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44. Liu AH, Juan LY, Yang AH, Chen HS, Lin HD: Anaplastic thyroid cancer with uncommon long-term survival. J Chin Med Assoc; 2006 Oct;69(10):489-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer with uncommon long-term survival.
  • In general, most thyroid cancers are indolent and have a slowly progressive course.
  • The exception is anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Here, we present a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer who survived for more than 10 years after diagnosis.
  • A 68-year-old man was incidentally found to have anaplastic thyroid cancer during operation for follicular neoplasm.
  • After operation, annual follow-up examinations were negative for residual tumor or metastatic lesions.
  • The patient also had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and unfortunately died of pneumonia in a local hospital 10 years after thyroid operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Male. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17098674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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45. Chen J, Tward JD, Shrieve DC, Hitchcock YJ: Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983-2002. Am J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;31(5):460-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983-2002.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is associated with a high rate of local recurrence and poor prognosis.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1983 to 2002 with > or = 1-month survival after diagnosis who either had surgery performed or recommended were included in the analysis.
  • Distant or metastatic disease, tumor size >7 cm, and treatment with surgery plus or minus radiotherapy were statistically significant as prognostic for survival on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).
  • When stratified by extent of disease, the addition of radiotherapy to surgery resulted in improved survival for patients with disease extending into adjacent tissue (P = 0.05); however, patients who had disease confined to the capsule or had further extension or distant metastatic disease did not benefit from radiotherapy after surgery (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Management. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18838882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Oliver R, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Phillimore A: Urogynecology triage clinic: a model of healthcare delivery. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2009 Aug;20(8):913-7
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  • INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: To establish whether a nurse-led urogynecology triage clinic (UTC) is effective in terms of patient journey (from primary referral to first hospital contact until discharge), diagnosis, management, and outcomes.
  • METHODS: The case notes of 300 patients attending the UTC in a university hospital between January 2006 and November 2007 were randomly selected for review.
  • RESULTS: The mean interval from referral to first visit improved from 15.6 weeks (range = 12-32 weeks) to 4.6 weeks (range = 1-11 weeks, SD = 1.97) after UTC.
  • Compared to pre-UTC, the mean period from first visit to final outcome improved from 11 months (range = 3.0-23.0 months) to 8.8 weeks (range = <1-60 weeks, SD = 11.15).
  • Fifty-nine percent were discharged from the UTC without being seen by a specialist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: By service redesigning, the UTC has reduced the number of clinic visits and patient journey time and has also shown that the majority of women with incontinence can be adequately managed by a specialist nurse.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Care Facilities / organization & administration. Primary Nursing. Triage. Urinary Incontinence / diagnosis. Urinary Incontinence / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19475330.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Waryasz GR, McDermott AY: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS): a systematic review of anatomy and potential risk factors. Dyn Med; 2008;7:9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE).
  • We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required to assess the anatomy and make recommendations to patients identified as potentially at risk.
  • The prehabilitation program is performed at lower intensity level ranges and can be conducted 3 days per week in conjunction with general strength training.
  • Based on an objective one repetition maximum (1RM) test which determines the amount an individual can lift in good form through a full range of motion, prehabilitation exercises are performed at 50-60% intensity.

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  • (PMID = 18582383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5918
  • [Journal-full-title] Dynamic medicine : DM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dyn Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2443365
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48. Iagaru A, Masamed R, Singer PA, Conti PS: 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosis of patients with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer. Mol Imaging Biol; 2006 Sep-Oct;8(5):309-14
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  • [Title] 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosis of patients with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has an established role in restaging of various cancers, including papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, but detection rates are variable in the published literature.
  • We were therefore prompted to review our experience with FDG-PET in detection of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study (April 1, 1995-March 31, 2005) of 21 patients with histologic diagnosis of PTC who had PET examinations.
  • RESULTS: Recurrent/metastatic disease was identified by PET in 16 (76%) of the 21 patients with PTC.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for disease detection in this cohort were 88.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.7-96.7] and 75% (95% CI, 30.1-95.4), respectively.
  • The lesions were located in the cervical lymph nodes (8), thyroid bed (4), lungs (4), and mediastinal lymph nodes (2).
  • CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the feasibility of PET in detection of residual/recurrence of PTC, with sensitivity of 88.2% (95% CI, 65.7-96.7) and specificity of 75% (95% CI, 30.1-95.4).
  • Detectable levels of Tg, even in the presence of negative I-131 scan or anatomic imaging, should prompt restaging with FDG-PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / radionuclide imaging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood. Trachea / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16758370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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49. Haas V, Celakovský P, Brtková J, Hornychová H: Unusual manifestation of anaplastic thyroid cancer. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove); 2008;51(4):233-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual manifestation of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The authors present a rare case of a patient with symptoms consistent with retropharyngeal abscess.
  • The diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer was made after surgery and subsequent histological examination.
  • The patient had pronounced swelling of the left side of her neck.
  • The histological examination of the lymph nodes identified metastasis of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of diseases affecting deep neck structures can be very difficult.
  • Symptoms of inflammation dominating in the clinical picture do not exclude the possibility of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 19453090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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50. Simoni-Wastila L, Yang HW, Blanchette CM, Zhao L, Qian J, Dalal AA: Hospital and emergency department utilization associated with treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a managed-care Medicare population. Curr Med Res Opin; 2009 Nov;25(11):2729-35
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  • [Title] Hospital and emergency department utilization associated with treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a managed-care Medicare population.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent condition with high morbidity and mortality among older and disabled adults.
  • Few studies have examined the comparative effectiveness of maintenance therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in this vulnerable population.
  • OBJECTIVES: The study aims to compare healthcare resource utilization associated with hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visits between FDA-approved inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist combinations [fluticasone propionate 250 microg/salmeterol 50 microg combination (FSC)] and anticholinergic treatments (ATC) in managed-care Medicare beneficiaries with COPD.
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the Integrated Health Care Information Systems (IHCIS) National Managed Care Benchmark Database was used in this retrospective, observational cohort study.
  • The cohort consisted of managed-care Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of COPD [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 491.xx, 492.xx, or 496.xx] without evidence of comorbid asthma (ICD-9-CM 493.xx) who received treatment with FSC or ATC between 2003 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: COPD patients treated with FSC had a 18% lower risk of a COPD-related hospitalization (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89) and an ED visit (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.76, 0.89) compared to patients treated with ATC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FSC is associated with a lower risk of COPD-related exacerbation events relative to ATC in managed-care Medicare beneficiaries with COPD.
  • Findings from this study are only generalizable to managed-care Medicare beneficiaries residing in the community.
  • [MeSH-major] Emergency Service, Hospital / utilization. Hospitals / utilization. Medicare. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Adult. Aged. Albuterol / administration & dosage. Albuterol / analogs & derivatives. Androstadienes / administration & dosage. Comoros. Cost of Illness. Drug Combinations. Female. Fluticasone Propionate, Salmeterol Xinafoate Drug Combination. Health Resources / utilization. Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Male. Managed Care Programs / utilization. Middle Aged. Population. United States / epidemiology


51. Brownlie B, Mercer P, Turner J, Allison R: Thyroid malignancies: a New Zealand South Island thyroid clinic experience 1995-2006. N Z Med J; 2008 Aug 8;121(1279):36-45
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  • [Title] Thyroid malignancies: a New Zealand South Island thyroid clinic experience 1995-2006.
  • AIM: To assess the number and histological type of thyroid malignancies occurring in the northern half of New Zealand's South Island (referral population of 553,000).
  • METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed thyroid malignancies seen at thyroid clinic, Christchurch Hospital between 1995 and 2006 were identified from the thyroid clinic database, and the histological diagnoses and clinical features were reviewed from hospital records.
  • RESULTS: During the 12-year study period, 213 patients with thyroid malignancy were identified.
  • The majority had thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin--184 differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and 9 anaplastic thyroid cancers.
  • The DTC patients included 130 with papillary thyroid cancers (PTC)--71%; 33 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC)-18%; and 21 Hurthle cell thyroid cancers (HTC)-11%.
  • One of the papillary cancer patients had a mixed papillary-medullary tumour.
  • The 184 DTC patients included five patients with an immediate family member with thyroid cancer--including a mother-son pair with papillary cancer.
  • Tumours of nonfollicular cell origin included 12 medullary thyroid cancers (6% of primary thyroid malignancies), and all were apparently sporadic, 7 primary thyroid lymphomas, and 2 thyroid metastases.
  • The female-male ratio was >/=2 in all patient groups with primary thyroid malignancies.
  • The median age for both PTC and FTC groups was 48 y, with Hurthle cell, anaplastic, and lymphomas occurring in older patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the 12-year study period the majority (90%) of thyroid malignancies were of follicular cell origin--184 DTC (papillary 130, follicular 33, and Hurthle 21), and 9 anaplastic cancers.
  • Tumours of non-follicular cell origin were uncommon and included medullary cancers, lymphomas, and metastases.
  • Short-term follow up (median 6 y) confirms that anaplastic thyroid cancer is highly malignant, and the only patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with early cancer deaths had presented with advanced disease and were > 55 years at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18709046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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52. Tessari R, Migliore E, Balzi D, Barchielli A, Canova C, Faustini A, Galassi C, Simonato L: [Asthma prevalence estimated using a standard algorithm based on electronic health data in various areas of Italy]. Epidemiol Prev; 2008 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl):56-65
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  • [Transliterated title] Stima della prevalenza dell'asma bronchiale basata su dati sanitari correnti mediante un algoritmo comune in differenti aree italiane.
  • MAIN OUTCOME: annual crude and standardized prevalence (per 100 inhabitants) with 95% confidence intervals by gender and age groups (0-14, 15-34, total: 0-34 years).
  • METHODS: for each year of interest, we selected the following: cases with asthma as primary cause of death from CM; all persons discharged from hospitals with diagnosis (primary or secondary) of asthma (ICD9-CM code = 493*); selected prescriptions of anti-asthma drugs (ATC code = R03A, R03CC02, R03CC04, R03CK, R03DC01, R03DC03), and health-tax exemptions for asthma (code = 007.493) from ET.
  • We reported the absolute and relative contribution of each information system by area, age, gender and year of interest.
  • CONCLUSIONS: the algorithm used to estimate asthma prevalence in the 0-34 years age group provides values which differ considerably between the centres that contributed to the study.
  • A validation study is required to evaluate the diagnostic quality of the identified cases, in particular among younger subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Asthma / epidemiology. Automatic Data Processing

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  • (PMID = 18928239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-9763
  • [Journal-full-title] Epidemiologia e prevenzione
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epidemiol Prev
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Koziołek H, Bichalski W, Gawrychowski J: Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):427-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant metastases are rarely found in the thyroid gland, the incidence reaching approximately 2% of all thyroid malignant neoplasms.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) for diagnosing tumour metastases to thyroid glands.
  • Malignant neoplasm was diagnosed in 733 (4.8%) patients.
  • Malignant metastases to the thyroid gland were detected in 10 patients, namely 2 men and 8 women aged 48-89 years.
  • The group made up 1.4% of all patients operated for malignant thyroid tumour.
  • Preoperative diagnostic procedure consisted of thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasonography, and cytology of the material obtained through FNA.
  • In addition, the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland was examined.
  • RESULTS: Among 7 patients with thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma, as diagnosed postoperatively, cytology of the thyroid material obtained through FNA revealed follicular tumour in 3 (43%) patients, tumour cells in 2 (28.5%) and atypical cells in the other 2 (28.5%).
  • Intraoperative histopathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma (1) and indicated thyroid medullary cancer (1), follicular tumour (4), or trabecular adenoma with necrosis (1).
  • Among two patients with thyroid metastases from breast cancer, cytology confirmed a metastasis from breast cancer in one (the woman was disqualified for surgical treatment) and indicated follicular tumour in one.
  • Intraoperative histopathology suggested thyroid anaplastic cancer.
  • Examination of biopsy specimen revealed epithelial cells accompanied by cell atypia in one patient with thyroid metastasis from lung cancer.
  • Intra-operative examination also indicated cellular atypia in the same patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular tumour diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients after treatment for other cancers, especially renal clear cell carcinoma, should alert the surgeon to the possibility that it could be a metastasis of this cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods

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  • (PMID = 21049452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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54. Untch BR, Olson JA Jr: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and metastasis to thyroid. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):661-79, x
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and metastasis to thyroid.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and secondary metastasis to the thyroid gland are uncommon thyroid malignancies.
  • They represent significant challenges for the surgeon owing to difficulties in diagnosis, aggressive biology, and the infrequency of their presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Lymphoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Glucose-6-Phosphate / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Point Mutation. Positron-Emission Tomography. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16882503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 40871-47-4 / 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate; 56-73-5 / Glucose-6-Phosphate
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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55. Szalecki M, Nawrotek J, Lange D, Skotarczyk-Kowalska E, Mogielska B, Piatkowska E, Jałowiec I, Biernacka-Florczak I, Jarzab B, Perek D: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a 14-year-old boy]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw; 2005;11(1):43-6
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a 14-year-old boy].
  • [Transliterated title] Rak anaplastyczny tarczycy u 14 letniego chłopca.
  • We report a case of anaplastic cancer of thyroid in 14-year-old male.
  • The diagnosis was supported on: pace of changes, clinical image, disease course, no effect of therapy, histopathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15850538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-625X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia, diabetologia i choroby przemiany materii wieku rozwojowego : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Endokrynologów Dziecięcych
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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56. Avenia N, Ragusa M, Cirocchi R, Puxeddu E, Cavaliere A, De Feo P, Sidoni A, Roila F, Sanguinetti A, Puma F: Surgical treatment of primitive thyroid lymphoma. Tumori; 2009 Nov-Dec;95(6):712-9
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of primitive thyroid lymphoma.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Primitive thyroid lymphoma, although rare, is becoming more frequent.
  • Its incidence is increasing, from 0.5% in the sixties to 1-5% of all thyroid neoplasms today.
  • The diagnosis of such neoplasms is not always straightforward.
  • In fact, it is often the result of pathologic findings on a gland resected for an apparently benign disease.
  • Surgical dissection may prove more complicated than in standard cases of thyroidectomy for the possible tight adhesions existing between the gland's capsule and the surrounding structures.
  • METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis was performed to establish whether patients with incidental thyroid lymphomas who underwent total thyroidectomy for another pathology had major surgical complications and worse prognostic results than patients with an accurate preoperative diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Six cases of thyroid lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed: 4 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 2 MALT lymphomas.
  • Of these, 2 were correctly preoperatively identified by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and 4 were an unexpected finding at histology: 3 cases of total thyroidectomy carried out for huge hypothyroid goiter in patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 1 case of total thyroidectomy carried out for anaplastic carcinoma in a patient affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, a correct preoperative diagnosis was extremely difficult (33%).
  • In patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration, a correct diagnosis was made in 66% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Humans. Incidence. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20210235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Ortenzi A, Mulè A, Perrone G, Fadda G: Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review.
  • Two cases of SFT of the thyroid gland are described in this paper showing their distinctive microscopical architecture, namely "patternless growth pattern".
  • The differential diagnosis of thyroid SFT includes different types of spindle cell proliferation, benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, fasciitis-like papillary carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • However, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings of SFT are so characteristic that this diagnosis seldom represent a difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20614321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807559
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Review / Solitary fibrous tumour / Thyroid
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58. Menon MP, Khan A: Micro-RNAs in thyroid neoplasms: molecular, diagnostic and therapeutic implications. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):978-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Micro-RNAs in thyroid neoplasms: molecular, diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • Thyroid carcinomas encompass a wide spectrum ranging from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Currently, a considerable degree of interobserver variability exists in the morphological diagnosis of certain types of thyroid carcinomas especially the follicular pattern neoplasm.
  • The prediction of progression of these differentiated carcinoma to more aggressive forms like poorly differentiated and anaplastic types is of considerable interest to physicians and pathologists for determining prognosis and making therapeutic decisions.
  • Several investigators have proposed a more cohesive approach to thyroid cancer diagnosis incorporating molecular and proteomics based tools in addition to the conventional morphological diagnosis.
  • In this context, miRNAs serve as an important diagnostic tool, and several studies have demonstrated their utility as class identifiers especially in the context of follicular thyroid carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Larger studies and/or meta-analyses could further delineate their role in predicting cancer progression and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] MicroRNAs / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19625289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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59. Shah SS, Faquin WC, Izquierdo R, Khurana KK: FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management. Cytojournal; 2009;6:1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a popular, reliable and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
  • The aim of our study was to review cases of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid by FNA, and assess the causes of cytologic misdiagnosis and their impact on clinical management.
  • METHODS: Clinical data, FNA smears and follow-up surgical specimens of cases diagnosed with primary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 365 cases with a malignant diagnosis by FNA over a period of 11 years, nine (2.4 %) were identified with discrepant histologic diagnosis with regard to the type of primary thyroid malignancy.
  • Of the 13 cases, 12 underwent total or near total thyroidectomy and one patient had concurrent surgical biopsy.
  • Measurement of serum calcitonin levels in one case, with an initial cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, prevented unnecessary lymph node dissection.
  • Misclassification of medullary carcinoma as papillary carcinoma precluded lymph node dissection in one case.
  • Further management decisions were based on the final histologic diagnosis and did not require additional surgery.
  • Two cases of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma were misdiagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Both patients received total thyroidectomies, which may not otherwise have been performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A small subset of primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid may be misclassified with regard to the type of malignancy on FNA.
  • The majority of primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed on FNA require thyroidectomy.
  • However, initial cytologic misclassification of medullary carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma as other malignant neoplasms or vice versa may have an impact on clinical management.

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  • (PMID = 19495405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678830
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fine needle aspiration / management / misclassified neoplasms / thyroid
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60. Muan B, Heyerdahl F, Lindås R, Prestmo A, Skjønsberg H, Berg KJ: [Coding practice in fatal poisonings]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2010 Aug 26;130(16):1601-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Each year, nearly 100 deaths and more than 10,000 admissions to Norwegian hospitals can be attributed to acute poisoning from non-medical substances and drugs in supra-therapeutic doses.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate hospitals' routines for coding of acute poisoning deaths and to provide information on the toxic agents involved.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of deaths (at 6 Norwegian hospitals in the period 1.1.1999 -31.12.2005) due to acute poisoning were re-examined to assess accuracy of diagnosis codes.
  • RESULTS: Acute poisoning was registered as the cause of 225 deaths in the study period.
  • In 125 of the remaining 180 deaths, acute poisoning was only registered as a side diagnosis, although re-examination revealed it was the major contribution to death in 66 % (83 of 125) of cases.
  • The hospitals had classified the drugs according to ATC codes in 16 % (28 of 180) of patients with acute poisoning.
  • INTERPRETATION: The present Norwegian coding practice does not document acute poisoning deaths in hospital correctly, and registry studies based on diagnosis codes should be interpreted with care.
  • Current registration of poisoning agents' ATC-codes is insufficient and the Norwegian version of ICD-10 alone is not suitable for classification of acute drug poisoning.
  • Replacement of the Norwegian ICD-10 version by the original international version should be considered and/or the routines for registration of ATC-codes should be improved.
  • [MeSH-major] Poisoning / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Cause of Death. Drug Overdose / classification. Drug Overdose / diagnosis. Drug Overdose / mortality. Hospital Mortality. Humans. International Classification of Diseases. Middle Aged. Norway / epidemiology. Pharmaceutical Preparations / classification. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Suicide / classification

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  • (PMID = 20805856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations
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61. Johansson Cahlin B, Samuelsson N, Dahlström L: Utilization of pharmaceuticals among patients with temporomandibular disorders: a controlled study. Acta Odontol Scand; 2006 Jun;64(3):187-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utilization of pharmaceuticals among patients with temporomandibular disorders: a controlled study.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred consecutive patients referred for diagnosis and treatment of TMDs and fulfilling the Research Diagnostic Criteria were examined prospectively and any medication recorded.
  • Matched controls were registered parallel in time.
  • The pharmaceuticals used were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC).
  • RESULTS: Forty-four percent of the patients received a main diagnosis of "muscle disorder", 39% "disk disorder", and 17% "joint disorder".
  • The average number of ATC categories used among all patients was 0.9 and among controls 0.5 (p<0.001).
  • Of the female patients with the diagnosis "muscle disorder", 23% used antidepressants (N06A), 6% tranquilizers (N05B), and 7% sleep medication or sedatives (N05C) significantly more frequently than controls.
  • Of the female patients diagnosed with a "joint disorder", 26% used antidepressants (N06A) significantly more frequently than controls.
  • All other ATC categories differed non-significantly.
  • TMD patients, particularly women diagnosed with "muscle" or "joint" disorders, appear to use drugs for depression more frequently than ordinary dental patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Therapy / classification. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Arthralgia / classification. Arthritis / classification. Case-Control Studies. Contraceptives, Oral / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use. Male. Masticatory Muscles / physiopathology. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sex Factors. Temporomandibular Joint Disc / physiopathology. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Tranquilizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16809198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 0 / Tranquilizing Agents
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62. Stiller-Ostrowski JL: Fourth cranial nerve palsy in a collegiate lacrosse player: a case report. J Athl Train; 2010 Jul-Aug;45(4):407-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's lacrosse athlete with fourth cranial nerve injury as the result of a minor traumatic blow.
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Concussion, third cranial nerve palsy, fourth cranial nerve palsy.
  • TREATMENT: The certified athletic trainer safely removed the athlete from the playing field and monitored him on the sideline.
  • After being seen by the team physician, the patient was referred to a neurologist, ophthalmologist, and finally a neuro-ophthalmologist before a definitive diagnosis was made.
  • The palsy did not necessitate surgical intervention, resolving with conservative treatment.
  • The athlete was able to return to full athletic ability at his preinjury level by 8 months postinjury.
  • Such palsies are uncommon within the athletic realm, making timely diagnosis even less likely.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletic Injuries / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Injuries / diagnosis. Racquet Sports / injuries. Trochlear Nerve Injuries

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  • (PMID = 20617917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902036
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63. Tong GX, Hamele-Bena D, Liu JC, Horst B, Remotti F: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid: report of a case and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):589-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor, with only 27 well-documented cases reported in the literature, including only one in the cytology literature.
  • CT and ultrasound demonstrated a large thyroid mass with tracheal compression.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsies were performed and showed pleomorphic spindle and epithelioid neoplastic cells, multinucleated giant cells, and scant metachromatic extracellular matrix material.
  • Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor cells to be positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratins, TTF-1, calcitonin, synatophysin, chromogranin, and S-100 protein, suggesting a sarcoma; however, the differential diagnosis also included anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Tissue biopsy revealed a high-grade spindle cell neoplasm with osteoid production, consistent with osteosarcoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient developed a large pulmonary embolus and superior vena cava syndrome and no further surgical intervention was performed.
  • She died 5 weeks after the initial diagnosis.
  • Although cytologic features on fine-needle aspiration biopsy may suggest a diagnosis of this rare entity, definitive diagnosis should be deferred to histologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18618703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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64. Schmid KW: [Molecular pathology of thyroid tumors]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:229-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular pathology of thyroid tumors].
  • Molecular genetic analysis is gaining in significance for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumours.
  • Identifying specific mutations and/or rearrangements offers not only the possibility to distinguish benign from malignant tumours, but also to classify thyroid malignancies more precisely, which can have a substantial influence on the clinical management of patients.
  • In recent years expression analysis of micro-RNA (miRNA) has become an additional tool to improve diagnostic accuracy in thyroid tumours.
  • In addition to its diagnostic contribution, molecular genetic evaluation of thyroid tumours has significantly deepened our understanding of the development, progression and therapy of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20717681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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65. Zou CC, Zhao ZY, Liang L: Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis. J Paediatr Child Health; 2010 Apr;46(4):166-70
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  • [Title] Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis.
  • AIM: To report on two cases of childhood thyroid minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) to highlight the clinical features, laboratory findings and diagnosis of this rare disease.
  • RESULTS: From 2000 to 2008, a total of 15 cases of thyroid cancer were confirmed by pathological analysis, which account for about 2.16% of all malignant solid tumours.
  • They included nine of thyroid papillary carcinoma, two of MIFC and one of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid mass was found as the primary sign.
  • Imaging findings showed well-defined heterogeneous mass and radionuclide scintigraphy with 99mTc demonstrated small cold nodules in the right lobe of thyroid in two cases.
  • Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of MIFC.
  • Immunohistochemical staining was positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, galectin-3, Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, cytokeratin-AE1/AE3, cytokeratin-19, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and E-cadherin in two cases, and S-100 in one case, while CD56, vimentin and desmin were negative.
  • CONCLUSION: MIFC is exceedingly rare in children and should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid mass.
  • The diagnosis of MIFC depends mainly on the pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20105250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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66. Sevinç AI, Canda AE, Unek T, Canda S, Kocdor MA, Saydam S, Harmancioglu O: Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):115-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has become an acceptable method for the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • Very rarely needle track dissemination of tumor cells in the thyroid nodule occurs, but, when this occurs, it is evident many years after the FNAB.
  • We report a patient who appears to have tumor dissemination from an FNAB needle track only 4 months after the procedure.
  • SUMMARY: An 85-year-old female presented with a mass on her neck, skin ulceration, and hemorrhage 4 months after FNAB was performed for a thyroid nodule by another physician.
  • A second FNAB with ultrasound guidance yielded cytology diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma was confirmed by surgical dissection of the mass, and a linear array of tumor was noted in skin and muscle was performed again, and the cytological diagnosis revealed papillary carcinoma.
  • After surgical resection, the histopathological diagnosis determined the nodules to be papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although FNAB is a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, it is important to consider the risk of tumor cell dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20017616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Neff RL, Farrar WB, Kloos RT, Burman KD: Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):525-38, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an uncommon, typically lethal malignancy of older adults with no effective systemic therapy.
  • The mean survival time is usually less than 6 months from the time of diagnosis and, unfortunately, this outcome is not fundamentally altered by available treatments.
  • Histologic tissue confirmation is recommended if the diagnosis is not absolutely certain to exclude tumors with better prognosis or that require different treatment.
  • Patency of the airway should be kept in mind throughout the patient's course and individuals with impending airway obstruction, in the absence of imminent death from other sites of disease, should be considered for a tracheostomy to secure the airway.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cause of Death. Health Planning Guidelines. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18502341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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68. Wang ZM, Sun K, Pan Y, Ren GP: [Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid: a study of 2 cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;34(11):729-31
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  • [Title] [Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid: a study of 2 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathologic features and differential diagnosis of carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) of thyroid.
  • RESULTS: Macroscopically, the tumor appeared as a hard grayish-white and slightly lobulated mass.
  • Histologic examination revealed well-circumscribed islands of tumor cells associated with desmoplastic stroma.
  • The tumor cells were polygonal to spindle in shape and contained lightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, oval nuclei and small distinct nucleoli.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed CD5 and CD117.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CASTLE is a rare type of thyroid carcinoma with distinctive morphologic findings.
  • It needs to be distinguished from undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, squamous cell thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma and follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for CD5 and CD117 is helpful in confirming the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD5 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Sarcoma / pathology. Thymoma / metabolism. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16536318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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69. Diehl S, Umbricht CB, Dackiw AP, Zeiger MA: Modern approaches to age-old questions about thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):575-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modern approaches to age-old questions about thyroid tumors.
  • There is a compelling need for improvement in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, in predicting thyroid cancer prognosis and, in the treatment of recurrent well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • In this review we discuss the impact of genomic technologies such as microarrays, SAGE, and proteomics on the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • Gene expression profiling using these technologies has shown promising results in the molecular classification of different types of cancer, including thyroid.
  • Furthermore, microarrays have been successfully used to identify prognostic markers in other cancer-types, offering the possibility to better tailor thyroid cancer treatment schemes.
  • Lastly, novel therapeutic targeting against tyrosine kinases have shown promising results in the treatment of several cancers and might prove to be beneficial for patients with recurrent or undifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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70. Roldán-Valadez E, Ortega-López N, Cervera-Ceballos E, Valdivieso-Cárdenas G, Vega-González I, Granados-García M: Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):34-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration.
  • An 82-year-old female patient with hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis noted three years ago to have a small asymmetric goiter (left > right).
  • Nevertheless, a rapid growth of the thyroid over 3-6 months caused dysphagia and shortness of breath.
  • Ultrasound and a thyroid gammagram showed an image consistent with multinodular goiter with a hyperfunctioning nodule in the right lobe.
  • Due to the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a rapid increase in size of the thyroid gland, diagnoses of thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer were considered.
  • Fine needle aspiration was insufficient for diagnosis, and the product of thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was performed in our institution for staging, revealing nodal and extranodal metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dexamethasone (COP modified) led to a dramatic response of the tumor and a complete resolution of compressive symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Hashimoto Disease / radionuclide imaging. Kidney / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Remission Induction. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18208780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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71. Tazbir J, Dedecjus M, Kaurzel Z, Lewiński A, Brzeziński J: Selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) as a palliative treatment of inoperable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):401-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) as a palliative treatment of inoperable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors in humans.
  • Despite intense application of multimodality of treatment with surgery and/or external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the survival rates remain low--generally the mean survival is about six (6) months after diagnosis.
  • Rapid development--particularly over the last decade--of interventional radiology, provides methodology that allows examining thyroid arterial embolization as an alternative approach to ablating thyroid tissue.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate selective embolization of the thyroid arteries (SETA) as a possible alternative for the palliative treatment of advanced, inoperable ATC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group comprised five (5) patients with advanced stage of inoperable ATC.
  • All the patients underwent SETA of the superior and/or inferior thyroid arteries.
  • After SETA, selective angiography of thyroid arteries was performed to ensure that the targeted arteries were completely occluded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that SETA is minimally invasive and save method of palliative treatment of ATC and, as such, may be recommended in cases of intractable hemorrhage and pain caused by ATC progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Palliative Care. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16136001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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72. Rapkiewicz A, Roses D, Goldenberg A, Levine P, Bannan M, Simsir A: Encapsulated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma transformed from follicular carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2009 May-Jun;53(3):332-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Encapsulated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma transformed from follicular carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare but is one of the most aggressive and lethal human malignancies.
  • Cytologically, ATC has a variable morphologic appearance, including squamoid, giant, spindled and pleomorphic cells.
  • The coexistence of ATC and differentiated or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been described and usually is diagnosed when the disease is locally advanced.
  • CASE: We describe a case of surgically resectable, encapsulated, well-circumscribed ATC occurring in association with a better differentiated follicular carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration in a patient exposed to external ionizing radiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Encapsulated variants of anaplastic carcinoma can be seen in association with lower grade thyroid carcinoma such as follicular carcinoma.
  • Accurate diagnosis is dependent on adequate sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19534279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Kohli PS, Soni NK: Nasal tip metastasis: an unusual site and mode of spread in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Sep;60(3):269-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasal tip metastasis: an unusual site and mode of spread in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive and lethal form of thyroid malignancy which is difficult to treat.
  • At the time of diagnosis, majority of patients have distant metastases most commonly in lung, bone, and liver.
  • However nasal tip metastasis is not reported in literature.
  • We hereby report an interesting and unusual mechanism for nasal tip metastasis in a patient with ATC.

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Jan;22(1):19-26 [2298962.001]
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  • (PMID = 23120560.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450640
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Implantation metastasis / Nasal metastasis / Thyroid carcinoma
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74. Raĭkhlin NT, Smirnova EA, Pavlovskaia AI, Rotin DL, Gurevich LE, Savelov NA: [Askenazi (Hurtle) cell tumors of the thyroid]. Arkh Patol; 2005 Nov-Dec;67(6):13-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Askenazi (Hurtle) cell tumors of the thyroid].
  • Oncocytic follicular carcinomas can be hardly distinguished from oncocytic adenomas.
  • Main difference with adenomas is invasion into the capsule surrounding thyroid or into the vessels.
  • They can be well or poorly differentiated or anaplastic.
  • Oncocytic papillary carcinoma and oncocytic medullary carcinoma are rare.
  • Of key importance in differential diagnosis is electron microscopy (EM) and immunohistochemistry with antimitochondrial antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Mitochondria / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16405013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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75. Hurley WL, Comins SA, Green RM, Canizzaro J: Atraumatic subclavian vein thrombosis in a collegiate baseball player: a case report. J Athl Train; 2006 Apr-Jun;41(2):198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This case presents an opportunity to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a 22-year-old male with a thrombosis of his right subclavian vein.
  • BACKGROUND: Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is an uncommon vascular problem, occurring primarily in young, healthy, active people.
  • Although the history and symptoms are often unremarkable, the condition can lead to complications if not correctly recognized and appropriately treated.
  • The patient denied substance abuse or illegal anabolic steroid use, and these possibilities were ruled out as factors in the diagnosis and treatment.
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: Shoulder tendinitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, primary upper extremity thrombosis of the right subclavian vein.
  • TREATMENT: After diagnosis, the patient was placed on blood thinners to dissolve the clot and referred to a vascular surgeon.
  • The patient underwent a balloon angioplasty and later had the first rib removed.
  • He developed a pulmonary embolism during the stent procedure and was sent postoperatively to the intensive care unit, where he underwent therapeutic anticoagulation.
  • After 10 weeks of therapy, the patient stopped all anticoagulant medication and returned to school to play baseball.
  • The patient was thought to have experienced a small pulmonary embolus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who participate in athletics can develop atraumatic upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.
  • Therefore, it is important that team physicians and certified athletic trainers be prepared to recognize the signs and symptoms of this condition to institute prompt, appropriate treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16791307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1062-6050
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1472647
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76. Piacentini MG, Romano F, De Fina S, Sartori P, Leone EB, Rubino B, Uggeri F: Carcinoma of the neck showing thymic-like elements (CASTLE): report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):171-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the neck showing thymic-like elements (CASTLE): report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Carcinoma showing thymic-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare tumor affecting thyroid and neck soft tissues, which has to be distinguished from squamous cell and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, because it has a better prognosis.
  • We report a new case of CASTLE which occurred in a patient submitted to total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection.
  • The tumor stained positively for CD5, which seems to be the most useful marker in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16703183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Jandousová E, Gladis P, Stetka P, Krpenský A, Korsa M: [Urgent thyroidectomy for a mechanical syndrome caused by a toxic nodular goiter--a case report]. Rozhl Chir; 2010 Aug;89(8):498-500

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We present a case of emergency surgery of an 86-year-old patient with an extensive cevicomediastinal toxic nodular goiter.
  • Acutely onset mechanical syndrome during hospitalization of the patient in another department for a different diagnosis (vertebrogenic algic syndrome of Th-L spine) warranted acute intubation and mechanical ventilation.
  • After the transfer of the patient to our department, we performed total thyroidectomy.
  • All published cases of acute compression syndrome with respiratory insufficiency involve anaplastic carcinoma transformation, fast growing lymphoma, injuries with an intraglandular haemorrhage or infected cysts.
  • In this case the reason was the benign disease of the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 21121144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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78. Papotti M, Arrondini M, Tavaglione V, Veltri A, Volante M: Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(3):175-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland.
  • Vascular lesions are one of the most controversial issues in thyroid pathology.
  • The differential diagnosis includes benign lesions on one side, i.e., endothelial reactive hyperplasia (Masson's "hemangioma") in goiter and hemangioma, and malignant tumors on the other, i.e., angiosarcomas and undifferentiated (angio)sarcomatoid carcinomas.
  • Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant thyroid tumor, mainly observed in endemic goiter areas displaying morphologic and phenotypical similar to those typical of angiosarcomas in other locations (including focal cytokeratin expression).
  • The distinction between angiosarcoma and (angio)sarcomatoid anaplastic carcinoma is difficult and the true existence of angiosarcoma has been challenged.
  • Other extremely rare vascular lesions or mimics in the thyroid include benign hemangioma and pseudo-angiosarcomatous variant of medullary carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant vascular conditions in FNAB material is extremely challenging, and the cytopathology report should be remarkably cautious, especially in poorly cellular and highly hemorrhagic cases: atypias in endothelial cells are not per se indicative of malignancy, being a common feature of reactive endothelial hyperplasia in infracted goiter nodules as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Vascular Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18766472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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79. Goutsouliak V, Hay JH: Anaplastic thyroid cancer in British Columbia 1985-1999: a population-based study. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Apr;17(2):75-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer in British Columbia 1985-1999: a population-based study.
  • AIMS: To review the outcome of patients diagnosed with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in British Columbia between January 1985 and December 1999.
  • Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and the charts of the 62 patients referred to a British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) facility were reviewed.
  • The overall- and cancer-specific 5-year survival rates for the whole group were 5%.
  • non-referred cases: nine out of 13 patients were women; median age at diagnosis 84 years.
  • Eleven of the 13 patients died within 1 month of diagnosis.
  • Forty-eight patients presented with tumours that extended through the thyroid capsule, 10 presented with distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term, disease-free survival was achieved in a few patients who were able to receive high-dose radiotherapy, preferably after adequate surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. British Columbia / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15830567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Gong Y, Krishnamurthy S: Fine-needle aspiration of an unusual case of poorly differentiated insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):103-7
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of an unusual case of poorly differentiated insular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Poorly differentiated insular carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare thyroid malignancy that is intermediary in biological behavior between well-differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • We used fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to diagnose a poorly differentiated insular carcinoma with unusual cytological features in a 53-yr-old woman with a history of goiter and hypothyroidism, who presented with a massively enlarged thyroid gland and a large liver metastasis.
  • The hypercellular aspirates were comprised predominantly of individually dispersed tumor cells.
  • The tumor cells were small, monotonous, round to oval, and often plasmacytoid with eccentric hyperchromatic nuclei and occasional binucleation; finely granular, ill-defined cytoplasm; and smooth nuclear contours, with hyperchromasia, and small to inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • The differential diagnosis included poorly differentiated insular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and low-grade lymphoma.
  • In view of the aggressive nature of insular carcinoma, preoperative recognition is important in planning appropriate therapy.
  • Familiarity with the cytomorphological features, a high index of suspicion, and consideration of appropriate differential diagnoses can greatly aid in reaching a definitive preoperative diagnosis.
  • The limitations of FNA in the sampling of a large tumor with heterogeneous patterns should be kept in mind when interpreting the cytomorphological and immunocytochemical results.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Goiter / complications. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Liver / pathology. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15637672.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Miller MG, Weiler JM, Baker R, Collins J, D'Alonzo G: National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: management of asthma in athletes. J Athl Train; 2005 Jul-Sep;40(3):224-45
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  • [Title] National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: management of asthma in athletes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present guidelines for the recognition, prophylaxis, and management of asthma that lead to improvement in the quality of care certified athletic trainers and other heath care providers can offer to athletes with asthma, especially exercise-induced asthma.
  • BACKGROUND: Many athletes have difficulty breathing during or after athletic events and practices.
  • Athletic trainers are in a unique position to recognize breathing difficulties caused by undiagnosed or uncontrolled asthma, particularly when asthma follows exercise.
  • Once the diagnosis of asthma is made, the athletic trainer should play a pivotal role in supervising therapies to prevent and control asthma symptoms.
  • It is also important for the athletic trainer to recognize when asthma is not the underlying cause for respiratory difficulties, so that the athlete can be evaluated and treated properly.
  • RECOMMENDATIONS: The recommendations contained in this position statement describe a structured approach for the diagnosis and management of asthma in an exercising population.
  • Athletic trainers should be educated to recognize asthma symptoms in order to identify patients who might benefit from better management and should understand the management of asthma, especially exercise-induced asthma, to participate as active members of the asthma care team.

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  • (PMID = 16284647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1250269
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82. Namba H, Yamashita S: [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1967-72
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  • [Title] [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer].
  • A number of genetic abnormalities in oncogenes or anti-oncogenes have been identified in association with thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Especially, oncogenes such as ras mutation, ret/PTC and Braf mutation that constitutively activate MAP kinase pathway a refrequently found in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The p53 mutation aggravates differentiated thyroid cancers to anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • These gene alterations are studied not only to understand basically the mechanisms of oncogenesis but also to develop clinically genetic diagnosis or molecular target therapy.
  • In this article, we review the genetic diagnostic methods and phenotype-genotype relationship of human thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / physiology. Gene Rearrangement. Gene Targeting. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18018556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / TRIM27 protein, human; 0 / taste receptors, type 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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83. Wemeau JL, Do Cao C: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):174-80
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancers anaplasiques de la thyroïde.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma may represent the ultimate dedifferentiation step of thyroid tumorigenesis and is one of the poorest cancers in human.
  • It accounts for less than 2% of thyroid cancers and affects older patients in their sixth to eighth decade.
  • Usual clinical presentation is a rapidly growing thyroid mass invading surrounding structures with compressive symptoms.
  • Though cytological results obtained by fine needle aspiration may be suggestive of diagnosis, tissue biopsy for immunohistochemical study can be necessary to exclude lymphoma and to validate aggressive therapies.
  • Patients developing anaplastic thyroid cancer must be referred urgently in cancer centers to plan multimodality therapeutic approach depending on their performance status.
  • Such treatment can provide control of locoregional disease but does not impact on overall survival in patients with distant metastases.
  • The prognosis is dismal with a mean survival of four to nine months after diagnosis.
  • Long survivors are patients with emerging disease presenting a resectable tumor and receiving adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Therapeutic researches investigate redifferenciation strategies and targeted therapies to inhibit EGF receptors and neoplastic angiogenesis.
  • Primary prevention of this lethal disease may consist of adequate treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers and goiters in elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Goiter / complications. Goiter / therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Diseases / therapy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18423422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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84. Cleary M, Ruiz D, Eberman L, Mitchell I, Binkley H: Dehydration, cramping, and exertional rhabdomyolysis: a case report with suggestions for recovery. J Sport Rehabil; 2007 Aug;16(3):244-59
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  • BACKGROUND: A 16-year-old male football player (body mass = 69.1 kg, height = 175.3 cm) reported to the ATC after the morning session on the second day of two-a-days complaining of severe muscle cramping.
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: The initial assessment included severe dehydration and exercise-induced muscle cramps.
  • The differential diagnosis was severe dehydration, exertional rhabdomyolysis, or myositis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acclimatization. Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Football. Guidelines as Topic. Humans. Male. Muscle Cramp / physiopathology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17923731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1056-6716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of sport rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sport Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Lee JW, Yoon DY, Choi CS, Chang SK, Yun EJ, Seo YL, Rho YS, Cho SJ, Kim KH: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: computed tomographic differentiation from other thyroid masses. Acta Radiol; 2008 Apr;49(3):321-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: computed tomographic differentiation from other thyroid masses.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies.
  • Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm.
  • Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • RESULTS: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%).
  • Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses.
  • Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anaplasia / pathology. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Iohexol. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Rare Diseases. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18365821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol
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86. Myrhøj T, Andersen MB, Bernstein I: Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer. Fam Cancer; 2008;7(4):303-7
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  • [Title] Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families.
  • METHOD: In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk were identified in three categories of HNPCC-families (1) families harbouring a disease causing mutation in a Mismatch repair gene (MMR), (2) families fulfilling the Amsterdam I or II criteria and (3) families suspected of HNPCC.
  • All UC and UTC (Urinary Tract Tumours) were listed and evaluated.
  • Two of these procedures (0.1%) lead to diagnosis of an asymptomatic urothelial tumour.
  • In ten times as many procedures (22 persons) UC lead to a false positive screening diagnosis.
  • During the study period fourteen persons (1.4%) developed a UTC and five of these were interval tumours.
  • The sensitivity of UC in diagnosing asymptomatic UTC in HNPCC patients was 29%.
  • DISCUSSION: UC is not a proper method of screening for UTC in HNPCC.
  • However, the study can not reveal if screening for UTC in special families ought to be recommended.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mismatch Repair. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Sensitivity and Specificity


87. Roche B, Larroumets G, Dejax C, Kwiatkowsi F, Desbiez F, Thieblot P, Tauveron I: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of a regional series of 26 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). Comparison with the literature. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):38-45
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

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  • [Title] Epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of a regional series of 26 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). Comparison with the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to retrospectively describe the epidemiological and clinical features, therapeutic modalities, prognostic factors and survival figures in a population of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) observed in Auvergne, France.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was conducted based on a computer database containing a regional register recorded by health professionals treating ATC.
  • RESULTS: Of the 1500 cancers observed over 16 years, 26 were identified as ATC.
  • The male/female ratio was 1/2.7 and the average age: 72.1; 76.9% of the cases had thyroid medical history, average tumor size at diagnosis was 7.35 cm with N1 in the course of illness in 61.5% of cases, M1 in 34.6% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that, in univariate analysis, age above 75, capsular invasion, lymph nodes metastasis, tumor residue after surgery and lack of multimodal treatment (particularly radiotherapy in patients without tumor residue) are factors of poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19959159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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88. Jakimavicius M, Sveikata A, Vainauskas P, Jankūnas R, Mikucionyte L, Sapoliene A, Smigelskas K: Analysis of antidepressant prescribing tendencies in Lithuania in 2003-2004. Medicina (Kaunas); 2007;43(5):412-8
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  • Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, affecting 121 million people in whole world.
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant prescribing patterns in all regions of Lithuania during 2003-2004, to analyze the use within different antidepressant groups, and to examine trends in age- and gender-specific antidepressant use.
  • Antidepressants were classified into three groups according to Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification specifying the defined daily doses.
  • The results of our study show an increase in the use of reimbursed antidepressants except tricyclic in 2004 when compared to 2003.
  • Additional studies should be carried out in order to assess drug-prescribing patterns in accordance with the guidelines of depression treatment in Lithuania considering diagnosis, dosage, and duration of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Depression / drug therapy. Drug Prescriptions / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / administration & dosage. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / economics. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / administration & dosage. Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / economics. Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Insurance, Health, Reimbursement. Lithuania. Male. Middle Aged. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / economics. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17563418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
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89. Gnavi R, Karaghiosoff L, Balzi D, Barchielli A, Canova C, Demaria M, Pellizzari M, Rigon S, Tessari R, Simonato L: [Diabetes prevalence estimated using a standard algorithm based on electronic health data in various areas of Italy]. Epidemiol Prev; 2008 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl):15-21
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  • [Transliterated title] Stima della prevalenza di diabete basata su dati sanitari correnti mediante un algoritmo comune in differenti aree italiane.
  • AIMS: the goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes through record linkage of various data sources in four Italian areas.
  • The first was the set of files of all persons discharged from hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes (ICD-9-CM code 250*) in the year of interest or in the four previous years.
  • The second data source was the set of files of all prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs (ATC code: A10A* and A10B*) prescribed in the year of interest; we considered as persons with diabetes only those who had at least two prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs at two different times.
  • The third source was the set of files of all subjects who obtained exemption from payment of drugs or laboratory testing due to a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the year of interest or in the 3 previous years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: using routinely collected data we were able to identify large cohorts of persons with known diabetes and to estimate the prevalence of the disease, which was shown to be highly homogeneous among participating centres, and similar to that reported in other studies conducted in Italy with more costly and time consuming methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Automatic Data Processing. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Health Status Indicators. Medical Records
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Archives. Catchment Area (Health). Child. Child, Preschool. Data Collection / instrumentation. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. International Classification of Diseases. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18928234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-9763
  • [Journal-full-title] Epidemiologia e prevenzione
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epidemiol Prev
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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90. Alvarado Soriano JC, Suárez Dueñas R, Negrete Corona J, Ramos Morales JF, Jiménez Aquino JM: [Bone tissue response to the echelon-type uncemented femoral component in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA)]. Acta Ortop Mex; 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):58-62
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  • [Transliterated title] Respuesta del tejido óseo al componente femoral no cementado tipo Echelon en la artroplastia total de cadera (ATC) de revisión.
  • INTRODUCTION: We present the preliminary, short-term results of a cohort study of revision THA focused on aseptic loosening and aimed at assessing the metadiaphyseal bone ingrowth biological response of an uncemented femoral implant with an extensive porous coating.
  • We had performed four exchange THAs due to a diagnosis of clinical and radiographic aseptic prosthetic loosening, with symptoms of anterior thigh pain.
  • Implants with an extensive porous-coated surface seem to assure a reliable, long-term fixation and provide a circumferential seal against debris.

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  • (PMID = 17695759.001).
  • [ISSN] 2306-4102
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ortopédica mexicana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ortop Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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91. Ugolini C, Basolo F, Proietti A, Vitti P, Elisei R, Miccoli P, Toniolo A: Lymphocyte and immature dendritic cell infiltrates in differentiated, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2007 May;17(5):389-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphocyte and immature dendritic cell infiltrates in differentiated, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies indicate that papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) with lymphocytic infiltrates are associated with a less extensive disease at diagnosis and improved disease-free survival.
  • The infiltration of lymphocytes and immature CD1a+ dendritic cells (DC) was characterized in papillary, poorly differentiated (PDC), and undifferentiated (UC) carcinomas to evaluate their association with immunological infiltrates.
  • DESIGN: A series of 527 consecutive cases of thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy were investigated by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Though a relationship between the extent of lymphocyte/DC infiltrates and the prognosis of PTCs could not be demonstrated, tumors with poor prognosis (PDCs, UCs) were characterized by markedly reduced lymphocyte/DC infiltrates.
  • The study appears to confirm the protective role of DC and infiltrating lymphocytes against thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17542668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / CD1a antigen
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92. DeLellis RA: Pathology and genetics of thyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):662-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology and genetics of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Carcinomas of the thyroid comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinctive clinical and pathological characteristics.
  • Over the past 15 years, the application of molecular technologies to the study of these neoplasms has elucidated critical genetic pathways associated with the development of specific thyroid tumor types.
  • In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), genetic events involve RET and TRK (rearrangements) and BRAF and RAS (mutations), although RAS mutations are uncommon except in the follicular variant of PTC.
  • These genetic alterations, which rarely overlap in the same tumor, result in signaling abnormalities in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
  • In contrast, genetic alterations in follicular carcinomas include PAX8-PPARgamma translocations and RAS mutations while mutations of CTNNB1 and p53 have been implicated in the development and progression of poorly differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinomas.
  • Germline mutations of RET are responsible for the development of heritable forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) while somatic mutations of this oncogene are found in a significant proportion of sporadic MTCs.
  • The results of these studies not only have provided additional approaches to thyroid tumor classification, but also have stimulated the development of novel approaches to tumor diagnosis and additional parameters for prognostic assessment and potential biologic therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Genes, ras. Humans. Molecular Biology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Receptor, trkA / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17131411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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93. Abelardo E, Jaramillo M, Sheffield E, Tierney P: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma implantation after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Mar;121(3):268-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma implantation after fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • We report the case of a 59-year-old man with a two-month history of a fast-growing, left-sided neck mass and a 5 mm nodule over a thyroid mass at the site of fine needle aspiration cytology performed four weeks earlier.
  • Histopathological studies confirmed anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and cutaneous needle track seeding of the primary tumour.
  • The patient succumbed to extensive disease 10 weeks after initial diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is a rare report of implantation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma along the track of fine needle aspiration.
  • Some factors involved in needle track seeding are: needle size; number of passes; withdrawing the needle without releasing suction; injecting the tumour at time of biopsy; and inherent characteristics of the lesion (e.g. number of cells dislodged, adhesiveness of cells, amount of stroma present, enzymes released and immunologic characteristics).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17040599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Greenblatt DY, Woltman T, Harter J, Starling J, Mack E, Chen H: Fine-needle aspiration optimizes surgical management in patients with thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun;13(6):859-63
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration optimizes surgical management in patients with thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is accurate in diagnosing papillary, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, as well as lymphoma.
  • Therefore, to determine whether FNA affects surgical management in patients with thyroid cancer, we reviewed our experience.
  • METHODS: A total of 442 consecutive patients underwent thyroid surgery at 1 academic center.
  • Of these, 411 had surgery for an index nodule in the absence of previous radiation or familial thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: The average patient age was 46 years, and 79% were female.
  • A total of 211 patients (51%) had a preoperative FNA, and 71 (17%) had a final diagnosis of cancer.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of FNA for thyroid cancer were 89% and 92%, respectively.
  • In the FNA group, 1 (2.4%) of 41 patients with papillary thyroid cancer required completion thyroidectomy.
  • In contrast, in the no-FNA group, 4 (40%) of 10 patients with papillary thyroid cancer required a second operation.
  • No patient in the FNA group received thyroid resection for lymphoma, whereas three (100%) of three patients with lymphoma in the no-FNA group were treated surgically.
  • A total of 98% of the FNA group, compared with 54% of the no-FNA group, received optimal surgical treatment for thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, allowing definitive initial surgery and avoiding unnecessary procedures.
  • Therefore, we recommend routine use of preoperative thyroid FNA, even in those patients in whom a resection is already planned.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16614881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Pallante P, Visone R, Croce CM, Fusco A: Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):F91-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas.
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but one of the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system.
  • Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells.
  • Follicular carcinoma is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers.
  • Even though several genetic lesions have been already described in human thyroid cancer, particularly in the papillary histotype, the mechanisms underlying the development of these neoplasias are still far from being completely elucidated.
  • Some years ago, several studies were undertaken to analyze the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in thyroid carcinoma to evaluate a possible role of their deregulation in the process of carcinogenesis.
  • These studies showed an aberrant microRNA expression profile that distinguishes unequivocally among PTC, ATC, and normal thyroid tissue.
  • Here, other than summarizing the current findings on microRNA expression in human thyroid carcinomas, we discuss the mechanisms by which microRNA deregulation may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis, and the possible use of microRNA knowledge in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Mutation. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 19942715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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96. Nonaka D, Tang Y, Chiriboga L, Rivera M, Ghossein R: Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):192-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms.
  • Thyroid-specific transcription factors, Pax8, TTF-1, and TTF-2, are crucial for thyroid organogenesis and differentiation.
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the expressions of these markers in thyroid tumors of the full spectrum of differentiation, with special emphasis on anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A total of 94 cases of thyroid neoplasms were studied: 17 papillary carcinomas, 18 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 7 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 28 anaplastic carcinomas, and 8 medullary carcinomas.
  • The antibodies to Pax8 and TTF-2 were also applied on 147 lung carcinomas as well as a variety of normal tissues and malignant tumors.
  • All three markers were seen in papillary carcinomas, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, and poorly differentiated carcinomas in a diffuse manner, whereas their expressions in medullary carcinomas were variable.
  • Pax8 was expressed in 79% of anaplastic carcinomas to a variable extent, whereas TTF-1 and TTF-2 were seen only in 18 and 7% of anaplastic carcinomas, respectively.
  • Pax8 was expressed in renal tubules, fallopian tubes, ovarian inclusion cysts, and lymphoid follicles as well as renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma, seminoma, and ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal tissue and carcinomas of the lung.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker for the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinomas, particularly when the differential diagnosis includes pulmonary carcinoma.
  • In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18084247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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97. Fujita T, Ogasawara Y, Naito M, Doihara H, Shimizu N: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):63-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case.
  • She had undergone a resection of thyroid carcinoma 13 years earlier, followed by two subsequent operations for recurrent thyroid disease.
  • Surgery was thus performed to control persistent bleeding from the axillary ulcer, and a histopathological examination resulted in a diagnosis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • As a result, her general condition deteriorated rapidly and the patient died 2 weeks after the onset of leukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor. Leukocytosis / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16378196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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98. Aron M, Kapila K, Verma K: Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of galectin 3 expression in thyroid aspirates as a diagnostic marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Galectin-3 is a 31kD beta-galactoside binding lectin, which is known to be expressed in various neoplasms including thyroid tumors.
  • This study was conducted to study the role of galectin-3 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules onfine needle aspirates (FNAC).
  • The cytology diagnosis of these cases was: papillary carcinoma (25), follicular neoplasm (16), adenomatous goiter (20), hyperplastic nodule (5), medullary carcinoma (5) and anaplastic carcinoma (1).
  • Galectin-3 positivity was seen in 80% of papillary carcinomas, 37.5% offollicular neoplasms and in 60% of benign nodules.
  • The single case of anaplastic carcinoma was positive but all the cases of medullary carcinoma were negativefor galectin-3.
  • Three of thefollicular neoplasms that were diagnosed on histology as carcinoma were positive on cytology and one case offollicular adenoma was also positive.
  • Our study shows that galectin-3 is strongly expressed in smears of papillary carcinoma.
  • However, since it is also expressed in a variety of benign lesions, its role as a pre-surgical markerfor differentiating benignfrom malignant thyroid nodules is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Academies and Institutes. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. India. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17001889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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99. Won YS, Lee HH, Lee YS, Kim JS, Jeon HM, Jung SS, Lee JH, Park WC: A case of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with benign nodule: mimic of anaplastic transformation. Int J Surg; 2008 Dec;6(6):e24-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with benign nodule: mimic of anaplastic transformation.
  • Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare variant of thyroiditis and characterized by the replacement of thyroid parenchyma by extensive fibrosis.
  • Typically, the thyroid is diffusely involved and a painless, hard anterior neck mass shows clinical features similar to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a rapidly enlarging, hard, fixed thyroid mass and symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and dyspnea.
  • We experienced a case of Riedel's thyroiditis that had presented rapidly growing, hard, fixed, thyroid mass mimicking anaplastic thyroid cancer in a 41-year-old female patient with longstanding benign thyroid nodule for 6 years.
  • The clinical features were indistinguishable from that of anaplastic transformation and open biopsy could exclude anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • After surgery final diagnosis of Riedel's thyroiditis could be made by typical microscopic findings and immunohistochemical studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroiditis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anaplasia. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19059128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells.
  • The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer.
  • We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • CBX7 loss of heterozygosity occurred in 36.8% of PTC and in 68.7% of ATC.
  • Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells.
  • In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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