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1. Bishara MR, Ross C, Sur M: Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the breast represents 0.04-0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7-2.2% of extra-nodal NHL.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations.
  • There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described in the literature.
  • Eight of these cases occurred in proximity to breast implants, four in relation to silicone breast implant and three in relation to saline filled breast implant with three out of the eight implant related cases having previous history of breast cancer treated surgically.
  • Secondary hematological malignancies after breast cancer chemotherapy have been reported in literature.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In this report we present a case of primary ALCL of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma followed by postoperative chemotherapy twelve years ago.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary ALK negative ALCL arising at the site of saline filled breast implant is rare.
  • It is still unclear whether chemotherapy and breast implantation increases risk of secondary hematological malignancies significantly.
  • However, it is important to be aware of these complications and need for careful pathologic examination of tissue removed for implant related complications to make the correct diagnosis for further patient management and treatment.
  • It is important to be aware of this entity at this site as it can be easily misdiagnosed on histologic grounds and to exclude sarcomatoid carcinoma, malignant melanoma and pleomorphic sarcoma by an appropriate panel of immunostains to arrive at the correct diagnosis of ALCL.

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  • (PMID = 19341480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678081
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2. Li S, Lee AK: Silicone implant and primary breast ALK1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, fact or fiction? Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;3(1):117-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silicone implant and primary breast ALK1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, fact or fiction?
  • A series of anecdotal case reports and a recent epidemiological case-control study have suggested a possible association between silicone implant and the development of primary breast ALK1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
  • In this report, we describe an additional case of primary breast ALK1-negative ALCL in the fibrous capsule and cystic fluid of silicone breast implant in a 58 year old woman who underwent breast reconstructive surgery after lumpectomy for her infiltrating breast adenocarcinoma.
  • Morphologically and immunohistochemically, the lymphoma cells may be confused with recurrent infiltrating breast adenocarcinoma or other non-hematolymphoid malignancies.
  • We will also review the case reports and case series published in the English literature and discuss our current understanding of silicone implant in primary breast ALK1-negative ALCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Breast Implants / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19918336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.30 / ACVRL1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776268
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ALCL / ALK1 / Breast implant / anaplastic large cell lymphoma / silicone
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3. Kaya H, Güllüoglu B, Aribal E: Myoepithelial differentiation in breast carcinoma. Tumori; 2008 Jan-Feb;94(1):116-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myoepithelial differentiation in breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of presenting this work is to describe a matrix producing carcinoma with anaplastic myoepithelial cell foci, with the coexistence of in situ myoepithelial carcinoma which originated from a sclerosing adenosis.
  • CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old perimenopausal woman presented with a hard irregular lump in her left breast.
  • The tumor was composed of a sclerosed fibroadenoma and preexisting sclerosing adenosis with poorly differentiated overt carcinoma within the cartilaginous matrix.
  • There were foci of ordinary, intermediate-grade carcinoma in situ and myoepithelial carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged


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4. Farkash EA, Ferry JA, Harris NL, Hochberg EP, Takvorian RW, Zuckerman DS, Sohani AR: Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: a report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic pitfalls. J Hematop; 2009;2(4):237-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: a report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Breast involvement by lymphoma is uncommon and poses challenges in diagnosis.
  • We describe two cases of lymphoid malignancies predominantly involving the breast, both presenting diagnostic dilemmas.
  • The first case, ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma involving a seroma associated with a breast implant, is an emerging clinicopathologic entity.
  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma has been identified in association with breast implants and seroma formation relatively recently.
  • The second case, hairy cell leukemia involving the breast and ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of hairy cell leukemia involving the breast at the time of diagnosis.
  • While a localized bone lesion was present at time of diagnosis, bone marrow involvement was relatively mild in comparison to that seen in the breast and lymph node.
  • Knowledge of the patient's concurrent diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia involving the bone marrow and bone helped avoid a misdiagnosis of carcinoma rather than lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 20309431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-5785
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hematop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798933
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic large cell lymphoma / Anaplastic lymphoma kinase / Breast / Breast implant / Hairy cell leukemia / Primary breast lymphoma / Seroma / T-cell neoplasm
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5. Daneshbod Y, Oryan A, Khojasteh HN, Rasekhi A, Ahmadi N, Mohammadianpanah M: Primary ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Mar;32(2):e75-8
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  • [Title] Primary ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the breast are uncommon, which represent less than 1% of all breast malignancies and predominantly are of B-cell origin.
  • OBSERVATION: In this report, a rare case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma in the breast of a 16-year-old female without breast implant is described.
  • The patient presented with a 3-month history of progressive right breast swelling and erythema.
  • Clinically, inflammatory breast carcinoma was highly suspected.
  • A tru-cut needle biopsy of the right breast demonstrated infiltration of tumoral cells around the breast lobules and soft tissue and also in angiolymphatic spaces.
  • The immunohistochemical profile showed positivity for CD30 and ALK and confirmed the diagnosis of ALK-positive anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma of the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma of the breast is rare, and can clinically mimic inflammatory breast carcinoma in adolescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20168249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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6. Mobini N: Acantholytic anaplastic Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Mar;36(3):374-80
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  • [Title] Acantholytic anaplastic Paget's disease.
  • 'Anaplastic' variant of this disease is a less-recognized subset that may pose as a diagnostic challenge and pitfall.
  • A high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ in the underlying breast was ultimately found in both cases.
  • Anaplastic PD is a rare variant of this disease that histologically mimics Bowen's disease with an associated prominent superficial acantholysis.
  • A high index of suspicion along with a complete immunohistochemical panel should be considered in evaluating any Bowenoid neoplasm of the breast skin, particularly in superficial skin shave biopsies along with negative imaging studies and no palpable mass clinically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Nipples / metabolism. Nipples / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19220635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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7. Iyengar P, Reid-Nicholson M, Moreira AL: Pregnancy-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma of the breast: a rare mimic of ductal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Apr;34(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Pregnancy-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma of the breast: a rare mimic of ductal carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults.
  • It has been described in numerous sites; however, the breast is one of the least common locations.
  • We herein report a case of ALCL arising in the breast of a 36-yr-old pregnant woman.
  • We would like to highlight the cytologic and histologic features of ALCL, as this case was initially misdiagnosed as a ductal carcinoma.
  • Differential diagnosis with other tumors is also discussed.
  • This case serves to emphasize the importance of the triple test, and the need for correlation of fine-needle aspiration findings with core biopsy findings in breast tumor management.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy


8. Liang HH, Wu CH, Tam KW, Chai CY, Lin SE, Chen SC: Thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: case report and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:144
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  • [Title] Thyroid metastasis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: case report and review of literature.
  • Although lung, renal, and breast cancer are probably the most common primary sites, a number of cancers have been reported to metastasize to the thyroid synchronously with diagnosis of primary tumor or years after apparently curative treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of a hepatocellular carcinoma metasatic to the thyroid.
  • The patient presented seven months after original diagnosis and treatment with hepatic lobectomy with multiple neck lesions producing a mass effect on the trachea and bilateral lymphadenopathy.
  • Fine-needle aspiration revealed highly anaplastic carcinoma, and immunohistochemistry confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • In cases where cytology or histology is not diagnostic, immunohistochemistry may be definitive in making the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2246133
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9. Fritzsche FR, Pahl S, Petersen I, Burkhardt M, Dankof A, Dietel M, Kristiansen G: Anaplastic large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast in periprosthetic localisation 32 years after treatment for primary breast cancer--a case report. Virchows Arch; 2006 Nov;449(5):561-4
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  • [Title] Anaplastic large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast in periprosthetic localisation 32 years after treatment for primary breast cancer--a case report.
  • Primary, as well as secondary, lymphomas of the breast are rare diseases and might, in some cases, be misdiagnosed as breast cancer on routine hematoxylin/eosin stainings.
  • We report a case of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a 72-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer treated with breast-ablative surgery and a subsequent silicon implant 32 years ago.
  • On conventional histology, the tumor cells were mimicking poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma with a prominent leukocytic infiltrate.
  • The immunoprofile of the tumor showed negativity for cytokeratins and led to the diagnosis of a CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Breast Implants. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16983530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
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10. Kelten C, Kabukcu S, Sen N, Teke Z, Yaren A, Erdem E, Duzcan E: Secondary involvement of the breast in T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, an unusual example mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Jul;280(1):149-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary involvement of the breast in T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, an unusual example mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast is a rare malignancy and present with almost equal frequency either as a primary or a secondary disease.
  • Survival is poor in most cases of secondary breast lymphoma because of their advanced stage.
  • We report a 35-year-old woman presenting with dyspnea as well as swelling, tenderness, and ruddiness in the left breast with non-cyclic pain for several months and maculopapular skin eruption in the same breast.
  • Radiologic evaluations (bilateral mammaograpy and ultrasonography) showed skin thickening in the left breast, asymmetrical densities in both breasts, and confirmed lymphadenopathies in the axillary regions.
  • Excisional biopsies were performed to the left axillary lymph nodes and the breast skin eruptions.
  • The histologic and immunohistochemical features were diagnosed as an ALK (-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • Thirty months after the diagnosis, the patient is still alive with disease.
  • Because of the presence of systemic symptoms such as skin involvement and generalized lymphadenopathies (mediastinal, axillary or cervical), T cell lymphoma cases with breast involvement could mimic the clinical presentation of inflammatory breast carcinoma.
  • Pathologic examination is needed for the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mammography. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


11. Kurokawa K, Mouri Y, Asano A, Kamei K, Iwata Y, Isogai M, Saga S, Ichihara S: Pleomorphic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the breast: immunohistochemical differentiation between coexisting neoplastic and reactive giant cells. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):91-7
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the breast: immunohistochemical differentiation between coexisting neoplastic and reactive giant cells.
  • Herein is described a unique case of breast carcinoma with two different types of giant cells noted in both cytological and histological specimens.
  • A 51-year-old Japanese woman noticed a hard mass in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast.
  • Aspiration cytology exhibited numerous anaplastic giant cells; the cytological diagnosis was high-grade ductal carcinoma, although a few osteoclastic giant cells were also observed.
  • Histologically, approximately 90% of the tumor was composed of giant cells; conventional invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ were found focally at the periphery of the tumor.
  • The main part of the tumor contained both anaplastic, neoplastic giant cells and non-neoplastic, osteoclastic giant cells that were distinguishable from nuclear atypism.
  • Based on the latest World Health Organization classification, the diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells.
  • To the authors' knowledge there has been no previous report on this subject except for a single case mentioned in Rosen's Breast Pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Giant Cells / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / chemistry. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy, Simple. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19154262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Khanafshar E, Phillipson J, Schammel DP, Minobe L, Cymerman J, Weidner N: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Jun;9(3):123-9
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast.
  • No lesions were positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1, desmin, S-100, CD34, CD21, or CD35.
  • In each case, a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was made (aka, inflammatory pseudotumor).
  • We report these patients to emphasize the diagnostic features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the breast and discuss how they can be distinguished from other spindle-cell breast lesions with which they can be confused, especially spindle-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15944952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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13. Kruk-Zagajewska A, Milecki P, Wierzbicka M: [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(1):77-83
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  • [Title] [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck].
  • The diagnosis of carcinoma of unknown primary is set, when histologically the neck metastases are confirmed but the primary focus is not possible to be found or occurs during the follow-up.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma or anaplastic carcinoma recognized in the neck nodes suggest, that the primary focus is localised in the head and neck region.
  • The knowledge of carcinoma cells spreading paths between particular neck regions is crucial for effective diagnostics of tumor localization in upper aerodigestive tract.
  • In 17 patients the primary localisation was revealed during the follow-up period in: nasopharynx, palatine tonsil, hypopharynx, testis and breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15915923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Di Saverio S, Gutierrez J, Avisar E: A retrospective review with long term follow up of 11,400 cases of pure mucinous breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Oct;111(3):541-7
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  • [Title] A retrospective review with long term follow up of 11,400 cases of pure mucinous breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Pure mucinous breast carcinoma (PMBC) is a rare histologic type of mammary neoplasm.
  • It has been associated with a better short-term prognosis than infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) but identical long-term survival curves have been reported.
  • The prognostic significance of gender, race, laterality, age at diagnosis, T and N status, estrogen and progesterone receptors and administration of radiation therapy was calculated by univariate and multivariate analysis.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 71 years (Range 25-85).
  • Fifty three percent of the tumors were well differentiated, 38% were moderately differentiated and the remaining 9% were poorly differentiated or anaplastic.
  • Kaplan Meier survival curves revealed a 5 years. breast cancer specific survival rate of 94%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18026874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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15. Cossu A, Budroni M, Capobianco G, Pirino D, Palmieri G, Dessole S, Tanda F, Cesaraccio R, Cherchi PL: Epidemiology of malignant breast tumors in the province of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) in the period 1992-2002. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(5):505-8
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of malignant breast tumors in the province of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) in the period 1992-2002.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malignant breast tumors in the Province of Sassari, Sardinia (Italy) in the period 1992-2002 and to report the variations in comparison to the 1974-1985 period.
  • The analysis of our data showed that the overall number of malignant breast tumors was more than doubled from 1,139 cases in the period 1974-1985 to the 2,735 cases in the period 1992-2002, and the mean rate/100,000 changed from 43.4 to 106.0.
  • The incidence in the age classes 45-64 years, which were at enhanced risk for breast cancer, was globally increased, changing from 143.6/100,000 to 198.7/100,000.
  • The analysis of the histotypes showed a relative reduction of ductal carcinoma in the period 1992-2002 in comparison to the previous period 1974-1985 (65.2% vs 82.0%) whereas the incidence of anaplastic forms increased in advanced ages of life.
  • In conclusion, the worrying data of the strong reduction of T0 cases, the increased age of first diagnosis and the advanced forms with positive nodal metastases showed that the prevention program has not been yet well organized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Lobular / etiology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16285566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. De Padua M, Kaul S, Sarin R, Kaul S, Das PK: Primary lymphoma of the breast: a clinicopathological study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):722-5
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the breast: a clinicopathological study.
  • 3 cases of primary non Hodgkins lymphoma of the breast are described, seen over a period of 2 years among 199 cases of breast malignancies.
  • Application of immunohistochemistry greatly aids in differentiating lymphoma from anaplastic carcinoma, with which it can easily be confused.
  • Preoperative diagnosis on a trucut biopsy is an ideal diagnostic method since diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology or frozen section may not be possible.
  • Primary breast lymphoma is a rare disease with reported incidence of 0.04-0.53% of all breast malignancies in most series.
  • Accurate diagnosis is essential, so that appropriate treatment may be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Cyclophosphamide. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prednisolone. Vincristine

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  • (PMID = 18306536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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17. Angeles-Angeles A, Chable-Montero F, Martinez-Benitez B, Albores-Saavedra J: Unusual metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Jun;13(3):189-96
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  • [Title] Unusual metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases.
  • We present 2 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with conventional morphology that metastasized to unusual sites.
  • The second case was that of a 58-year-old woman with a PTC with initial metastases in cervical lymph nodes; subsequently, the tumor spread to axillary lymph nodes and finally to the breast.
  • Transformation to anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma within the breast metastasis occurred 20 years after the primary thyroid tumor had been diagnosed and surgically treated.
  • The metastatic anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma contained rhabdoid inclusions further complicating identification.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only 3 cases of PTC metastatic to the breast have been reported, none of them with anaplastic transformation.
  • Brief comments about the differential diagnosis are included.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19433299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Weed BR, Folpe AL: Cutaneous CD30-positive epithelioid angiosarcoma following breast-conserving therapy and irradiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):370-2
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  • [Title] Cutaneous CD30-positive epithelioid angiosarcoma following breast-conserving therapy and irradiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • A case of cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma with anomalous CD30 expression, occurring after breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant irradiation, is reported.
  • The differential diagnosis of CD30 epithelioid angiosarcoma is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18645308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
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19. Miettinen M: From morphological to molecular diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2006;587:99-113
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  • [Title] From morphological to molecular diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.
  • Many sarcomas are known to have such fusions, and the demonstration of the fusion transcripts in tumor tissue is of great value in specific diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (SYT-SSX), Ewing sarcoma (EWS-Fli1), clear cell sarcoma (EWS-ATF1), myxoid liposarcoma (FUS-CHOP), and other sarcomas.
  • Demonstration of SYT-SSX and EWS-ATF1 fusion assists in the diagnosis of synovial and clear cell sarcomas in unusual locations, such as the gastrointestinal tract, where these tumors occur with low frequency.
  • In two exceptional instances, the same translocation and gene fusion occurs in two unrelated diseases: ETV6-NTRK fusion in infantile fibrosarcoma and secretory carcinoma of the breast, and ALK-TPM3 fusion in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and large cell anaplastic lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 17163160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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20. Tanner M, Hollmén M, Junttila TT, Kapanen AI, Tommola S, Soini Y, Helin H, Salo J, Joensuu H, Sihvo E, Elenius K, Isola J: Amplification of HER-2 in gastric carcinoma: association with Topoisomerase IIalpha gene amplification, intestinal type, poor prognosis and sensitivity to trastuzumab. Ann Oncol; 2005 Feb;16(2):273-8
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  • [Title] Amplification of HER-2 in gastric carcinoma: association with Topoisomerase IIalpha gene amplification, intestinal type, poor prognosis and sensitivity to trastuzumab.
  • BACKGROUND: HER-2/neu gene amplification has predictive value in breast cancer patients responding to trastuzumab.
  • We wanted to investigate the frequency and clinical significance of HER-2/neu amplification in gastric carcinoma.
  • Sensitivity of a gastric cancer cell line N87 with HER-2/neu amplification to trastuzumab was studied by a cell viability assay and compared with that of a HER-2 amplified breast cancer cell line SKBR-3.
  • HER-2/neu amplification was more common in the intestinal histologic type of gastric cancer (21.5%) than in the diffuse (2%) or the mixed/anaplastic type (5%, P=0.0051), but it was not associated with gender, age at diagnosis or clinical stage.
  • Presence of HER-2/neu amplification was associated with poor carcinoma-specific survival (P=0.0089).
  • HER-2/neu targeting antibody trastuzumab inhibited the growth of a p185(HER-2/neu) overexpressing gastric and breast carcinoma cell lines (N87 and SKBR-3) with equal efficacy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HER-2/neu amplification is common in the intestinal type of gastric carcinoma, and it is associated with a poor outcome.

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  • (PMID = 15668283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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21. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Koziołek H, Bichalski W, Gawrychowski J: Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):427-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Among 7 patients with thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma, as diagnosed postoperatively, cytology of the thyroid material obtained through FNA revealed follicular tumour in 3 (43%) patients, tumour cells in 2 (28.5%) and atypical cells in the other 2 (28.5%).
  • Intraoperative histopathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma (1) and indicated thyroid medullary cancer (1), follicular tumour (4), or trabecular adenoma with necrosis (1).
  • Among two patients with thyroid metastases from breast cancer, cytology confirmed a metastasis from breast cancer in one (the woman was disqualified for surgical treatment) and indicated follicular tumour in one.
  • Intraoperative histopathology suggested thyroid anaplastic cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular tumour diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients after treatment for other cancers, especially renal clear cell carcinoma, should alert the surgeon to the possibility that it could be a metastasis of this cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods

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  • (PMID = 21049452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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22. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):297-310, vii
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  • These include follicular adenoma and carcinoma (Hürthle and non-Hürthle), and papillary carcinoma and its variants.
  • Other primary epithelial tumors include medullary carcinoma, mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas, insular and poorly differentiated carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and the least common squamous carcinoma and related tumors.
  • The secondary tumors represent metastatic tumors to the thyroid usually originating in lung, kidney, and breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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23. Kościuch J, Zielonka TM, Ziółkowski B, Domagała-Kulawik J, Bogacka-Zatorska E, Chazan R: [Breast carcinoma and anaplastic gastric carcinoma with pleural metastases in patient after mastectomy 30 years ago]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2006;74(1):129-31
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  • [Title] [Breast carcinoma and anaplastic gastric carcinoma with pleural metastases in patient after mastectomy 30 years ago].
  • We describe a case of two simultaneous malignancies--anaplastic gastric carcinoma with pleural metastases and left breast carcinoma.
  • Her parents died from malignancies--mother from gastric cancer and father from pulmonary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17175993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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24. Granados-García M, Cortés-Flores AO, del Carmen González-Ramírez I, Cano-Valdez AM, Flores-Hernández L, Aguilar-Ponce JL: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: importance of clinical and cytological correlation. Cir Cir; 2010 Nov-Dec;78(6):473-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21214982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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25. Vaiman M, Olevson Y, Habler L, Kessler A, Zehavi S, Sandbank J: Diagnostic value of estrogen receptors in thyroid lesions. Med Sci Monit; 2010 Jul;16(7):BR203-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 296 thyroid tissue samples that consisted of 150 goiters, 90 papillary carcinomas, 19 follicular adenomas, 15 Hurtle cell adenomas, 6 Hashimoto thyroiditis, 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 2 Hurtle cell carcinomas, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20581768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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26. Hornick JL, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD: Loss of INI1 expression is characteristic of both conventional and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):542-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We evaluated 350 tumors: 136 ES, including 64 conventional ("distal") ES, 64 proximal-type ES, and 8 with hybrid features of conventional and proximal-type ES; 54 metastatic carcinomas (22 from lung, 6 breast, 6 stomach, 5 colorectum, 5 kidney, 5 prostate, 5 pancreas); 12 metastatic testicular embryonal carcinomas; 20 metastatic melanomas; 20 epithelioid mesotheliomas; 20 epithelioid angiosarcomas; 10 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas; 24 epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST); 22 myoepithelial carcinomas of soft tissue; 7 anaplastic large cell lymphomas; 5 histiocytic sarcomas; and 10 control MRT of infancy (4 brain, 3 liver, 2 soft tissue, 1 kidney).
  • Immunostaining for INI1 can be used to confirm the diagnosis of ES in the appropriate context.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 19033866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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27. Zhang MQ, Lennerz JK, Dehner LP, Brunt LM, Wang HL: Granulomatous inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen: association with Epstein-Barr virus. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 May;17(3):259-63
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Spleen Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 74-year-old woman with a clinical history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to have a splenic mass during a routine radiographic survey.
  • No spindle cell component was evident on light microscopic examination or by immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, or follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 and CD35.

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  • (PMID = 18987550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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28. Krishnan C, Moline S, Anders K, Warnke RA: Intravascular ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15):2563-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravascular ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / metabolism. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD30 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cellulitis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation / pathology. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 19364961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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