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1. Arslantas A, Artan S, Oner U, Müslümanoglu MH, Ozdemir M, Durmaz R, Arslantas D, Vural M, Cosan E, Atasoy MA: Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(1):39-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • To extend our understanding of potential stepwise genetic alterations that may underlie tumor progression from low-grade astrocytomas to glioblastomas, histopathologic and comparative genomic hybridization analyses were performed on tumor specimens from 68 primary lesions, including 40 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic and 18 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The number of aberrations per case increased towards the higher grade tumors (grade II: 1.66+/-1.49; grade III: 2.80+/-1.68; grade IV: 3.02+/-1.07; F=6.955, p=0.002).
  • A gain of 7/7q was common and the most frequently seen aberration in low-grade astrocytomas, whereas loss of 10q was the most frequently seen anomaly in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • Chromosome 10/10q deletion and combination of 1p, 19q and 17p deletions were specific to high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • The genomic copy deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q might provide an alternative mechanism in the genesis of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17387387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kreth FW, Ruiter M, Schnell O, Bise K, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Tonn JC, Kretzschmar HA: Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;121(11):2458-64
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  • [Title] Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • It was aimed to analyze prospectively whether the MGMT status of malignant gliomas could be determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies (maximum volume: 1 mm(3)).
  • Twenty-five adult patients were included (20 patients with primary World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade III or IV malignant gliomas, 5 patients with secondary malignant gliomas).
  • About 2-4 biopsy specimens per tumor were collected from different sites within the tumor.
  • The overall MGMT promoter methylation rate was 30% in the de novo group and 80% in the tumor progression group.
  • No differences in MGMT promoter methylation were detected between the different samples of each individual tumor in 24 of 25 patients.
  • Tissue samples taken from different sites of each individual tumor (13 tumors investigated) exhibited equal or highly similar MGMT protein expression.
  • The MGMT promoter methylation status of malignant gliomas can be reliably determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies.
  • The methylation profile, as defined by MSP and sodium bisulfite sequencing, constitutes a homogeneous marker throughout malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biopsy / methods. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17691113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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3. Bäcklund LM, Nilsson BR, Liu L, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jul 11;93(1):124-30
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  • [Title] Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) is, second to Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant type of adult CNS tumour.
  • The survival data on 37 carefully sampled AA was correlated with the results of a detailed analysis of the status of nine genes known to be involved in the development of astrocytic tumours.
  • We found that loss of both wild-type copies of any of the three tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B and RB1 or gene amplification of CDK4, disrupting the Rb1 pathway, were associated with shorter survival (P=0.009).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, Retinoblastoma. Mutation


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4. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To seek to distinguish and visualize the different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) growth patterns among malignant gliomas utilizing visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients undergoing image-guided resection of a newly diagnosed malignant glioma underwent add-on acquisition of DTI data based on an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved imaging protocol during preoperative MRI scans for routine intraoperative image guidance.
  • Tumor growth patterns were assigned to expansive or mixed/infiltrative classes as described in the companion article (24).
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • DTI-based white matter tractography was conducted and the DTI data were fused with anatomical images using an in-house software package we developed to enhance the visualization of the tumor/fiber interface.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 19 tumor patients studied, 11 had infiltrative tumors and the other 8 had expansive tumors.
  • While less clear with 2D axial diffusion color maps, visually enhanced 3D reconstructions of the tumor/fiber interface successfully corroborated distinctive growth patterns.
  • This was particularly evident when viewed in 3D video loops of each tumor/fiber interface.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data support the existence of a subgroup of patients within the WHO Grade III classification with expansive tumors and a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Nomiya T, Nemoto K, Kumabe T, Takai Y, Yamada S: Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:11
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  • [Title] Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite intensive multimodal treatment, outcome of patients with malignant glioma remains poor, and a standard dose of radiotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma has not been defined.
  • In the past RTOG study (83-02), the arm of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for malignant gliomas showed better outcome than the arms of higher doses (76.8 - 81.6 Gy) and the arms of lower doses (48 - 54.4 Gy).
  • METHODS: From July 1995, 44 consecutive eligible patients with histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma were enrolled in this study (HFRT group).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that 72 Gy HFRT seemed to show favorable outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nimustine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18199339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254433
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6. Moulding HD, Friedman DP, Curtis M, Kenyon L, Flanders AE, Paek SH, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas I: an expansive growth pattern is associated with a better prognosis. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1311-21
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  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas I: an expansive growth pattern is associated with a better prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To study whether anaplastic astrocytomas that are nonenhancing and/or well-circumscribed (expansive) are associated with a better prognosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 59 patients with pathologically confirmed World Health Organizaiton (WHO) grade III anaplastic astrocytoma who underwent craniotomy at our institution from 1995 through 2006.
  • A multivariate (Cox proportional hazards) analysis showed that patient age and expansive tumor phenotype affected outcome, whereas RPA class, enhancement, and GTR did not.
  • CONCLUSION: Circumscribed growth in histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma, which has not been emphasized in past studies, has a considerable survival advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Craniotomy. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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7. Gulati S, Ytterhus B, Granli US, Gulati M, Lydersen S, Torp SH: Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas.
  • The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biopsy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-4. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20331873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859381
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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8. Hartmann C, Hentschel B, Wick W, Capper D, Felsberg J, Simon M, Westphal M, Schackert G, Meyermann R, Pietsch T, Reifenberger G, Weller M, Loeffler M, von Deimling A: Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):707-18
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  • [Title] Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas.
  • WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm.
  • For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Here we provide evidence that the IDH1 status is more prognostic for overall survival than standard histological criteria that differentiate high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We sequenced the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) at codon 132 in 382 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma from the NOA-04 trial and from a prospective translational cohort study of the German Glioma Network.
  • Patients with anaplastic astrocytomas carried IDH1 mutations in 60%, and patients with glioblastomas in 7.2%.
  • The sequence from more favorable to poorer outcome was (1) anaplastic astrocytoma with IDH1 mutation, (2) glioblastoma with IDH1 mutation, (3) anaplastic astrocytoma without IDH1 mutation and (4) glioblastoma without IDH1 mutation (p < 0.0001).
  • In this combined set of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas both, IDH1 mutation and IDH1 expression status were of greater prognostic relevance than histological diagnosis according to the current WHO classification system.
  • We propose to complement the current WHO classification and grading of high-grade astrocytic gliomas by the IDH1 mutation status and to use this combined histological and molecular classification in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult


9. Takaya S, Hashikawa K, Turkheimer FE, Mottram N, Deprez M, Ishizu K, Kawashima H, Akiyama H, Fukuyama H, Banati RB, Roncaroli F: The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Oct;85(1):95-103
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  • [Title] The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • We examined two anaplastic astrocytomas showing minimal contrast-enhancement and therefore little damage of the blood brain barrier to minimise the presence of blood borne macrophages within tumour tissue.
  • The expression profile of four anaplastic astrocytomas was also exploited and results were compared to the profile of eleven samples of normal temporal lobe and nine cases of PD.
  • Our results demonstrated PBR suppression in glioma-infiltrating microglia and suggested that PBR may have a relevant role in modulating the anti-tumour inflammatory response in astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microglia / metabolism. Microglia / pathology. Receptors, GABA-A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17520179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120085814
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; YNF83VN1RL / PK 11195
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10. Compostella A, Tosoni A, Blatt V, Franceschi E, Brandes AA: Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Feb;81(3):295-303
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) constitute about 10% of all gliomas.
  • Definitive data on predictive and prognostic factors are lacking for these neoplasms that are considered the most enigmatic entity among the whole spectrum of astrocytic tumors because of their unclear biologic behavior and variable clinical outcome.
  • Currently, only few factors have been identified as useful for prognosis of anaplastic astrocytoma: age and Karnofsky Performance Status.
  • Potential prognostic biomarkers concern tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9q that are involved in the RB1 pathway; PTEN, the PI3k/Akt/p70s6k cascade, survivin gene, Formylpeptide receptor, minichromosome maintenance protein 3 and genes on chromosome 7.
  • The state of the art pictured here underlie the recent interest on gene expression profile to identify aberrations useful to understand the biologic behavior of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology


11. Herndon J 2nd, Vredenburgh J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, Peters K, Gururangan S, Norfleet J, Friedman A, Bigner D, Friedman HS: Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13016

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • : e13016 Background: Recurrent malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 6-15 months, with grade 4 glioblastomas more aggressive than grade 3 anaplastic astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas.
  • We report a phase I trial of vandetanib in combination with oral etoposide for recurrent malignant glioma.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically documented recurrent grade 3 or grade 4 malignant glioma were eligible.
  • There was more hematologic toxicity than expected, with 3/6 of the patients enrolled at dose level 1 developing grade 4 neutropenia.

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  • (PMID = 27962830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Karrasch M, Gillespie GY, Braz E, Liechty PG, Nabors LB, Lakeman AD, Palmer CA, Parker JN, Whitley RJ, Markert JM: Treatment of recurrent malignant glioma with G207, a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus-1, followed by irradiation: Phase I study results. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2042

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of recurrent malignant glioma with G207, a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus-1, followed by irradiation: Phase I study results.
  • Safety and efficacy of intracerebral inoculations of G207 to patients suffering from recurrent malignant gliomas have been demonstrated in previous clinical trials.
  • METHODS: In this phase I clinical trial, a total of 1 x 10<sup>9</sup> plaque forming units (pfu) G207 were administered by five stereotactic injections of 0.2 mL each into regions of recurrent malignant glioma defined by MRI, followed by focal radiation therapy 24 hours post injection.
  • Included patients suffered from inoperable pathologically proven recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) which was progressive despite radiotherapy or chemotherapy and failed external beam radiotherapy > 5 Gray prior to study enrolment.
  • The 2 patients with initial PR (1xGBM, 1xAA) were re-treated with G207/Irradiation at time point of tumor recurrence, showing PR one month after re-treatment again.
  • Within persistent areas of tumor, HSV staining was present by using a polyclonal antibody for HSV, indicating intratumoral G207 replication (proof of concept).

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  • (PMID = 27964649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Simonelli M, Banna G, Navarria P, Di Ieva A, Zucali P, De Vincenzo F, Gaetani P, Condorelli R, Rodriguez Y Baena R, Scorsetti M, Santoro A: Addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13037

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas.
  • : e13037 Background: Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), oligodendroglioma (AOD), and oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are rare tumors showing variable outcome due to their histological heterogeneity and different chemo- and radio-sensitivity.
  • Currently, the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas is not sustained by available data.
  • We evaluated the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas in terms of tolerability, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
  • METHODS: Since September 2004, following initial surgery, patients (pts) with histologically confirmed anaplastic glioma, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥40, adequate organ function, no prior chemotherapy, were treated with RT to limited fields once daily at 2 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week, for a total of 60 Gy with concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> for 7 days a week) followed by 6 cycles of maintenance TMZ at 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on days 1-5 every 28 days.
  • Nine pts (32%) underwent tumor complete resection, 10 partial resection (36%), and 9 (32%) tumor biopsy.
  • Frequent mild toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting (17 pts-63%), and grade 1-2 asthenia (8 pts-30%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The addition of temozolomide to radiation therapy for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas is well tolerated and seems active; efficacy needs confirmation in a randomized clinical trial.

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  • (PMID = 27962859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Abacioglu MU, Caglar HB, Yumuk PF, Akgun Z, Atasoy BM, Sengoz M: Efficacy of protracted dose-dense temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with progressive high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13018

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of protracted dose-dense temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with progressive high-grade glioma.
  • : e13018 Background: The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TMZ on a protracted dose-dense schedule after standard 5-day TMZ regimen in patients with progressive high-grade glioma.
  • METHODS: In this phase II prospective study, patients who had progression on standard 5-day TMZ for recurrence (group 1) or recurrence after concurrent radiotherapy+TMZ and ≥ 2 cycles of adjuvant TMZ (group 2) for high-grade glioma received TMZ 100 mg/m2× 21 q28 days until progression according to MacDonald's criteria.
  • The histopathology was glioblastoma in 18 and grade 3 glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma or anaplastic oligodendroglioma) in 7.
  • Out of 80 cycles received there was no anemia; 5 (6%) grade 1, 8 (10%) grade 2, 2 (3%) grade 3 leucopenia; 1 (1%) grade 1, 2 (3%) grade 2, 1 (1%) grade 3, 1 (1%) grade 4 thrombocytopenia; 9 (11%) grade 1, 7 (9%) grade 2, 32 (40%) grade 3, and 11 (14%) grade 4 lymphopenia.
  • Study was terminated in 2 patients (one with grade 4 thrombocytopenia and the other with grade 4 hepatic toxicity).

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  • (PMID = 27962826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Desjardins A, Reardon DA, Gururangan S, Peters K, Threatt S, Friedman A, Friedman H, Vredenburgh J: Phase I trial combining SCH 66336 to temozolomide (TMZ) for patients with grade 3 or 4 malignant gliomas (MG). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13004

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I trial combining SCH 66336 to temozolomide (TMZ) for patients with grade 3 or 4 malignant gliomas (MG).
  • METHODS: Eligibility included: adult patients with stable or recurrent MG (GBM, anaplastic astrocytoma [AA], anaplastic oligodendroglioma [AO]) previously treated with radiation therapy (RT) and with or without chemotherapy; interval of at least two weeks between prior RT, or four weeks between prior chemotherapy; Karnofsky ≥ 60%; and adequate hematologic, renal and liver function.
  • Dose-limiting toxicities were: deep venous thrombosis (1 grade 3); nausea and vomiting (1 grade 3); diarrhea (1 grade 3); elevated ALT (1 grade 3); elevated creatinine (1 grade 3); and fatigue (1 grade 3).

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  • (PMID = 27962751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Potthast L, Chowdhary S, Pan E, Yu D, Zhu W, Brem S: The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2057

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab.
  • Histologies included glioblastoma (GB), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA), and low-grade astrocytomas.
  • It is unclear why the disparity among this subset of patients occurs, however, we hypothesize that this may once again highlight the distinct tumor biology among young glioma patients.

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  • (PMID = 27964663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Rudnick JD, Phuphanich S, Chu R, Mazer M, Wang H, Serrano N, Francisco M, Black KL, Wheeler C, Yu J: A phase I trial of surgical resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement followed by vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate for patients with malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2033

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I trial of surgical resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement followed by vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate for patients with malignant glioma.
  • : 2033 Background: Our prior immunotherapy trials demonstrated efficacy in generating a tumor specific immune response in malignant glioma and the potential for high tumor-specific toxicity and sustained tumoricidal activity.
  • METHODS: We exploited this synergistic effect to maintain a cytotoxic environment around the tumor milieu.
  • Patients with high-grade glioma were eligible after maximal resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement.
  • Screening leukapheresis is used to isolate mononuclear cells which are differentiated into dendritic cells, pulsed with tumor lysate, and then 3 intradermal vaccines are administered at 2-week intervals.
  • The histology included 3 newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 8 recurrent GBM, 2 newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and 2 recurrent AA.
  • Our preliminary data on 15 patients and 39 courses of Dendritic Cell vaccines demonstrate one grade 3 toxicity of fever/chest pain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This phase I study demonstrates the safety, feasibility of dendritic cell vaccination with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers with one grade 3 AE.

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  • (PMID = 27964627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Tanizaki Y, Sato Y, Oka H, Utsuki S, Kondo K, Miyajima Y, Nagashio R, Fujii K: Expression of autocrine motility factor mRNA is a poor prognostic factor in high-grade astrocytoma. Pathol Int; 2006 Sep;56(9):510-5
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  • [Title] Expression of autocrine motility factor mRNA is a poor prognostic factor in high-grade astrocytoma.
  • It has been reported that tumor infiltration is correlated with the expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF) and its receptor 78 kDa glycoprotein (gp78).
  • The purpose of the present study was to detect AMF and gp78 mRNA expression levels and their localization in high-grade astrocytomas (glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma) and to determine whether AMF and gp78 are important prognostic factors.
  • A total of 32 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded glioblastomas and 23 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded anaplastic astrocytomas was used.
  • The expression of AMF mRNA was detected in 27 of 32 glioblastomas (84.4%) and 11 of 23 anaplastic astrocytomas (47.8%).
  • The positivity of AMF mRNA was significantly higher in glioblastomas than in anaplastic astrocytomas (P = 0.0094), but gp78 mRNA was detected in most cases and no statistical significance was observed.
  • In anaplastic astrocytomas, the overall survival of patients with AMF expression was also significantly shorter than in patients without AMF expression (P = 0.0058).
  • This study demonstrated that AMF is a poor prognostic factor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16930331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytokine; EC 5.3.1.9 / Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase; EC 6.3.2.19 / AMFR protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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19. Pavlisa G, Rados M, Pavlisa G, Pavic L, Potocki K, Mayer D: The differences of water diffusion between brain tissue infiltrated by tumor and peritumoral vasogenic edema. Clin Imaging; 2009 Mar-Apr;33(2):96-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The differences of water diffusion between brain tissue infiltrated by tumor and peritumoral vasogenic edema.
  • The differences between peritumoral brain tissue infiltrated by tumor and vasogenic edema were prospectively evaluated by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of peritumoral areas of infiltrative tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas) to that of peritumoral areas of noninfiltrative tumors (metastatic carcinomas) on 54 patients.
  • Peritumoral ADCs indicated the possibility of differentiation between tumor infiltration and vasogenic edema, as well as between primary gliomas and metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19237051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Mishima K, Kato Y, Kaneko MK, Nishikawa R, Hirose T, Matsutani M: Increased expression of podoplanin in malignant astrocytic tumors as a novel molecular marker of malignant progression. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 May;111(5):483-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased expression of podoplanin in malignant astrocytic tumors as a novel molecular marker of malignant progression.
  • Podoplanin is putatively involved in cancer cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and malignant progression and may be involved in platelet aggregation.
  • However, little information exists about its role in CNS astrocytic tumors.
  • In this study, 188 astrocytic tumors (30 diffuse astrocytomas, 43 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 115 glioblastomas) were investigated using immunohistochemistry with an anti-podoplanin antibody, YM-1.
  • In 11 of 43 anaplastic astrocytomas (25.6%) and in 54 of 115 glioblastomas (47.0%), podoplanin was expressed on the surface of anaplastic astrocytoma cells and glioblastoma cells, especially around necrotic areas and proliferating endothelial cells.
  • On the other hand, podoplanin expression was not observed in diffuse astrocytoma (0/30: 0%).
  • Furthermore, we investigated the expression of podoplanin using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in 54 frozen astrocytic tumors (6 diffuse astrocytomas, 14 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 34 glioblastomas).
  • Podoplanin mRNA and protein expression were markedly higher in glioblastomas than in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data suggest that podoplanin expression might be associated with malignancy of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16596424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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21. Bozinov O, Köhler S, Samans B, Benes L, Miller D, Ritter M, Sure U, Bertalanffy H: Candidate genes for the progression of malignant gliomas identified by microarray analysis. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Jan;31(1):83-9; discussion 89-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Candidate genes for the progression of malignant gliomas identified by microarray analysis.
  • Malignant astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV have a reduced median survival time, and possible pathways have been described for the progression of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, but the molecular basis of malignant astrocytoma progression is still poorly understood.
  • We compared the transcriptional profile of 4,608 genes in tumours of 15 patients including 6 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) and 9 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) using microarray analysis.
  • We identified 166 gene alterations with a fold change of 2 and higher whose mRNA levels differed (absolute value of the t statistic of 1.96) between the two malignant glioma groups.
  • Further analyses confirmed same transcription directions for Olig2 and IL-13Ralpha2 in anaplastic astrocytomas as compared to glioblastomas.
  • IL-13Ralpha2 and Olig2 have been identified and confirmed to be interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in malignant progression of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioblastoma / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Neurosurg Rev. 2008 Apr;31(2):247-8
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  • (PMID = 17917751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human
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22. Torp SH, Bringedal K, Dalen A: Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in human high-grade astrocytomas--a comparison between frozen- and paraffin sections. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Mar;24(1):89-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in human high-grade astrocytomas--a comparison between frozen- and paraffin sections.
  • The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human astrocytic tumours is associated with the oncogenesis of these tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to assess EGFR expression in human high-grade astrocytomas by means of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections and to compare these findings with the results of our previous study on frozen sections from these tumours, in which we found about 60% EGFR positivity (10).
  • Four anaplastic astrocytomas and 19 glioblastomas were included in this study.
  • With E30, 3 out of 4 anaplastic astrocytomas (75%) and 12 out of 19 glioblastomas (63%) were found to express EGFR whereas Ab-4 demonstrated positive EGFR immunoreactivity in most of the tumours (18/19 glioblastomas and all the 4 anaplastic astrocytomas).
  • In conclusion, immunohistochemistry represents a reliable and convenient technique for the detection of EGFR in tissue sections of human high-grade astrocytomas, and that EGFR immunoreactivity is comparable in frozen- and paraffin sections from these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Frozen Sections. Paraffin Embedding. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15943037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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23. Nakamura M, Shimada K, Ishida E, Higuchi T, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):113-23
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common pediatric brain tumors, accounting for 7%-8% of all childhood cancers.
  • Relatively few studies have been performed on their molecular properties; therefore, classification of pediatric astrocytic tumors into genetic subtypes similar to that of adult tumors remains to be defined.
  • Here, we report an extensive characterization of 44 pediatric astrocytomas--16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 10 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and 18 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV)--in terms of genetic alterations frequently observed in adult astrocytomas.
  • Some form of p53 mutation was found in three diffuse astrocytomas, in three anaplastic astrocytomas, and in six glioblastomas examined; PTEN mutations were detected only in two glioblastomas.
  • EGFR amplification was detected in only one anaplastic astrocytoma and two glioblastomas, but no amplification was observed for the PDGFR-alpha gene.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p/19q and 10p/10q was less common in pediatric astrocytic tumors than in those seen in adults, but the frequency of LOH on 22q was comparable, occurring in 44% of diffuse astrocytomas, 40% of anaplastic astrocytomas, and 61% of glioblastomas.
  • Our results suggest some differences in children compared to adults in the genetic pathways leading to the formation of de novo astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17327574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871665
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24. Kwon JW, Kim IO, Cheon JE, Kim WS, Moon SG, Kim TJ, Chi JG, Wang KC, Chung JK, Yeon KM: Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation. Pediatr Radiol; 2006 Sep;36(9):959-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study were 20 paediatric patients (age 3-14 years, mean 8.2 years) with brain-stem glioma (five glioblastomas, ten anaplastic astrocytomas and five low-grade astrocytomas).
  • Eight anaplastic astrocytomas were located in the pons and demonstrated diffuse pontine enlargement without exophytic features.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas were located in the pons, midbrain or medulla and showed focally exophytic growth features and peripheral enhancement.
  • In 12 patients in whom FDG-PET was undertaken, glioblastomas showed hypermetabolic or hypometabolic lesions, anaplastic astrocytomas showed no metabolic change or hypometabolic lesions and low-grade astrocytomas showed hypometabolism compared with the cerebellum.
  • FDG-PET may be helpful in differentiating between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastomas among high-grade tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16847598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Soichi O, Masanori N, Hideo T, Kazunori A, Nobuya I, Jun-ichi K: Clinical significance of ABCA2' a possible molecular marker for oligodendrogliomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Apr;60(4):707-14; discussion 714
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  • METHODS: To determine whether or not ABCA2 can distinguish oligodendrogliomas from astrocytic tumors, the authors investigated the expression of ABCA2 in a panel of 55 glioma tissues (13 oligodendrogliomas, nine anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 12 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 21 glioblastomas) using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry analysis.
  • RESULTS: The relative expression level of ABCA2 messenger ribonucleic acid determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is significantly higher (by a factor of five) in oligodendroglioma than in anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma.
  • It was moderately increased in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.
  • In immunohistochemical analysis, ABCA2 exhibited remarkable immunopositivity in 11 out of 13 oligodendrogliomas showing a granular pattern in the cytoplasm of tumor cells.
  • However, ABCA2 was completely negative in most anaplastic astrocytomas (75%) and glioblastomas (76%).
  • Anaplastic oligodendroglioma showed an intermediate pattern: strongly positive in two out of nine samples and negative in seven out of nine samples.
  • However, Olig2 was strongly positive in most anaplastic astrocytomas (83%) and glioblastomas (71%).
  • Although there was no difference in the detection of oligodendroglial tumors, the specificity (negative in astrocytic tumor) was significantly higher in ABCA2 than in Olig2.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17415208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCA2 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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26. Guan Y, Mizoguchi M, Yoshimoto K, Hata N, Shono T, Suzuki SO, Araki Y, Kuga D, Nakamizo A, Amano T, Ma X, Hayashi K, Sasaki T: MiRNA-196 is upregulated in glioblastoma but not in anaplastic astrocytoma and has prognostic significance. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 15;16(16):4289-97
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  • [Title] MiRNA-196 is upregulated in glioblastoma but not in anaplastic astrocytoma and has prognostic significance.
  • They are implicated in tumorigenesis and function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes.
  • The clinical significance of miRNA expression profiles in malignant gliomas remains unclear.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we examined the expression levels of 365 mature human miRNAs in 12 malignant gliomas, including 8 glioblastomas and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas, using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR arrays.
  • A validation study was done to corroborate a subset of the results, including expression levels of miR-196a, -196b, -21, and -15b, by analyzing 92 malignant gliomas by conventional real-time PCR.
  • RESULTS: Expression profiles in glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas suggested that 16 miRNAs were candidate markers associated with the malignant progression of gliomas.
  • Both miRNAs showed increased expression levels in glioblastomas relative to both anaplastic astrocytomas and normal brains in the validation study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that miR-196 may play a role in the malignant progression of gliomas and may be a prognostic predictor in glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20601442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MIRN196 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs
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27. Arko L, Katsyv I, Park GE, Luan WP, Park JK: Experimental approaches for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Pharmacol Ther; 2010 Oct;128(1):1-36
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  • [Title] Experimental approaches for the treatment of malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant gliomas, which include glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, are the most common primary tumors of the brain.
  • There has, however, been recent substantial progress in our mechanistic understanding of tumor development and growth.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20546782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-016X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208545; NLM/ PMC2939300
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28. Nakamura M, Ishida E, Shimada K, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Frequent HRK inactivation associated with low apoptotic index in secondary glioblastomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Oct;110(4):402-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To detect and identify the genetic alterations and methylation status of the HRK gene in human glioblastomas, we analyzed a cohort of astrocytic tumors for hypermethylation, loss of heterozygosity on 12q13.1, and gene expression.
  • Our study examined a series of 36 diffuse low-grade astrocytomas, 32 anaplastic astrocytomas, 64 primary glioblastomas, and 28 secondary glioblastomas that had evolved from either 24 low-grade diffuse astrocytomas or 4 anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The region around the HRK transcription start site was methylated in 19% of diffuse astrocytomas, in 22% of anaplastic astrocytomas, in 27% of primary glioblastomas, and in 43% of secondary glioblastomas.
  • Abnormal methylation of HRK was detected in astrocytic tumors concurrent with methylation of multiple genes, including p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF).
  • Interestingly, these epigenetic changes in secondary glioblastoma were further associated with wild-type p53.
  • Our findings suggest that HRK is inactivated mainly by aberrant DNA methylation in astrocytic tumors and that reduced HRK expression contributes to the loss of apoptotic control in high-grade tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16155764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / HRK protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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29. Tepel M, Roerig P, Wolter M, Gutmann DH, Perry A, Reifenberger G, Riemenschneider MJ: Frequent promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional downregulation of the NDRG2 gene at 14q11.2 in primary glioblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;123(9):2080-6
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  • To further address the role of NDRG2 as a candidate tumor suppressor in human gliomas, we analyzed 67 astrocytic tumors (10 diffuse astrocytomas, 11 anaplastic astrocytomas, 34 primary glioblastomas and 12 secondary glioblastomas) for NDRG2 gene mutation, promoter methylation and expression at the mRNA and protein levels.
  • Using real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis, we found decreased NDRG2 mRNA levels in primary glioblastomas as compared to diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Mutational analysis of the entire NDRG2 coding sequence did not reveal any tumor-associated DNA sequence alterations.
  • In contrast to primary glioblastomas, NDRG2 promoter hypermethylation was detected in only 1 of 11 anaplastic astrocytomas (9%) and was absent in 10 diffuse astrocytomas and 12 secondary glioblastomas.
  • Taken together, our data support NDRG2 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is epigenetically silenced in the majority of primary glioblastomas, but not in lower grade astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18709645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NDRG2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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30. Poulsen HS: [Gliomas in adults: primary non-surgical treatment]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Nov 20;168(47):4082-5
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  • Radiation therapy has a definite place in the treatment of low-grade gliomas, but the timing is a matter of dispute.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas should be treated with postoperative radiation therapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Anaplastic oligodendroglioma should be treated with radiation therapy only.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17134603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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31. Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary SA, Glantz MJ: Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother; 2008 Apr;8(4):575-86
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), WHO grade III gliomas, comprise 10-15% of all glial neoplasms.
  • The most important predictor of response to therapy and survival in AA tumors is the presence or absence of the 1p19q co-deletion, a translocation that defines a subset of oligodendroglial tumors, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18416660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Chaichana KL, Kosztowski T, Niranjan A, Olivi A, Weingart JD, Laterra J, Brem H, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):286-92
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults.
  • OBJECT: Patients harboring anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) typically have a poor prognosis, with median survival times of approximately 3 years following resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Craniotomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20302391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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33. Mizoguchi M, Betensky RA, Batchelor TT, Bernay DC, Louis DN, Nutt CL: Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Dec;65(12):1181-8
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  • [Title] Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival.
  • Diffuse astrocytic gliomas are the most common human glial tumors with glioblastoma being the most malignant form.
  • In this study, we investigated the activation status of these 3 signaling molecules as well as wild-type (EGFRwt) and mutant (EGFRvIII) EGFR in 82 malignant astrocytic gliomas (55 glioblastomas and 27 anaplastic astrocytomas) using immunohistochemistry.
  • The distribution of these 3 activated molecules varied significantly with tumor grade; although activation of STAT3 was essentially identical between anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, an increase in the activation of MAPK and AKT appeared to correlate with the progression of anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma.
  • Taken together, these findings begin to elucidate the interrelationship between these signaling pathways in astrocytic gliomas in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Rate / trends. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17146292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 57683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95616
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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34. Ichimura K, Vogazianou AP, Liu L, Pearson DM, Bäcklund LM, Plant K, Baird K, Langford CF, Gregory SG, Collins VP: 1p36 is a preferential target of chromosome 1 deletions in astrocytic tumours and homozygously deleted in a subset of glioblastomas. Oncogene; 2008 Mar 27;27(14):2097-108
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  • [Title] 1p36 is a preferential target of chromosome 1 deletions in astrocytic tumours and homozygously deleted in a subset of glioblastomas.
  • Astrocytic, oligodendroglial and mixed gliomas are the commonest gliomas in adults.
  • The 1p status of astrocytomas has not yet been thoroughly examined.
  • Using a chromosome 1 tile path array, we investigated 108 adult astrocytic tumours for copy number alterations.
  • Total 1p deletions were rare (2%), however partial deletions involving 1p36 were frequently identified in anaplastic astrocytomas (22%) and glioblastomas (34%).
  • However, the CpG island of TNFRSF9 was hypermethylated in 19% of astrocytic tumours and 87% of glioma cell lines.
  • Our results indicate that 1p deletions are common anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas but are distinct from the 1p abnormalities in oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17934521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2650419; NLM/ UKMS4022
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35. Nakabayashi H, Hara M, Shimizu K: Prognostic significance of CDC25B expression in gliomas. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jul;59(7):725-8
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  • METHODS: Fifty seven gliomas, which included 21 low-grade astrocytomas, 17 anaplastic astrocytomas and 19 glioblastomas, were studied.
  • RESULTS: High expression of CDC25B was identified in 18 of the 19 glioblastomas, in 10 of the 17 anaplastic astrocytomas, but not in any of the 21 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The CDC25B mRNA expression increased with the rise in histological grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. cdc25 Phosphatases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Gene Expression. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16803948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.3.16 / CDC25B protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860415
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36. Zadeh MD, Amini R, Firoozray M, Derakhshandeh-Peykar P: Frequent homozygous deletion of p16/CDKN2A gene in malignant gliomas of Iranian patients. Pak J Biol Sci; 2007 Dec 1;10(23):4246-50
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  • [Title] Frequent homozygous deletion of p16/CDKN2A gene in malignant gliomas of Iranian patients.
  • Homozygous deletion is the main mechanism of CDKN2A gene inactivation in malignant gliomas.
  • In order to find the homozygous deletion frequency among Iranian patients, we have analyzed the status of CDKN2A gene in 40 malignant gliomas and examined their lalpha and 2 exons by comparative multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using D9S171 chromosomal marker as an internal control.
  • We found homozygous deletion in 6 out of 7 cases (85.7%) of anaplastic astrocytomas and 20 out of 33 cases (60.6%) of glioblastoma multiforme, in total 26 out of 40 cases (65%) of malignant gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19086579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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37. Puputti M, Tynninen O, Sihto H, Blom T, Mäenpää H, Isola J, Paetau A, Joensuu H, Nupponen NN: Amplification of KIT, PDGFRA, VEGFR2, and EGFR in gliomas. Mol Cancer Res; 2006 Dec;4(12):927-34
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  • We investigated expression and amplification of KIT, PDGFRA, VEGFR2, and EGFR in 87 gliomas consisting of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas in tumor samples collected at the time of the diagnosis and in samples of the same tumors at tumor recurrence.
  • In samples collected at glioma diagnosis, KIT and PDGFRA amplifications were more frequent in anaplastic astrocytomas than in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas [28% versus 5% (P = 0.012) and 33% versus 2% (P = 0.0008), respectively].
  • KIT amplification was associated with KIT protein expression and with presence of PDGFRA and EGFR amplifications both at the time of the first glioma diagnosis and at tumor recurrence, and with VEGFR2 amplification at tumor recurrence.
  • In conclusion, besides glioblastoma, amplified KIT, PDGFRA, and VEGFR may also occur in lower-grade gliomas and in their recurrent tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17189383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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38. Abou-Ghazal M, Yang DS, Qiao W, Reina-Ortiz C, Wei J, Kong LY, Fuller GN, Hiraoka N, Priebe W, Sawaya R, Heimberger AB: The incidence, correlation with tumor-infiltrating inflammation, and prognosis of phosphorylated STAT3 expression in human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 15;14(24):8228-35
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  • [Title] The incidence, correlation with tumor-infiltrating inflammation, and prognosis of phosphorylated STAT3 expression in human gliomas.
  • We sought to determine the incidence of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression in malignant gliomas of different pathologic types, whether p-STAT3 expression is a negative prognostic factor, and whether p-STAT3 expression influences the inflammatory response within gliomas.
  • RESULTS: We did not detect p-STAT3 expression in normal brain tissues or low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We observed significant differences in the incidence of p-STAT3 expression between the different grades of astrocytomas and different pathologic glioma types. p-STAT3 expression was associated with the population of tumor-infiltrating immune cells but not with that of T regulatory cells.
  • On univariate analysis, we found that p-STAT3 expression within anaplastic astrocytomas was a negative prognostic factor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: p-STAT3 expression is common within gliomas of both the astrocytic and oligodendroglial lineages and portends poor survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas. p-STAT3 expression differs significantly between gliomas of different pathologic types and grades and correlated with the degree of immune infiltration.

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  • (PMID = 19088040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120813-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120813; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120813-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS78715; NLM/ PMC2605668
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39. Mawrin C, Kirches E, Diete S, Wiedemann FR, Schneider T, Firsching R, Kropf S, Bogerts B, Vorwerk CK, Krüger S, Dietzmann K: Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism in codon 388 of the FGFR4 gene in malignant gliomas. Cancer Lett; 2006 Aug 8;239(2):239-45
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  • [Title] Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism in codon 388 of the FGFR4 gene in malignant gliomas.
  • The FGFR4 codon 388 polymorphism (Arg(388), Arg/Gly(388) or Gly(388)) was determined in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), diffuse astrocytomas (DA), and control muscles.
  • This suggests that the FGFR4 codon 388 status does not play a major role in malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Codon. Glioma / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length

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  • (PMID = 16198476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
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40. Kato Y, Hayatsu N, Kaneko MK, Ogasawara S, Hamano T, Takahashi S, Nishikawa R, Matsutani M, Mishima K, Narimatsu H: Increased expression of highly sulfated keratan sulfate synthesized in malignant astrocytic tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 May 16;369(4):1041-6
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  • [Title] Increased expression of highly sulfated keratan sulfate synthesized in malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • In this study, 54 astrocytic tumors were investigated about KS-expression using Western-blot with 5D4.
  • In six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (43%) and 23 of 34 glioblastomas (68%), KS was detected by 5D4.
  • KS was hardly detected by 5D4 in diffuse astrocytoma, suggesting that KS-expression is significantly expressed in malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • In immunohistochemistry, KS is highly expressed in cell surface of malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • Taken together, KS might be associated with the malignancy of astrocytic tumors, and be useful for a prognostic factor of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Keratan Sulfate / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18329383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9056-36-4 / Keratan Sulfate
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41. Vitaz TW, Warnke PC, Tabar V, Gutin PH: Brachytherapy for brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):71-86
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  • Over the past several decades neurooncologists have attempted to find an adjuvant treatment that prolongs survival for patients with malignant brain tumors.
  • Brachytherapy, radiotherapy delivered by placing radioactive sources directly into the tumor, was initially thought to be the solution to this problem.
  • Despite this, brachytherapy continues to be used in a number of centers throughout the world for the treatment of various types of brain tumors including low-grade gliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas, meningiomas and metastases.

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  • (PMID = 15933821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 171
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42. Pozdniakov AV, Kartashev AV, Tiutin LA, Vinogradov VM, Pozharisskiĭ KM: [Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in postoperative radiochemotherapy of patients with cerebral glioblastoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2008;54(2):164-9
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  • Cholin concentration peaks and N-acetyl-aspartate decrease in gliomas appeared to be higher than those in anaplastic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18522164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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43. Wang M, Tang J, Liu S, Yoshida D, Teramoto A: Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):3-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas.
  • Samples were taken from supratentorial gliomas border and normal brain autopsy which were divided into four groups, these including eight cases normal brain tissues, 30 cases of astrocytomas, 25 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas and 22 cases of glioblastomas.
  • Only 9 out of 30 cases of astrocytomas showed a low percentage of positive cells that were stained in a light, diffuse cytoplasmic pattern (score +).
  • Twenty-two out of 35 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas showed positive light, granular staining pattern, it including five samples (score +), and 17 samples (score + +).
  • Positive staining tumor cells were found in extracellular matrix (ECM), basement membrane (BM), and the endothelial cells of blood vessels were also positive stained.
  • Along with elevating glioma grade, CB expression and MVD value were both increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cathepsin B / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / blood supply. Supratentorial Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / blood supply. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15719267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B
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44. Nagy M, Schulz-Ertner D, Bischof M, Welzel T, Hof H, Debus J, Combs SE: Long-term outcome of postoperative irradiation in patients with newly diagnosed WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas. Tumori; 2009 May-Jun;95(3):317-24
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of postoperative irradiation in patients with newly diagnosed WHO grade III anaplastic gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with anaplastic gliomas have a more favorable overall survival than patients with glioblastomas.
  • In most analyses, WHO grade III and 1V tumors are not analyzed separately.
  • The present analysis reports outcome after postoperative radiotherapy in patients with WHO grade III gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1988 and January 2007, 127 patients with WHO grade III tumors were treated with radiotherapy; the histological classification was pure astrocytoma in 104 patients, oligoastrocytoma in 12 and pure oligodendroglioma in 11 patients.
  • Median overall survival was 7 months for patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, 44 months for patients with mixed tumors, and 47 months for those with pure oligodendrogliomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas show favorable overall survival after postoperative radiotherapy compared with glioblastoma patients and should therefore be analyzed separately.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19688970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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45. Dmytrenko VV, Boĭko OI, Shostak KO, Bilets'kyĭ AV, Malysheva TA, Shamaiev MI, Kliuchka VM, Rozumenko VD, Zozulia IuP, Kavsan VM: [Expression of myelin basic protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein genes in human glial brain tumors]. Tsitol Genet; 2009 Jan-Feb;43(1):28-35
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  • Analysis of the expression of genes encoding myelin basic protein (MBP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) genes in human glial tumors was carried out for determination of the expression specificity of these genes according to tumor types and their malignancy.
  • Low levels of MBP mRNA in astrocytoma specimens of malignancy grades II-IV and significantly higher levels in perifocal zone adjacent to them have been determined by Northern hybridization.
  • Diffuse astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas are characterized mostly by low level of MBP gene expression and high level of GFAP gene expression, but distinct subtypes of diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas with high level of MBP gene and low level of GFAP gene expression can be also detected that may be the reflection of different oncogenic pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Myelin Basic Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19663312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0564-3783
  • [Journal-full-title] T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i genetika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tsitol. Genet.
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Myelin Basic Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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46. Sonoda Y, Kumabe T, Nakamura T, Saito R, Kanamori M, Yamashita Y, Suzuki H, Tominaga T: Analysis of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in Japanese glioma patients. Cancer Sci; 2009 Oct;100(10):1996-8
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  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild-type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 125 glial tumors.
  • In the present study, R172 mutation of the IDH2 gene was detected in one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were frequently in oligodendrogliomas (67%), anaplastic astrocytomas (62%), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (75%), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (50%), secondary glioblastomas (67%), gangliogliomas (38%), and anaplastic gangliogliomas (60%).
  • Mutations of the IDH1 or IDH2 genes were significantly associated with improved outcome in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Our data suggest that IDH1 or IDH2 mutation plays a role in early tumor progression of several types of glioma and might arise from a common glial precursor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19765000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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47. Pisarev VB, Golub BV, Smirnov AV, Gurov DIu: [Prevalence of different histological types of brain tumors in the volgograd region according to the data of intraoperative biopsies over the period of 2001 to 2006]. Arkh Patol; 2008 Jul-Aug;70(4):17-20
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  • Among them, there was a preponderance of glioblastomas (24.7%), anaplastic astrocytomas (21.1%), protoplasmatic astrocytomas (15.4%).
  • The fact that heterogenic tumor tissue in a great deal of the study cases of malignant gliomas makes pathohistologists' opinion differ and suggests that there is a need for an in-depth study of intraoperative biopsy specimens, by using the existing antibody panels and developing new ones for immunohistochemical studies.

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  • (PMID = 18807520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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48. Tanaka S, Akimoto J, Kobayashi I, Oka H, Ujiie H: Individual adjuvant therapy for malignant gliomas based on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase messenger RNA quantitation by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jul;20(1):165-71
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  • [Title] Individual adjuvant therapy for malignant gliomas based on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase messenger RNA quantitation by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction.
  • A new adjuvant therapy, individual adjuvant therapy (IAT), which is individualized according to the results of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR) for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), was used to treat malignant gliomas.
  • Immediately after the operation, mRNA expression for drug-resistance genes was investigated in frozen samples of malignant gliomas from 55 patients (30 glioblastoma multiformes, 20 anaplastic astrocytomas and 5 anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with specific primers for MGMT.
  • The response rate was 40.9% for glioblastoma multiformes, 60.0% for anaplastic astrocytomas and 80.0% for anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18575733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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49. Hartmann C, Meyer J, Balss J, Capper D, Mueller W, Christians A, Felsberg J, Wolter M, Mawrin C, Wick W, Weller M, Herold-Mende C, Unterberg A, Jeuken JW, Wesseling P, Reifenberger G, von Deimling A: Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial differentiation and age: a study of 1,010 diffuse gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Oct;118(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial differentiation and age: a study of 1,010 diffuse gliomas.
  • Somatic mutations in the IDH1 gene encoding cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase have been shown in the majority of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grades II and III.
  • Preliminary data suggest an importance of IDH1 mutation for prognosis showing that patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas harboring IDH1 mutations seem to fare much better than patients without this mutation in their tumors.
  • We found 165 IDH1 (72.7%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 227 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II, 146 IDH1 (64.0%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 228 anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III, 105 IDH1 (82.0%) and 6 IDH2 mutations (4.7%) in 128 oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II, 121 IDH1 (69.5%) and 9 IDH2 mutations (5.2%) in 174 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas WHO grade III, 62 IDH1 (81.6%) and 1 IDH2 mutations (1.3%) in 76 oligoastrocytomas WHO grade II and 117 IDH1 (66.1%) and 11 IDH2 mutations (6.2%) in 177 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas WHO grade III.
  • We report on an inverse association of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in these gliomas and a non-random distribution of the mutation types within the tumor entities.
  • IDH1 mutations of the R132C type are strongly associated with astrocytoma, while IDH2 mutations predominantly occur in oligodendroglial tumors.
  • In addition, patients with anaplastic glioma harboring IDH1 mutations were on average 6 years younger than those without these alterations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Brain / pathology. Cell Differentiation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Prognosis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19554337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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50. Wacker A, Will BE, Schöning M, Neunhoeffer F: [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol; 2008 Oct;212(5):194-6
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  • [Title] [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic astrocytomas in neonates are extremely rare.
  • No tumour was found, but an anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) was diagnosed histologically.
  • CONCLUSION: Congenital anaplastic astrocytomas have a variable outcome, with different survival rates as compared to adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Cerebral Hemorrhage / congenital

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  • (PMID = 18956278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Nakamura M, Ishida E, Shimada K, Kishi M, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Frequent LOH on 22q12.3 and TIMP-3 inactivation occur in the progression to secondary glioblastomas. Lab Invest; 2005 Feb;85(2):165-75
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  • Frequent allelic losses on the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q) in gliomas indicate the presence of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) at this location.
  • However, the target gene(s) residing in this chromosome are still unknown and their putative roles in the development of astrocytic tumors, especially in secondary glioblastoma, have not yet been defined.
  • To compile a precise physical map for the region of common deletions in astrocytic tumors, we performed a high-density loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 31 polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning 22q in a series of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, primary glioblastomas, and secondary glioblastomas that had evolved from lower grade astrocytomas.
  • LOH was found at one or more loci in 33% (12/36) of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, in 40% (4/10) of anaplastic astrocytomas, in 41% (26/64) of primary glioblastomas, and in 82% (23/28) of secondary glioblastomas.
  • This epigenetic change was significantly correlated to poor survival in eight patients with grade II diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Our results suggest that a 957 kb locus, located at 22q12.3, may contain the putative TSG, TIMP-3, that appears to be relevant to progression to secondary glioblastoma and subsequently to the prognosis of grade II diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alleles. DNA Methylation. Disease Progression. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Deletion. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Markers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Chromosome Mapping. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15592495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
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52. Seo HS, Kim JH, Lee DH, Lee YH, Suh SI, Kim SY, Na DG: Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas and other MR imaging features: a retrospective study and systematic review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Mar;31(3):498-503
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  • [Title] Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas and other MR imaging features: a retrospective study and systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Most intramedullary astrocytomas have been known to exhibit at least some enhancement on MR imaging regardless of cell type or tumor grade.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas through a retrospective study within our institutions and a systematic review of the medical literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 consecutive patients (male to female ratio, 11:8; mean age, 27.84 +/- 19.0 years) with primary intramedullary astrocytomas (3 WHO grade I, 13 WHO grade II, 3 WHO grade III) who underwent preoperative MR imaging with contrast enhancement were included in this retrospective study from 4 institutions.
  • The tumor-enhancement patterns were classified into the following categories:.
  • Seven articles including MR imaging enhancement studies of intramedullary astrocytomas were eligible for literature review.
  • RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 6 astrocytomas (32%), including 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, did not enhance at all.
  • Focal nodular enhancement was identified in 5 astrocytomas (26%); patchy enhancement, in 3 (16%); inhomogeneous diffuse enhancement, in 5 (26%); and homogeneous diffuse enhancement, in none.
  • In the literature review, the frequency of nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas was 14 of 76 (18%), including 2 anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas are not uncommon and comprise between 20% and 30% of intramedullary astrocytomas.
  • Therefore, astrocytoma must remain in the differential diagnosis of nonenhancing intramedullary lesions, particularly if the lesion demonstrates a prominent mass effect or cord expansion.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19875469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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53. Unsgaard G, Selbekk T, Brostrup Müller T, Ommedal S, Torp SH, Myhr G, Bang J, Nagelhus Hernes TA: Ability of navigated 3D ultrasound to delineate gliomas and metastases--comparison of image interpretations with histopathology. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Dec;147(12):1259-69; discussion 1269
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  • Biopsies were collected from 28 operations (7 low-grade astrocytomas, 8 anaplastic astrocytomas, 7 glioblastomas and 6 metastases).
  • FINDINGS: The ultrasound findings were in agreement with histopathology in 74% (n = 31) for low-grade astrocytomas, 83% (n = 18) for anaplastic astrocytomas, 77% (n = 26) for glioblastomas and 100% (n = 10) for metastases.
  • As expected tumour cells were found in biopsies outside the US visible tumour border, especially in low-grade gliomas.
  • Navigated 3D US have a significantly better agreement with histopathology than navigated MR T1 for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / trends. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / trends. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / trends

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  • (PMID = 16172831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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54. Ono A, Kanno H, Hayashi A, Nishimura S, Kyuma Y, Sato H, Ito S, Shimizu N, Chang CC, Gondo G, Yamamoto I, Sasaki T, Tanaka M: Collagen gel matrix assay as an in vitro chemosensitivity test for malignant astrocytic tumors. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Apr;12(2):125-30
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  • [Title] Collagen gel matrix assay as an in vitro chemosensitivity test for malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • METHODS: We examined the chemosensitivites for four anticancer agents - 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3 (2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), carboplatin, cisplatin, and etoposide - of 43 malignant astrocytic tumors (21 anaplastic astrocytomas and 22 glioblastomas) by using a collagen gel matrix assay, and we also determined the survival periods of the tumor-bearing patients.
  • RESULTS: For the anaplastic astrocytomas, the mean growth inhibitory rate was 33.2% with cisplatin, 37.2% with carboplatin, 28.0% with ACNU, and 24.8% with etoposide.
  • The median overall and progression-free survivals of anaplastic astrocytoma-bearing patients who had undergone chemotherapy with two anticancer drugs, both of which showed significant anticancer activity (growth inhibitory rate >30%) were significantly longer than those of the patients who had been treated with two drugs, one or both of which did not show significant anticancer activity.
  • Individual chemotherapy for malignant astrocytic tumors, based on chemosensitivity data, could contribute to longer survival, particularly in anaplastic astrocytoma-bearing patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Collagen. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Nimustine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Fibrin Foam. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Japan. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Tissue Adhesives. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • [Cites] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(8):2694-8 [3458228.001]
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  • (PMID = 17443280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Fibrin Foam; 0 / Tissue Adhesives; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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55. Nafe R, Van de Nes J, Yan B, Schlote W: Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Jan-Feb;25(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas.
  • AIM: The differentiation between low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas is susceptible to considerable inter-observer variability.
  • In order to contribute to a better standardization of astrocytoma-grading based on quantitative data, the present study focuses on two important aspects not being considered in previous morphometric studies: elaboration of a decision flow chart for tumor grading based on morphometric parameters and appropriate cut-off-values, easily performed using low-cost equipment such as measuring oculars; investigation of the distribution (histograms) of parameters describing nuclear size and internuclear distance, which had been represented in previous studies by their mean and standard deviation only.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were investigated in paraffin sections from surgical specimen of 75 patients with astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 23) and anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III (n = 52) by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • According to multivariate analysis, the best contribution to tumor grading was achieved by means of parameters concerning the distribution of values for nuclear diameters and internuclear distances.
  • A decision tree was constructed using a knowledge based algorithm, which provided astrocytoma grading based on the distribution of values for nuclear diameter, as well as the numerical nuclear density and proliferation index.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that a morphometric examination of tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections supports the clinically important differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The method for classification and the data published in the present study constitute a good basis for a standardized and reproducible grading procedure for astrocytomas, which can be performed in any histologic laboratory even without a digital image analysis system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16465775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Heimberger AB, McGary EC, Suki D, Ruiz M, Wang H, Fuller GN, Bar-Eli M: Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):267-72
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  • [Title] Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: The activator protein (AP)-2alpha transcription factor plays a crucial role in the progression of several human tumors, including malignant melanoma, prostate, and breast cancer.
  • Anderson Cancer Center since 1986 to include 72 glioblastomas, 49 anaplastic astrocytomas, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 37 oligodendrogliomas, 37 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 15 mixed oligoastrocytomas, 20 anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytomas, and 7 gliosarcomas.
  • RESULTS: AP-2alpha expression was lost on 99% (P < 0.001) and 98% (P < 0.001) of glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, respectively, compared with grade 2 astrocytomas and normal brain, all of which (100%) maintained expression of AP-2alpha.
  • However, there was no significant effect of loss of AP-2alpha expression on survival observed after adjustment for patient age, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, tumor grade, and extent of resection (rate ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AP-2alpha expression correlates inversely with glioma grade, suggesting a direct role in glioma tumorigenicity, possibly through subsequent deregulation of target genes.
  • Of all the previously characterized markers of progression, the loss of AP-2alpha would be the most common (96.2%) molecular marker as an astrocytic tumor evolves from grade 2 to 3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acid Motifs. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD146. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Time Factors. Transcription Factor AP-2. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15671555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / T-32-09666
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCAM protein, human; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / TFAP2A protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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57. Momota H, Narita Y, Matsushita Y, Miyakita Y, Shibui S: p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):95-101
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  • [Title] p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are characterized by diffusely infiltrating nature, and the abnormality of p53 is a cytogenetic hallmark of astrocytic tumors.
  • To elucidate the relationship between p53 abnormality and invasiveness of the tumors, we studied mutation and protein expression of p53 in 48 consecutive patients with malignant astrocytoma (14 anaplastic astrocytomas and 34 glioblastoma multiformes).
  • The tumors were classified into three categories according to the features of magnetic resonance imaging, and 5, 7, and 36 tumors were classified into diffuse, multiple, and single type, respectively.
  • We then examined how these tumor types correlate with MIB-1 staining index, TP53 gene mutation, and p53 protein expression.
  • Furthermore, diffuse- and multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor progression-free survival, whereas only multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor overall survival.
  • As diffuse and multiple features on imaging modalities represent invasive characteristics of the tumors, p53 abnormalities may affect the invasive and aggressive nature of malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21046311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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58. Matusan-Ilijas K, Behrem S, Jonjic N, Zarkovic K, Lucin K: Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Sep;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of OPN in human astrocytomas and to correlate it with angiogenesis and patients' outcome.
  • Seventy-six human astrocytomas including eight pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 10 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II), 8 anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (grade IV) were immunohistochemically stained for OPN protein.
  • Astrocytomas were heterogeneous regarding the OPN expression.
  • Our results indicate the overexpression of OPN protein in astrocytoma cells and suggest the role of OPN in astrocytoma progression and angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18493866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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59. Comincini S, Paolillo M, Barbieri G, Palumbo S, Sbalchiero E, Azzalin A, Russo MA, Schinelli S: Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens. J Biomed Biotechnol; 2009;2009:924565
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  • [Title] Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens.
  • To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines.
  • In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression.
  • In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19657395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-7251
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2718324
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60. Bozinov O, Kalk JM, Krayenbühl N, Woernle CM, Sure U, Bertalanffy H: Decreasing expression of the interleukin-13 receptor IL-13Ralpha2 in treated recurrent malignant gliomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(8):617-21
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  • [Title] Decreasing expression of the interleukin-13 receptor IL-13Ralpha2 in treated recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • This gene is highly expressed in various types of human tumors including malignant gliomas.
  • The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 was examined in a total of 45 tissue samples of anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) World Health Organization (WHO) grade III, glioblastomas (GBMs) WHO grade IV, and first-recurrent glioblastomas (frGBMs) after treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 (15 fold) was significantly reduced in frGBMs compared to the primary GBMs (p = 0.014), and significantly reduced by more than 15 fold (p = 0.003) in all untreated malignant astrocytomas (AAs and GBMs) compared with treated frGBMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20805641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38QQR; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 957E6438QA / Teniposide
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61. Huang CX, Liu YS, Hou YH: [Detection and clinical significance of urinary epidermal growth factor in brain tumor patients]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Apr;31(2):268-70
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  • [Title] [Detection and clinical significance of urinary epidermal growth factor in brain tumor patients].
  • METHODS: The levels of EGF in urine samples collected from 20 patients (9 low grade astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 5 meningiomas) and 5 healthy individuals were determined.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative urinary EGF levels of astrocytoma patients were statistically higher than those of meningioma patients and the controls (P < 0.01).
  • Preoperative urinary EGF levels showed a positive correlation with the degree of malignance in the astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05).
  • A significant decrease of the postoperative levels of EGF was observed in the astrocytoma patients who underwent gross total resection (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The urinary EGF levels of astrocytoma patients correlate with the WHO grade of malignance and significantly decrease after gross total removal.
  • Urinary EGF may be of practical value in diagnosing and evaluating the surgical efficacy of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / urine. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Brain Neoplasms / urine. Epidermal Growth Factor / urine

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  • (PMID = 16706130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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62. Nakagawa Y, Kageji T, Mizobuchi Y, Kumada H, Nakagawa Y: Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children. Appl Radiat Isot; 2009 Jul;67(7-8 Suppl):S27-30
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  • [Title] Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children.
  • It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue.
  • However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells.
  • We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years.
  • There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma.
  • All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth.
  • All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor.
  • Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence.
  • BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19406652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Schiffer D, Manazza A, Tamagno I: Nestin expression in neuroepithelial tumors. Neurosci Lett; 2006 May 29;400(1-2):80-5
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  • As an early marker of differentiation, Nestin is almost not expressed in diffuse astrocytomas, variably expressed in anaplastic astrocytomas and strongly and irregularly expressed in glioblastomas.
  • Negative in oligodendrogliomas, it stains ependymomas and shows a gradient of expression in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • In glioblastomas, Nestin distribution does not completely correspond to that of GFAP and Vimentin with which its expression varies in tumor cells in a complementary way, as confirmed by confocal microscopy.
  • Tumor cells can thus either derive from or differentiate toward the neurocytogenetic stages.
  • Completely negative cells of invasive or recurrent glioblastomas may represent malignant selected clones after accumulation of mutations or early stem cells not expressing antigens.

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  • (PMID = 16529857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Vimentin
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64. Arjona D, Bello MJ, Rey JA: EGFR intragenic loss and gene amplification in astrocytic gliomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jan 1;164(1):39-43
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  • [Title] EGFR intragenic loss and gene amplification in astrocytic gliomas.
  • We have studied EGFR gene amplification and allelic status of chromosome 7 in 68 tumors consisting of 34 WHO grade IV glioblastomas (26 primary and 8 secondary), 14 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas, and 20 WHO grade II astrocytomas, by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), quantitative PCR, and microsatellite analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 16364761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Jayawardena S, Sooriabalan D, Indulkar S, Kim HH, Matin A, Maini A: Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate. Am J Ther; 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):458-9
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  • [Title] Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate.
  • Astrocytomas are central nervous system neoplasms, which are derived predominately from astrocytes.
  • On the basis of the histopathologic characteristics astrocytomas are graded from I to IV.
  • The cells that demonstrate the greatest degree of anaplasia are used to determine the histologic grade of the tumor.
  • The mean age of survival are approximately 10 years from the time of diagnosis for pilocystic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade I), more than 5 years for patients with low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 2 to 5 years for those with anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and less than 1 year for patients with glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The treatment is a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy depending of the grade of astrocytoma.
  • We present a case of 31-year-old man with grade III astrocytoma with subsequent chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate as part of his chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment failing to show recurrence of the astrocytoma 10 years after standard treatment for astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16988542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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66. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Chang CL: Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles of Taiwanese patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. J Biomol Screen; 2008 Oct;13(9):912-21
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  • [Title] Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles of Taiwanese patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The gene-expression profiles of approximately 20,000 genes from 4 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 7 glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs), and 1 nontumor brain (NB) were analyzed by in situ-synthesized 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray.
  • The signal intensity of each feature was measured by laser scanner, and gene expression was quantified as the tumor/NB intensity ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genome, Human. Glioblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18812569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-0571
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomolecular screening
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomol Screen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Oligonucleotides
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68. Thal D, Xavier CP, Rosentreter A, Linder S, Friedrichs B, Waha A, Pietsch T, Stumpf M, Noegel A, Clemen C: Expression of coronin-3 (coronin-1C) in diffuse gliomas is related to malignancy. J Pathol; 2008 Mar;214(4):415-24
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  • Here, we present for the first time a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of coronin-3 in human brain tumours and demonstrate that coronin-3 expression correlates with malignant phenotype in diffuse gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, such as anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas, show high numbers of tumour cells positive for coronin-3, while diffuse low-grade gliomas, such as diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, exhibit low numbers of coronin-3-positive tumour cells.
  • In order to explore and verify a contribution of coronin-3 to the malignant phenotype of diffuse gliomas, we employed an efficient shRNA-mediated coronin-3 knockdown in U373 and A172 human glioblastoma cells.
  • Together, our findings demonstrate evidence for a contribution of coronin-3 expression in the malignant progression of diffuse gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / deficiency. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18189330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 145420-64-0 / coronin proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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69. Stojic J, Hagemann C, Haas S, Herbold C, Kühnel S, Gerngras S, Roggendorf W, Roosen K, Vince GH: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 is correlated with the WHO-grading of human malignant gliomas. Neurosci Res; 2008 Jan;60(1):40-9
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 is correlated with the WHO-grading of human malignant gliomas.
  • Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most prevalent type of malignant primary brain tumor in adults.
  • They may manifest de novo or develop from low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) or anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Tumor progression is facilitated by an increased activity of proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Therefore, MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 might be of importance for the development of high-grade astrocytic tumors and may be promising targets for therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17980449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-0102
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 11; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted; EC 3.4.24.- / matrix metalloproteinase 19; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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70. Ohta K, Kuwahara K, Zhang Z, Makino K, Komohara Y, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Sakaguchi N: Decreased expression of germinal center-associated nuclear protein is involved in chromosomal instability in malignant gliomas. Cancer Sci; 2009 Nov;100(11):2069-76
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  • [Title] Decreased expression of germinal center-associated nuclear protein is involved in chromosomal instability in malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant glioma (MG) is highly proliferative and invasive, with the malignant characteristics associated with aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN).
  • Glioblastomas showed a significantly lower level of ganp mRNA than anaplastic astrocytomas, as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, in 101 cases of adult MG.
  • MGs of ganp(Low) expression displayed more malignant characteristics, with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10, epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification, and significantly poorer prognosis than the ganp(High) group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. RNA Interference. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19686285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.- / MCM3AP protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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71. Ishihara R, Katayama Y, Watanabe T, Yoshino A, Fukushima T, Sakatani K: Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Feb;47(2):53-7; discussion 57
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  • [Title] Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • To increase the sensitivity of photodetection, the emission spectra of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence was quantitatively measured in tissues taken from six cases of en bloc resected diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 2 glioblastomas), and the correlation assessed between the fluorescence intensity and histological features.
  • The ratio of the peak emission intensity to reflected excitation intensity or fluorescence intensity ratio was less than 0.001 for all 36 non-tumor tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Protoporphyrins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aminolevulinic Acid. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Photosensitizing Agents. Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 17317941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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72. Arakawa Y, Tachibana O, Hasegawa M, Miyamori T, Yamashita J, Hayashi Y: Frequent gene amplification and overexpression of decoy receptor 3 in glioblastoma. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Mar;109(3):294-8
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  • DcR3 has been demonstrated to produce a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that negatively regulates Fas-mediated apoptosis.
  • In this study we examined DcR3 gene amplification, DcR3 mRNA expression, and DcR3 protein expression in 46 human astrocytic brain tumors by quantitative genomic PCR, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • The DcR3 gene amplification was detected in none of 6 (0%) low-grade astrocytomas, 1 of 16 (6%) anaplastic astrocytomas, and 6 of 24 ( 25%) glioblastomas.
  • We thus concluded that high DcR3 mRNA expression and protein expression may be positively related to the gene amplification in astrocytic brain tumors, especially glioblastomas.
  • Further, we speculated that the DcR3 gene amplification with overexpression may be responsible for malignant features in glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 6b. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 15627206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 6b; 0 / TNFRSF6B protein, human
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73. Gabilondo AM, Hostalot C, Garibi JM, Meana JJ, Callado LF: Monoamine oxidase B activity is increased in human gliomas. Neurochem Int; 2008 Jan;52(1-2):230-4
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  • Glial tumours are the most common type of brain neoplasm in humans.
  • There were no significant differences in MAO-B activity between glioblastoma multiformes (n=11) and low-grade astrocytomas (n=3) or anaplastic astrocytomas (n=6).

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  • (PMID = 17624626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-0186
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemistry international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.4.3.4 / Monoamine Oxidase
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74. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Fascin expression in 90 patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Dec;9(6):307-11
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  • Nineteen tumors showed more than 75% positive staining tumor cells, 14 tumors had more than 50% to 75% staining, 23 tumors had more than 25% to 50% staining, 26 tumors had more than 5% to 25% staining, and 8 tumors had less than 5% staining.
  • In comparison, 9 of 11 low-grade astrocytomas had 50% or less staining for fascin.
  • Eight of 10 anaplastic astrocytomas had more than 50% fascin staining.
  • Higher grade tumors generally expressed a greater degree of fascin staining.
  • Fascin may play a role in tumor cell infiltration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16308158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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75. Cerveny L, Pavek P, Malakova J, Staud F, Fendrich Z: Lack of interactions between breast cancer resistance protein (bcrp/abcg2) and selected antiepileptic agents. Epilepsia; 2006 Mar;47(3):461-8
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  • In epileptogenic brain tumors such as ganglioma, astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytomas, or glioma multiforme, strong expression of BCRP in the microvasculature of the BBB was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Anticonvulsants / pharmacokinetics. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Multiple / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16529607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-9580
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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76. Kunitz A, Wolter M, van den Boom J, Felsberg J, Tews B, Hahn M, Benner A, Sabel M, Lichter P, Reifenberger G, von Deimling A, Hartmann C: DNA hypermethylation and aberrant expression of the EMP3 gene at 19q13.3 in Human Gliomas. Brain Pathol; 2007 Oct;17(4):363-70
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  • Allelic losses on 19q are found in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors and approximately one-third of diffuse astrocytomas.
  • However, the tumor suppressor genes (TSG) on 19q are still elusive.
  • In line with this, other authors reported EMP3 as being epigenetically silenced in neuroblastomas and astrocytomas.
  • In astrocytomas, EMP3 hypermethylation was also paralleled by reduced expression but was independent of the 19q status.
  • EMP3 hypermethylation was detected in more than 80% of diffuse, anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas.
  • Our data corroborate that oligodendroglial and astrocytic gliomas often show EMP3 hypermethylation and aberrant expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing / physiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17610521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EMP3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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77. Sugita Y, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto M, Ogasawara S, Ohshima K, Shigemori M: Expression of KIAA 0864 protein in neuroepithelial tumors: an analysis based on the presence of monoclonal antibody HFB-16. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):151-8

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  • Among the 55 NETs, a moderate-to-intense KA protein immunoreactivity was observed in 8 of 8 medulloblastomas, 1 of 1 central nervous system supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS supratentorial PNET), 4 of 4 retinoblastomas, 1 of 1 neuroblastoma, 8 of 8 central neurocytomas, 4 of 4 oligodendrogliomas, 4 of 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 of 1 extraventricular neurocytoma, and 1 of 1 gangliocytoma.
  • No or a weak KA protein immunoreactivity was observed in 11 of 11 glioblastomas (GBs), 4 of 4 anaplastic astrocytomas, 4 of 4 astrocytomas, and 4 of 4 pilocytic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18458818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / RASGRP3 protein, human
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78. Yamamoto Y, Nishiyama Y, Kimura N, Kameyama R, Kawai N, Hatakeyama T, Kaji M, Ohkawa M: 11C-acetate PET in the evaluation of brain glioma: comparison with 11C-methionine and 18F-FDG-PET. Mol Imaging Biol; 2008 Sep;10(5):281-7
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  • Five patients had low-grade gliomas (grade II), three had anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III), and seven had glioblastomas (grade IV).
  • For semiquantitative analysis, the standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to contralateral normal gray matter (T/N) ratio were calculated.
  • The sensitivity for detection of high-grade gliomas was calculated using visual analysis.
  • ACE and FDG SUV in high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than that in low-grade gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACE PET is a potentially useful radiotracer for detecting brain gliomas and differentiating high-grade gliomas.

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  • [CommentIn] Mol Imaging Biol. 2009 Jul-Aug;11(4):223 [19326176.001]
  • (PMID = 18543041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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79. Riolfi M, Ferla R, Del Valle L, Piña-Oviedo S, Scolaro L, Micciolo R, Guidi M, Terrasi M, Cetto GL, Surmacz E: Leptin and its receptor are overexpressed in brain tumors and correlate with the degree of malignancy. Brain Pathol; 2010 Mar;20(2):481-9
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  • Although leptin and its receptor (ObR) have emerged as important cancer biomarkers, the role of the leptin system in brain tumor development remains unknown.
  • We screened 87 human brain tumor biopsies using immunohistochemistry and detected leptin and ObR in 55.2% and 60.9% cases, respectively.
  • The leptin/ObR system was highly expressed in glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, while lower expression of both markers was noted in low-grade astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.
  • The association between leptin/ObR and the degree of tumor malignancy was highly significant (P < 0.001).
  • In summary, our data demonstrate that the leptin/ObR system is expressed in malignant brain tumors and might be involved in tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 19775291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS036466; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01NS036466; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055644; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS036466-020001; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS036466-020001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / leptin receptor, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140262; NLM/ PMC2864337
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80. Yokota T, Kouno J, Adachi K, Takahashi H, Teramoto A, Matsumoto K, Sugisaki Y, Onda M, Tsunoda T: Identification of histological markers for malignant glioma by genome-wide expression analysis: dynein, alpha-PIX and sorcin. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Jan;111(1):29-38
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  • [Title] Identification of histological markers for malignant glioma by genome-wide expression analysis: dynein, alpha-PIX and sorcin.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant class of glial neoplasm (grade IV in WHO criteria), carries the worst clinical prognosis among primary brain tumors in adults.
  • To establish criteria for this diagnostic approach, we scored glial tumor tissues of different histological grades according to the staining results; the scores were significantly higher in anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs than in diffuse astrocytomas or normal brain tissues.
  • These findings indicated that levels of these three proteins might serve as histological markers for malignant glioma classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Dyneins / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors

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  • (PMID = 16320026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARHGEF6 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / SRI protein, human; EC 3.6.4.2 / Dyneins
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81. Massimino M, Biassoni V: Use of high-dose chemotherapy in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 May;6(5):709-17
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  • [Title] Use of high-dose chemotherapy in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma.
  • Brain tumors are the second most common cancer in pediatric patients and the main cause from death of malignant tumors in this age group.
  • High-grade or malignant glioma, among which anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma are the most prevalent histotypes, represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors and, taken as a whole, are the second most frequent malignant histotype after medulloblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16759162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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82. Waha A, Felsberg J, Hartmann W, von dem Knesebeck A, Mikeska T, Joos S, Wolter M, Koch A, Yan PS, Endl E, Wiestler OD, Reifenberger G, Pietsch T, Waha A: Epigenetic downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase MKP-2 relieves its growth suppressive activity in glioma cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 15;70(4):1689-99
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  • Critical tumor suppression pathways in brain tumors have yet to be fully defined.
  • In 83 astrocytic gliomas and 5 glioma cell lines examined, hypermethylation of the MKP-2 promoter was found to occur relatively more frequently in diffuse or anaplastic astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas relative to primary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation. Down-Regulation / physiology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Gene Silencing / physiology. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20124482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.- / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.48 / DUSP4 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Dual-Specificity Phosphatases
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83. Argyriou AA, Giannopoulou E, Kalofonos HP: Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic molecularly targeted therapies in malignant gliomas. Oncology; 2009;77(1):1-11
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic molecularly targeted therapies in malignant gliomas.
  • Angiogenesis is considered to be a regulating factor of vascular development and growth for malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The VEGF/VEGFR-2 is the predominant angiogenic signalling pathway in malignant gliomas.
  • Our aim is to review current knowledge on angiogenesis as a molecular pathogenetic mechanism of malignant gliomas and to critically look at and discuss antiangiogenic molecularly targeted therapies for these brain malignancies.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19439998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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84. Arjona D, Bello MJ, Alonso ME, Isla A, De Campos JM, Vaquero J, Sarasa JL, Gutierrez M, Rey JA: Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of regions involved in gene amplification reveals gene overdose in low-grade astrocytic gliomas. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2005 Dec;14(4):224-9

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  • [Title] Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of regions involved in gene amplification reveals gene overdose in low-grade astrocytic gliomas.
  • We have studied gene amplification of genes located in 1q32 (GAC1, ELF3, MDM4, and ren1), 4q11 (PDGFR-alpha), and in 12q13-14 (MDM2 and CDK4) using quantitative real-time PCR in a group of 86 tumors consisting of 44 WHO grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) (34 primary and 10 secondary tumors), 21 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 21 WHO grade II astrocytomas (AII).
  • GAC1 (51%) and MDM4 (27%) were the most frequently amplified genes within the 1q32 amplicon, and their higher amplification frequency was statistically significant (P<0.05, chi) in the low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Concordant co-amplification was determined for ELF3 and ren1 or ren1 and MDM4 in the grade III-IV tumors.
  • The present study shows that gene amplification in the studied regions is already present in low-grade astrocytic tumors and that amplification of some genes may represent another molecular marker to differentiate primary from secondary GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Amplification. Gene Dosage. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16319692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-9551
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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85. Barresi V, Buttarelli FR, Vitarelli EE, Arcella A, Antonelli M, Giangaspero F: Caveolin-1 expression in diffuse gliomas: correlation with the proliferation index, epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, and 1p/19q status. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1738-46
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  • Accordingly, the present study investigates caveolin-1 immunoexpression and correlation with the 1p/19q status, histologic grade, proliferation index, epidermal growth factor receptor, and p53 expression in a series of 73 diffuse gliomas.
  • No significant differences in terms of caveolin-1 expression were observed between astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas.
  • Caveolin-1 was expressed in most high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) gliomas.
  • Low caveolin-1 expression correlated with a higher Ki-67 labeling index and the absence of p53 overexpression in glioblastomas, and it was significantly associated with epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • In conclusion, the present study indicates that caveolin-1 is not useful as diagnostic marker to differentiate grade II astrocytomas from oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Caveolin 1 / biosynthesis. Glioma / diagnosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19716156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Caveolin 1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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86. Deighton RF, McGregor R, Kemp J, McCulloch J, Whittle IR: Glioma pathophysiology: insights emerging from proteomics. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jul;20(4):691-703
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  • Gliomas account for >50% of adult primary intracranial tumors, with malignant gliomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme) being the most common.
  • The protein network discovered (containing TP53 and RB1 at its core) compliments recent findings in genomic studies of malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Proteomics


87. Hashiba T, Izumoto S, Kagawa N, Suzuki T, Hashimoto N, Maruno M, Yoshimine T: Expression of WT1 protein and correlation with cellular proliferation in glial tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Apr;47(4):165-70; discussion 170
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  • The expression of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 protein was investigated immunohistochemically in 73 glial tumors, including 60 astrocytic tumors, eight oligodendroglial tumors, and five ependymal tumors.
  • Almost all glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas expressed high levels of WT1 protein.
  • Histological examination found that WT1 protein was strongly expressed in the anaplastic portions and areas with perivascular proliferation and high cellularity, implying that WT1 gene might be important in glial tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study indicates that many malignant glial tumors are good candidates for cancer immunotherapy targeting WT1 protein and that WT1 protein expression could be used as a proliferation marker in glial tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17457020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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88. Jha P, Agarwal S, Pathak P, Srivastava A, Suri V, Sharma MC, Chosdol K, Srivastava T, Gupta D, Gupta A, Suri A, Sarkar C: Heterozygosity status of 1p and 19q and its correlation with p53 protein expression and EGFR amplification in patients with astrocytic tumors: novel series from India. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Apr 15;198(2):126-34
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  • [Title] Heterozygosity status of 1p and 19q and its correlation with p53 protein expression and EGFR amplification in patients with astrocytic tumors: novel series from India.
  • There are few reports of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 1p and 19q in astrocytic tumors, especially glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • We evaluated 1p and 19q (either or both) heterozygosity status in 71 astrocytomas, including 6 pediatric cases: 20 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 42 GBM.
  • Thus, 1p and 19q LOH can occur in astrocytic tumors, most commonly in secondary GBMs without morphological correlation with an oligodendroglial histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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89. Kim IM, Ackerson T, Ramakrishna S, Tretiakova M, Wang IC, Kalin TV, Major ML, Gusarova GA, Yoder HM, Costa RH, Kalinichenko VV: The Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor stimulates the proliferation of tumor cells during development of lung cancer. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 15;66(4):2153-61
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  • [Title] The Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor stimulates the proliferation of tumor cells during development of lung cancer.
  • Expression of Foxm1 is found in a variety of distinct human cancers including hepatocellular carcinomas, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, ductal breast carcinomas, and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • We show that Mx-Cre Foxm1-/- mice exhibit diminished proliferation of lung tumor cells causing a significant reduction in number and size of lung adenomas.
  • These data show that Foxm1 stimulates the proliferation of tumor cells during progression of NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Alleles. Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cyclin A / biosynthesis. Cyclin A / genetics. Cyclin A2. Cyclin B / biosynthesis. Cyclin B / genetics. Cyclin B1. DNA Replication. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Gene Deletion. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Mitosis. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Urethane

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  • (PMID = 16489016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 54687-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNA2 protein, human; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Ccnb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin A2; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / FOXM1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxm1 protein, mouse; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 3IN71E75Z5 / Urethane
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90. Comincini S, Ferrara V, Arias A, Malovini A, Azzalin A, Ferretti L, Benericetti E, Cardarelli M, Gerosa M, Passarin MG, Turazzi S, Bellazzi R: Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):989-96
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy.
  • Recently, ectopic expression of doppel was found in two different tumor types, specifically in glial and haematological cancers.
  • In order to address clinical important issues, PRND mRNA expression was investigated in a panel of 111 astrocytoma tissue samples, histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (6 grade I pilocytic astrocytomas, 15 grade II low-grade astrocytomas, 26 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and 64 grade IV glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001).
  • Extensive differences in PRND gene expression were also found within each grade of malignancy, suggesting that PRND mRNA quantitation might be useful to distinguish astrocytoma subtypes, and important in disease stratification and in the assessment of specific treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Prions / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17390034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions
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91. Roerig P, Nessling M, Radlwimmer B, Joos S, Wrobel G, Schwaenen C, Reifenberger G, Lichter P: Molecular classification of human gliomas using matrix-based comparative genomic hybridization. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 20;117(1):95-103
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  • The different glioma types are associated with distinct genetic aberrations, which may provide useful information for tumor classification as well as prediction of prognosis and response to therapy.
  • To facilitate the molecular classification of gliomas, we established a genomic microarray that consists of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC) clones representing tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and chromosomal regions frequently gained or lost in gliomas.
  • Furthermore, molecular classification based on matrix CGH data closely paralleled histological classification and was able to distinguish with few exceptions between diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and glioblastomas, as well as primary and secondary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Glioma / classification. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15880582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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92. Sulman EP, Guerrero M, Aldape K: Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2009 Jul;19(3):142-9
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  • [Title] Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) represent a heterogenous group of tumors and account for most primary brain tumors.
  • These tumors include the anaplastic (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) histologies of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas and the WHO grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • Prognostication for patients with these tumors has relied principally on tumor grade and clinical factors (age, performance status, and so on) and has been inexact at best in identifying those with long-term survival potential.
  • An even greater challenge has been to identify predictive biomarkers of therapy in the hope of tailoring a patient's therapy based on their tumor's molecular characteristics.
  • This review discusses the molecular pathology of high-grade gliomas, with particular emphasis on anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs because these represent the most common forms of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19464628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Ichimura K, Pearson DM, Kocialkowski S, Bäcklund LM, Chan R, Jones DT, Collins VP: IDH1 mutations are present in the majority of common adult gliomas but rare in primary glioblastomas. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):341-7
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  • Codon 132 mutation was seen in 54% of astrocytomas and 65% of oligodendroglial tumors but in only 6% of glioblastomas (3% of primary and 50% of secondary glioblastomas).
  • There were no mutations in any other type of tumor studied.
  • While mutations in the tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and total 1p/19q deletions were mutually exclusive, IDH1 mutations were strongly correlated with these genetic abnormalities.
  • The data indicate that IDH1 mutation combined with either TP53 mutation or total 1p/19q loss is a frequent and early change in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors, diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and secondary glioblastomas but not in primary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Exons / genetics. Genotype. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19435942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743214; NLM/ UKMS28703
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94. Katsetos CD, Dráberová E, Smejkalová B, Reddy G, Bertrand L, de Chadarévian JP, Legido A, Nissanov J, Baas PW, Dráber P: Class III beta-tubulin and gamma-tubulin are co-expressed and form complexes in human glioblastoma cells. Neurochem Res; 2007 Aug;32(8):1387-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Class III beta-tubulin and gamma-tubulin are co-expressed and form complexes in human glioblastoma cells.
  • We have previously shown that the neuronal-associated class III beta-tubulin isotype and the centrosome-associated gamma-tubulin are aberrantly expressed in astrocytic gliomas (Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 2003, 55:77-96; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2006, 65:455-467).
  • Here we determined the expression, distribution and interaction of betaIII-tubulin and gamma-tubulin in diffuse-type astrocytic gliomas (grades II-IV) (n = 17) and the human glioblastoma cell line T98G.
  • By immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, betaIII-tubulin and gamma-tubulin were co-distributed in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas and to a lesser extent, in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (P < 0.05).
  • We suggest that aberrant expression and interactions of betaIII-tubulin and gamma-tubulin may be linked to malignant changes in glial cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor / cytology. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Humans. Multiprotein Complexes. Nocodazole / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Tubulin Modulators / pharmacology. Vinblastine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17406983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-3190
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / TUBB3 protein, human; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / Tubulin Modulators; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; SH1WY3R615 / Nocodazole
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95. Jin M, Komohara Y, Shichijo S, Yamanaka R, Nikawa J, Itoh K, Yamada A: Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte B6 variant-derived peptides with the ability to induce glioma-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human leukocyte antigen-A2+ glioma patients. Cancer Sci; 2008 Aug;99(8):1656-62
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  • In the present study, we examined the expression of the EphB6 variant (EphB6v) in a panel of brain tumor cell lines and glioblastoma tissues and we found that EphB6v was preferentially expressed in malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA-A Antigens. HLA-A2 Antigen. Hepatocytes. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18754880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-A Antigens; 0 / HLA-A*02:01 antigen; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; EC 2.7.1.- / EPHB6 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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96. Kita D, Yonekawa Y, Weller M, Ohgaki H: PIK3CA alterations in primary (de novo) and secondary glioblastomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):295-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PIK3CA alterations in primary (de novo) and secondary glioblastomas.
  • We assessed alterations in the EGFR/PTEN/PI3K pathway in 107 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 32 secondary glioblastomas that progressed from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Furthermore, this signaling pathway was altered by either PTEN mutations or PIK3CA amplification in 10 of 12 (83%) malignant glioma cell lines analyzed.

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  • (PMID = 17235514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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97. Hayatsu N, Kaneko MK, Mishima K, Nishikawa R, Matsutani M, Price JE, Kato Y: Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Sep 19;374(2):394-8

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  • [Title] Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors.
  • In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR.
  • Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells.
  • In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells.
  • Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Sialoglycoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18639524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / podocalyxin
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98. Tosoni A, Franceschi E, Ermani M, Bacci A, Volpin L, Lombardo L, Ravenna G, Pinna G, Poggi R, Brandes AA: MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2052

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  • [Title] MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • However, further data on the epigenetic feature are needed before its role in rare diseases such as anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) can be established.

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  • (PMID = 27964674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Panigrahy A, Krieger MD, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Liu X, McComb JG, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Gilles FH, Blüml S: Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Mar;27(3):560-72
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  • PURPOSE: Our aims were to evaluate the metabolic profiles of pediatric brain tumors with short echo time (TE) MR spectroscopy and absolute quantitation of metabolite concentrations (in mmol/kg of tissue) and to describe metabolic features that distinguish individual tumor types and that may help to improve preoperative diagnosis of specific tumors.
  • METHODS: MR imaging examinations of 60 patients with untreated brain tumors (14 medulloblastomas, 5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low-grade astrocytomas, 17 pilocytic astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 5 ependymomas, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, 3 choroid plexus carcinomas, and 6 pineal germinomas) were reviewed.
  • Creatine (Cr) was significantly reduced in pilocytic astrocytomas, distinguishing them from All Other (P < .000001).
  • Guanidinoacetate was reduced in low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (P < .00001) versus All Other, whereas ependymoma and anaplastic ependymomas exhibited particularly low N-acetylaspartate (P < .00001 versus All Other).

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  • (PMID = 16551993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R33-CA096032-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Maiti AK, Ghosh K, Chatterjee U, Chakrobarti S, Chatterjee S, Basu S: Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):456-62
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: The involvement of various growth factors, growth factor receptors and proliferative markers in the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic neoplasms are being studied extensively.
  • Since EGFR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are involved in mitogenic signal transduction and cellular proliferation pathway, we have studied the correlation between the expression of EGFR and PCNA labeling index in astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and PCNA using the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in 40 cases of astrocytic tumors of which 21 cases were glioblastoma, eight cases were Grade III or anaplastic astrocytomas and six cases were Grade II or diffuse astrocytomas and five cases were Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Both the EGFR expression and PCNA labeling index increase with increasing grades of astrocytomas with a significantly high percentage of cells showing positive staining for both EGFR and PCNA in GBM and Grade III astrocytomas compared to Grade II astrocytomas.
  • The expression levels of both EGFR and PCNA were low in Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation was found between EGFR overexpression and PCNA labeling index in Grade III and Grade II astrocytomas and glioblastoma.
  • These suggest that the tumor proliferation, at least in higher grades of astrocytomas is dependent in some measure on EGF and EGFR-related signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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