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1. Jenkinson MD, Smith TS, Haylock B, Husband D, Shenoy A, Vinjamuri S, Walker C, Pietronigro D, Warnke PC: Phase II trial of intratumoral BCNU injection and radiotherapy on untreated adult malignant glioma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Aug;99(1):103-13
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  • Twelve patients were enrolled; eight glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), four anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Mapping. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular / methods. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Thallium. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20063175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AD84R52XLF / Thallium; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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2. Okada H, Lieberman FS, Walter KA, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka DS, Bejjani GK, Hamilton RL, Torres-Trejo A, Kalinski P, Cai Q, Mabold JL, Edington HD, Butterfield LH, Whiteside TL, Potter DM, Schold SC Jr, Pollack IF: Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas. J Transl Med; 2007;5:67
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  • METHODS: In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) received gross total resection (GTR) of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Glioblastoma / therapy. Interleukin-4 / genetics. Transfection

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  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254376
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3. Sarkar C, Karak AK, Nath N, Sharma MC, Mahapatra AK, Chattopadhyay P, Sinha S: Apoptosis and proliferation: correlation with p53 in astrocytic tumours. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):93-100
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  • Here we have studied the extent of apoptosis in 62 primary human astrocytic tumours [25 Diffuse Astrocytoma (DA), 9 Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) and 28 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)] in relation to tumour grade, proliferative status and p53 protein expression.
  • However this was not observed in p53 +ve GBM or in low grade DA either p53 positive or negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15981097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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4. Zhang Y, Zhang N, Dai B, Liu M, Sawaya R, Xie K, Huang S: FoxM1B transcriptionally regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression and promotes the angiogenesis and growth of glioma cells. Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 1;68(21):8733-42
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  • We previously found that FoxM1B is overexpressed in human glioblastomas and that forced FoxM1B expression in anaplastic astrocytoma cells leads to the formation of highly angiogenic glioblastoma in nude mice.

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  • (PMID = 18974115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116528-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116528-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-116528; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116528; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116528-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116528-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FOXM1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS67455; NLM/ PMC2597644
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5. Baehring J, Hui P, Piepmeier J, Bannykh SI: Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in Turcot syndrome. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):293-298
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in Turcot syndrome.
  • Turcot syndrome (TS), a rare variant of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is characterized by familial clustering of cancer of the large bowel, extracolonic body sites and brain.
  • We report a 72 year old woman with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in the setting of TS.
  • Careful analysis of tumor DNA is required to exclude the chance occurrence of a brain tumor in HNPCC kindreds and increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19495563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / PMS2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / Mismatch Repair Endonuclease PMS2; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutL Protein Homolog 1; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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6. Zhang K, Li C, Liu Y, Li L, Ma X, Meng X, Feng D: Evaluation of invasiveness of astrocytoma using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Neuroradiology; 2007 Nov;49(11):913-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of invasiveness of astrocytoma using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2.
  • INTRODUCTION: Even low-grade astrocytomas infiltrate the entire brain, a feature that precludes their successful therapy.
  • So to assess the invasive potential of astrocytoma is very important.
  • The aim of this study was determine whether there is a significant correlation between the results of (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and tumor invasive potential of astrocytoma, which is reflected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).
  • According to the World Health Organization classification criteria for central nervous system tumors, there were 16 low-grade astrocytomas (2 pilocytic astrocytomas, 14 grade II astrocytomas) and 25 high-grade astrocytomas (5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 20 glioblastomas).The choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were calculated.
  • Of the 41 astrocytomas, 19 (8 low-grade and 11 high-grade) were analyzed immunohistochemically.
  • RESULTS: The Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios of high-grade astrocytoma were both significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytoma (t = -6.222, P = 0.000; t = -6.533, P = 0.000, respectively).
  • MMP-2 COD values of high-grade astrocytomas were also significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytomas (t = -5.892, P = 0.000).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17763847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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7. McNatt SA, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Nelson MD, McComb JG: Synchronous multicentric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jul;57(1):E191; discussion E191
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, low-grade astrocytoma of adolescence.
  • Results of the histological examination were consistent with a diagnosis of PXA.
  • The patient was treated with whole-brain radiation of 3600 cGy, with additional intensity-modulated boosts to the enhancing lesions of 1440 cGy.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous multicentric PXA presents unique challenges in that gross total resection would impose significant surgical morbidity; histological homogeneity among the lesions cannot be confirmed; and the well-described potential for anaplastic transformation may be increased with multiple lesions.
  • The optimal treatment for patients with this rare and challenging diagnosis awaits further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 15987556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Iun'pén V, Oliushin VE, Ulitin AIu, Maslova LN, Petrov AA: [Long-term results of treatment in patients with oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of the cerebral hemispheres]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Apr-Jun;(2):6-10; discussion 10-1
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  • RESULTS: After complex therapy, the mean survival was 80.6 months in patients with oligodendrogliomas, 63.3 months in those with anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and 42 months in those with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18720725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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9. Phuphanich S, Carson KA, Grossman SA, Lesser G, Olson J, Mikkelsen T, Desideri S, Fisher JD, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy (NABTT) CNS Consortium: Phase I safety study of escalating doses of atrasentan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Aug;10(4):617-23
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  • Twenty-two patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 2 had anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 had an anaplastic oliogodendroglioma; 24 patients had received one prior chemo therapy regimen before being enrolled in the study.
  • The most common atrasentan-related toxicities were grade 1 or 2 rhinitis, fatigue, and edema.
  • One patient developed grade 3 hypoxia and peripheral edema at a dose of 90 mg/day.

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  • (PMID = 18477765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA62406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrrolidines; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666236
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10. Hartmann C, Hentschel B, Wick W, Capper D, Felsberg J, Simon M, Westphal M, Schackert G, Meyermann R, Pietsch T, Reifenberger G, Weller M, Loeffler M, von Deimling A: Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):707-18
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  • [Title] Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas.
  • WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm.
  • For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Here we provide evidence that the IDH1 status is more prognostic for overall survival than standard histological criteria that differentiate high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We sequenced the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) at codon 132 in 382 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma from the NOA-04 trial and from a prospective translational cohort study of the German Glioma Network.
  • Patients with anaplastic astrocytomas carried IDH1 mutations in 60%, and patients with glioblastomas in 7.2%.
  • IDH1 was the most prominent single prognostic factor (RR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5) followed by age, diagnosis and MGMT.
  • The sequence from more favorable to poorer outcome was (1) anaplastic astrocytoma with IDH1 mutation, (2) glioblastoma with IDH1 mutation, (3) anaplastic astrocytoma without IDH1 mutation and (4) glioblastoma without IDH1 mutation (p < 0.0001).
  • In this combined set of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas both, IDH1 mutation and IDH1 expression status were of greater prognostic relevance than histological diagnosis according to the current WHO classification system.
  • We propose to complement the current WHO classification and grading of high-grade astrocytic gliomas by the IDH1 mutation status and to use this combined histological and molecular classification in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioma / classification. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult


11. Freitas MR, de Muzio SD, Pessoa RC, Stávale JN, Borges LR, Malheiros SM: [Diffuse bone marrow metastasis in cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma. A case report]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Mar 1-15;48(5):242-4
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  • [Title] [Diffuse bone marrow metastasis in cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasis difusa de la medula osea en un astrocitoma cerebeloso de alto grado. Un caso clinico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma is uncommon.
  • CASE REPORT: A 46 year-old man with cerebellar anaplastic astrocytoma who developed pancytopenia due to extensive bone marrow metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Extraneural metastases of brain gliomas are rare and the spread to the bone marrow confers an extremely poor prognosis for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19263392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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12. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Abe H, Onishi H, Ohmura T, Iwaasa M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T: Quantitative assessment of gliomas by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6A):3757-63
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients with histologically verified gliomas, comprising 2 cases with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade 4), 5 cases with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO, grade 3; high-grade glioma), and 1 case with fibrillary astrocytoma (FA, grade 2; low-grade glioma) were evaluated using the 1H-MRS protocol following conventional MR imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) preoperatively.
  • RESULTS: High-grade gliomas tended to demonstrate signal hyperintensity by DWI and higher relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by PWI.
  • The presence of lactate and lipid was predominately detected in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 17970039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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13. Hariharan S, Donahue JE, Garre C, Origone P, Grewal RP: Clinicopathologic and genetic analysis of siblings with NF1 and adult-onset gliomas. J Neurol Sci; 2006 Aug 15;247(1):105-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant neurogenetic disorder characterized by neoplasms involving the nervous system which typically present in children.
  • A biopsy was performed and pathological examination revealed an anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA).
  • Although she did not meet the accepted clinical criteria for NF1, given that she has a sibling with NF1 and a malignancy observed in this disorder, we hypothesize that she also has NF1.
  • Our genetic analysis indicated a shared haplotype in these siblings who developed brain tumors but not in an unaffected sister suggesting that both carry the NF1 disease-producing allele.
  • CONCLUSION: NF1 should be a diagnostic consideration when siblings develop intracranial brain tumors even when they develop in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16725158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Glanz C, Rebetz J, Stewénius Y, Persson A, Englund E, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Salford LG, Widegren B, Fan X, Gisselsson D: Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Aug;33(4):440-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other high-grade brain tumours are typically characterized by complex chromosome abnormalities and extensive intratumour cytogenetic heterogeneity.
  • In this study, we analysed the pattern of chromosome segregation at mitosis in 20 brain tumours.
  • Anaphase bridging was also found in two medulloblastomas (7-15%), one anaplastic astrocytoma (17%) and one oligodendroglioma (6%).
  • In contrast, cell division abnormalities were not found in low-grade brain tumours with less complex karyotypes, including two pilocytic astrocytomas and two ependymomas.
  • Telomere-dependent abnormal segregation of chromosomes at mitosis is thus a common phenomenon in high-grade brain tumours and may be one important factor behind cytogenetic intratumour diversity in GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Spindle Apparatus / pathology. Telomere / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17617873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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15. Voelzke WR, Petty WJ, Lesser GJ: Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):23-31
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  • [Title] Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: High-grade astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), are the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumors in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18247132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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16. Yue WY, Chen ZP: Does vasculogenic mimicry exist in astrocytoma? J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):997-1002
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  • [Title] Does vasculogenic mimicry exist in astrocytoma?
  • It is unknown whether a similar VM phenomenon exists in astrocytoma.
  • The present study was to examine 45 astrocytomas (including World Health Organization grade II 15 cases, grade III 15 cases, and grade IV 15 cases) by CD34 endothelial marker periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) dual staining to see if VM existing in these tumors.
  • PAS-positive pattern of VM was found in two grade IV astrocytomas.
  • Furthermore, in astrocytoma, especially glioblastoma, focus of anaplastic tumor cells appeared with CD34 expression, whereas some tumor cells lost glial fibrillary acid protein expression.
  • It is assumed that genetically deregulated tumor cells in astrocytoma could lose the astrocyte-specific protein and express inappropriate markers not expected in cells of astrocyte lineage.
  • The present results suggest that VM phenomenon exists in some malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 15923371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Schiff Bases; 10450-60-9 / Periodic Acid
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17. Marie Y, Carpentier AF, Omuro AM, Sanson M, Thillet J, Hoang-Xuan K, Delattre JY: EGFR tyrosine kinase domain mutations in human gliomas. Neurology; 2005 Apr 26;64(8):1444-5
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  • In this study, the authors tested the presence of such mutations in 95 gliomas including glioblastomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Genetic Testing. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / enzymology. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15851741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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18. Radulović D: [Natural history of supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma: case report]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Nov-Dec;134(11-12):537-40
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  • [Title] [Natural history of supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma: case report].
  • Low-grade astrocytomas comprise a group of primary brain neoplasms with relatively low anaplastic potential, although through time they tend to behave more aggressively.
  • This report presents a natural history of a patient with low grade astrocytoma.
  • Initial computerized tomography and magnetic resonance of brain revealed oval, 4 cm in diameter, lesion in the left parietal region that was considered as low-grade glioma.
  • The described patient with low-grade astrocytoma lived without any oncological treatment eight years and four months from the time when diagnosis was made until intracranial herniation.
  • The natural history of disease in presented patient indicated that rational therapeutic strategy, for low-grade astrocytoma with epilepsy only, would be deferral of surgery until the time of manifestation of neurological or radiological deterioration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Parietal Lobe

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  • (PMID = 17304770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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19. Niizuma K, Fujimura M, Kumabe T, Tominaga T: Malignant transformation of high-grade astrocytoma associated with neurocysticercosis in a patient with Turcot syndrome. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Jan;14(1):53-5
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of high-grade astrocytoma associated with neurocysticercosis in a patient with Turcot syndrome.
  • A 45-year-old woman with anaplastic astrocytoma was clinically diagnosed with Turcot syndrome, and subsequently developed simultaneous neurocysticercosis and malignant transformation to glioblastoma.
  • Histological examination of surgical specimens revealed neurocysticercosis between the normal brain tissue and glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neurocysticercosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17138070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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20. Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 1;64(3):892-7
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-eight consecutive high-grade gliomas were treated between January 2001 and December 2003 with dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT, planned with the inverse approach.
  • Glioblastoma accounted for 70% of the cases, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 15% of the cases.
  • The median progression-free survival time for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma histology was 5.6 and 2.5 months, respectively.
  • The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively.
  • No Grade IV/V late neurologic toxicities were noted.
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that IMRT will improve local control in high-grade gliomas without further dose escalation compared with conventional radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16458777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Horbinski C, Wang G, Wiley CA: YKL-40 is directly produced by tumor cells and is inversely linked to EGFR in glioblastomas. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Jan 01;3(3):226-37
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  • YKL-40 is a secreted chitinase-like molecule whose expression is associated with glioma grade.
  • A rank-order list of YKL-40 expression was determined immunohistochemically in 79 untreated high-grade adult glio-mas, including 28 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) and 51 GBMs.

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  • (PMID = 20224722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH001717; United States / PHS HHS / / K24 M401717
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2836500
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 10q / 1p19q / EGFR / YKL-40 / glioblastoma / oligodendroglioma
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22. Korshunov A, Meyer J, Capper D, Christians A, Remke M, Witt H, Pfister S, von Deimling A, Hartmann C: Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Sep;118(3):401-5
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  • [Title] Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Separation of pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytomas frequently poses problems mostly related to small sample size.
  • Precise classification and grading are essential due to different therapeutic strategies prompted by diagnoses of pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I, diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II or anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • We examined a series of 120 astrocytomas including 70 pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I and 50 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II for both, BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion with a newly developed FISH assay and mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 by direct sequencing.
  • Astrocytomas WHO grade II exhibited IDH1 mutations in 38 cases (76%) but neither IDH2 mutations nor BRAF fusions.
  • Thus, combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 is a sensitive and highly specific approach to separate pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Tissue Array Analysis


23. Korones DN, Smith A, Foreman N, Bouffet E: Temozolomide and oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):37-41
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  • Diagnoses included recurrent brain stem glioma (2), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (2), and glioblastoma (7) (3 treatment-induced, 2 malignant transformations of lower grade tumors, 1 recurrence, and 1 second tumor arising 10 months after diagnosis of medulloblastoma).
  • There was one grade 4 neutropenia, but no other grade 3 or 4 toxicities.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16047359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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24. Adamek D, Dec M, Sobol G, Urbanowicz B, Jaworski M: Giant cell ependymoma: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):176-81
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  • Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma.
  • As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established.
  • This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles

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  • (PMID = 18006220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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25. Wacker A, Will BE, Schöning M, Neunhoeffer F: [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol; 2008 Oct;212(5):194-6
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  • [Title] [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic astrocytomas in neonates are extremely rare.
  • An ultrasound scan of the brain showed an intracerebral bleeding.
  • No tumour was found, but an anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) was diagnosed histologically.
  • Serial ultrasound investigations of the brain showed a normal midline and a redevelopment of the left-sided ventricle.
  • CONCLUSION: Congenital anaplastic astrocytomas have a variable outcome, with different survival rates as compared to adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Cerebral Hemorrhage / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Echoencephalography. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trephining

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  • (PMID = 18956278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Quon H, Abdulkarim B: Adjuvant treatment of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008;(2):CD007104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant treatment of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.
  • Outcomes analyzed include overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and treatment toxicity greater than or equal to grade 3.
  • Based on the differences in patient selection with respect to the definition of AO (2 versus 3 high risk anaplastic features) and sequence of treatment (RT and chemotherapy), the results from the two RCTs were not able to be considered for meta-analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;5:CD007104 [24833028.001]
  • (PMID = 18425979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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27. Limentani SA, Asher A, Heafner M, Kim JW, Fraser R: A phase I trial of surgery, Gliadel wafer implantation, and immediate postoperative carboplatin in combination with radiation therapy for primary anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;72(3):241-4
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  • [Title] A phase I trial of surgery, Gliadel wafer implantation, and immediate postoperative carboplatin in combination with radiation therapy for primary anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate combination chemotherapy with Gliadel wafer and carboplatin in patients with high-grade, malignant glioma.
  • Fourteen (88%) patients had glioblastoma multiforme and 2 (12%) had anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Decanoic Acids / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Polyesters / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15937647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Decanoic Acids; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Polyesters; 90409-78-2 / decanedioic acid-4,4'-(1,3-propanediylbis(oxy))bis(benzoic acid) copolymer; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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28. Hunter SB, Varma V, Shehata B, Nolen JD, Cohen C, Olson JJ, Ou CY: Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):963-9
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  • [Title] Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.
  • ApoD expression was investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR using RNA extracted from 68 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain specimens.
  • Sixteen poorly infiltrating WHO grade I glial neoplasms (i.e., pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas) showed an average 20-fold higher apoD expression level compared with the 20 diffusely infiltrating glial neoplasms (i.e., glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas; p=0.00004).
  • Analyzed as individual tumor groups, poorly infiltrating grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas differed significantly from each tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating higher-grade category (p<0.05 for each comparison) but not from each other (p>0.05).
  • Ependymomas, non-infiltrating grade II neoplasms, expressed levels of apoD similar to or lower than levels expressed by the diffusely infiltrating gliomas.
  • In addition, apoD expression was 5-fold higher in the slowly proliferating grade I glial neoplasms compared with non-proliferating normal brain tissue (p=0.01), suggesting that apoD expression is not simply an inverse measure of proliferation.
  • ApoD expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR may be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apolipoproteins / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16055749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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29. Takei H, Powell SZ: Rosenthal fiber-rich glioblastoma: a case report. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 May-Jun;28(3):168-72
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  • Although the presence of abundant RFs within brain tumors is most closely associated with a low-grade astrocytoma, particularly pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), a few RFs are recognized to occur, although rarely, in glioblastoma (GBM).
  • Histologic sections showed diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma with prominent RFs diffusely distributed throughout the tumor, brisk mitotic activity, vascular proliferation, and small areas of necrosis, as seen in a GBM.
  • DISCUSSION: This is a case of RF-rich GBM (primary or de novo type).
  • The differential diagnosis includes PA and anaplastic PA.
  • For the histological diagnosis, infiltrating astrocytoma with abundant RFs should be carefully examined in light of clinical information (e.g., patient age, evolution of the symptoms) and neuroimaging studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19537132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Quaranta M, Divella R, Daniele A, Di Tardo S, Venneri MT, Lolli I, Troccoli G: Epidermal growth factor receptor serum levels and prognostic value in malignant gliomas. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):275-80
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  • The aim of this study was to estimate the EGFR serum concentration for potential use as a biological marker of brain cancer to predict prognosis and follow-up after treatment.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples obtained from 50 healthy individuals and 65 brain cancer patients (35 glioblastoma multiforme and 30 anaplastic astrocytomas) were collected before and after treatment and assayed for EGFR extracellular domain serum concentrations by a sandwich ELISA.
  • RESULTS: EGFR was elevated in 47 of 65 brain cancer patients, with mean serum values of 84 +/- 18 ng/ml, compared with that of healthy controls (43.6 +/- 11 ng/ml, P = 0.001).
  • There was a significant difference in the mean serum levels of EGFR between glioblastoma multiforme patients (96.2 +/- 12 ng/ml) and anaplastic astrocytoma patients (71.6 +/- 18 ng/ml, P = 0.04).
  • Sixty brain cancer patients underwent surgery; EGFR serum levels did not show significant differences from those observed before surgery.
  • For all patients, median overall survival was 13 months (anaplastic astrocytoma, 18 months; glioblastoma multiforme, 12.5 months).
  • In 47 patients with high EGFR serum levels, overall survival was reduced (P = 0.01), with a median survival time corresponding to 11.5 months (anaplastic astrocytoma, 14.5 months; glioblastoma multiforme, 10.5 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Glioma / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / blood. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / blood. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Signal Transduction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17679463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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31. Gulati S, Ytterhus B, Granli US, Gulati M, Lydersen S, Torp SH: Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20331873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859381
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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32. Stupp R, Reni M, Gatta G, Mazza E, Vecht C: Anaplastic astrocytoma in adults. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Jul;63(1):72-80
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma in adults.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is an uncommon disease in the adult population.
  • Based on randomized data available, chemotherapy has consistently failed to improve the outcome of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, while a meta-analysis showed a small, but significant improvement in survival favouring the use of chemotherapy.
  • In recurrent disease, chemotherapy with temozolomide has been proven to be active and well-tolerated in phase II trials, but no comparative phase III trials of other cytotoxic drugs have been conducted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives


33. Stege EM, Kros JM, de Bruin HG, Enting RH, van Heuvel I, Looijenga LH, van der Rijt CD, Smitt PA, van den Bent MJ: Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine. Cancer; 2005 Feb 15;103(4):802-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OD) tumors, especially those with the combined loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q), are sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • Only limited data are available on the role of chemotherapy in low-grade OD.
  • The authors retrospectively studied the outcome of the procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy regimen in a group of 16 patients with newly diagnosed OD and 5 patients with recurrent low-grade OD.
  • A Phase III trial should be initiated to compare radiotherapy with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15637687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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34. Finlay JL, Dhall G, Boyett JM, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Goldman S, Yates AJ, Rosenblum MK, Stanley P, Zimmerman RA, Wallace D, Pollack IF, Packer RJ, Children's Cancer Group: Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Dec;51(6):806-11
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  • [Title] Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • METHODS: Twenty-seven children and adolescents with malignant astrocytomas [17 glioblastoma multiforme and 10 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)] following initial tumor progression, received myeloablative chemotherapy followed by autologous marrow rescue with one of three thiotepa and etoposide-based chemotherapy regimens, administered alone (n = 11) or combined with carmustine (n = 5) or carboplatin (n = 11).
  • The two cohorts were compared for age, histology, prior therapies, extent of surgical resection at progression, and time from initial diagnosis to progression.
  • Of 56 children with recurrent malignant astrocytoma who received conventional chemotherapy following initial progression, no patient survives.

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  • (PMID = 18802947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021765-259003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-259003; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS65899; NLM/ PMC2844080
  • [Investigator] Bleyer A; Khayat A; Sather H; Krailo M; Buckley J; Stram D; Sposto R; Hutchinson R; Matthay K; Gaynon P; Geyer JR; Shurin S; Reaman G; Ortega J; Ruymann F; Weiner M; Blatt J; Lukens J; Wolff L; Neglia J; Lange B; Steinherz P; Breitfeld P; O'Brien R; Cohen H; Fryer C; Wells R; Finklestein J; Feig S; Tannous R; Odom L; Gilchrist G; Barnard D; Wiley J; Ettinger L; Hetherington M; Coccia P; Norris D; Nachman J; Raney B; Baker D; Sanders J; Rausen A; Cairo M
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35. Buckner JC, O'Fallon JR, Dinapoli RP, Schomberg PJ, Farr G, Schaefer P, Giannini C, Scheithauer BW, Ballman KV: Prognosis in patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma is associated with histologic grade. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(3):279-86
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  • [Title] Prognosis in patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma is associated with histologic grade.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) are relatively uncommon high-grade gliomas.
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 1999, Mayo Clinic and the NCCTG conducted 10 trials of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in adults with newly-diagnosed high-grade gliomas.
  • We grouped patients by cell type and grade, compared survival distributions by the log-rank statistic, and performed multiple variable analyses.
  • RESULTS: Of 1368 patients, 68 (5%) had AOA, including 21 Grade 3 (OA3) and 47 grade 4 (OA4), 153 (11%) had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and 1147 (84%) had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma have distinct outcomes based upon grade (OA3 vs. OA4) and in comparison with pure astrocytoma (AA or GBM).
  • Future trials which include more than one histologic entity need to report results by cell type and grade and account for the varying prognoses in interpreting treatment outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17431544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Wick W, Weller M: [Anaplastic glioma. Neuropathology, molecular diagnostics and current study concepts]. Nervenarzt; 2010 Aug;81(8):928-30, 932-5
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic glioma. Neuropathology, molecular diagnostics and current study concepts].
  • According to the current WHO classification anaplastic gliomas comprise pure astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and mixed tumors.
  • This review summarizes findings, discusses problems and defines new questions from the phase III trials on anaplastic gliomas.
  • Therefore, marker profiles should be included into the next WHO brain tumor classification.
  • The current standard of care for first-line treatment in anaplastic gliomas is radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Inclusion in this trial is already based on the WHO grade and the 1p/19q status and not on the histopathological subtype.
  • Furthermore, anaplastic gliomas are an important group of brain tumors for developing future molecular targeted therapies and should therefore be in the main focus of academic and industrial drug development, which aims at improved efficacy and avoiding long-term side-effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Chromosome Deletion. Clinical Trials as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20635074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0407
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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37. Parbel S, Vlaho S, Gebhardt B, Porto L, Hattingen E, Klingebiel T, Böhles H, Kieslich M: [Diagnostic difficulties in encephalitis and glioma]. Klin Padiatr; 2007 Jul-Aug;219(4):222-4
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  • The differential diagnosis between cerebral glioma and infective lesions can be very difficult to distinguish by MRI only.
  • Brain biopsy revealed anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO III).
  • CONCLUSION: This case report shows that cerebral glioma can mimick infective brain disease and that MR-spectroscopy is an important non-invasive tool in this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Encephalitis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pons
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / analysis. Child. Choline / analysis. Creatine / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 16865652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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38. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Ogino A, Ohta T, Yoshino A, Fukushima T: Preliminary individualized chemotherapy for malignant astrocytomas based on O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation analysis. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Aug;46(8):387-93; discussion 393-4
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  • This study was a preliminary trial of individualized chemotherapy based on MGMT methylation status in a total of 20 patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas (9 anaplastic astrocytomas and 11 glioblastomas multiforme).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16936459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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39. Callovini GM: Is it appropriate to redefine the indication for stereotactic brain biopsy in the MRI Era? Correlation with final histological diagnosis in supratentorial gliomas. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2008 Apr;51(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Is it appropriate to redefine the indication for stereotactic brain biopsy in the MRI Era? Correlation with final histological diagnosis in supratentorial gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the advisability of modifying the indications for stereotactic brain biopsy (SBB) in high- and low-grade supratentorial glial tumors in correlation with the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • On the basis of the MRI findings the patients were divided into two groups: high-grade (n=107) and low-grade (n=67) gliomas.
  • Only one preoperative diagnosis was allowed.
  • RESULTS: A final histological diagnosis was achieved in 95% of the 174 cases.
  • In the group of high-grade gliomas (HGG) there was diagnostic coincidence in 87% of cases, reaching 100% in lesions of the corpus callosum.
  • In 11 cases (10%) the histological analysis changed the presumptive diagnosis and the consequent management.
  • In the group of low-grade gliomas (LGG) there was diagnostic coincidence in 63% (42 cases), whereas there was discordance in 30%: 10 cases were upgraded to anaplastic astrocytoma, and in 10 cases no tumors were observed at all.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the future, the histological diagnosis of glial tumors will include molecular genetic definition, thus making it crucial for management using the new therapeutic options.
  • Today, the indications for biopsy in lesions mimicking high-grade gliomas are mainly linked to the site of the tumor, coexisting differential diagnoses or more than one treatment option.
  • On the contrary, in lesions where MRI findings indicate low-grade gliomas, grading is crucial also in order to avoid treatment inappropriate in non-neoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Stereotaxic Techniques / standards. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Corpus Callosum / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiation Injuries / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18401825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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40. Rao SA, Santosh V, Somasundaram K: Genome-wide expression profiling identifies deregulated miRNAs in malignant astrocytoma. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1404-17
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  • [Title] Genome-wide expression profiling identifies deregulated miRNAs in malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytoma includes anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV).
  • Among them, glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with dismal responses to all therapeutic modalities.
  • We performed a large-scale, genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) (n=756) expression profiling of 26 glioblastoma, 13 anaplastic astrocytoma and 7 normal brain samples with an aim to find deregulated miRNA in malignant astrocytoma.
  • We identified several differentially regulated miRNAs between these groups, which could differentiate glioma grades and normal brain as recognized by PCA.
  • More importantly, we identified a most discriminatory 23-miRNA expression signature, by using PAM, which precisely distinguished glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma with an accuracy of 95%.
  • Thus we have identified the miRNA expression signature for malignant astrocytoma, in particular glioblastoma, and showed the miRNA involvement and their importance in astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20711171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
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41. Takaya S, Hashikawa K, Turkheimer FE, Mottram N, Deprez M, Ishizu K, Kawashima H, Akiyama H, Fukuyama H, Banati RB, Roncaroli F: The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Oct;85(1):95-103
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  • [Title] The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • We examined two anaplastic astrocytomas showing minimal contrast-enhancement and therefore little damage of the blood brain barrier to minimise the presence of blood borne macrophages within tumour tissue.
  • The expression profile of four anaplastic astrocytomas was also exploited and results were compared to the profile of eleven samples of normal temporal lobe and nine cases of PD.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microglia / metabolism. Microglia / pathology. Receptors, GABA-A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17520179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120085814
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; YNF83VN1RL / PK 11195
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42. Weller M, Berger H, Hartmann C, Schramm J, Westphal M, Simon M, Goldbrunner R, Krex D, Steinbach JP, Ostertag CB, Loeffler M, Pietsch T, von Deimling A, German Glioma Network: Combined 1p/19q loss in oligodendroglial tumors: predictive or prognostic biomarker? Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Dec 1;13(23):6933-7
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  • PURPOSE: The combined loss of genetic material on chromosomes 1p and 19q is strongly associated with favorable outcome in patients with WHO grade 3 anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.
  • The prognostic value of 1p/19q loss in WHO grade 2 oligodendroglial tumors is less well defined.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-six patients with oligodendroglioma (n = 33), oligoastrocytoma (n = 30), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 6), or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (n = 7) were identified who had not received radiotherapy or chemotherapy after their first operation until the end of follow-up or until the first progression and had tissue for 1p/19q status available.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18056167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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43. Ashamalla H, Zaki B, Mokhtar B, Lewis L, Lavaf A, Nasr H, Colella F, Dosik D, Krishnamurthy M, Saad N, Guriguis A: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost and weekly paclitaxel in malignant gliomas clinical and pharmacokinetics results. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jun;6(3):169-76
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  • Twenty-three Glioblastoma Multiforme and two Anaplastic Astrocytoma were studied.
  • The median survival for RPA prognostic classes III, IV, V, and VI were 20, 14, 12, and 11 months.
  • No grade 4 CTCAE (version 3.0) toxicities were observed.
  • ii) the regimen resulted in improvement of survival of RPA classes IV, V, VI; and iii) the use of FSRT boost may be studied with other chemotherapeutic agents to see if superior results can be attained.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17535024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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44. Chan DT, Poon WS, Chan YL, Ng HK: Temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Hong Kong Med J; 2005 Dec;11(6):452-6
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  • Histology reviewed by a neuropathologist was required to show anaplastic glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma) or glioblastoma multiforme.

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  • (PMID = 16340021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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45. Chamberlain MC, Johnston S: Bevacizumab for recurrent alkylator-refractory anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Cancer; 2009 Apr 15;115(8):1734-43
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  • [Title] Bevacizumab for recurrent alkylator-refractory anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • BACKGROUND: A retrospective evaluation of single agent bevacizumab was carried out in adults with recurrent alkylator-refractory 1p19q codeleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO) with an objective of determining progression-free survival (PFS).
  • Bevacizumab-related toxicity included fatigue (14 patients; 4 grade 3), leukopenia (9; 1 grade 3), anemia (5; 0 grade 3), hypertension (5; 1 grade 3), deep vein thrombosis (4; 1 grade 3), and wound dehiscence (2; 1 grade 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Bevacizumab. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19197992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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46. Gutin PH, Iwamoto FM, Beal K, Mohile NA, Karimi S, Hou BL, Lymberis S, Yamada Y, Chang J, Abrey LE: Safety and efficacy of bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation for recurrent malignant gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):156-63
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  • Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, has shown promise in recurrent gliomas, but the safety and efficacy of concurrent bevacizumab with brain irradiation has not been extensively studied.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: After prior treatment with standard radiation therapy patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic gliomas (AG) received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenous) every 2 weeks of 28-day cycles until tumor progression.
  • Three patients discontinued treatment because of Grade 3 central nervous system intratumoral hemorrhage, wound dehiscence, and bowel perforation.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 19167838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00595322
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS460357; NLM/ PMC3659401
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47. Silvani A, Gaviani P, Fiumani A, Scaioli V, Lamperti E, Eoli M, Botturi A, Salmaggi A: Systemic sagopilone (ZK-EPO) treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):61-64
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  • PFS-6 was achieved in five patients (33%), three with glioblastoma multiforme and two with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzothiazoles / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Epothilones / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19381446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzothiazoles; 0 / Epothilones; 0 / sagopilone
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48. Perry J, Chambers A, Spithoff K, Laperriere N: Gliadel wafers in the treatment of malignant glioma: a systematic review. Curr Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(5):189-94
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  • QUESTION: What is the safety and efficacy of interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers (Gliadel wafers: MGI Pharma, Bloomington, MN, U.S.A.) in the treatment of newly diagnosed or recurrent malignant glioma (that is, glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma)?
  • PERSPECTIVES: Malignant glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumour in adults.
  • The most frequently reported adverse events were convulsions, confusion, brain edema, infection, hemiparesis, aphasia, and visual field defects.

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  • (PMID = 17938702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2002480
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Gliadel / carmustine / glioblastoma / interstitial chemotherapy / malignant glioma / systematic review
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49. Weber MA, Vogt-Schaden M, Bossert O, Giesel FL, Kauczor HU, Essig M: [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas]. Radiologe; 2007 Sep;47(9):812-8
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  • [Title] [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas].
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42+/-14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16924439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Walid MS, Troup EC: Cerebellar anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with Ollier Disease. J Neurooncol; 2008 Aug;89(1):59-62
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  • [Title] Cerebellar anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with Ollier Disease.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ollier Disease is a sporadic skeletal disorder with a predisposition to oncogenesis.
  • We are presenting a young patient with Ollier Disease and high-grade astrocytoma.
  • Brain MRI with contrast showed a 41 x 55 mm mass in the posterior fossa with spotty enhancement, which pathology proved to be anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / etiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / etiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Enchondromatosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18414790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PTH1R protein, human; 0 / Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN protein, human
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51. Larysz D, Blamek S, Larysz P, Pietras K, Mandera M: Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2010;106:271-4
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  • [Title] Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children.
  • Histopathological diagnoses of tumors were as follows: 4 medulloblastomas, 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 6 fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 1 choroid plexus papilloma, and 5 arachnoid cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain. Brain Injuries / etiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms. Nervous System Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19812963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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52. Momota H, Narita Y, Matsushita Y, Miyakita Y, Shibui S: p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):95-101
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  • [Title] p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • To elucidate the relationship between p53 abnormality and invasiveness of the tumors, we studied mutation and protein expression of p53 in 48 consecutive patients with malignant astrocytoma (14 anaplastic astrocytomas and 34 glioblastoma multiformes).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21046311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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53. Vidiri A, Carapella CM, Pace A, Mirri A, Fabi A, Carosi M, Giannarelli D, Pompili A, Jandolo B, Occhipinti E, Di Giovanni S, Crecco M: Early post-operative MRI: correlation with progression-free survival and overall survival time in malignant gliomas. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun;25(2):177-82
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  • Forty-seven patients with Glioblastoma (42) and Anaplastic Astrocytoma (5) were studied with MR 24 hrs after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Glioma / mortality. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16918127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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54. Robe PA, Martin DH, Nguyen-Khac MT, Artesi M, Deprez M, Albert A, Vanbelle S, Califice S, Bredel M, Bours V: Early termination of ISRCTN45828668, a phase 1/2 prospective, randomized study of sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas in adults. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:372
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  • As it presents an excellent safety profile, we initiated a phase 1/2 clinical study of this anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of recurrent WHO grade 3 and 4 astrocytic gliomas in adults.
  • METHODS: 10 patients with advanced recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 2) or glioblastoma (n = 8) aged 32-62 years were recruited prior to the planned interim analysis of the study.
  • Side effects were common, as all patients developed grade 1-3 adverse events (mean: 7.2/patient), four patients developed grade 4 toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 19840379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN45828668
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2771045
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55. See SJ, Ty A, Wong MC: Salvage chemotherapy in progressive high-grade astrocytoma. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2007 May;36(5):343-6
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  • [Title] Salvage chemotherapy in progressive high-grade astrocytoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Despite aggressive multidisciplinary interventions, patients with high-grade astrocytomas experience tumour progression or recurrence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of relevant clinical and radiographic information of patients who received at least one cycle of salvage chemotherapy for progressive high-grade astrocytoma at the National Cancer Center, Singapore, from March 2004 to September 2006, was conducted.
  • Patients underwent regular assessment with clinical examination and magnetic resonance brain imaging to gauge response to salvage chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (13 glioblastomas, 11 anaplastic astrocytomas) had received chemotherapy as salvage treatment following progression of their high-grade astrocytoma.
  • For patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, the 12-month survival rate was 73%.
  • CONCLUSION: Durable disease control and prolonged survival were seen in a significant portion of selected patients with progressive high-grade astrocytoma who received salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Singapore. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17549281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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56. Kumar R, Kamdar D, Madden L, Hills C, Crooks D, O'Brien D, Greenman J: Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in meningioma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jun;15(6):1513-6
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  • [Title] Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in meningioma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme patients.
  • Serum samples from 61 newly diagnosed patients with brain tumours and 50 age- and sex-matched non-tumour controls were analysed by ELISA for circulating levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12p70 and p40) and interleukin-10 (IL-10); pivotal Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively.
  • Patients were divided into various groups depending on their histological diagnosis: meningioma (n=11), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=4) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; n=46).
  • Significant reduction in serum IL-12 was seen in all groups as compared with the controls: meningioma, p=0.03; anaplastic astrocytoma, p<0.001; and GBM, p<0.001.
  • Conversely, serum IL-10 was significantly increased in anaplastic astrocytoma, p=0.02, and GBM, p=0.03.
  • This study shows that patients with advanced primary intracranial malignancies have decreased circulating IL-12 and increased circulating IL-10, demonstrating that brain tumours have a major systemic effect on the immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Interleukin-10 / blood. Interleukin-12 / blood. Meningioma / immunology. Th1 Cells / immunology. Th2 Cells / immunology


57. Owen CM, Linskey ME: Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;93(1):139-49
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  • Diagnostic accuracy was calculated comparing biopsy diagnosis with final pathology in 11 patients who underwent subsequent surgical resection.
  • Of 18 lesions involving the corpus callosum, 13 (72.2%) were GBM 2 were anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 each were found to be anaplastic oligodendroglioma, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and tumescent MS.
  • Of 25 multifocal lesions, malignant primary brain tumor was diagnosed in 17 (68%) (11 GBM, 3 PCNSL, 2 anaplastic ologodendroglioma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic biopsy is an effective, safe and important technique for histologic diagnosis of brain lesions, particularly for multifocal and corpus callosum lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / surgery. Neuronavigation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19430891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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58. Ooba H, Abe T, Kamida T, Anan M, Momii Y, Tokuuye K, Fujiki M: Malignant fibrous histiocytosis after high-dose proton radiation therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1641-3
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytosis after high-dose proton radiation therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • This report presents a 70-year-old male who presented with a rare malignant fibrous histiocytosis after high-dose proton radiation therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 19766005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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59. Ichimura K, Vogazianou AP, Liu L, Pearson DM, Bäcklund LM, Plant K, Baird K, Langford CF, Gregory SG, Collins VP: 1p36 is a preferential target of chromosome 1 deletions in astrocytic tumours and homozygously deleted in a subset of glioblastomas. Oncogene; 2008 Mar 27;27(14):2097-108
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  • Total 1p deletions were rare (2%), however partial deletions involving 1p36 were frequently identified in anaplastic astrocytomas (22%) and glioblastomas (34%).
  • Our results indicate that 1p deletions are common anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas but are distinct from the 1p abnormalities in oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17934521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2650419; NLM/ UKMS4022
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60. Peria FM, Neder L, Marie SK, Rosemberg S, Oba-Shinjo SM, Colli BO, Gabbai AA, Malheiros SM, Zago MA, Panepucci RA, Moreira-Filho CA, Okamoto OK, Carlotti CG Jr: Pleiotrophin expression in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and it's correlation with histological diagnosis, microvascular density, cellular proliferation and overall survival. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(3):255-61
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  • [Title] Pleiotrophin expression in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and it's correlation with histological diagnosis, microvascular density, cellular proliferation and overall survival.
  • There is evidence that PTN has also a relevant role in primary brain neoplasms and its inactivation could be important to treatment response.
  • Astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors are the most frequent primary brain neoplasms.
  • Astrocytic tumors are classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), diffuse astrocytoma (DA), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GBM).
  • Oligodendroglial tumors are classified as oligodendroglioma (O) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO).
  • The aim of the present study was to compare PTN expression, in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and its association with the histological diagnosis, microvascular density, proliferate potential and clinical outcome.
  • The histological diagnosis in accordance with WHO classification was: 13PA, 18DA, 8AA, 15GBM, 16O and 8AO.
  • Proliferate index and microvascular density were evaluated only in high grade tumors (AA, GBM and AO) divided in three groups according to PTN expression (low, intermediate and high).
  • Overall survival (OS) analysis (months) showed similar results in high grade gliomas with different levels of PTN expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PTN expression is associated with histopathological grade of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Oligodendroglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17443289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 134034-50-7 / pleiotrophin
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61. Tsutsumi S, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Ito M: Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with a component of anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as skull base tumor followed by downward extracranial extension. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(12):1108-12
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  • [Title] Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with a component of anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as skull base tumor followed by downward extracranial extension. Case report.
  • Histological examination revealed cellular pleomorphism with mitotic activity, focal necrosis, but lacking endothelial proliferation, consistent with anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) with component of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PXA with anaplastic appearance may have a component of anaplastic astrocytoma with more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology


62. Mennel HD, Lell B: Ganglioside (GD2) expression and intermediary filaments in astrocytic tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2005 Jan-Feb;24(1):13-8
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  • Intracranial supratentorial astrocytic gliomas of the adult represent a tumor group, that may be divided into three grades of malignancy, the most anaplastic member being the glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gangliosides / metabolism. Intermediate Filaments / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15696779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gangliosides; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin; 65988-71-8 / ganglioside, GD2
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63. Kobayashi T, Masumoto J, Tada T, Nomiyama T, Hongo K, Nakayama J: Prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical staining of cleaved caspase-3, an activated form of caspase-3, in gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 1;13(13):3868-74
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  • The Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test revealed that patients with CC3 IRS-positive tumors had significantly greater survival than those with CC3 IRS-negative tumors among three grades, 2, 3, and 4 (P = 0.0061), and within grade 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (P = 0.0458).
  • After adjustment for known clinical prognostic factors, such as age, WHO grade, and performance status, the hazard ratio for CC3 IRS-positive was 0.39 with 95% confidence interval between 0.19 and 0.85 (P = 0.0187).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17606719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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64. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Williams VL, Maldonado JL, Shahani D, Stockwell HG, Chamberlain M, Sloan AE: Patterns of care and outcomes among elderly individuals with primary malignant astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2008 Apr;108(4):642-8
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  • [Title] Patterns of care and outcomes among elderly individuals with primary malignant astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between age at diagnosis, patterns of care, and outcome among elderly individuals with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • To facilitate gathering of prediagnosis comorbidity and postdiagnosis treatment information, only those individuals were included who had the same Medicare coverage for 6 months before and 12 months after diagnosis.

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2012 Feb;116(2):355-6; discussion 356 [21942728.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2008 Apr;108(4):639-40 [18377239.001]
  • (PMID = 18377240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA101954; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07-CA91849; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08-CA101954
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Volavsek M, Lamovec J, Popović M: Extraneural metastases of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(7):502-7
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  • [Title] Extraneural metastases of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.
  • According to the literature, they tend to appear in glioblastoma patients, but are exceptionally rare in anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • We report on an anaplastic oligodendroglioma and an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma that metastasized to cervical lymph nodes and bones.
  • In the second case, metastases to the sacrum and femur developed after surgery for a recurrent anaplastic oligoastrocytoma.
  • Our two cases reconfirm a rare but definite ability not only of glioblastoma but also of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, namely to metastasize to extraneural sites.
  • It is important to bear this in mind, particularly in cases when the history of primary brain tumor is unavailable.
  • In such instances, the correct diagnosis of the metastatic lesion may be extremely difficult if not impossible.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglia / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / secondary. Sacrum / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19410385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Mizoguchi M, Betensky RA, Batchelor TT, Bernay DC, Louis DN, Nutt CL: Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Dec;65(12):1181-8
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  • [Title] Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival.
  • In this study, we investigated the activation status of these 3 signaling molecules as well as wild-type (EGFRwt) and mutant (EGFRvIII) EGFR in 82 malignant astrocytic gliomas (55 glioblastomas and 27 anaplastic astrocytomas) using immunohistochemistry.
  • The distribution of these 3 activated molecules varied significantly with tumor grade; although activation of STAT3 was essentially identical between anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, an increase in the activation of MAPK and AKT appeared to correlate with the progression of anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Rate / trends. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17146292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 57683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95616
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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67. Kim B, Chung CK, Myung JK, Park SH: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with long-standing Taylor-type IIB-focal cortical dysplasia in an adult. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):113-7
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  • Brain tumor in combination with cortical dysplasia is one of the causes of epilepsy, but coexistence of these two entities is a rare event.
  • Nine years ago (at the age of 45), a brain CT revealed a mass (1cm) in the uncal area, but the patient did not give consent to an operation.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic feature (mitotic count: 5/10HPF), and the brain around the tumor showed dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells.
  • Therefore, the tumor was assumed to be associated with the brain, with Taylor-type-IIB focal cortical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / complications. Malformations of Cortical Development / complications

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  • (PMID = 18657915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Stettner MR, Wang W, Nabors LB, Bharara S, Flynn DC, Grammer JR, Gillespie GY, Gladson CL: Lyn kinase activity is the predominant cellular SRC kinase activity in glioblastoma tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5535-43
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  • As we have found that Lyn, but not Fyn, activity promotes migration of glioblastoma cells in response to the cooperative signal generated by platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta and integrin alpha(v)beta3, we compared the activity and expression of Lyn and Fyn in glioblastoma (grade IV) tumor biopsy samples with that in anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) tumors, nonneoplastic brain, and normal autopsy brain samples.
  • The levels of phosphorylation of the autophosphorylation site were consistent with significantly higher Lyn activity in glioblastoma tumor tissue than nonneoplastic brain.
  • Although the normalized levels of Lyn protein and the relative levels of Lyn message were significantly higher in glioblastoma samples than nonneoplastic brain, the normalized levels of Lyn protein did not correlate with Lyn activity in the glioblastoma samples.
  • There was no significant difference in the normalized levels of c-Src and Fyn protein and message in the glioblastoma and nonneoplastic brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioblastoma / enzymology. src-Family Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biopsy. Brain / enzymology. Endothelial Cells / enzymology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phosphotransferases / genetics. Phosphotransferases / metabolism. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15994925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97110; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97247
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / CSK tyrosine-protein kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / FYN protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn; EC 2.7.10.2 / lyn protein-tyrosine kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases
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69. Sanders RP, Kocak M, Burger PC, Merchant TE, Gajjar A, Broniscer A: High-grade astrocytoma in very young children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):888-93
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  • [Title] High-grade astrocytoma in very young children.
  • BACKGROUND: High-grade astrocytomas are rare in young children, but have been reported to have a better prognosis than similar tumors in older patients.
  • PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, survival, and long-term sequelae for patients younger than 3 years old with high-grade astrocytoma, treated at a single institution between 1984 and 2005.
  • Histology included anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 9), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 5), and malignant glioma (n = 2).
  • Age at diagnosis was a significant predictor of the hazard of death in a Cox model (HR 2.871, 95%CI 1.015-8.123).
  • All evaluable survivors (n = 9) had some neurocognitive impairment, with estimated overall cognitive ability ranging from significantly delayed to average; all survivors attending school (n = 5) performed below grade level on achievement testing.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young children with high-grade astrocytoma have better long-term overall survival than older patients, but recurrence is common, and most children require irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Dec;49(7):879-80 [17941062.001]
  • (PMID = 17554787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Parlato C, Barbarisi M, Moraci M, Moraci A: Surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide in treating high-grade gliomas. Front Biosci; 2006;11:1280-3
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  • [Title] Surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide in treating high-grade gliomas.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) a recent, oral, second generation alkylating agent is a chemotherapeutic with demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of high-grade gliomas.
  • Twelve patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM), and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) were studied.
  • Surgery allows to establish a histopathological diagnosis, to improve signs and symptoms which are attributable to intracranial hypertension or tumour topography, and to reduce the number of target cells for adjunctive therapies.
  • Temozolomide appears to be an ideal, first-line, single-agent, with a safe profile and demonstrated HQL benefits in patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Glioblastoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16368514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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71. MacDonald TJ, Pollack IF, Okada H, Bhattacharya S, Lyons-Weiler J: Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis. Methods Mol Biol; 2007;377:203-22
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  • [Title] Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis.
  • Astrocytoma is graded as pilocytic (WHO grade I), diffuse (WHO grade II), anaplastic (WHO grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV).
  • The progression from low- to high-grade astrocytoma is associated with distinct molecular changes that vary with patient age, yet the prognosis of high-grade tumors in children and adults is equally dismal.
  • Whether specific gene expression changes are consistently associated with all high-grade astrocytomas, independent of patient age, is not known.
  • We identified nine genes consistently dysregulated in high-grade tumors, using four novel tests for identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Four genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPS2, RPS8, RPS18, RPL37A) were upregulated, and five genes (APOD, SORL1, SPOCK2, PRSS11, ID3) were downregulated in high-grade by all tests.
  • Expression results were validated using a third astrocytoma dataset.
  • This suggests that dysregulation of APOD may be critical for malignant astrocytoma formation, and thus a possible novel universal target for therapeutic intervention.
  • Further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of APOD, as well as the other genes identified, in malignant astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 17634619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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72. Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary SA, Glantz MJ: Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother; 2008 Apr;8(4):575-86
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), WHO grade III gliomas, comprise 10-15% of all glial neoplasms.
  • The most important predictor of response to therapy and survival in AA tumors is the presence or absence of the 1p19q co-deletion, a translocation that defines a subset of oligodendroglial tumors, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18416660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Hoffman S, Propp JM, McCarthy BJ: Temporal trends in incidence of primary brain tumors in the United States, 1985-1999. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Temporal trends in incidence of primary brain tumors in the United States, 1985-1999.
  • A number of reports have indicated an increasing incidence of primary brain tumors over the past few decades.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe incidence rate trends in a population-based series of newly diagnosed primary nonmalignant and malignant brain and other CNS tumors, contributing five additional years to previously published incidence trends.
  • Data for the years 1985 through 1999 from six collaborating state cancer registries of the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States were used to determine incidence trends in the broad age groups 0-19, 20-64, and >or=65 years, overall and for selected histologies.
  • When brain lymphomas were excluded, this increase remained statistically significant.
  • A sharp change in incidence of brain lymphomas from increasing to decreasing over time was identified.
  • Specific histologies that were increasing included anaplastic astrocytomas in individuals aged >or=65 years, microscopically confirmed gliomas in both adult age groups, and microscopically confirmed glioma, not otherwise specified (NOS), in children.
  • Decreases were noted for astrocytoma, NOS, nonmicroscopically confirmed gliomas, and pituitary tumors.
  • Improvements in diagnosis and classification are likely reflected in the decreasing trends in unspecified glioma subgroups and the accompanying increasing trends in more specific glioma subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16443945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871920
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74. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Komine C, Yoshino A, Ogino A, Ohta T, Fukushima T: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation and TP53 mutation in malignant astrocytomas and their relationships with clinical course. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):581-7
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  • We analyzed the MGMT promoter methylation and TP53 mutations in 45 malignant astrocytomas (16 anaplastic astrocytomas and 29 glioblastomas multiforme) treated prospectively with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-2(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea, interferon-beta and radiation therapy, and evaluated their clinical usefulness.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Mutation / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15455376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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75. Tuominen H, Lohi J, Maiche A, Törmänen J, Baumann P: Mediastinal metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme evolving from anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):225-6
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  • [Title] Mediastinal metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme evolving from anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
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76. da Fonseca CO, Linden R, Futuro D, Gattass CR, Quirico-Santos T: Ras pathway activation in gliomas: a strategic target for intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2008 Jul-Aug;56(4):267-76
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  • Intranasal delivery allows drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the central nervous system.
  • The cohort consisted of 37 patients, including 29 with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 5 with grade III astrocytoma (AA), and 3 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use. ras Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intranasal. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects


77. Dutta D, Vanere P, Gupta T, Munshi A, Jalali R: Factors influencing activities of daily living using FIM-FAM scoring system before starting adjuvant treatment in patients with brain tumors: results from a prospective study. J Neurooncol; 2009 Aug;94(1):103-10
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  • [Title] Factors influencing activities of daily living using FIM-FAM scoring system before starting adjuvant treatment in patients with brain tumors: results from a prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with brain tumors have varied degree of functional and psychological impairments because of factors relating to the tumor or to the treatment they receive.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: From August 2007 to April 2008, 150 consecutive adult (>18 years) primary brain tumor patients (median age 40 years; male 88, female 62) registered in a general out-patient neuro-oncology clinic were accrued and detailed data were recorded.
  • Seventy percent had malignant tumor (66% high-grade and 34% low-grade; 70% intra-axial).
  • Glioblastoma (GBM) (23.3%), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) (18.7%), and diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma (18.7%) were the commonest histologic subtypes.
  • Univariate analysis showed total FIM-FAM scores not significantly different with age (< or =35 years vs. >35 years; P = 0.994), sex (male versus female; P = 0.133), and grade of the tumor (high-grade versus low-grade; P = 0.142) but were significantly higher in patients with a Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of > or =70 as compared with <70 (P = 0.001), neurological performance scale (NPS) of 0 or 1 vs. 2 or 3; P = 0.001), disease type (benign versus malignant; P = 0.001), and site of disease (cerebral versus cerebellar; P = 0.024).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living / psychology. Brain Neoplasms / psychology. Disability Evaluation. Stress, Psychological / psychology

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  • (PMID = 19255726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Franceschi E, Cavallo G, Lonardi S, Magrini E, Tosoni A, Grosso D, Scopece L, Blatt V, Urbini B, Pession A, Tallini G, Crinò L, Brandes AA: Gefitinib in patients with progressive high-grade gliomas: a multicentre phase II study by Gruppo Italiano Cooperativo di Neuro-Oncologia (GICNO). Br J Cancer; 2007 Apr 10;96(7):1047-51
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  • [Title] Gefitinib in patients with progressive high-grade gliomas: a multicentre phase II study by Gruppo Italiano Cooperativo di Neuro-Oncologia (GICNO).
  • To investigate the role of gefitinib in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs), a phase II trial (1839IL/0116) was conducted in patients with disease recurrence following surgery plus radiotherapy and first-line chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen patients had glioblastoma, three patients had anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and nine patients had anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • No grade 3-4 gefitinib-related toxicity was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / secondary. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / secondary. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17353924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360116
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79. Grossman SA, Alavi JB, Supko JG, Carson KA, Priet R, Dorr FA, Grundy JS, Holmlund JT: Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Jan;7(1):32-40
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  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this phase 2 study, aprinocarsen was administered to patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas by continuous intravenous infusion (2.0 mg/kg/day for 21 days per month).
  • Their median age was 46 years (range, 28-68 years), median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-100), median tumor volume was 58 cm3 (range, 16-254 cm3), and histology included glioblastoma multiforme (n = 16), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 4), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 1).
  • The observed toxicities were mild, reversible, and uncommon (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3] and grade 4 AST [n = 1]), and no coagulopathy or CNS bleeding resulted from this therapy.
  • This is the first study to use an antisense oligonucleotide or a specific PKC-alpha inhibitor in patients with high-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 15701280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA-26406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides; EC 2.7.11.13 / PRKCA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-alpha; FMT95051CQ / aprinocarsen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871621
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80. Reddy PS, Umesh S, Thota B, Tandon A, Pandey P, Hegde AS, Balasubramaniam A, Chandramouli BA, Santosh V, Rao MR, Kondaiah P, Somasundaram K: PBEF1/NAmPRTase/Visfatin: a potential malignant astrocytoma/glioblastoma serum marker with prognostic value. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 May;7(5):663-8
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  • [Title] PBEF1/NAmPRTase/Visfatin: a potential malignant astrocytoma/glioblastoma serum marker with prognostic value.
  • Malignant astrocytomas comprise anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; grade III) and Glioblastoma (GBM; grade IV).
  • Further validation using real time RT-qPCR on an independent set of tumor samples (n=91) and normal brain samples (n=9), GBM specific higher expression of PBEF1 was confirmed.
  • We carried out ELISA analysis on serum samples of astrocytoma patients to determine whether this protein levels would correlate with the presence of tumor and tumor grade.
  • Statistical analysis of these data indicates that in patients with astrocytoma, serum PBEF1 levels correlate with tumor grade and is highest in GBM.
  • Thus, we have identified PBEF1 as a potential malignant astrocytoma serum marker and prognostic indicator among GBMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cytokines / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18728403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.4.2.12 / Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase; EC 2.4.2.12 / nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, human
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81. Chaichana KL, Parker SL, Olivi A, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Long-term seizure outcomes in adult patients undergoing primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;111(2):282-92
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  • [Title] Long-term seizure outcomes in adult patients undergoing primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Clinical article.
  • METHODS: Cases involving adult patients who underwent primary resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Among those patients with a history of seizures, outcome 12 months after surgery was Engel Class I (seizure free) in 77%, Class II (rare seizures) in 12%, Class III (meaningful improvement) in 6%, and Class IV (no improvement) in 5%.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Seizures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19344222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Sega S, Horvat A, Popovic M: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma and gliomatosis type 2 in interferon-beta treated multiple sclerosis patients. Report of two cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Mar;108(3):259-65
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  • [Title] Anaplastic oligodendroglioma and gliomatosis type 2 in interferon-beta treated multiple sclerosis patients. Report of two cases.
  • The concurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and brain tumors has been reported, but it is not known whether MS patients are at greater risk of harbouring the latter.
  • The most common cerebral neoplasms reported in MS patients were oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma and gliomatosis.
  • MS can also present as a mass lesion that mimics a brain tumor.
  • To establish the correct diagnosis radiological follow-up and/or histological confirmation is needed.
  • Two cases of coincidental MS and brain tumors are reviewed.
  • One is a 26-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting MS and an anaplastic oligodendroglioma, the other a 49-year-old woman patient with relapsing-remitting MS and gliomatosis type 2.
  • The concurrence of MS and brain tumors could be purely coincidental, or the result of neoplastic transformation of reactive glial cells in the areas of demyelination.
  • The combination of a brain tumor and MS, and interferon-beta treatment could also be pure coincidence or an unknown side effect of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glioblastoma / complications. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting / complications. Oligodendroglioma / complications


83. Khan MK, Hunter GK, Vogelbaum M, Suh JH, Chao ST: Evidence-based adjuvant therapy for gliomas: current concepts and newer developments. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Apr-Jun;46(2):96-107
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  • Of the 18,820 new cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors diagnosed annually in the United States, gliomas account for over 60% with 30-40% of them being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 10% being anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and 10% being low grade gliomas (LGGs).
  • This is in contrast to one study from West Bengal, India, in which only 7.9% of the brain tumors were GBMs, while 46.8% were astrocytomas.
  • Common to these approaches is the use of adjuvant radiation therapy, even as surgery alone, with or without chemotherapy, may be the mainstay for some lower grade and low-risk gliomas.
  • Specifically, the database is searched using the following keywords, with various combinations: glioma, low-grade, anaplastic, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, chemotherapy, radiation, new concepts, phase III, MGMT, CDX-110 (Celldex), temozolomide, 1p/19q deletion, and bevacizumab.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19346643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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84. Okazaki T, Kageji T, Matsuzaki K, Horiguchi H, Hirose T, Watanabe H, Ohnishi T, Nagahiro S: Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(3):431-7
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a 5 year-old boy with primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) with whole neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis who experienced the sudden onset of generalized convulsion.
  • Under a histopathologic diagnosis of anaplastic PXA he underwent adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 12 cycles of carboplatin and vincristine.
  • We report a very rare pediatric case of primary anaplastic PXA with dissemination involving the entire neuroaxis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Head / diagnostic imaging. Head / pathology. Humans. Male. Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


85. Jeannin S, Lebrun C, Van Den Bos F, Olschwang S, Bourg V, Frenay M: [Turcot's syndrome confirmed by molecular biological tests]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2006 Jun;162(6-7):741-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de Turcot confirmé par biologie moléculaire.
  • INTRODUCTION: Turcot's syndrome is characterized clinically by the concurrence of a primary brain tumor and a familial adenomatous polyposis or a hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
  • OBSERVATION: We report a case of a 45-year-old woman who underwent in 1995 neuro-oncological treatment for an anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III according to the World Health Organization classification).
  • Eight years after the diagnosis, the patient developed a gliomatosis cerebri and died.
  • CONCLUSION: Relevant personal and familial history can provide the clue to the diagnosis of Turcot's syndrome.
  • Molecular diagnosis may contribute to appropriate care of affected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / complications. Adenomatous Polyps / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / complications. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Glioma / complications. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16840983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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86. Rodriguez FJ, Giannini C, Asmann YW, Sharma MK, Perry A, Tibbetts KM, Jenkins RB, Scheithauer BW, Anant S, Jenkins S, Eberhart CG, Sarkaria JN, Gutmann DH: Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Dec;67(12):1194-204
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are World Health Organization Grade I gliomas; they most often affect children and young adults and occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • Furthermore, in an additional independent set of tumors, weak to absent ALDH1L1 expression was found in 13 (72%) of 18 clinically aggressive PAs, in 8 (89%) of 9 PAs with pilomyxoid features, in 7 (70%) of 10 PAs with anaplastic transformation, and in 16 (76%) of 21 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas of various grades.

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  • (PMID = 19018242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS007494-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase; EC 1.5.1.6 / ALDH1L1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS87254; NLM/ PMC2730602
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87. Mikuni N, Hashimoto N: A minimally invasive transsulcal approach to the paracentral inner lesion. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Oct;49(5):291-5
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  • METHODS: Four patients with paracentral inner lesions including anaplastic astrocytoma, cortical dysplasia, and cavernous angioma were operated on.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Diseases / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Mapping. Consciousness / physiology. Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17163343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Arai Y, Tsuchida T, Tanioka F, Sugimura H, Watanabe C, Hongo T, Tsutsui Y: Congenital anaplastic astrocytoma differentiated into pilocytic astrocytoma: an autopsy case. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):433-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital anaplastic astrocytoma differentiated into pilocytic astrocytoma: an autopsy case.
  • We report an autopsy case of congenital astrocytoma and its histopathological changes during 5 years of the patient's development from birth to death.
  • The right orbital tumor, which was enucleated at 2 months of age, was a highly cellular tumor with moderate pleomorphism resembling anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • On the other hand, at autopsy, a brain tumor was found in the right diencephalic region with features of pilocytic astrocytoma, accompanied by leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • A biopsy specimen, which was obtained from the chiasmatic part of the tumor at 4 months of age, showed an intermediate appearance between the orbital tumor and the brain tumor obtained at autopsy.
  • We believe that this congenital anaplastic astrocytoma differentiated into a pilocytic astrocytoma during the 5 years of the patient's development.
  • The transformation of the congenital astrocytoma from anaplastic to pilocytic forms can be attributed to the nature of the tumor, namely postmitotic neoplastic cells are characterized by their ability to undergo self-differentiation, along with the organotropism of the developing brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / congenital. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / pathology


89. Elsir T, Eriksson A, Orrego A, Lindström MS, Nistér M: Expression of PROX1 Is a common feature of high-grade malignant astrocytic gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2010 Feb;69(2):129-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of PROX1 Is a common feature of high-grade malignant astrocytic gliomas.
  • An average of 79% of cells in World Health Organization Grade IV (glioblastoma, n = 15) and 57% of cells in World Health Organization Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma, n = 13) were strongly PROX1 positive; low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (Grade II, n = 13) had 21% of cells that were strongly positive; Grade I tumors (n = 15) had 1.5%; and non-neoplastic brain tissue (n = 15) had 3.7% of cells that were PROX1 positive.
  • We conclude that PROX1 may constitute a useful tool for the diagnosis and grading ofastrocytic gliomas and for distinguishing Grade III and Grade IV tumors from Grade I and Grade II tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Nuclear / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Brain Diseases / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Microvessels / metabolism. Mitosis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20084020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / MAP2 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, human; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
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90. Sathornsumetee S, Cao Y, Marcello JE, Herndon JE 2nd, McLendon RE, Desjardins A, Friedman HS, Dewhirst MW, Vredenburgh JJ, Rich JN: Tumor angiogenic and hypoxic profiles predict radiographic response and survival in malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 10;26(2):271-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor angiogenic and hypoxic profiles predict radiographic response and survival in malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan.
  • Tumor specimens collected at the time of diagnosis were available for further pathologic studies in 45 patients (75%).
  • RESULTS: Of 45 patients, 27 patients had glioblastoma multiforme, and 18 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy