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6. Gu J, Zhang C, Chen R, Pan J, Wang Y, Ming M, Gui W, Wang D: Clinical implications and prognostic value of EMMPRIN/CD147 and MMP2 expression in pediatric gliomas. Eur J Pediatr; 2009 Jun;168(6):705-10
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  • We have analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in normal brain tissue and pediatric gliomas and evaluated their prognostic value in diagnosing the latter.
  • Immunochemistry analysis revealed EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in cryo-sections of pediatric gliomas (45 samples) and normal brain tissue (20 samples).
  • Both EMMPRIN and MMP2 were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues with different levels of malignancy.
  • The intensively positive expression rates of EMMPRIN (22/27) and MMP2 (21/27) in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma tissues were significantly higher than those in normal brain and low-grade astrocytoma tissues (2/28 and (1/2)8, respectively).
  • The positive expression of EMMPRIN and MMP2 was associated with higher grade gliomas.
  • Based on these results, we conclude that EMMPRIN and MMP2 are expressed differently in normal brain and pediatric gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18795327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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7. Kwon JW, Kim IO, Cheon JE, Kim WS, Moon SG, Kim TJ, Chi JG, Wang KC, Chung JK, Yeon KM: Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation. Pediatr Radiol; 2006 Sep;36(9):959-64
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  • [Title] Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: MRI and FDG-PET may predict the histological grading of paediatric brain-stem gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI findings and metabolic imaging using FDG-PET of brain-stem gliomas based on histological grading.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study were 20 paediatric patients (age 3-14 years, mean 8.2 years) with brain-stem glioma (five glioblastomas, ten anaplastic astrocytomas and five low-grade astrocytomas).
  • Eight anaplastic astrocytomas were located in the pons and demonstrated diffuse pontine enlargement without exophytic features.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas were located in the pons, midbrain or medulla and showed focally exophytic growth features and peripheral enhancement.
  • In 12 patients in whom FDG-PET was undertaken, glioblastomas showed hypermetabolic or hypometabolic lesions, anaplastic astrocytomas showed no metabolic change or hypometabolic lesions and low-grade astrocytomas showed hypometabolism compared with the cerebellum.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI findings correlated well with histological grading of brain-stem gliomas and MRI may therefore predict the histological grading.
  • FDG-PET may be helpful in differentiating between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastomas among high-grade tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16847598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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8. Flannery T, Cawley D, Zulfiger A, Alderazi Y, Heffernan J, Brett F, Farrell M, O'Brien DF: Familial occurrence of oligodendroglial tumours. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Jun;22(3):436-8
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  • Two non-identical brothers were diagnosed with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma within 4 months of each other and a maternal grandmother was diagnosed with oligodendroglioma 21 years previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Family. Oligodendroglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18568735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Zhao YC, Li NY, Zhou XJ, Zhou HB, Ma HH, Zhang RS: [Clinicopathologic study of pilocytic astrocytoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;37(9):609-14
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic study of pilocytic astrocytoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study clinicopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • One case had anaplastic features.
  • All cases showed diffuse positive staining for GFAP and low expression for Ki-67, except 1 anaplastic tumor with 10% Ki-67 indices.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PA is a benign, WHO grade I tumor with favorable prognosis, and does not require radiotherapy after total resection.
  • The tumor can be mistaken as higher-grade astrocytoma when involving the subarachnoid space, and with cytological atypia, leading to unnecessary radiotherapy after surgery.
  • The outcome for patients with brainstem tumor or anaplastic PA is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 19094585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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10. Laczko R, Szauter KM, Jansen MK, Hollosi P, Muranyi M, Molnar J, Fong KS, Hinek A, Csiszar K: Active lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin activation and migration in invasive astrocytes. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Dec;33(6):631-43
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  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role during the development and invasion of primary brain tumours.
  • We have recently reported the ECM enzyme, lysyl oxidase (LOX), in the central nervous system and observed up-regulation of LOX in anaplastic astrocytoma cells.
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that active LOX is expressed in anaplastic astrocytes and promotes FAK activation and invasive/migratory behaviour.
  • Results demonstrate that increased expression and activity of LOX positively correlated with invasive phenotype of malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemistry detected increased LOX within tumour cells and ECM in grade I-IV astrocytic neoplasm compared with normal brain and coincidence of increased LOX with the loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein in higher-grade tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Paxillin / metabolism. Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17931358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47713; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR003096
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Paxillin; EC 1.4.3.13 / Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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11. Fukuda ME, Iwadate Y, Machida T, Hiwasa T, Nimura Y, Nagai Y, Takiguchi M, Tanzawa H, Yamaura A, Seki N: Cathepsin D is a potential serum marker for poor prognosis in glioma patients. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 15;65(12):5190-4
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  • The tissue samples consisted of 43 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas, 22 astrocytomas, and 9 normal brain tissues.
  • The results of real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that cathepsin D transcript levels became significantly higher as the glioma grade advanced (P = 0.0466, glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma; P = 0.0008, glioblastoma and astrocytoma; P = 0.0271, glioblastoma and normal brain tissue; unpaired t test).
  • Measurement of the serum cathepsin D concentrations by ELISA showed a significant increase in the patients with high-grade gliomas as compared with the low-grade tumors (P = 0.0081, chi2 test).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Cathepsin D / blood. Glioblastoma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15958563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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12. Shapiro WR, Carpenter SP, Roberts K, Shan JS: (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb: tumour necrosis therapy for malignant astrocytic glioma. Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2006 May;6(5):539-45
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  • Despite improvements in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, few patients diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (WHO grades 3 and 4, respectively) will live beyond 2 years.
  • Most malignant gliomas cannot be completely resected or irradiated due to their ability to infiltrate diffusely into normal brain tissue.
  • Brain tissue is protected from the systemic circulation via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which impedes entry of water-soluble chemotherapeutic agents into the tumour at therapeutic concentrations. (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb (Cotara) employs an innovative strategy to treat the invasive portion of the tumour and the core lesion. (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb is a genetically engineered, radiolabelled, chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a universal intracellular antigen (i.e., DNA/histone H1 complex) exposed in the necrotic core of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16610983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Biol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Histones; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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13. Sadones J, Michotte A, Veld P, Chaskis C, Sciot R, Menten J, Joossens EJ, Strauven T, D'Hondt LA, Sartenaer D, Califice SF, Bierau K, Svensson C, De Grève J, Neyns B: MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlates with a survival benefit from temozolomide in patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma but not glioblastoma. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jan;45(1):146-53
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  • [Title] MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlates with a survival benefit from temozolomide in patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma but not glioblastoma.
  • AIMS: To investigate the correlation between O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and benefit from temozolomide in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma.
  • RESULTS: A subgroup of 38 patients who were chemotherapy-naive at recurrence was analysed (22 glioblastoma, 12 anaplastic astrocytoma [AA] and 4 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma [AOA]); none had 1p/19q loss.
  • By Cox multivariate analysis, tumour grade and MGMT promoter methylation correlated with time to progression (p<0.05); MGMT promoter methylation correlated with superior overall survival in AA/AOA but not in glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18945611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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4. Nakazato Y: [Revised WHO classification of brain tumours]. Brain Nerve; 2008 Jan;60(1):59-77
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  • [Title] [Revised WHO classification of brain tumours].
  • The WHO classification of brain tumours has been widely accepted and used in daily medical practice for more than 25 years since the first edition was published in 1979.
  • Newly codified entities include atypical choroid plexus papilloma, angiocentric glioma, extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, anaplastic hemangiopericytoma, Ewing sarcoma - PNET, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis.
  • If a given tumour has an evidence of a different clinical features, genetic profile or prognostic behavior, it was considered to be histological variants; these included pilomyxoid astrocytoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, and anaplastic medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18232334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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15. García-Navarro V, Tena-Suck ML, Celis MA, Vega R, Rembao D, Salinas C: Anaplastic astrocytoma post radiotherapy of pineal germinoma. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2009 Sep;67(3A):707-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma post radiotherapy of pineal germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Pineal Gland


16. Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, Cartalat-Carel S, Frenay M, Kantor G, Guillamo JS, Jadaud E, Colin P, Bondiau PY, Meneï P, Loiseau H, Bernier V, Honnorat J, Barrié M, Mokhtari K, Mazeron JJ, Bissery A, Delattre JY, Association of French-Speaking Neuro-Oncologists: Radiotherapy for glioblastoma in the elderly. N Engl J Med; 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1527-35
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  • METHODS: Patients 70 years of age or older with a newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma and a Karnofsky performance score of 70 or higher were randomly assigned to receive supportive care only or supportive care plus radiotherapy (focal radiation in daily fractions of 1.8 Gy given 5 days per week, for a total dose of 50 Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cognition / radiation effects. Female. Humans. Male. Proportional Hazards Models. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis


17. Sasayama T, Nishihara M, Tanaka K, Mizukawa K, Ehara K, Kanomata N, Kohmura E: Two metachronous tumors induced by radiation therapy: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jul;88(3):315-20
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  • The patient underwent stereotactic biopsy, and the tumor was found to be an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18373066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Ghauri AJ, Musadiq M, Sha Y, Elsherbiny S: Late onset of subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation following cerebral radiotherapy. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 4-week history of sudden loss of central vision in the left eye, 8.5 years following radical radiotherapy for left tempero-parietal anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choroidal Neovascularization / etiology

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  • (PMID = 22797201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027866
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19. Gu X, Jones L, Lowery-Norberg M, Fowler M: Expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in astrocytic tumors. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Jun;13(2):178-83
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  • In this immunohistochemical study, eIF4E protein expression was investigated in human brain tissue from patients without central nervous system diseases and brain biopsy tissues from patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme.
  • In anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme, there was diffuse uniform expression of eIF4E immunoreactivity in malignant astrocytes.
  • This study provides evidence that eIF4E is upregulated in high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • Because eIF4E is crucial in regulation of tumor growth, eIF4E could be a potential target for inhibitors as an adjuvant therapy for brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 15894932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E
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20. Seng TJ, Ichimura K, Liu L, Tingby O, Pearson DM, Collins VP: Complex chromosome 22 rearrangements in astrocytic tumors identified using microsatellite and chromosome 22 tile path array analysis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Jun;43(2):181-93
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  • A total of 126 astrocytic tumors-5 diffuse astrocytomas (A), 29 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 92 glioblastomas (GB)-were examined for chromosome 22 alterations both by microsatellite analysis (using 28 markers to identify allelic imbalance) and with the tile path array.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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21. Rosenfeld A, Listernick R, Charrow J, Goldman S: Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 May;26(5):663-7
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system.
  • PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder, predisposes patients to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway, there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions.
  • RESULTS: Seven hundred forty patients with a diagnosis of NF1 were identified.
  • Five patients (3%) were identified as having high-grade tumors, which consisted of anaplastic medulloblastoma (n = 1) and high-grade glioma (n = 4).
  • The mean age at diagnosis of NF1 was 2 years.
  • Three of the five patients had a history of an OPT prior to the development of their high-grade lesions.
  • Currently, two patients are alive and receiving therapy at a mean of 10 months following diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade CNS tumors may occur in children with NF1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications


22. Stüer C, Vilz B, Majores M, Becker A, Schramm J, Simon M: Frequent recurrence and progression in pilocytic astrocytoma in adults. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2799-808
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  • [Title] Frequent recurrence and progression in pilocytic astrocytoma in adults.
  • BACKGROUND: Most pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) are benign growths (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 1) of the deep midline structures, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.
  • WHO grade 3 primary anaplastic piloA was diagnosed in 2 patients (5%), and WHO grade 3 secondary anaplastic piloA was diagnosed in 4 patients (9%).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 Jun;4(6):296-7 [18414467.001]
  • (PMID = 17973253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Freitas MR, de Muzio SD, Pessoa RC, Stávale JN, Borges LR, Malheiros SM: [Diffuse bone marrow metastasis in cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma. A case report]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Mar 1-15;48(5):242-4
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  • [Title] [Diffuse bone marrow metastasis in cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasis difusa de la medula osea en un astrocitoma cerebeloso de alto grado. Un caso clinico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebellar high-grade astrocytoma is uncommon.
  • CASE REPORT: A 46 year-old man with cerebellar anaplastic astrocytoma who developed pancytopenia due to extensive bone marrow metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Extraneural metastases of brain gliomas are rare and the spread to the bone marrow confers an extremely poor prognosis for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19263392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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24. Heimberger AB, McGary EC, Suki D, Ruiz M, Wang H, Fuller GN, Bar-Eli M: Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):267-72
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  • [Title] Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas.
  • Anderson Cancer Center since 1986 to include 72 glioblastomas, 49 anaplastic astrocytomas, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 37 oligodendrogliomas, 37 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 15 mixed oligoastrocytomas, 20 anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytomas, and 7 gliosarcomas.
  • The microarray included normal brain tissue, and AP-2alpha expression was determined by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: AP-2alpha expression was lost on 99% (P < 0.001) and 98% (P < 0.001) of glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, respectively, compared with grade 2 astrocytomas and normal brain, all of which (100%) maintained expression of AP-2alpha.
  • However, there was no significant effect of loss of AP-2alpha expression on survival observed after adjustment for patient age, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, tumor grade, and extent of resection (rate ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AP-2alpha expression correlates inversely with glioma grade, suggesting a direct role in glioma tumorigenicity, possibly through subsequent deregulation of target genes.
  • Of all the previously characterized markers of progression, the loss of AP-2alpha would be the most common (96.2%) molecular marker as an astrocytic tumor evolves from grade 2 to 3.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acid Motifs. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD146. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Time Factors. Transcription Factor AP-2. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15671555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / T-32-09666
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCAM protein, human; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / TFAP2A protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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25. Ishihara H, Bjeljac M, Straumann D, Kaku Y, Roth P, Yonekawa Y: The role of intraoperative monitoring of oculomotor and trochlear nuclei -safe entry zone to tegmental lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Jun;49(3):168-72
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  • All lesions involved the tegmentum and included an anaplastic astrocytoma, a metastatic brain tumor, a radiation necrosis, and a cavernous angioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Action Potentials / physiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Oculomotor Muscles / physiopathology. Trochlear Nerve / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16921458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Sonoda Y, Kumabe T, Nakamura T, Saito R, Kanamori M, Yamashita Y, Suzuki H, Tominaga T: Analysis of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in Japanese glioma patients. Cancer Sci; 2009 Oct;100(10):1996-8
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  • In the present study, R172 mutation of the IDH2 gene was detected in one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were frequently in oligodendrogliomas (67%), anaplastic astrocytomas (62%), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (75%), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (50%), secondary glioblastomas (67%), gangliogliomas (38%), and anaplastic gangliogliomas (60%).
  • Mutations of the IDH1 or IDH2 genes were significantly associated with improved outcome in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19765000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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27. Wolff JE, Berrak S, Koontz Webb SE, Zhang M: Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients.
  • Even though past studies have suggested efficacy of nitrosourea drugs in patients with high-grade glioma and temozolomide has recently been shown significantly to be beneficial, no conclusive comparisons between these agents have been published.
  • We performed a survival gain analysis of 364 studies describing 24,193 patients with high-grade glioma treated in 504 cohorts, and compared the effects of drugs.
  • The most frequent diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (72%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (22%).
  • The outcome was influenced by several of the known prognostic factors including the histological grade, if the tumors were newly diagnosed or recurrent, the completeness of resection, patients' age, and gender.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carmustine / adverse effects. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cohort Studies. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Databases, Factual. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Lomustine / adverse effects. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Male. Nimustine / adverse effects. Nimustine / therapeutic use. Reproducibility of Results. Selection Bias. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18253699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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28. Voelzke WR, Petty WJ, Lesser GJ: Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):23-31
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  • [Title] Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: High-grade astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), are the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumors in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18247132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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29. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • Using these findings, the authors generated a mathematical model capable of subcategorizing high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics


30. Shinoura N, Takahashi M, Yamada R: Delineation of brain tumor margins using intraoperative sononavigation: implications for tumor resection. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 May;34(4):177-83
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  • [Title] Delineation of brain tumor margins using intraoperative sononavigation: implications for tumor resection.
  • PURPOSE: Sonography has been employed for real-time intraoperative delineation of tumor boundaries during resection of brain tumors.
  • However, the variably hyperechoic appearance of brain edema or gliosis surrounding the brain may interfere with accurate depiction of tumor margins.
  • METHODS: Sononavigation was performed on 12 brain tumors (7 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 1 anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • RESULTS: Three metastatic brain tumors and 1 meningioma were categorized as type 1.
  • Three metastatic brain tumors, 1 meningioma, and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma were categorized as type 2.
  • The anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 metastatic brain tumor (which consisted mainly of necrotic tissue), and the anaplastic astrocytoma were categorized as type 3.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neuronavigation / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16615048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Wei CW, Guo G, Mikulis DJ: Tumor effects on cerebral white matter as characterized by diffusion tensor tractography. Can J Neurol Sci; 2007 Feb;34(1):62-8
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  • METHODS: Fiber tractography was used in this study to assess tumor-induced changes in WM trajectories in three cases of cerebral neoplasm: glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • In anaplastic astrocytoma, fiber tracking demonstrated disruption of WM tracts at the tumor origin as well as intact axons through areas of tumor infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / pathology. Neural Pathways / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Brain Mapping / methods. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Corpus Callosum / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / trends. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / physiopathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / trends. Pyramidal Tracts / pathology. Pyramidal Tracts / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17352349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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32. Jayawardena S, Sooriabalan D, Indulkar S, Kim HH, Matin A, Maini A: Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate. Am J Ther; 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):458-9
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  • [Title] Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate.
  • The cells that demonstrate the greatest degree of anaplasia are used to determine the histologic grade of the tumor.
  • The mean age of survival are approximately 10 years from the time of diagnosis for pilocystic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade I), more than 5 years for patients with low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 2 to 5 years for those with anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and less than 1 year for patients with glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The treatment is a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy depending of the grade of astrocytoma.
  • We present a case of 31-year-old man with grade III astrocytoma with subsequent chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate as part of his chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment failing to show recurrence of the astrocytoma 10 years after standard treatment for astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16988542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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33. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • This promising activity warrants further investigation of this combination in larger phase II or III studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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34. Zimmermann M, Stan AC: PepT2 transporter protein expression in human neoplastic glial cells and mediation of fluorescently tagged dipeptide derivative beta-Ala-Lys-Nepsilon-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin-3-acetic acid accumulation. J Neurosurg; 2010 May;112(5):1005-14
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  • RESULTS: Recent fluorescent immunocytochemical analyses have revealed that beta-Ala-Lys-N(epsilon)-AMCA specifically accumulates within anaplastic cells of astrocytic lineage but not in anaplastic oligodendrocytes or neurons.
  • Moreover, in situ hybridization analyses revealed an astrocytic localization of hPepT2 transcripts in human glioblastoma and astrocytoma cells.
  • The hPepT2 transcription levels were clearly dependent on the grade of glial cell differentiation: within low-grade gliomas (WHO Grade II), more hPepT2 mRNA was detected compared with tumors of a higher grade of dedifferentiation (WHO Grade IV).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that expression of the hPepT2 transporter protein is a characteristic of glial cells of astrocytic lineage, and is dependent on the grade of astroglial cell differentiation and the extracellular matrix (here brain neuropil).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Blotting, Northern. Brain Chemistry. Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats

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  • (PMID = 19612975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Coumarins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Symporters; 0 / alanyl-lysyl-amca; 0 / hydrogen-coupled oligopeptide transporter PepT2; EC 3.4.13.- / Dipeptidases; EC 3.4.13.18 / cytosol non-specific dipeptidase; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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35. Kato Y, Hayatsu N, Kaneko MK, Ogasawara S, Hamano T, Takahashi S, Nishikawa R, Matsutani M, Mishima K, Narimatsu H: Increased expression of highly sulfated keratan sulfate synthesized in malignant astrocytic tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 May 16;369(4):1041-6
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  • Keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycans are expressed on a subpopulation of microglia in normal adult brain.
  • However, it has not been clarified whether KS is expressed in brain tumors and is involved in their malignancy.
  • In six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (43%) and 23 of 34 glioblastomas (68%), KS was detected by 5D4.
  • KS was hardly detected by 5D4 in diffuse astrocytoma, suggesting that KS-expression is significantly expressed in malignant astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Keratan Sulfate / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18329383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9056-36-4 / Keratan Sulfate
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36. Hsieh JC, Lesniak MS: Surgical management of high-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S33-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of high-grade gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, in particular anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme, represent two of the most devastating forms of brain cancer.
  • This review discusses the role of the surgical management of high-grade gliomas and provides an overview of the currently available therapies which depend on surgical intervention.
  • At the same time, cutting-edge clinical trials for patients with malignant brain tumors are reviewed to provide further insights into potential future therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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37. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • This report focused on the patients with low-grade gliomas only.
  • The indications for treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas were progression during or after chemotherapy or progression after surgery alone.
  • Two of the patients with local progression had pathologic progression to anaplastic astrocytoma 3 and 7 years after initial SRT.
  • Six patients died, three of dissemination, two of progression to higher grade tumors, and one of a secondary radiation-induced tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Stereotactic radiotherapy provides excellent local control for children with small, localized low-grade glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Liu M, Dai B, Kang SH, Ban K, Huang FJ, Lang FF, Aldape KD, Xie TX, Pelloski CE, Xie K, Sawaya R, Huang S: FoxM1B is overexpressed in human glioblastomas and critically regulates the tumorigenicity of glioma cells. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;66(7):3593-602
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  • In the present study, we found that FoxM1B was the predominant FoxM1 isoform expressed in human glioma but not in normal brain tissue.
  • The level of FoxM1 protein expression in human glioma tissues was directly correlated with the glioma grade.
  • Moreover, gliomas that arose from FoxM1B-transfected anaplastic astrocytoma SW1783 cells displayed glioblastoma multiforme phenotypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16585184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxm1 protein, mouse; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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39. Jenkinson MD, Smith TS, Haylock B, Husband D, Shenoy A, Vinjamuri S, Walker C, Pietronigro D, Warnke PC: Phase II trial of intratumoral BCNU injection and radiotherapy on untreated adult malignant glioma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Aug;99(1):103-13
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  • Twelve patients were enrolled; eight glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), four anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Mapping. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular / methods. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Thallium. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20063175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AD84R52XLF / Thallium; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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40. Sayin MY, Kaya B, Bakkal BH, Altundag K, Altundag MB: The results of hypofractionated radiotherapy in 31 patients with high-grade gliomas. Med Oncol; 2007;24(4):379-83
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  • [Title] The results of hypofractionated radiotherapy in 31 patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • In this prospective study, we investigated the effects of hypofractionated radiotherapy for patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • About 31 patients with glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma were studied between October 2003 and December 2004.
  • Sex, age, type of surgery, tumor grade, Karnofsky performance status, time between surgery and initiation of radiotherapy, and total radiotherapy dose were analyzed as potential prognostic factors for survival using the univariate log-rank method.
  • No grade 3-4 acute or late neurotoxicity was observed.
  • This treatment schedule can be used for patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • Future investigations are needed to determine the optimal fractionation for high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Glioma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17917085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
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41. Dreyfuss JM, Johnson MD, Park PJ: Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers. Mol Cancer; 2009 Sep 04;8:71
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  • [Title] Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal.
  • A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas.
  • These feature lists could be utilized to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and grade reduction of high-grade gliomas and to identify genes that were not previously suspected of playing an important role in glioma biology.

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  • (PMID = 19732454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM082798; United States / NIH HHS / OD / DP2 OD002319; United States / NIH HHS / OD / DP2OD002319; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / U54 LM008748; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / U54LM008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743637
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42. Panigrahy A, Nelson MD Jr, Finlay JL, Sposto R, Krieger MD, Gilles FH, Blüml S: Metabolism of diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas in children. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Feb;10(1):32-44
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  • Control data for baseline studies of DIBSGs were obtained from 14 untreated regular and anaplastic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18003889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600836
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43. Koul D: PTEN signaling pathways in glioblastoma. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Sep;7(9):1321-5
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  • Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults, but the prognosis for patients with these tumors remains poor despite advances in diagnosis and standard therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Loss of PTEN function by mutation or LOH correlates with poor survival in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, suggesting that PTEN plays a role in patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology


44. Kobayashi T, Masumoto J, Tada T, Nomiyama T, Hongo K, Nakayama J: Prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical staining of cleaved caspase-3, an activated form of caspase-3, in gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 1;13(13):3868-74
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  • The Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test revealed that patients with CC3 IRS-positive tumors had significantly greater survival than those with CC3 IRS-negative tumors among three grades, 2, 3, and 4 (P = 0.0061), and within grade 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (P = 0.0458).
  • After adjustment for known clinical prognostic factors, such as age, WHO grade, and performance status, the hazard ratio for CC3 IRS-positive was 0.39 with 95% confidence interval between 0.19 and 0.85 (P = 0.0187).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17606719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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45. Stupp R, Reni M, Gatta G, Mazza E, Vecht C: Anaplastic astrocytoma in adults. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Jul;63(1):72-80
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma in adults.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma is an uncommon disease in the adult population.
  • Based on randomized data available, chemotherapy has consistently failed to improve the outcome of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, while a meta-analysis showed a small, but significant improvement in survival favouring the use of chemotherapy.
  • In recurrent disease, chemotherapy with temozolomide has been proven to be active and well-tolerated in phase II trials, but no comparative phase III trials of other cytotoxic drugs have been conducted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives


51. Sarkar C, Karak AK, Nath N, Sharma MC, Mahapatra AK, Chattopadhyay P, Sinha S: Apoptosis and proliferation: correlation with p53 in astrocytic tumours. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):93-100
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  • Here we have studied the extent of apoptosis in 62 primary human astrocytic tumours [25 Diffuse Astrocytoma (DA), 9 Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) and 28 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)] in relation to tumour grade, proliferative status and p53 protein expression.
  • However this was not observed in p53 +ve GBM or in low grade DA either p53 positive or negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15981097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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52. Martikainen JA, Kivioja A, Hallinen T, Vihinen P: Economic evaluation of temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Pharmacoeconomics; 2005;23(8):803-15
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  • BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent with demonstrated efficacy as therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • TMZ has widely replaced the procarbazine, lomustine plus vincristine (PCV) combination for the treatment of malignant brain tumours as a result of its oral administration and favourable toxicity profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / economics. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16097842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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53. Deorah S, Lynch CF, Sibenaller ZA, Ryken TC: Trends in brain cancer incidence and survival in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973 to 2001. Neurosurg Focus; 2006;20(4):E1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trends in brain cancer incidence and survival in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973 to 2001.
  • OBJECT: An increasing incidence of brain cancer has been reported for the last three decades.
  • In this study of brain cancer incidence and patient survival in the US, the authors attempt to update information on trends by examining data provided by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program.
  • METHODS: Population-based data from the SEER Program were used to calculate the incidence of and survival rates for people with brain cancer.
  • The approximate Poisson method was used to calculate relative risks for brain cancer and to determine a 95% confidence interval.
  • The relative risks of brain cancer were 1.48 for men compared with women, 3.18 for elderly persons compared with young adults, 1.86 for Caucasian patients compared with African-American patients, and 1.35 for those in metropolitan counties compared with those in nonmetropolitan counties.
  • The incidence of brain cancer increased until 1987, when the annual percentage of change reversed direction, decreasing from 1.68 to 20.44%.
  • Rising trends were noticed for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), oligodendroglioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, and mixed glioma, and falling trends were observed for astrocytoma not otherwise specified and malignant glioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased risk of brain cancer is associated with being male, Caucasian, elderly, and residing in a metropolitan county.
  • The incidence rate of brain cancer in the US is gradually declining, but the rising trend of GBM combined with its poor survival rate is disconcerting and needs further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Glioma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Population Surveillance

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  • (PMID = 16709014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Parbel S, Vlaho S, Gebhardt B, Porto L, Hattingen E, Klingebiel T, Böhles H, Kieslich M: [Diagnostic difficulties in encephalitis and glioma]. Klin Padiatr; 2007 Jul-Aug;219(4):222-4
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  • The differential diagnosis between cerebral glioma and infective lesions can be very difficult to distinguish by MRI only.
  • Brain biopsy revealed anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO III).
  • CONCLUSION: This case report shows that cerebral glioma can mimick infective brain disease and that MR-spectroscopy is an important non-invasive tool in this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Encephalitis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pons
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / analysis. Child. Choline / analysis. Creatine / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 16865652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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55. Chinot O: [New place of the chemotherapy in gliomas]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Apr;92(4):343-54
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  • [Transliterated title] Nouvelle place de la chimiothérapie des gliomes.
  • During these last 25 years, despite numerous phases III studies, standard of treatment in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) consisted of surgery and post-operative radiotherapy, while benefit of chemotherapy was a matter of debate.
  • A phase III study, conducted by EORTC and NCI Canada and involving 573 patients, concluded clearly to the benefit of adding temozolomide during and after radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment.
  • In the same time, for anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) the phase III study conducted by Cairncross, that compared radiotherapy to a schedule that deliver a chemotherapy with PCV followed by radiotherapy, failed to determine a significant benefit on overall survival, despite the particular chemosensitivity of theses tumors.
  • We review here the new place of chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of GBM and anaplastic gliomas, as well as the impact of these pivotal studies on second lines therapies, and future clinical research.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease Progression. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15888391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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56. Nathoo N, Prayson RA, Bondar J, Vargo L, Arrigain S, Mascha EJ, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Golubic M: Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):347-54; discussion 347-54
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  • [Title] Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Increased 5-LO messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based approaches, respectively, in surgical astrocytoma specimens and established glioblastoma multiforme cell lines compared with primary cell culture from the human white matter.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominantly nuclear 5-LO staining in 44 of 49 glioblastoma multiforme samples (90%), 8 of 10 (80%) anaplastic astrocytomas samples, and 3 of 13 (23%) low-grade astrocytoma samples analyzed.
  • Staining of 5-LO was significantly more frequent in high-grade than in low-grade tumors (P = 0.001).
  • After adjusting for pathological diagnosis and age, respectively, neither Karnofsky performance score nor survival were significantly associated with 5-LO staining.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 5-LO is overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas and supports the idea that eicosanoids may play a role in tumorigenesis of these brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / cytology. Brain / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16462489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107277
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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57. Nakamura M, Shimada K, Nakase H, Konishi N: [Clinicopathological diagnosis of gliomas by genotype analysis]. Brain Nerve; 2009 Jul;61(7):773-80
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathological diagnosis of gliomas by genotype analysis].
  • Glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) may develop de novo (primary glioblastomas) or through progression from lower-grade astrocytomas (secondary glioblastomas) both glioblastomas show similar histological features.
  • Oligodendroglioma is recognized as a particular subtype of gliomas that shows remarkable response to chemotherapy [procarbazine+CCNU+vincristine (PCV)], making their correct diagnosis important.
  • However, the histological differentiation of oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytoma could be highly subjective in cases without typical morphological features.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 1p and 19q is correlated with sensitivity to PCV chemotherapy with increased survival in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cases (WHO grade III).
  • This article suggests that more biological and molecular approaches to brain tumor classification will provide improved means to treat these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Genotype. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Loss of Heterozygosity. Pharmacogenetics. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19618854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; PCV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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58. Salmaggi A, Fariselli L, Milanesi I, Lamperti E, Silvani A, Bizzi A, Maccagnano E, Trevisan E, Laguzzi E, Rudà R, Boiardi A, Soffietti R, Associazione Italiana di Neuro-oncologia: Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study. J Neurol; 2008 Feb;255(2):171-7
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  • In 21 of the patients histology was obtained and in 20 it was informative (2 pilocytic astrocytoma, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 8 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 glioblastoma).
  • In all of the 9 patients who were investigated with MR spectroscopy, the Cho/NAA ratio was elevated at diagnosis.
  • In 8 of the patients, an initial watch and wait policy was adopted, while 24 were treated shortly after diagnosis with either radiotherapy alone [4] or radiotherapy and chemotherapy [20] (mostly temozolomide).
  • Grade III or IV myelotoxicity was observed in 6 patients.
  • Investigation of putative prognostically relevant parameters showed that a short time between disease onset and diagnosis was related to a shorter survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18293027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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59. Graham C, Tucker C, Creech J, Favours E, Billups CA, Liu T, Fouladi M, Freeman BB 3rd, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ: Evaluation of the antitumor efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide in childhood cancer models in vivo. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 1;12(1):223-34
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Depsipeptide was administered at the maximum tolerated dose (4.4 mg/kg administered every 7 days x 3 i.v. repeated q21d for a total of two cycles) to scid mice bearing 39 independently derived childhood tumors (9 brain tumors, 11 kidney cancers, 9 rhabdomyosarcomas, 3 neuroblastomas, and 7 osteosarcomas).
  • RESULTS: Of 39 tumors evaluated, three showed objective tumor regressions [two brain tumors (primitive neuroectodermal tumor and atypical teratoid malignant rhabdoid tumor) and one Wilms' tumor].
  • Depsipeptide inhibited growth of many tumor lines but achieved stable disease (<25% increase in volume during treatment cycle 1) in only two tumor models (anaplastic astrocytoma, two rhabdomyosarcomas, and a Wilms' tumor).

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  • (PMID = 16397046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96696
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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60. Nakagawa Y, Kageji T, Mizobuchi Y, Kumada H, Nakagawa Y: Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children. Appl Radiat Isot; 2009 Jul;67(7-8 Suppl):S27-30
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  • [Title] Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children.
  • It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue.
  • Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years.
  • There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence.
  • BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19406652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Yi L, Zhou ZH, Ping YF, Chen JH, Yao XH, Feng H, Lu JY, Wang JM, Bian XW: Isolation and characterization of stem cell-like precursor cells from primary human anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1061-8
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  • [Title] Isolation and characterization of stem cell-like precursor cells from primary human anaplastic oligoastrocytoma.
  • Oligoastrocytoma is the most common brain mixed glioma composed of mixed cells of oligodendroglial and astrocytic phenotypes.
  • Here, tumor stem cell-like precursors were identified from primary human anaplastic oligoastrocytomas by labeling of the tumor sections with nestin and CD133.
  • This study revealed for the first time that anaplastic human oligoastrocytomas contained stem cell-like precursors, which exhibit neural stem cell properties with tumorigenicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Nestin. Peptides / analysis. Spheroids, Cellular / chemistry. Spheroids, Cellular / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17660801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Peptides
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62. Broniscer A, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Krasin MJ, Kocak M, Bowers DC, Iacono LC, Merchant TE, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ, Kun LE, Ledet D, Gajjar A: Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children.
  • Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of children with high-grade glioma, although its usefulness is uncertain.
  • We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide given after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma (gliomatosis cerebri or bithalamic involvement).
  • The predominant histologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (n = 15, 48%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10, 32%).
  • Two patients had bithalamic grade II astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16200343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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63. Ellis JA, Waziri A, Balmaceda C, Canoll P, Bruce JN, Sisti MB: Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):377-382
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  • [Title] Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a slow-growing, circumscribed glioma that most frequently occurs within the pediatric population.
  • In general, surgical resection for pilocytic astrocytoma is thought to be curative with tumor recurrence or malignant transformation being relatively rare.
  • However, there have been very few studies specifically looking at the prognosis for adult patients diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • To evaluate the frequency of recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgical resection for this tumor at our institution over a period of 10 years.
  • A high rate of malignant transformation was observed in the patients that underwent repeat surgery with 75% (3/4) progressing to anaplastic astrocytoma on pathological examination.
  • This study provides further evidence that the clinical course of a subset of adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma will not be benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19533024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Miyajima Y, Sato Y, Oka H, Utsuki S, Kondo K, Tanizaki Y, Nagashio R, Tsuchiya B, Okayasu I, Fujii K: Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):265-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma.
  • Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded glioblastomas (grade IV), 21 anaplastic astorocytomas (grade III), and 14 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II) were immunohistochemically studied to identify the expression of DJ-1 protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20150646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human
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65. Swinnen LJ, Rankin C, Carraway H, Albain KS, Townsend JJ, Budd GT, Kish JA, Rivkin SE, Blumenthal DT: A phase II study of cisplatin preceded by a 12-h continuous infusion of concurrent hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) for adult patients with malignant gliomas (Southwest Oncology Group S9149). J Neurooncol; 2008 Feb;86(3):353-8
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  • A Phase II study in patients with relapsed or progressive anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was performed in the Southwest Oncology Group.
  • Twenty-three patients (33%) experienced Grade 4 toxicities, primarily hematological.
  • Although benefit might be possible in a more platinum-sensitive tumor type, further clinical trials with this regimen for patients with glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma are not justified.

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  • (PMID = 18175205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58416; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA28862; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04920; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35261; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12644; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA063845; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA063850; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA053996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58658; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA045807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63845; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA046441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA074647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63850; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA52772; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA063844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035261; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA046282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA038926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA067575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA046441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA058882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA74647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA020319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA038926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58686; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA042777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA52654; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA046368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA067575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA052654; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA063844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA045560
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS591247; NLM/ PMC4051205
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66. Molina Saera J, Segura Huerta A, Palomar Abad L, Giménez Ortiz A, Ponce Lorenzo J, Reynés Muntaner G: [Extra-cranial anaplastic oligoastrocytoma development from a low-grade glioma]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Apr;7(3):127-9
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  • [Title] [Extra-cranial anaplastic oligoastrocytoma development from a low-grade glioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Afectación extracraneal de oligoastrocitoma anaplásico desarrollado sobre un glioma de bajo grado.
  • Oligodendrogliomas are primary brain tumours derived from oligodendroglial cells, or precursors, and represent 2%-5% of brain tumours.
  • This type of glioma has a favourable prognosis compared to other brain tumours.
  • We present a patient who had received treatment previously for a lowgrade glioma and who subsequently developed an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in the same zone together with skull and extra-cranial involvement in the disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Temporal Bone. Temporal Lobe

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  • (PMID = 15899221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Simon M, Neuloh G, von Lehe M, Meyer B, Schramm J: Insular gliomas: the case for surgical management. J Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;110(4):685-95
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  • For example, in neurologically intact patients < or = 40 years of age with WHO Grade I-III tumors, good outcomes (Karnofsky Performance Scale Score 80-100) were seen in 91% of cases.
  • Surprisingly good survival rates were seen after surgery for anaplastic gliomas.
  • The median survival for patients with anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO Grade III) was 5 years, and the 5-year survival rate for those with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors was 80%.
  • Independent predictors of survival included younger age, favorable histological features (WHO Grade I and oligodendroglial tumors), Yaşargil Type 5A/B tumors with frontal extensions, and more extensive resections.
  • In view of the oncological benefits of resective surgery, our data would therefore argue for microsurgery as the primary treatment for most patients with a presumed WHO Grade I-III tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Cortex. Glioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19099379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Arslantas A, Artan S, Oner U, Müslümanoglu MH, Ozdemir M, Durmaz R, Arslantas D, Vural M, Cosan E, Atasoy MA: Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • To extend our understanding of potential stepwise genetic alterations that may underlie tumor progression from low-grade astrocytomas to glioblastomas, histopathologic and comparative genomic hybridization analyses were performed on tumor specimens from 68 primary lesions, including 40 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic and 18 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The number of aberrations per case increased towards the higher grade tumors (grade II: 1.66+/-1.49; grade III: 2.80+/-1.68; grade IV: 3.02+/-1.07; F=6.955, p=0.002).
  • A gain of 7/7q was common and the most frequently seen aberration in low-grade astrocytomas, whereas loss of 10q was the most frequently seen anomaly in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • Chromosome 10/10q deletion and combination of 1p, 19q and 17p deletions were specific to high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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69. Baehring J, Hui P, Piepmeier J, Bannykh SI: Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in Turcot syndrome. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):293-298
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  • [Title] Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in Turcot syndrome.
  • Turcot syndrome (TS), a rare variant of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is characterized by familial clustering of cancer of the large bowel, extracolonic body sites and brain.
  • We report a 72 year old woman with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in the setting of TS.
  • Careful analysis of tumor DNA is required to exclude the chance occurrence of a brain tumor in HNPCC kindreds and increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / complications

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  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / PMS2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / Mismatch Repair Endonuclease PMS2; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutL Protein Homolog 1; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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70. Weller M, Steinbach JP, Wick W: Temozolomide: a milestone in the pharmacotherapy of brain tumors. Future Oncol; 2005 Dec;1(6):747-54
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  • [Title] Temozolomide: a milestone in the pharmacotherapy of brain tumors.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent earlier approved for recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma and approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma in the USA and Europe in 2005.
  • TMZ shows good blood-brain barrier penetration and exhibits a favorable side effect profile.
  • The early preliminary evidence for activity in recurrent malignant gliomas further resulted in a broad evaluation of TMZ for other tumors in neuro-oncology, mainly low-grade gliomas, brain metastases and primary cerebral lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16556052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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71. Tsutsumi S, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Ito M: Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with a component of anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as skull base tumor followed by downward extracranial extension. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(12):1108-12
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  • [Title] Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with a component of anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as skull base tumor followed by downward extracranial extension. Case report.
  • Histological examination revealed cellular pleomorphism with mitotic activity, focal necrosis, but lacking endothelial proliferation, consistent with anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) with component of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PXA with anaplastic appearance may have a component of anaplastic astrocytoma with more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology


72. Gupta B, Raina J: Fascicular multiple ocular motor nerve paresis as first presentation of anaplastic astrocytoma. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2007 Nov-Dec;55(6):458-60
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  • [Title] Fascicular multiple ocular motor nerve paresis as first presentation of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • A case of spontaneous, painless partial III (pupil-sparing) and IV fascicular nerve paresis as the first presentation of anaplastic astrocytoma is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Movements. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 17951905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2635986
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73. Weber MA, Vogt-Schaden M, Bossert O, Giesel FL, Kauczor HU, Essig M: [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas]. Radiologe; 2007 Sep;47(9):812-8
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  • [Title] [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas].
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42+/-14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16924439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Sugo N, Yokota K, Kondo K, Harada N, Aoki Y, Miyazaki C, Nemoto M, Kano T, Ohishi H, Seiki Y: Early dynamic 201Tl SPECT in the evaluation of brain tumours. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Feb;27(2):143-9
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  • [Title] Early dynamic 201Tl SPECT in the evaluation of brain tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the usefulness of early dynamic 201Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies in distinguishing the histological malignancy of brain tumours.
  • METHODS: Dynamic 201Tl SPECT was performed for 3 min per scan for 15 min immediately after the administration of 201TlCl in 110 patients with brain tumours (111 lesions).
  • For static SPECT, the static thallium index (STI) was calculated as the ratio of 201Tl uptake in the tumour to that of the contralateral normal brain.
  • RESULTS: In static SPECT, there was no significant difference between the STI of malignant tumours (glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma) and that of benign tumours (low-grade glioma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, neurinoma and haemangioblastoma) (3.7+/-1.5, 5.0+/-3.5, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the performance of 201Tl dynamic SPECT for 15 min is useful for distinguishing malignant brain tumours from benign brain tumours and reduces the examination stress of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Severity of Illness Index. Thallium. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16404227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7791-12-0 / thallium chloride; AD84R52XLF / Thallium
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75. Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Vredenburgh J, Rich JN, Gururangan S, Badruddoja M, Herndon JE 2nd, Dowell JM, Friedman AH, Friedman HS: Phase II trial of irinotecan plus celecoxib in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Cancer; 2005 Jan 15;103(2):329-38
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  • RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 37 patients enrolled in the current study (92%) were diagnosed with recurrent GBM and 3 patients (8%) were diagnosed with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • Hematologic toxicities of >/= Grade 3 (according the second version of the Common Toxicity Criteria of the National Cancer Institute) reportedly complicated 8.6% of treatment courses.
  • Grade 3 diarrhea, the most commonly reported nonhematologic toxicity, occurred with equal frequency (8%), regardless of whether the patient was receiving EIAED.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15558802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P20 CA096890; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11898; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 30; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7673326042 / irinotecan; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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76. Malzkorn B, Wolter M, Liesenberg F, Grzendowski M, Stühler K, Meyer HE, Reifenberger G: Identification and functional characterization of microRNAs involved in the malignant progression of gliomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):539-50
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  • Diffuse astrocytoma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II has an inherent tendency to spontaneously progress to anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III or secondary glioblastoma WHO grade IV.
  • We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in glioma progression by investigating the expression profiles of 157 miRNAs in four patients with primary WHO grade II gliomas that spontaneously progressed to WHO grade IV secondary glioblastomas.
  • Validation experiments on independent series of primary low-grade and secondary high-grade astrocytomas confirmed miR-17 and miR-184 as promising candidates, which were selected for functional analyses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / pathology. MicroRNAs / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19775293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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77. Momota H, Narita Y, Matsushita Y, Miyakita Y, Shibui S: p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):95-101
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  • [Title] p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • To elucidate the relationship between p53 abnormality and invasiveness of the tumors, we studied mutation and protein expression of p53 in 48 consecutive patients with malignant astrocytoma (14 anaplastic astrocytomas and 34 glioblastoma multiformes).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21046311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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78. Zalutsky MR, Reardon DA, Akabani G, Coleman RE, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, McLendon RE, Wong TZ, Bigner DD: Clinical experience with alpha-particle emitting 211At: treatment of recurrent brain tumor patients with 211At-labeled chimeric antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6. J Nucl Med; 2008 Jan;49(1):30-8
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with alpha-particle emitting 211At: treatment of recurrent brain tumor patients with 211At-labeled chimeric antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6.
  • Because of the much shorter range and more potent cytotoxicity of alpha-particles than of beta-particles, (211)At-labeled agents may be ideal for the eradication of tumor cells remaining after surgical debulking of malignant brain tumors.
  • The main goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of this approach in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • Six patients experienced grade 2 neurotoxicity within 6 wk of (211)At-ch81C6 administration; this neurotoxicity resolved fully in all but 1 patient.
  • No toxicities of grade 3 or higher were attributable to the treatment.
  • The median survival times for all patients, those with glioblastoma multiforme, and those with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma were 54, 52, and 116 wk, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18077533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA042324; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023-268624; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014236-35S59008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42324; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11898; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR30; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS020023-268624; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA042324; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA042324-23; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014236-35S59008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA011898
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Tenascin; XI595HAL7H / Astatine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180689; NLM/ PMC2832604
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79. Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33
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  • [Title] Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant treatment for brain tumours arising in very young children, but it has the potential to damage the child's developing nervous system at a crucial time - with a resultant reduction in IQ leading to cognitive impairment, associated endocrinopathy and risk of second malignancy.
  • We aimed to assess the role of a primary chemotherapy strategy in avoiding or delaying radiotherapy in children younger than 3 years with malignant brain tumours other than ependymoma, the results of which have already been published.
  • METHODS: Ninety-seven children were enrolled between March 1993 and July 2003 and, following diagnostic review, comprised: medulloblastoma (n=31), astrocytoma (26), choroid plexus carcinoma [CPC] (15), CNS PNET (11), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours [AT/RT] (6) and ineligible (6).
  • Patients with medulloblastoma presented as a high-risk group, 83.9% having residual disease and/or metastases at diagnosis.
  • All children with large cell or anaplastic variants of medulloblastoma died within 2 years of diagnosis.
  • The 5-year EFS for non-brainstem high-grade gliomas [HGGs] was 13.0% (CI: 2.2-33.4) and the OS was 30.9% (CI: 11.5-52.8).
  • INTERPRETATION: The outcome for very young children with brain tumours is dictated by degree of surgical resection and histological tumour type and underlying biology as an indicator of treatment sensitivity.
  • This study highlights the differing therapeutic challenges presented by the malignant brain tumours of early childhood, the importance of surgical approaches and the need to explore individualised brain sparing approaches to the range of malignant brain tumours that present in early childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / surgery. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Survival Analysis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19818598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Yeh S, Fine HA, Smith JA: Corneal verticillata after dual anti-epidermal growth factor receptor and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 therapy (vandetanib) for anaplastic astrocytoma. Cornea; 2009 Jul;28(6):699-702
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  • [Title] Corneal verticillata after dual anti-epidermal growth factor receptor and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 therapy (vandetanib) for anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a patient with a history of epithelial basement membrane dystrophy who developed symptomatic corneal verticillata after vandetanib therapy for anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: A 48-year-old female patient with a history of anaplastic astrocytoma status post resection, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy presented with glare symptoms, decreased contrast sensitivity, and increased lacrimation after approximately 12 months of therapy with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Piperidines / adverse effects. Quinazolines / adverse effects. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19512898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 3.2.1.4 / Cellulase; EC 3.2.1.4 / carboxymethylcellulase
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81. Okazaki T, Kageji T, Matsuzaki K, Horiguchi H, Hirose T, Watanabe H, Ohnishi T, Nagahiro S: Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(3):431-7
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a 5 year-old boy with primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) with whole neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis who experienced the sudden onset of generalized convulsion.
  • Under a histopathologic diagnosis of anaplastic PXA he underwent adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 12 cycles of carboplatin and vincristine.
  • We report a very rare pediatric case of primary anaplastic PXA with dissemination involving the entire neuroaxis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Head / diagnostic imaging. Head / pathology. Humans. Male. Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


82. Horbinski C, Wang G, Wiley CA: YKL-40 is directly produced by tumor cells and is inversely linked to EGFR in glioblastomas. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Jan 01;3(3):226-37
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  • YKL-40 is a secreted chitinase-like molecule whose expression is associated with glioma grade.
  • A rank-order list of YKL-40 expression was determined immunohistochemically in 79 untreated high-grade adult glio-mas, including 28 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) and 51 GBMs.

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  • (PMID = 20224722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH001717; United States / PHS HHS / / K24 M401717
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2836500
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 10q / 1p19q / EGFR / YKL-40 / glioblastoma / oligodendroglioma
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83. Comincini S, Paolillo M, Barbieri G, Palumbo S, Sbalchiero E, Azzalin A, Russo MA, Schinelli S: Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens. J Biomed Biotechnol; 2009;2009:924565
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  • In this study the mRNA levels of five EGFR indirectly related genes, EGFR, HB-EGF, ADAM17, PTEN, and MMP9, have been assessed by Real-time PCR in a panel of 37 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and in 5 normal brain samples; as a result, in glioblastoma, ADAM17 and PTEN expression was significantly lower than in normal brain samples, and, in particular, a statistically significant inverse correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels.
  • To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines.
  • In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression.
  • In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19657395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-7251
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2718324
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84. Ng WH, Lim T, Yeo TT: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in elderly patients may portend a poor prognosis. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Apr;15(4):476-8
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  • Although the tumour may exhibit histological features of pleomorphism or cellular atypia, the overall prognosis is good compared with other glial tumours, with only 30% of PXA recurring and 20% undergoing anaplastic transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Prognosis. Temporal Lobe / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18255294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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85. Kocher M, Kunze S, Eich HT, Semrau R, Müller RP: Efficacy and toxicity of postoperative temozolomide radiochemotherapy in malignant glioma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Mar;181(3):157-63
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 11/1999 to 03/2003, n = 81 patients aged 15-72 years (median 52 years, Karnofsky score 80-100% in 83%) suffering from primary glioblastoma (n = 47), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 6), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 16), and recurrent glioma (n = 12) were treated.
  • Grade 1 nausea/vomiting was seen in 28%, grade 2 in 11%, grade 3 in 1%.
  • Hematologic toxicities were observed as follows: leukopenia grade 3/4 1%, lymphopenia grade 3/4 46%, thrombopenia grade 3/4 1%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15756519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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86. Lacoste-Collin L, d'Aure D, Aziza J, Quintyn ML, Uro-Coste E, Courtade-Saïdi M: Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic findings of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):871-4
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  • Characteristic histologic features include pleomorphic tumor cells and lipidized cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding to a World Health Organization grade 2 tumor.
  • A primitive glial proliferation was found, and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue obtained by biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic PXA.
  • CONCLUSION: Observation of PXA in CSF might cause some differential diagnosis problems, especially with a metastatic epithelial malignancy.
  • We present a case of anaplastic PXA with an unusual periventricular location and its cytologic features in CSF.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Gunal A, Onguru O, Safali M, Beyzadeoglu M: Fascin expression [corrected] in glial tumors and its prognostic significance in glioblastomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):382-6
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  • In this study, we evaluated fascin expression in glial tumors and its relation with histologic grade.
  • Seventy-six glial tumors including 44 glioblastomas with known survival time, 18 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), six diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), and eight pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were examined immunohistochemically for fascin expression.
  • Fascin was observed in the neurons of normal brain tissue and endothelium of vascular spaces in the glial tumors.
  • Fascin expression was correlated with histologic grade in DAs.
  • In conclusion, fascin expression levels are correlated with histologic grade and fascin overexpression may play an important role in the biologic behavior of glial astrocytic tumors and in the prognosis of GBs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18298442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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88. Niizuma K, Fujimura M, Kumabe T, Tominaga T: Malignant transformation of high-grade astrocytoma associated with neurocysticercosis in a patient with Turcot syndrome. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Jan;14(1):53-5
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of high-grade astrocytoma associated with neurocysticercosis in a patient with Turcot syndrome.
  • A 45-year-old woman with anaplastic astrocytoma was clinically diagnosed with Turcot syndrome, and subsequently developed simultaneous neurocysticercosis and malignant transformation to glioblastoma.
  • Histological examination of surgical specimens revealed neurocysticercosis between the normal brain tissue and glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neurocysticercosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17138070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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89. Hartmann C, Meyer J, Balss J, Capper D, Mueller W, Christians A, Felsberg J, Wolter M, Mawrin C, Wick W, Weller M, Herold-Mende C, Unterberg A, Jeuken JW, Wesseling P, Reifenberger G, von Deimling A: Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial differentiation and age: a study of 1,010 diffuse gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Oct;118(4):469-74
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  • Somatic mutations in the IDH1 gene encoding cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase have been shown in the majority of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grades II and III.
  • Preliminary data suggest an importance of IDH1 mutation for prognosis showing that patients with anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas harboring IDH1 mutations seem to fare much better than patients without this mutation in their tumors.
  • We found 165 IDH1 (72.7%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 227 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II, 146 IDH1 (64.0%) and 2 IDH2 mutations (0.9%) in 228 anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III, 105 IDH1 (82.0%) and 6 IDH2 mutations (4.7%) in 128 oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II, 121 IDH1 (69.5%) and 9 IDH2 mutations (5.2%) in 174 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas WHO grade III, 62 IDH1 (81.6%) and 1 IDH2 mutations (1.3%) in 76 oligoastrocytomas WHO grade II and 117 IDH1 (66.1%) and 11 IDH2 mutations (6.2%) in 177 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas WHO grade III.
  • IDH1 mutations of the R132C type are strongly associated with astrocytoma, while IDH2 mutations predominantly occur in oligodendroglial tumors.
  • In addition, patients with anaplastic glioma harboring IDH1 mutations were on average 6 years younger than those without these alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Brain / pathology. Cell Differentiation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Prognosis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19554337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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90. Mizoguchi M, Betensky RA, Batchelor TT, Bernay DC, Louis DN, Nutt CL: Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Dec;65(12):1181-8
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  • [Title] Activation of STAT3, MAPK, and AKT in malignant astrocytic gliomas: correlation with EGFR status, tumor grade, and survival.
  • In this study, we investigated the activation status of these 3 signaling molecules as well as wild-type (EGFRwt) and mutant (EGFRvIII) EGFR in 82 malignant astrocytic gliomas (55 glioblastomas and 27 anaplastic astrocytomas) using immunohistochemistry.
  • The distribution of these 3 activated molecules varied significantly with tumor grade; although activation of STAT3 was essentially identical between anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, an increase in the activation of MAPK and AKT appeared to correlate with the progression of anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Rate / trends. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17146292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 57683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95616
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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91. Finlay JL, Dhall G, Boyett JM, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Goldman S, Yates AJ, Rosenblum MK, Stanley P, Zimmerman RA, Wallace D, Pollack IF, Packer RJ, Children's Cancer Group: Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Dec;51(6):806-11
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  • [Title] Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • METHODS: Twenty-seven children and adolescents with malignant astrocytomas [17 glioblastoma multiforme and 10 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)] following initial tumor progression, received myeloablative chemotherapy followed by autologous marrow rescue with one of three thiotepa and etoposide-based chemotherapy regimens, administered alone (n = 11) or combined with carmustine (n = 5) or carboplatin (n = 11).
  • The two cohorts were compared for age, histology, prior therapies, extent of surgical resection at progression, and time from initial diagnosis to progression.
  • Of 56 children with recurrent malignant astrocytoma who received conventional chemotherapy following initial progression, no patient survives.

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  • (PMID = 18802947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021765-259003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-259003; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS65899; NLM/ PMC2844080
  • [Investigator] Bleyer A; Khayat A; Sather H; Krailo M; Buckley J; Stram D; Sposto R; Hutchinson R; Matthay K; Gaynon P; Geyer JR; Shurin S; Reaman G; Ortega J; Ruymann F; Weiner M; Blatt J; Lukens J; Wolff L; Neglia J; Lange B; Steinherz P; Breitfeld P; O'Brien R; Cohen H; Fryer C; Wells R; Finklestein J; Feig S; Tannous R; Odom L; Gilchrist G; Barnard D; Wiley J; Ettinger L; Hetherington M; Coccia P; Norris D; Nachman J; Raney B; Baker D; Sanders J; Rausen A; Cairo M
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92. Tsuboi Y, Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Kamiyama H, Endo S: Malignant transformation of oligoastrocytoma: a case report. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2007;24(2):63-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Therefore, our first pathological diagnosis was oligoastrocytoma and DNT.
  • The pathological diagnosis was anaplastic oligoastrocytoma with a MIB-1 staining index of 79%.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18095133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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93. Tsuji K, Nakasu S, Tsuji A, Fukami T, Nozaki K: [Postoperative regression of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Nov;36(11):1035-9
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  • [Title] [Postoperative regression of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma].
  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma/ganglioglioma (DIA/DIG) is a rare tumor that is usually located superficially with a large cystic component.
  • In the central portion of the tumor, anaplastic features, such as necrosis, mitosis, and high nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, were noticed.
  • Diagnosis was DIA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19048924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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94. Muthukrishnan A, Bajoghli M, Mountz JM: Delayed development of radiation vasculopathy of the brain stem confirmed by F-18 FDG PET in a case of anaplastic astrocytoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;32(7):527-31
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  • [Title] Delayed development of radiation vasculopathy of the brain stem confirmed by F-18 FDG PET in a case of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • We present the imaging findings of a 38-year-old female patient who underwent resection and radiation therapy for an anaplastic astrocytoma in her left temporal lobe 12 years ago.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a new mass lesion in the left pontine region of the brain stem.
  • Therefore, an F-18 FDG brain PET scan was performed, which demonstrated no metabolic activity in the pontine lesion leading to the less common diagnosis of long-term postradiation vasculopathy.
  • This case illustrates the importance of considering the rare diagnosis of radiation-induced vasculopathy in the differential diagnosis when symptoms of recurrent brain tumor occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem / radionuclide imaging. Cerebrovascular Disorders / etiology. Cerebrovascular Disorders / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / radionuclide imaging. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17581336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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95. Tsunoda K, Kitange G, Anda T, Shabani HK, Kaminogo M, Shibata S, Nagata I: Expression of the constitutively activated RelA/NF-kappaB in human astrocytic tumors and the in vitro implication in the regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, migration, and invasion. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(2):79-87
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  • Because the transcription factor RelA/NF-kappaB has been shown to regulate invasion during several cellular processes, we have examined immunohistochemically expression of the constitutively activated RelA/NF-kappaB in tissues obtained from 49 astrocytic tumors [8 diffuse astrocytomas, 9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) and 32 glioblastomas (GBMs)].
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / metabolism. NF-kappa B / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Transcription Factor RelA / biosynthesis. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18095109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RELA protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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96. Murakami H, Sawa H, Kamada H: [Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in astrocytic tumors and anti-tumor effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors]. No To Shinkei; 2006 Jan;58(1):43-9
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  • COX-2 was expressed in 8 of 12 (75%) glioblastoma multiforme, 1 of 7 (14%) anaplastic astrocytoma, but none in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / analysis. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16482921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Nitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfonamides; 123653-11-2 / N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide; 2M36281008 / Etodolac; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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97. Nomiya T, Nemoto K, Kumabe T, Takai Y, Yamada S: Prognostic significance of surgery and radiation therapy in cases of anaplastic astrocytoma: retrospective analysis of 170 cases. J Neurosurg; 2007 Apr;106(4):575-81
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of surgery and radiation therapy in cases of anaplastic astrocytoma: retrospective analysis of 170 cases.
  • OBJECT: The purpose of this retrospective study was to estimate the prognostic impact of treatment parameters for 170 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17432706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Glanz C, Rebetz J, Stewénius Y, Persson A, Englund E, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Salford LG, Widegren B, Fan X, Gisselsson D: Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Aug;33(4):440-54
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  • [Title] Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other high-grade brain tumours are typically characterized by complex chromosome abnormalities and extensive intratumour cytogenetic heterogeneity.
  • In this study, we analysed the pattern of chromosome segregation at mitosis in 20 brain tumours.
  • Anaphase bridging was also found in two medulloblastomas (7-15%), one anaplastic astrocytoma (17%) and one oligodendroglioma (6%).
  • In contrast, cell division abnormalities were not found in low-grade brain tumours with less complex karyotypes, including two pilocytic astrocytomas and two ependymomas.
  • Telomere-dependent abnormal segregation of chromosomes at mitosis is thus a common phenomenon in high-grade brain tumours and may be one important factor behind cytogenetic intratumour diversity in GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Spindle Apparatus / pathology. Telomere / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17617873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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99. Gulati S, Ytterhus B, Granli US, Gulati M, Lydersen S, Torp SH: Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20331873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859381
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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100. Balmaceda C, Peereboom D, Pannullo S, Cheung YK, Fisher PG, Alavi J, Sisti M, Chen J, Fine RL: Multi-institutional phase II study of temozolomide administered twice daily in the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas. Cancer; 2008 Mar 1;112(5):1139-46
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  • [Title] Multi-institutional phase II study of temozolomide administered twice daily in the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas is poor and treatment options are limited.
  • METHODS: This multi-institutional trial enrolled 120 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO).
  • Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (1.1%), thrombocytopenia (3.6%), and anemia (0.3%) (graded according to the World Health Organization grading system).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18246536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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