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1. Rullier E, Laurent C, Bretagnol F, Rullier A, Vendrely V, Zerbib F: Sphincter-saving resection for all rectal carcinomas: the end of the 2-cm distal rule. Ann Surg; 2005 Mar;241(3):465-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sphincter-saving resection for all rectal carcinomas: the end of the 2-cm distal rule.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess oncologic outcome of patients treated by conservative radical surgery for tumors below 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Standard surgical treatment of low rectal cancer below 5 cm from the anal verge is abdominoperineal resection.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 2003, patients with a nonfixed rectal carcinoma at 4.5 cm or less from the anal verge and without external sphincter infiltration underwent conservative surgery.
  • Surgery included total mesorectal excision with intersphincteric resection, that is, removal of the internal sphincter, to achieve adequate distal margin.
  • Patients with T3 disease or internal sphincter infiltration received preoperative radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with a tumor at 3 (range 1.5-4.5) cm from the anal verge underwent conservative surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The technique of intersphincteric resection permits us to achieve conservative surgery in patients with a tumor close to or in the anal canal without compromising local control and survival.
  • Tumor distance from the anal verge is no longer a limit for sphincter-saving resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg. 2005 Dec;242(6):903; author reply 903-4 [16327504.001]
  • (PMID = 15729069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1356985
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2. Zhou JN, Wang DZ, Huang XE, Xu FP, Shang JQ, Gu RM: Transabdominal transanal resection of distal rectal cancer after high dose preoperative radiotherapy: a Chinese experience in preserving sphincter function. Isr Med Assoc J; 2006 Oct;8(10):675-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transabdominal transanal resection of distal rectal cancer after high dose preoperative radiotherapy: a Chinese experience in preserving sphincter function.
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of high dose preoperative radiotherapy and transanal abdominal transanal radical proctosigmoidectomy and colo-anal anastomosis as a sphincter-preserving method has never been performed in mainland China.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of high dose preoperative radiotherapy and TATA as a sphincter-preserving method in Jiangsu, an economically well-developed region of China with a population of 70 million people.
  • Sphincter-preserving surgery by TATA was performed 4-6 weeks after radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High dose preoperative radiotherapy and TATA as a sphincter-preserving method was feasible and efficient in Chinese patients with distal rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rectum / radiation effects. Rectum / surgery. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Isr Med Assoc J. 2006 Oct;8(10):711-2 [17125121.001]
  • (PMID = 17125111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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3. Raffetto N, Monaco A, Banelli E: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2B):1335-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of conformal radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy in patients with anal canal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 83 patients affected by anal canal carcinoma were treated at the Radiotherapy Department of "La Sapienza" University of Rome.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18505075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Guillem JG, Chessin DB, Shia J, Suriawinata A, Riedel E, Moore HG, Minsky BD, Wong WD: A prospective pathologic analysis using whole-mount sections of rectal cancer following preoperative combined modality therapy: implications for sphincter preservation. Ann Surg; 2007 Jan;245(1):88-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective pathologic analysis using whole-mount sections of rectal cancer following preoperative combined modality therapy: implications for sphincter preservation.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies have shown that preoperative combined modality therapy (CMT) for rectal cancer enhances rates of sphincter preservation.
  • METHODS: We prospectively accrued 109 patients with endorectal ultrasound (ERUS)-staged, locally advanced rectal cancer (T2-T4 and/or N1), located a median distance of 7 cm from the anal verge, requiring preoperative CMT, and undergoing a TME-based resection.
  • RESULTS: A sphincter-preserving resection was feasible in 87 patients (80%), and in all 109 patients, distal margins were negative (median, 2.1 cm; range, 0.4-10 cm).
  • On multivariate analysis, residual disease was observed more frequently in distally located tumors (distance from anal verge <5 cm) (P = 0.03).
  • Our results extend the indications for sphincter preservation, as distal resection margins of only 1 cm may be acceptable for rectal cancer treated with preoperative CMT.

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  • (PMID = 17197970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01 82534-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867929
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5. Lupattelli M, Mascioni F, Bellavita R, Draghini L, Tarducci R, Castagnoli P, Russo G, Aristei C: Long-term anorectal function after postoperative chemoradiotherapy in high-risk rectal cancer patients. Tumori; 2010 Jan-Feb;96(1):34-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: After sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer and postoperative radiochemotherapy, many patients have unsatisfactory anorectal functional results which are not considered by the most common toxicity scales.
  • METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent sphincter-saving surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy for stage II-III rectal cancer from July 1991 to January 2002 were given a questionnaire on anorectal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Rectum / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Constriction, Pathologic. Defecation. Female. Flatulence. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20437855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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6. Nudelman IL, Fuko V, Geller A, Fenig E, Lelchuk S: Treatment of rectal cancer by chemoradiation followed by surgery: analysis and early clinical outcome in 66 patients. Isr Med Assoc J; 2005 Jun;7(6):377-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative chemoradiation in increasing the resectability rates of rectal cancer and increasing the anal sphincter preservation rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15984381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Gavioli M, Losi L, Luppi G, Iacchetta F, Zironi S, Bertolini F, Falchi AM, Bertoni F, Natalini G: Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Oct 1;69(2):370-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the frequency and magnitude of changes in lower rectal cancer resulting from preoperative therapy and its impact on sphincter-saving surgery.
  • Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter.
  • The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy.
  • The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases.
  • It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter.
  • These modifications affect the primary surgical options, facilitating or making sphincter-saving surgery possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17524570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Krand O, Yalti T, Tellioglu G, Kara M, Berber I, Titiz MI: Use of smooth muscle plasty after intersphincteric rectal resection to replace a partially resected internal anal sphincter: long-term follow-up. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Nov;52(11):1895-901

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of smooth muscle plasty after intersphincteric rectal resection to replace a partially resected internal anal sphincter: long-term follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with very low rectal cancer were treated by intersphincteric rectal resection employing partial internal anal sphincter resection.
  • They then underwent smooth muscle plasty to restore internal anal sphincter function.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were selected if their biopsies revealed well-differentiated or moderately well-differentiated very low rectal tumors with distal tumor margins that permitted preservation of part of the internal anal sphincter.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with T2 to T3 very low rectal carcinomas underwent intersphincteric rectal resection and smooth muscle plasty that extended into the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSION: Providing neodjuvant treatment and preserving at least half of the functional internal anal sphincter mass produces acceptable oncological and functional outcomes in patients undergoing intersphincteric rectal resection for very low rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Muscle, Smooth / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ileostomy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19966639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Kim DW, Lim SB, Kim DY, Kim TH, Jung KH, Kim DH, Chang HJ, Sohn DK, Hong CW, Choi HS, Jeong SY, Park JG: Pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy improves the sphincter preservation rate in patients with rectal cancer located within 3 cm of the anal verge. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar;32(2):162-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy improves the sphincter preservation rate in patients with rectal cancer located within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • AIMS: To evaluate whether pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) improves the sphincter preservation rate for distal rectal cancers within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 49 patients underwent surgery with or without pre-operative CRT for primary rectal adenocarcinoma within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed, including stage workups, surgical records and pathology records to determine sphincter preservation rate and the factors influencing sphincter preservation.
  • RESULTS: Of 49 patients with rectal tumours within 3 cm of the anal verge, 31 underwent pre-operative CRT followed by surgery (CRT group), and 18 underwent surgery alone (non-CRT group).
  • Sphincter preservation was possible in 11 of 31 CRT patients, and only one of 18 non-CRT patients (p=0.036).
  • The factors most influencing sphincter preservation were reduction in tumour size (p=0.005) and downstaging (p=0.001) following pre-operative CRT.
  • CONCLUSION: We could observe that sphincter preservation was improved in CRT group with statistical significance when compared to non-CRT group in our study patients with rectal cancer within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anal Canal / drug effects. Anal Canal / radiation effects. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16289718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Lund JA, Wibe A, Sundstrom SH, Haaverstad R, Kaasa S, Myrvold HE: Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(7):1019-26
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000.
  • The treatment of anal carcinoma changed from surgery to chemoradiotherapy 20-25 years ago.
  • The aim of this observational study was to compare surgery with chemoradiotherapy with regard to side effects, local recurrence and survival during and after the implementation of a new treatment policy for anal carcinoma.
  • The study includes all 111 patients with anal carcinoma diagnosed between 1970 and 2000 in mid-Norway.
  • Late side effects were moderate after combined therapy; only one patient preferred getting a stoma due to radiation damage of the anal sphincter.
  • The change of strategy for anal cancer treatment from surgery to combined therapy has probably reduced local recurrence and improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17882558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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11. Wallace MH, Glynne-Jones R: Saving the sphincter in rectal cancer: are we prepared to change practice? Colorectal Dis; 2007 May;9(4):302-8; discussion 308-9
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  • [Title] Saving the sphincter in rectal cancer: are we prepared to change practice?
  • This article examines the effect such treatment has on the rate of sphincter preservation in patients with rectal cancers close to the anal sphincter mechanism and looks at the evidence for changing clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fecal Incontinence / prevention & control. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17432980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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12. Zherlov GK, Bashirov SR, Pankratov IV: [Modification of rehabilitation stage after inter-sphincter resection of the rectum]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(6):46-50
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  • [Title] [Modification of rehabilitation stage after inter-sphincter resection of the rectum].
  • Endoscopic ultrasonic examination for diagnosis of malignant tumors of a lower-ampullar part of the rectum determined indications to inter-sphincter resection consisting in total mesorectumectomy, resection of the rectum and internal sphincter.
  • The method of creation of a globe-shape reservoir with artificial muscular sphincter was developed.
  • It is demonstrated that a globe-shape extensible reservoir and autonomic bloching function of muscular sphincter are the main conditions of repair of defecation functions in long-term period after inter-sphincter resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Postoperative Care. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Defecation. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16044126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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13. Vorob'ev GI, Shelygin IuA, Eropkin PV, Markova EV, Podmarenkova LF, Pikunov DIu: [Proctectomy with external sphincter elements' preservation in surgery of low-ampullary rectal cancer]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(9):8-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Proctectomy with external sphincter elements' preservation in surgery of low-ampullary rectal cancer].
  • Operational technique for the rectum tumors, localized at the level of dentate line, developed in the State center of coloproctology, allows preservation of external anal sphincter elements and thus, partial preservation of defecation control.
  • Preservation of external sphincter elements has a high functional value in complex with "neorectum" and "neosphincter".
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Defecation / physiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18833177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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14. Hohenberger W, Merkel S, Matzel K, Bittorf B, Papadopoulos T, Göhl J: The influence of abdomino-peranal (intersphincteric) resection of lower third rectal carcinoma on the rates of sphincter preservation and locoregional recurrence. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Jan;8(1):23-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The influence of abdomino-peranal (intersphincteric) resection of lower third rectal carcinoma on the rates of sphincter preservation and locoregional recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: The most extended form of rectal resection, representing the very last option for sphincter preservation is abdomino-peranal intersphincteric resection for tumours of the lower third which otherwise would not be resectable with preservation of the sphincter by an abdominal approach alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16519634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Poggi MM, Suh WW, Saltz L, Konski AA, Mohiuddin M, Herman J, Johnstone PA: ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer. J Am Coll Radiol; 2007 Jul;4(7):448-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm, accounting for roughly 4,500 cases per year.
  • The evolution of the definitive treatment of anal cancer from a surgical to a nonsurgical approach, however, has been viewed as a model disease site in a larger paradigm shift in medicine.
  • Organ preservation, in this case a functional anal sphincter, and durable cure are obtainable goals.
  • To this end, anal cancer is a disease best treated primarily with chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17601586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Howard JH, Gonzalez Q, Arnoletti JP, Russo S, Fiveash JB, Bland KI, Heslin MJ: Prognostic factors and preoperative radiation therapy associated with sphincter preservation in patients with resectable rectal cancer. Am J Surg; 2008 Feb;195(2):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and preoperative radiation therapy associated with sphincter preservation in patients with resectable rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the importance of patient and tumor factors, receipt of preoperative radiation therapy, and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage for sphincter preservation (SP) in patients with rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: Age, sex, race, body mass index, tumor size, distance from the anal verge (DAV), differentiation, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, and preoperative radiation were evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Colectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / radiography. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Anastomosis, Surgical. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Colostomy / methods. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18154769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Damianov N: [Pathologic and anatomic preconditions for radical sphincter preserving operations in carcinoma of the medial and distal rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2005;(3):43-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathologic and anatomic preconditions for radical sphincter preserving operations in carcinoma of the medial and distal rectum].
  • After processing the available scientific data, a conclusion is made, that by localization of differentiated carcinoma at 1.5-2 cm above dentate line, a sphincter preserving operation should be done.
  • This type of surgical procedures is attractive because of the possibility to preserve the anal sphincter apparatus, which extremely benefits the life quality of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Rectal Neoplasms. Rectum
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18693533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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18. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC: Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer.
  • The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence.
  • METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed.
  • Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.
  • Randomized, multicenter trials are needed to define the treatment protocol that provides the highest rate of sphincter preservation with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15793642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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19. Tomita R: A novel surgical procedure of vagal nerve, lower esophageal sphincter, and pyloric sphincter-preserving nearly total gastrectomy reconstructed by single jejunal interposition, and postoperative quality of life. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1895-901
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel surgical procedure of vagal nerve, lower esophageal sphincter, and pyloric sphincter-preserving nearly total gastrectomy reconstructed by single jejunal interposition, and postoperative quality of life.
  • We performed the nearly TG reconstructed by single jejunal interposition preservation of the vagal nerve, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and pyloric sphincter (D1 or D2 lymph node dissection, curability A) as a function-preserving surgical technique (i.e.
  • METHODOLOGY: Sixteen subjects who underwent NTG (12 men and 4 women subjects at age 30 to 70 years, mean 55.6 years) were interviewed to inquire about abdominal symptoms and compared with 20 patients after conventional TG (excision with D2 lymph node, radical curability A) reconstructed by single jejunal interposition without preserving the vagal nerve, LES, and pyloric sphincter (i.e.
  • Included were cases with early cancer localizing at the upper third and middle stomach, 2cm or further in distance from oral-side margin of the cancer to esophagogastric mucosal junction; and 3.5cm or further in distance from anal-side margin of the cancer to the pyloric sphincter.
  • The pyloric antrum was also preserved at 1.5cm from the pyloric sphincter.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical. Cohort Studies. Dumping Syndrome / prevention & control. Esophagitis / prevention & control. Esophagogastric Junction / innervation. Esophagogastric Junction / physiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Pylorus / innervation. Pylorus / physiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome. Vagus Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16334802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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20. Nash GM, Weiss A, Dasgupta R, Gonen M, Guillem JG, Wong WD: Close distal margin and rectal cancer recurrence after sphincter-preserving rectal resection. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Oct;53(10):1365-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Close distal margin and rectal cancer recurrence after sphincter-preserving rectal resection.
  • PURPOSE: Negative surgical margins are important for local control of rectal cancer treated with sphincter-preserving surgery.
  • Included were 627 patients who underwent curative low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer 2 to 12 cm from the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2010 Oct;53(10):1353-4 [20847614.001]
  • (PMID = 20847617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Doniec JM, Schniewind B, Kovács G, Kahlke V, Loehnert M, Kremer B: Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy. Surg Endosc; 2006 Apr;20(4):673-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The most appropriate therapy for anal cancer is external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with chemotherapy (CTX).
  • We report on our experience of combined modality therapy of anal cancer and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided high-dose rate (HDR) afterloading therapy, referring to results of a study published in 1998 by the coauthors.
  • METHODS: From 1993 to 2001, 50 patients with anal cancer were treated.
  • Therapy-associated complications in terms of sphincter necrosis and incontinence were observed in three patients (6%).
  • Consequently, TRUS-guided brachytherapy may be a useful addition to current combined modality treatment regimens for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Fecal Incontinence / epidemiology. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retreatment. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16432657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Grimard L, Stern H, Spaans JN: Brachytherapy and local excision for sphincter preservation in T1 and T2 rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 1;74(3):803-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brachytherapy and local excision for sphincter preservation in T1 and T2 rectal cancer.
  • The sphincter was preserved in 27 of 32 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Brachytherapy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19250765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Mureşan M, Bancu S, Bara T, Bancu L, Turcu M, Mureşan S: [Local recurrence after the sphincter-saving operations and abdominal perineal resection in rectal cancer]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2009 Jul-Aug;104(4):415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Local recurrence after the sphincter-saving operations and abdominal perineal resection in rectal cancer].
  • Using the most important parameters for each patient we identified some risk factors for the recurrence of the rectal cancer: surgical procedures--there were no major variations in the local recurrence between the sphincter-saving operations and abdominal perineal resections.
  • There were no major differences in recurrence rate between the sphincter-saving operations and abdominal perineal procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19886048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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24. Yamaguchi T, Kagawa R, Sakata S, Takahashi H, Takeda R, Nishizaki D: Successful sphincter-sparing local excision for mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with chronic fistula in ano using preoperative MRI evaluation. Int Surg; 2008 Jul-Aug;93(4):220-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful sphincter-sparing local excision for mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with chronic fistula in ano using preoperative MRI evaluation.
  • T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that a mucinous adenocarcinoma was localized within the abscess and the fistula, and was not invasive neoplasm.
  • He underwent a sphincter-sparing local excision of the ischiorectal abscess including the fistula and openings.
  • The pathological findings indicated that mucinous adenocarcinoma arose from anal glands, developed lining the preexisting abscess and fistula wall.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 19731857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Gu J, Bo XF, Xiong CY, Wu AW, Zhang XP, Li M, An Q, Fang J, Li J, Zhang X, Wang HY, Gao F, You WC: Defining pelvic factors in sphincter-preservation of low rectal cancer with a three-dimensional digital model of pelvis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1517-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Defining pelvic factors in sphincter-preservation of low rectal cancer with a three-dimensional digital model of pelvis.
  • PURPOSE: Surgeons often can contribute failure of sphincter-preserving procedure to a limitation of pelvis anatomy; however, they cannot determine definitely which anatomic diameter or spatial factor actually affected the success of the procedure.
  • Retrospective analysis on data of 97 patients with low rectal cancer was performed with this model to identify geometric factors that might affect a successful sphincter preservation procedure for low rectal cancer.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that distance from the anal verge, body mass index, and pelvic factors affected the success of sphincter preservation.
  • Sphincter preservation was more likely to succeed when the distance from anal verge was > or =5 cm and body mass index was <25 kg/m(2).
  • Shorter diameter from the upper pubis to the sacrococcyx, distance of sacrococcyx, and excessive curvature of the sacrum predicted failure of sphincter preservation in certain cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic diameters could affect the success of sphincter preservation for low rectal cancer patients besides the distance from anal verge and body mass index.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Models, Anatomic. Pelvis / anatomy & histology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Mass Index. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Logistic Models. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17001440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Zuo ZG, Song HY, Li J, Xu C, Zhou ZH, Ni SC, Chen SQ: [Clinical application of intersphincteric resection in the anal-preserving operation for ultra-low rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;31(12):941-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical application of intersphincteric resection in the anal-preserving operation for ultra-low rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of intersphincter resection (ISR) combined with total mesorectal excision (TME) and colon-anal anastomosis in the treatment for ultra-low rectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: To review and analyze retrospectively the data of 34 patients with ultra-low rectal carcinoma (without external anal sphincter involvement) who received treatment of ISR, TME and colon-anal anastomosis.
  • RESULTS: Partial resection of internal sphincter was performed in the patients with a distal edge of the tumor greater than or equal to 2 cm from the dentate line.
  • Reconstruction of digestive tract was done by manual colon-anal anastomosis.
  • CONCLUSION: With strictly grasping indications, radical resection can be attained and anal sphincter preserved by ISR combined with TME and colon-anal anastomosis.
  • It is an effective sphincter-preserving operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20193339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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27. Mai SK, Welzel G, Hermann B, Bohrer M, Wenz F: Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity. Onkologie; 2008 May;31(5):251-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity.
  • BACKGROUND: This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity of combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer.
  • Higher T category was associated with inferior prognosis for colostomy-free survival (p = 0.000), male sex for local control (p = 0.004) and diseasespecific survival (p = 0.002), and tumor site at the anal margin for local control (p = 0.03).
  • 4 of 7 patients with recurrent anal margin tumors had human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease.
  • 3 patients had late toxicity of grade 3 concerning sphincter control.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer is a highly effective therapy with pronounced acute and minor late toxicity.
  • In the case of higher T stage, male sex, and cancer at the anal margin, treatment intensification should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18497514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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28. Han F, Li H, Zheng D, Gao H, Zhang Z: A new sphincter-preserving operation for low rectal cancer: ultralow anterior resection and colorectal/coloanal anastomosis by supporting bundling-up method. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;25(7):873-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new sphincter-preserving operation for low rectal cancer: ultralow anterior resection and colorectal/coloanal anastomosis by supporting bundling-up method.
  • PURPOSE: The introductions of total mesorectal excision and double-stapling technique into colorectal surgery have promoted the clinical application of sphincter preservation.
  • However, for the tumors localized on the middle or lower level of rectum, sphincter-preservation approaches might be problematic in some patients.
  • We introduce in this report a new sphincter-preserving technique for low rectal cancer.
  • Postoperative evaluation included anal function, anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stenosis, cumulative survival rate, and local recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Three hundred ten patients received the sphincter-preserving operation without severe intraoperative complications.
  • All patients had satisfactory anal function without soiling.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultralow anterior resection and colorectal/coloanal anastomosis by supporting bundling-up method may be one of the best choices of sphincter-preserving operation for low rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Colon / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colonoscopy. Fecal Incontinence / classification. Fecal Incontinence / complications. Fecal Incontinence / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20195620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. de Bree E, van Ruth S, Dewit LG, Zoetmulder FA: High risk of colostomy with primary radiotherapy for anal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jan;14(1):100-8
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  • [Title] High risk of colostomy with primary radiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) has become the primary treatment of choice for anal cancer in an effort to avoid colostomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In approximately one-third of the patients treated by anal sphincter saving management with curative aimed primary RT, the creation of a colostomy appeared to be necessary for RT complications and local treatment failure.
  • Therefore, patients should be well informed regarding the considerable risk of need for colostomy after RT for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17066231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Temple LK, Romanus D, Niland J, Veer AT, Weiser MR, Skibber J, Wilson J, Rajput A, Benson A, Wong YN, Schrag D: Factors associated with sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer at national comprehensive cancer network centers. Ann Surg; 2009 Aug;250(2):260-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors associated with sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer at national comprehensive cancer network centers.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine rate and predictors of sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer patients treated at specialty institutions.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: SPS has been considered a surrogate for surgical quality, and sphincter preservation is tremendously important to patients.
  • On multivariable analyses, independent predictors of SPS included younger age at diagnosis, proximal location in the rectum, nonfixed tumor, and institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proctocolectomy, Restorative. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Socioeconomic Factors. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 19638922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Mullen JT, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Barcenas CH, Crane CH, Skibber JM, Feig BW: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):478-83
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  • [Title] Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal consists of combined radiation and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: From 1990-2002, 31 patients underwent radical salvage surgery with curative intent after failure of initial sphincter-conserving therapy, and the medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival following salvage surgery for persistent or locally recurrent epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal can be achieved in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17103253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Rabbani AN, Zlotecki RA, Kirwan J, George TJ Jr, Morris CG, Rout WR, Mendenhall WM: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;33(1):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of definitive radiotherapy (RT) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Patients with advanced T4 cancers that result in sphincter dysfunction requiring a pretreatment colostomy will usually have a permanent colostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19704368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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33. Winter L, Bruhn H, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, Felix R, Hänninen LE: Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution. Acta Radiol; 2007 May;48(4):379-87
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution.
  • Image quality, tumor stage, distance from the anorectal margin, and sphincter-saving resectability were prospectively assessed by two blinded readers.
  • The accuracy for determining sphincter-saving resectability was 100% (19/19).
  • Transverse T2-weighted fast spin-echo images compared superiorly to all other sequences for the diagnosis of mesorectal infiltration and lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenomatous Polyps / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / surgery. Aged. Contrast Media. Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Fascia / pathology. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Proctitis / diagnosis. Proctitis / virology. Prospective Studies. Rectum / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17453515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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34. Elshazly WG, Farouk M, Samy M: Preoperative concomitant radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in advanced rectal cancer within 6 cm from anal verge. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Apr;24(4):401-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative concomitant radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in advanced rectal cancer within 6 cm from anal verge.
  • AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the role preoperative chemo-radiotherapy with oral capacitabine for advanced low rectal cancer within 6 cm of anal verge.
  • Conventional abdominoperineal resection (APR) was done in 12 patients, and sphincter-saving resection (SSR) in 14 patients, the mean follow-up was 26.92+/-6.69 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Preoperative Care. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Compliance. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19084971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Mornex F, Goncalves-Tavan S, Ardiet JM, D'hombres A, Favrel V, Romestaing P: Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Feb;22(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience.
  • BACKGROUND: To report our patient experience with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2001, 26 patients with anal margin squamous cell carcinoma were treated in Lyon-Sud: 7 T1, 14 T2, 4 T3, and 1 T4 with 20 N0, 3 N1, and 3 N2.
  • The anal canal was invaded in five patients.
  • Sphincter preservation was possible in 66% of alive patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the dominating place of definitive irradiation and radiochemotherapy in the treatment of anal margin squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. France. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16799791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Garlipp B, Ptok H, Schmidt U, Meyer F, Gastinger I, Lippert H: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma: effects on anastomotic leak rate and postoperative bladder dysfunction after non-emergency sphincter-preserving anterior rectal resection. Results of the Quality Assurance in Rectal Cancer Surgery multicenter observational trial. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Nov;395(8):1031-8
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma: effects on anastomotic leak rate and postoperative bladder dysfunction after non-emergency sphincter-preserving anterior rectal resection. Results of the Quality Assurance in Rectal Cancer Surgery multicenter observational trial.
  • Data of all patients undergoing curatively intended sphincter-preserving resection for UICC stage I through III rectal carcinoma between 01 Jan 2005 and 31 Dec 2007 with or without preoperative chemoradiotherapy (groups A and B, respectively) were included.
  • Significant differences were present between groups regarding age, sex, distance of the tumor from the anal verge, pT-stage, UICC stage, hepatic risk factors, and use of protective enterostomy by univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma does not increase the risk for anastomotic leakage or postoperative bladder dysfunction after curatively intended sphincter-preserving rectal resection.


37. Han JG, Wang ZJ, Wei GH, Xu HM, Yi BQ, Ma HC: [Efficacy evaluation of anal intersphincteric resection with direct coloanal anastomosis for T1-2 ultra-low rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;13(4):256-9
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  • [Title] [Efficacy evaluation of anal intersphincteric resection with direct coloanal anastomosis for T1-2 ultra-low rectal cancer].
  • CONCLUSIONS: ISR is a safe procedure for sphincter-saving rectal surgery in selected patients with very low rectal tumors.
  • A temporary diverting stoma may be beneficial to the improvement of anal function.
  • Modified partial ISR under the precondition of radical resection shows better anal function and lower rate of incontinence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20422478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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38. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Studer G, Glanzmann C, Ciernik IF: Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):218-26
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome after definitive whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by brachytherapy (BT) boost after treatment break vs. external beam boost without break in the treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with invasive anal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • No local necrosis was seen after BT boost and the 10-year sphincter preservation rate was 87% in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Equipment Design. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17681244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • Local control with a preserved sphincter was observed in 34 patients (79%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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40. Kim HJ, Lee KY, Kim YW: Case report: Imaging features of perianal leiomyoma. Br J Radiol; 2009 Aug;82(980):e168-70
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  • A leiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that usually develops where smooth muscle is present.
  • The external anal sphincter was stretched over the surface of the leiomyoma and the internal anal sphincter was intact on surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Radiol. 2010 Jan;83(985):88. Lee, G H [corrected to Lee, K Y]
  • (PMID = 19592401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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41. Assenat E, Thézenas S, Samalin E, Bibeau F, Portales F, Azria D, Quenet F, Rouanet P, Saint Aubert B, Senesse P: The value of endoscopic rectal ultrasound in predicting the lateral clearance and outcome in patients with lower-third rectal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopy; 2007 Apr;39(4):309-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) is able to predict histological infiltration of the external anal sphincter or the levator ani muscle in patients with a lower-third rectal neoplasm and so the possibility of treatment by sphincter-saving surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 1996 and May 2003, 66 patients with a lower-third rectal neoplasm that was staged as uT2 or greater were entered into a prospective evaluation of ERUS.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed mainly when the lower extent of the tumor was within 3.5 cm from the anal verge (P = 0.011), but no correlation was observed between the lateral clearance determined by ERUS 1 and the histological clearance (P = 0.091).
  • With regard to the performance of ERUS 2 for predicting histological infiltration of the external anal sphincter or the levator ani muscle, the sensitivity was 100%, the negative predictive value was 100%, the specificity was 87%, and the positive predictive value was 53%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17354183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CT scan and rectal ultrasound showed invasion into the internal sphincter and several enlarged perirectal nodes.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed as a substantial part of the internal anal sphincter was invaded.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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43. Salerno G, Chandler I, Wotherspoon A, Thomas K, Moran B, Brown G: Sites of surgical wasting in the abdominoperineal specimen. Br J Surg; 2008 Sep;95(9):1147-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Distances from the anal verge to the distal and proximal edges of the sphincter, puborectalis and levator muscles were measured in 12 patients using morphological features on magnetic resonance images.
  • The height from the anal verge at which axial measurements of tissue were minimal was determined.
  • RESULTS: The presence of a surgical waist between 35 and 42 mm above the anal verge, corresponding to the puborectalis, was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Rectal Neoplasms. Rectum
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18690619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Wang C, Zhou ZG, Yu YY, Yang L, Wang ZQ, Shu Y: Selective laparoscopic lateral dissection of regional micrometastasis in rectal carcinoma--ten years single center experience. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2010 Dec;19(6):345-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Short-term results showed an anastomic leakage rate of 4.2% (29/683) in patients with anal sphincter preservation and an average hospitalization of 8.8 days.
  • Sixty-two cases (6.3%) suffered postoperative urinary dysfunction while well-controlled defecation was observed in 87.6% cases that underwent colo-rectal/colo-anal anastomosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomotic Leak / epidemiology. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21091068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2931
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Salerno G, Daniels IR, Brown G: Magnetic resonance imaging of the low rectum: defining the radiological anatomy. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Sep;8 Suppl 3:10-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Low rectal cancer provides a particular surgical challenge of local tumour control and sphincter preservation.
  • This has been attributed to narrow surgical planes deep within the pelvis as the mesorectum becomes narrowed and tapered, forming a bare muscle tube at the level of the anal sphincter complex.
  • An overall local recurrence rate of 10% after APE for all stages of rectal cancer has been reported and this low rate was attributed to the surgical technique that included a wide peri-anal dissection and lateral division of the levator ani.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Colectomy / methods. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16813585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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46. Prete F, Prete FP, Nitti P, De Luca R, Vincenti L: [Evolution of surgery for cancer of the anorectal junction]. Chir Ital; 2007 Nov-Dec;59(6):763-70

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  • Certain aspects of the epidemiology, classification and therapy of adenocarcinoma of the anorectal junction (< 5 cm from the anal verge) are not well standardised to date.
  • Assessment of anal sphincter function recovery one year after restoration of bowel continuity showed good continence in 76% of the patients; 2 patients have a permanent ostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ileostomy. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Proctoscopy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18360980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Tilney HS, Tekkis PP: Extending the horizons of restorative rectal surgery: intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis; 2008 Jan;10(1):3-15; discussion 15-6
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  • Most studies recorded a significant reduction in resting anal pressure but not squeeze pressure following surgery, but urgency was reported in up to 58.8% of patients.
  • In selected patients, however, the technique offers sphincter preserving surgery with acceptable oncologic and functional results.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Quality of Life. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Colectomy / adverse effects. Colectomy / methods. Defecation / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Proctoscopy. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Colorectal Dis. 2008 Jan;10(1):2 [18078458.001]
  • [CommentIn] Colorectal Dis. 2008 Sep;10(7):737; author reply 736-7 [18462228.001]
  • (PMID = 17477848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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48. Schiessel R, Novi G, Holzer B, Rosen HR, Renner K, Hölbling N, Feil W, Urban M: Technique and long-term results of intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Oct;48(10):1858-65; discussion 1865-7
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  • This procedure is performed by a synchronous abdominoperineal approach with mesorectal excision and excision of the entire or part of the internal sphincter.
  • Cancers were staged according to the Dukes classification (Stage A in 41 percent, Stage B in 28 percent, and Stage C in 31 percent; median distance from the anal margin, 3 (range, 1-5) cm).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intersphincteric resection is a valuable procedure for sphincter-saving rectal surgery.
  • An important prerequisite is a careful preoperative evaluation of local tumor spread with rectal magnetic resonance imaging excluding infiltration of the external sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Fecal Incontinence / prevention & control. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Recovery of Function. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16086223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Cella L, Ciscognetti N, Martin G, Liuzzi R, Punzo G, Solla R, Farella A, Salvatore M, Pacelli R: Preoperative radiation treatment for rectal cancer: comparison of target coverage and small bowel NTCP in conventional vs. 3D-conformal planning. Med Dosim; 2009;34(1):75-81
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  • Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of PTV, small bowel, anal sphincter, and urinary bladder were analyzed to compare plans.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / radiation effects. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation Protection / methods. Radiation Tolerance. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urinary Bladder / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19181259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4022
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical dosimetry : official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Dosim
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Ptok H, Marusch F, Kuhn R, Gastinger I, Lippert H: Influence of hospital volume on the frequency of abdominoperineal resection and long-term oncological outcomes in low rectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Sep;33(7):854-61
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  • AIM: Studies analysing the outcome after resection of low rectal cancer that has not infiltrated the anal sphincter reveal poorer long-term outcomes after abdominoperineal resections (APR) in comparison with low anterior resections (LAR).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17933024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Engin G: Endosonographic imaging of anorectal diseases. J Ultrasound Med; 2006 Jan;25(1):57-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The internal anal sphincter is seen very clearly on endoanal sonography, and it is easy to appreciate atrophy and small tears of this sphincter.
  • Endoanal sonography cannot accurately show thinning of the external anal sphincter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endosonography can accurately stage primary rectal tumors and assess the internal anal sphincter.
  • However, magnetic resonance imaging can be used a complementary modality to endosonography, especially for evaluation of external anal sphincter atrophy and deep pelvic inflammation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16371556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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52. Morino M, Giraudo G: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision-the Turin experience. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2005;165:167-79
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  • All patients had a sphincter-saving procedure.
  • The distal limit of rectal neoplasm was on average 5.4 cm (range 3-12) from the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Seeding. Postoperative Complications. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15865031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Palanivelu C, Sendhilkumar K, Jani K, Rajan PS, Maheshkumar GS, Shetty R, Parthasarthi R: Laparoscopic anterior resection and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: a prospective nonrandomized study. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Apr;22(4):367-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 2005, patients fit for general anesthesia, with resectable cancers, and with lower edge of tumor beyond 5 cm of the anal verge were subjected to laparoscopic anterior resection with sphincter preservation.
  • CONCLUSION: In selected cases, laparoscopic anterior resection is possible for all levels of rectal tumors, allowing sphincter preservation and maintaining oncological safety.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surgical Stapling

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  • (PMID = 16786316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Chen CC, Leu SY, Liu MC, Jian JJ, Chen CM: Transanal local wide excision for rectal adenocarcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr;52(62):460-3

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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abdominoperineal resection is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and sphincter preservation is the aim for the patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Postoperative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15816457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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55. McCourt M, Armitage J, Monson JR: Rectal cancer. Surgeon; 2009 Jun;7(3):162-9
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  • Oncological cure and overall survival continue to be the main goals, but sparing of the anal sphincter mechanism and functional results are also important.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Digital Rectal Examination. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19580180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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56. Ramsey S, Tepper JE: Rectal cancer radiotherapy. Cancer J; 2007 May-Jun;13(3):204-9
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  • Adjuvant radiation therapy not only improved local control and overall survival, but allowed the opportunity for sphincter-preserving resections in patients with adequate sphincter function and tumors located approximately 1-2 cm from the dentate line.
  • Removing micrometastatic disease within the mesorectum has also enhanced sphincter preservation without compromising local control or survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17620771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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57. Rudmik LR, Buie WD, Heine JA: Reoperation for intraluminal rectal cancer recurrence. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1752-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Initial procedures performed were four high anterior resections and five low anterior resections for tumors having a median distance from the anal verge of 12.5 (range, 7.5-16) cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Endoscopic surveillance following sphincter-sparing rectal cancer resection is warranted as re-resection for intraluminal recurrence can result in locoregional control and significant disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15991062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Lee SH, Lee KC, Choi JH, Oh JH, Baek JH, Park SH, Shin DB: Chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in rectal cancer: improved local control using a moderately high pelvic radiation dose. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;38(2):112-21
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  • BACKGROUND: To determine complete resection and sphincter preservation rates, down-staging, local control and survival associated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using a moderately high pelvic radiation dose before surgery in rectal cancer.
  • The sphincter preservation rate was 77.2% (44/57; 95% CI 66.3-88.1%).
  • Of 30 patients with tumors located within 5 cm from the anal verge, sphincter preservation was possible in 18 patients (60.0%; 95% CI 47.3-72.7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative CCRT produced encouraging down-staging rates and was found to facilitate complete resection and sphincter saving in distal rectal cancer with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Administration Schedule. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18263881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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59. O'Neill BD, Salerno G, Thomas K, Tait DM, Brown G: MR vs CT imaging: low rectal cancer tumour delineation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Br J Radiol; 2009 Jun;82(978):509-13
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  • Our study reviewed imaging and planning data for 10 patients with locally advanced low rectal cancer (defined as < 6 cm from the anal verge on digital examination).
  • Estimates of tumour volume, tumour length and height of proximal tumour from the anal verge were larger on planning CT than on MRI (p < 0.05).
  • Tumour volumes defined on MRI are smaller, shorter and more distal from the anal sphincter than CT-based volumes.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prone Position. Prospective Studies. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Supine Position. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 19153180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Hosein PJ, Rocha-Lima CM: Role of combined-modality therapy in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2008 Nov;7(6):369-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multidisciplinary preoperative patient evaluation, better staging techniques, neoadjuvant chemoradiation, acceptance of shorter distal rectal margins, and transanal excision of T1 N0 rectal tumors in close proximity to the anal sphincter have resulted in decreased rates of abdominoperineal resections.
  • Neoadjuvant combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy are superior to adjuvant combined-modality therapy because of higher rates of sphincter preservation, less toxicity, and lower local recurrence rates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Team. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19036689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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61. Zheng MH, Feng B, Hu CY, Lu AG, Wang ML, Li JW, Hu WG, Zang L, Mao ZH, Dong TT, Dong F, Cai W, Ma JJ, Zong YP, Li MK: Long-term outcome of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for middle and low rectal cancer. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2010 Dec;19(6):329-39
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  • The sphincter-preserving rates of the two groups were similar.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21091067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2931
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Ballonoff A, Kavanagh B, McCarter M, Kane M, Pearlman N, Nash R, Shah RJ, Raben D, Schefter TE: Preoperative capecitabine and accelerated intensity-modulated radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a phase II trial. Am J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun;31(3):264-70
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  • Of 3 patients who had tumors within 5 cm of the anal verge, 2 underwent sphincter-sparing procedures.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Premedication. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18525306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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63. Guillem JG, Díaz-González JA, Minsky BD, Valentini V, Jeong SY, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Coco C, Leon R, Hernandez-Lizoain JL, Aristu JJ, Riedel ER, Nitti D, Wong WD, Pucciarelli S: cT3N0 rectal cancer: potential overtreatment with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is warranted. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 20;26(3):368-73
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  • RESULTS: Tumors were located a median of 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • Sphincter-preserving surgery was performed in 143 patients (76%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Endosonography. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gamma Rays. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 20;26(3):350-1 [18202407.001]
  • (PMID = 18202411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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64. Yamada K, Ogata S, Saiki Y, Fukunaga M, Tsuji Y, Takano M: Long-term results of intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Jun;52(6):1065-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Between 1994 and 2006, 107 consecutive patients with low rectal cancer had curative intersphincteric resection, categorized as total, subtotal, or partial resection of the internal anal sphincter.
  • CONCLUSION: Provided strict selection criteria are used, intersphincteric resection may be the optimal sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Defecation / physiology. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Recovery of Function. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19581848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Martinez SR, Chen SL, Bilchik AJ: Treatment disparities in Hispanic rectal cancer patients: a SEER database study. Am Surg; 2006 Oct;72(10):906-8
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  • To determine if this was in part due to racial disparities in care, we compared rates of neoadjuvant therapy and sphincter-preserving surgery between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites diagnosed with rectal cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.
  • Rates of sphincter preservation were 67 per cent for Hispanics and 70 per cent for non-Hispanic whites (P = 0.003).
  • Non-Hispanic whites were significantly more likely to have received a sphincter-preserving operation than Hispanics (hazard ratio, 1.076; P = 0.019; 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.27).
  • We conclude that Hispanics are significantly more likely to receive neoadjuvant therapy but are less likely to receive sphincter-sparing operations for rectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic whites.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17058732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Portier G, Ghouti L, Kirzin S, Guimbaud R, Rives M, Lazorthes F: Oncological outcome of ultra-low coloanal anastomosis with and without intersphincteric resection for low rectal adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg; 2007 Mar;94(3):341-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cox multivariable analysis revealed that resection of the anal canal was not a prognostic factor for local or metastatic recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Sphincter-preserving surgery appears to be oncologically adequate for very low-lying rectal tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Jul;94(7):912; author reply 913 [17571287.001]
  • (PMID = 17262755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Hohenberger W, Lahmer G, Fietkau R, Croner RS, Merkel S, Göhl J, Sauer R: [Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer]. Chirurg; 2009 Apr;80(4):294-302
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  • It is indicated when primary R0 resection is not an option, in cases of higher risk of locoregional relapse following surgical treatment alone, and when initially impossible conservation of the anal sphincter becomes possible in conjunction with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19350306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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68. Pera M, Pascual M: [Quality standards in rectal cancer surgery]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Aug-Sep;28(7):417-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Currently, the sphincter can be preserved in 70% of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Pouches. Colorectal Surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Perineum / surgery. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recovery of Function. Risk Factors. Surgical Wound Dehiscence. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16137477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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69. Rutkowski A, Bujko K, Nowacki MP, Chmielik E, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, Wojnar A, Polish Colorectal Study Group: Distal bowel surgical margin shorter than 1 cm after preoperative radiation for rectal cancer: is it safe? Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov;15(11):3124-31
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  • BACKGROUND: The primary end-point of our randomized trial was sphincter preservation.
  • RESULTS: Macroscopic and microscopic distal bowel clearance, distal intramural spread, sphincter preservation, local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival did not differ in the two randomized groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Intestines / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18766404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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70. Ceelen W, Boterberg T, Pattyn P, van Eijkeren M, Gillardin JM, Demetter P, Smeets P, Van Damme N, Monsaert E, Peeters M: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation versus hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):424-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Clinical, pathological, and survival data were obtained from patients with resectable stage II or III rectal cancer within 7 cm from the anal verge.
  • The mean distance from the anal verge was 5.8 cm (HART) versus 4.9 cm (CRT).
  • Sphincter preservation was possible in 74% (HART) versus 83.5% (CRT) of patients (P = .013).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with preoperative HART followed by immediate surgery, preoperative CRT followed by a 6-week waiting period enhances pathological response and increases sphincter preservation rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17096057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Liska D, Weiser MR: Optimal surgical treatment of locally advanced low rectal cancer. Minerva Chir; 2010 Apr;65(2):181-96
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  • However, the past two decades have seen many major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
  • Information concerning the T, N, M stage and the exact location of tumor in relation to the anal verge are of crucial importance when planning a curative rectal cancer resection.
  • 4) sphincter preservation versus abdominoperineal resection (APR);.
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / standards. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 20548274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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72. Feng HY, Li DC, Lou RC, Zhu Y, Liu LY: [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy as neoadjuvant therapy for 35 patients with locally advanced lower rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Mar;8(2):125-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Radical resection was per formed in 34 patients,in whom 18 patients received abdominoperineal resection(AP R) and 16 patients received sphincter- preserving surgery with 45.7% of anal preservation rate.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined preoperative chemotherapy with radiotherapy is a better neoadjuvant therapy for lower advanced rectal cancer,which can decrease tumor stage,improve resectability and anal sphincter preservation rate,therefore ,this new neoadjuvant therapy with tolerable toxicity will has a promising application in the clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16155821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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73. Kurt M, Ozkan L, Ercan I, Kahraman S, Zorluoglu A, Gurel S, Memik F, Engin K: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1095-100
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  • METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four patients with a diagnosis of locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer received preoperative 5-fluorouracil by intravenous infusion at the dose of 250-300mg/m2/day concurrent with pelvic radiation (median 50.4 Gy/28 fractions).
  • Surgery was performed with a mean delay of 15 days after completion of irradiation and included 11 abdominoperineal resections and five anal sphincter-preserving procedures.
  • There was a significant difference in the rate of local control based on the distance of the tumor from the anal verge (>5.4cm; p=0.046).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16001638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Aass N, Fosså SD: Pre- and post-treatment daily life function in patients with hormone resistant prostate carcinoma treated with radiotherapy for spinal cord compression. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Mar;74(3):259-65
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  • Clinical parameters (histology, extent of disease at diagnosis, time from cancer diagnosis to start of radiotherapy, time from neurological symptoms to start of radiotherapy, age, number of spinal lesions, pre-treatment function) were assessed to try to prognosticate post-treatment function.
  • In general, improvement with regard to mobility, daily life activities and sphincter control was reported after irradiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy may improve mobility, daily life activity and sphincter control in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression due to hormone resistant prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / etiology. Prognosis. Self Care. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15763306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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75. Elwanis MA, Maximous DW, Elsayed MI, Mikhail NN: Surgical treatment for locally advanced lower third rectal cancer after neoadjuvent chemoradiation with capecitabine: prospective phase II trial. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:52
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  • Sphincter preserving surgery for cancer of the lower rectum needs a long-course of neoadjuvant treatments to reduce tumor volume, to induce down-staging that increases circumferential resection margin, and to facilitate surgery.
  • AIM: To evaluate the rate of anal sphincter preservation in low lying, resectable, locally advanced rectal cancer and the resectability rate in unresectable cases after neoadjuvent chemoradiation by oral Capecitabine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This trial included 43 patients with low lying (4-7 cm from anal verge) locally advanced rectal cancer, of which 33 were resectable.
  • Sphincter sparing surgical procedures were done in 20 out of 43 patients (46.5%; 95% CI 31.5-62.2).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with low lying, locally advanced rectal cancer, preoperative chemoradiation using oral capecitabine 825 mg/m2, twice a day on radiotherapy days, was tolerable and effective in downstaging and resulted in 46.5% anal sphincter preservation rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19508705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699338
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76. Ferri M, Laghi A, Mingazzini P, Iafrate F, Meli L, Ricci F, Passariello R, Ziparo V: Pre-operative assessment of extramural invasion and sphincteral involvement in rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging with phased-array coil. Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jul;7(4):387-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to predict tumour stage and sphincter status.
  • MRI correctly evaluated the infiltration of the anal sphincters in 87% of patients (7 of 8 patients with low rectal tumour).
  • CONCLUSION: MRI provides the surgeon with valuable information regarding extramural tumour spread and sphincteral involvement, enabling appropriate selection of patients for pre-operative adjuvant therapy or sphincter-saving surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / instrumentation. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 15932564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Matsuhisa T, Taguchi K, Fukumori D, Imai A, Minato M: [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for advanced lower rectal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1325-9
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  • Margins of primary carcinomas to anal verge were prolonged in 7 cases with a mean prolongation of 0.81 cm.
  • Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is safe for preserving autonomic nerves and serves to preserve the sphincter.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18701843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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78. Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Wolff RA, Das P, Delclos ME, Chang GJ, Hoff PM, Eng C, Brown TD, Crane CH, Feig BW, Morris J, Vadhan-Raj S, Hamilton SR, Lin EH: Phase II study of capecitabine (Xeloda) and concomitant boost radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Nov 1;66(3):762-71
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  • Sphincter preservation rate for tumor < or = 5 cm from the anal verge was 67% (18/27).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17011451.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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79. Echenique I, Cabanillas F, Texidor V, Cáceres J, Isenberg G, Claudio C, Ayala R, Madera F: A proposed approach for the selection of the proper surgical therapy to obtain an adequate margin of resection in locally advanced ultra-low rectal cancer after modern preoperative CRX management. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2009 Apr-Jun;101(2):53-5
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  • We could not find clear guidelines for clinicians regarding the use of close margins for sphincter saving surgery following chemoradiation (CRX).
  • All sphincter saving rectal cancer operations results for ultra-low tumors need to be as good as results from an APR.
  • Color Doppler evaluation has shown higher specificity than that of grey scale ultrasound in staging and differentiating scar from anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19954103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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80. Rengan R, Paty P, Wong WD, Guillem J, Weiser M, Temple L, Saltz L, Minsky BD: Distal cT2N0 rectal cancer: is there an alternative to abdominoperineal resection? J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug 1;23(22):4905-12
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  • The purpose of this trial is to determine whether preoperative external-beam radiation therapy can increase the rate of sphincter preservation for patients with distal cT2N0 adenocarcinoma of the rectum.
  • RESULTS: The pathologic complete response rate was 15% and 78% of patients underwent a sphincter-sparing procedure.
  • The crude incidence of local failure for patients undergoing a sphincter sparing procedure was 10% and the 5-year actuarial incidence was 13%.
  • The actuarial 5-year survival for patients undergoing sphincter preservation was as follows: disease-free, 77%; colostomy-free, 100%; and overall, 85%.
  • Using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center sphincter function score, 54% of those undergoing a sphincter-sparing procedure had good/excellent bowel function at 12 to 24 months after surgery, and 77% had good/excellent function at 24 to 36 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that for patients with cT2N0 distal rectal cancer who require an APR, preoperative pelvic radiation improves sphincter preservation without an apparent compromise in local control or survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16051945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Luna-Pérez P, Bustos-Cholico E, Alvarado I, Maffuz A, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Gutiérrez de la Barrera M, Labastida S: Prognostic significance of circumferential margin involvement in rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and low anterior resection. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Apr 1;90(1):20-5
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  • METHODS: From January 1995 to December 1997, 61 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma located between 0 and 10 cm from anal verge with invasion into perirectal fat assessed by rectal ultrasound were included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiation plus total mesorectal excision (TME) and sphincter saving surgery, circumferential margin involvement is associated with high incidence of distant recurrence and cancer-related death.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15786412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Tixier H, Fraisse J, Chauffert B, Mayer F, Causeret S, Loustalot C, Deville C, Bonnetain F, Sagot P, Douvier S, Cuisenier J: Evaluation of pelvic posterior exenteration in the management of advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Mar;281(3):505-10
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  • In 34 patients (34/41), digestive continuity with satisfactory anal sphincter function was restored immediately or in the short term.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19847452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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83. Bianchi PP, Rosati R, Bona S, Rottoli M, Elmore U, Ceriani C, Malesci A, Montorsi M: Laparoscopic surgery in rectal cancer: a prospective analysis of patient survival and outcomes. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Dec;50(12):2047-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Exclusion criteria were: metastatic disease, advanced disease with invasion of adjacent structures, clinical or radiologic involvement of the external anal sphincter, previous colonic resection, synchronous colonic adenocarcinoma, and contraindications to laparoscopy.
  • RESULTS: A laparoscopic sphincter-saving procedure was performed in 104 patients, 2 patients had a laparoscopic Miles operation, and 1 underwent a laparoscopic Hartmann's procedure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Disease-Free Survival. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17906896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Stipa F, Chessin DB, Shia J, Paty PB, Weiser M, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG: A pathologic complete response of rectal cancer to preoperative combined-modality therapy results in improved oncological outcome compared with those who achieve no downstaging on the basis of preoperative endorectal ultrasonography. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug;13(8):1047-53
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  • The pCR (n = 60) and control (n = 140) groups were similar in age (P = .6), sex (P = .4), distance of the tumor from the anal verge (P = .3), pre-CMT ERUS stage (P = .2), and comorbidities (P = .2).
  • Sphincter-preservation rates were higher in the pCR group (P = .01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rectal cancer patients with pCR after preoperative CMT have improved RFS, OS, and sphincter preservation compared with patients without downstaging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Endosonography. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16865595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01 82534-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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85. Wasserberg N, Gutman H: Resection margins in modern rectal cancer surgery. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec 15;98(8):611-5
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  • At present, the preferred treatment for rectal cancer is low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision and sphincter preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Dissection. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual

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  • (PMID = 19072854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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86. Chamlou R, Parc Y, Simon T, Bennis M, Dehni N, Parc R, Tiret E: Long-term results of intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Ann Surg; 2007 Dec;246(6):916-21; discussion 921-2
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  • INTRODUCTION: In the treatment of very low rectal cancer, a distal resection margin of more than 1 cm can be obtained by partial internal sphincteric resection, allowing a sphincter preserving surgery.
  • RESULTS: Ninety patients (59 males, 31 females) with a tumor at a median distance of 35 mm (range, 22-52) from the anal verge had an ISR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anal Canal / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity / trends. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18043092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Velenik V, Ocvirk J, Oblak I, Anderluh F: A phase II study of cetuximab, capecitabine and radiotherapy in neoadjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;36(3):244-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Total sphincter preservation rate was 76%, and 53% in 17 patients whose tumors were located within 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Capecitabine. Cetuximab. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prodrugs. Prospective Studies. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20042310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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88. Pasetto LM, Friso ML, Pucciarelli S, Basso U, Rugge M, Sinigaglia G, Rossi E, Compostella A, Toppan P, Agostini M, Monfardini S: Role of neoadjuvant treatment in cT3N0M0 rectal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):4129-35
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  • Twenty-one patients had a lower (< or = 5 cm from the anal verge) and 27 had a middle rectal lesion (from 6 to 10 cm).
  • In those patients with the lower site of lesion, a sphincter-saving (SS) procedure was achieved in 88.9%.
  • CONCLUSION: The down-staging, the good level of SS and the disease-free survival (DFS) obtained here suggests that a neoadjuvant therapy may also be useful for stage II rectal cancer at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19192672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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89. Minsky BD, Guillem JG: Multidisciplinary management of resectable rectal cancer. New developments and controversies. Oncology (Williston Park); 2008 Nov 15;22(12):1430-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The German CAO/ARO/AIO 94 trial confirmed that, compared with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, postoperative chemoradiotherapy is associated with significantly higher local failure and toxicity rates as well as a decrease in the incidence of sphincter preservation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Interdisciplinary Communication. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation-Protective Agents / administration & dosage. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2008 Nov 15;22(12):1444-6 [19322952.001]
  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2008 Nov 15;22(12):1441-2, 1444 [19322951.001]
  • (PMID = 19086601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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90. Wang JP, Ding WX, Deng YH, Lan P, Pan K, Dong GH, Deng JZ, Wang L, Wu XJ, Guo XF, Zheng J: [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX in low rectal cancer: a multicenter study]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;11(2):116-9
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  • Fifty-two patients received operation after CRT, 50 with anal interior sphincter reservation, 19 with prophylactic ileac stoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Formyltetrahydrofolates / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18344075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Formyltetrahydrofolates; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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91. Ding KF, Chen R, Zhang JL, Li J, Xu YQ, Lv L, Wang XC, Sun LF, Wang JW, Zheng S, Zhang SZ: Laparoscopic surgery for the curative treatment of rectal cancer: results of a Chinese three-center case-control study. Surg Endosc; 2009 Apr;23(4):854-61
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  • Total mesorectal excision was performed for 85.59% of the patients (201/235), who received anal sphincter preservation.
  • [MeSH-minor] China / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity / trends. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18946703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Park IJ, Choi GS, Lim KH, Kang BM, Jun SH: Laparoscopic resection of extraperitoneal rectal cancer: a comparative analysis with open resection. Surg Endosc; 2009 Aug;23(8):1818-24
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • Differences were found in preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (LAP group 4.6 ng/ml, OPEN group 7.7 ng/ml, p = 0.001), sphincter preservation (LAP group 82.9%, OPEN group 69.8%, p = 0.001), and mean distance from anal verge (LAP group 4.6 cm, OPEN group 5.2 cm, p = 0.002).
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Elective Surgical Procedures. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Levamisole / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Surg Endosc. 2011 Feb;25(2):658-60 [20632188.001]
  • [CommentIn] Surg Endosc. 2009 Dec;23(12):2871-3 [19688396.001]
  • (PMID = 19118433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2880D3468G / Levamisole; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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93. Bujko K, Nowacki MP, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, Michalski W, Bebenek M, Kryj M: Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing preoperative short-course radiotherapy with preoperative conventionally fractionated chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Br J Surg; 2006 Oct;93(10):1215-23
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy does not alter anal sphincter preservation or postoperative complications compared with short-course radiotherapy alone in patients with clinical stage T3 or T4 resectable rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16983741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Takada M, Ichihara T, Kuroda Y: Identification of hiatal ligament for laparoscopic total mesorectal excision. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1722-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Resection of the hiatal ligament enables us to isolate the recto-anal canal up to the level of the internal anal sphincter.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colectomy / methods. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Humans. Ligaments / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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95. Syk E, Torkzad MR, Blomqvist L, Nilsson PJ, Glimelius B: Local recurrence in rectal cancer: anatomic localization and effect on radiation target. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):658-64
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  • Only 5 of the 44 recurrences in patients with primary tumors >5 cm from the anal verge were in the lowest 20% of the pelvis.
  • The anal sphincter complex with surrounding tissue could also be excluded in patients with primary tumors >5 cm from the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18495376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Nahas CS, Shia J, Joseph R, Schrag D, Minsky BD, Weiser MR, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Klimstra DS, Tang LH, Wong WD, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Sep;50(9):1393-400
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  • Pathology was rereviewed, tumor immunophenotype was compared to control cases of anal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, treatment modalities and outcomes were analyzed.
  • Median distal extent of tumors was 7 (range, 5-8) cm from the anal verge.
  • Immunophenotypical analysis showed similar keratin expression profile between rectal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 5) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 5), which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 10).
  • Sphincter-preserving surgery is usually feasible.
  • Immunohistochemistry suggests a common cellular origin for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17661147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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97. Silberfein EJ, Kattepogu KM, Hu CY, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Feig B, Das P, Krishnan S, Crane C, Kopetz S, Eng C, Chang GJ: Long-term survival and recurrence outcomes following surgery for distal rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Nov;17(11):2863-9
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  • RESULTS: The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 2 cm [interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-4 cm].
  • Sphincter preservation can be achieved even with distal margins less than 2 cm.

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  • (PMID = 20552409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07-CA133187; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA133187; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL004137-06; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL004137-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS279629; NLM/ PMC3071558
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98. Shirouzu K, Ogata Y: Histopathologic tumor spread in very low rectal cancer treated with abdominoperineal resection. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Nov;52(11):1887-94
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  • PURPOSE: We have pathologically evaluated the tumor spread in low rectal cancer treated with abdominoperineal resection to clarify the potential indication of intersphincteric resection and other anus-preserving operations with external sphincter muscle resection.
  • We determined histopathologically any invasion or metastasis into the anal canal structures.
  • RESULTS: When the lowest edge of a tumor was located above the dentate line, the invasion was rarely beyond the internal sphincter muscle, in particular, where the distance between the tumor and the dentate line was longer than 2 cm.
  • When the lowest edge was located at or below the dentate line (Pb-cancer), invasion tended to extend into the external sphincter muscle and into the intermuscular groove.
  • A logistic regression analysis showed that the Pb-cancer, any distant metastasis, and the tumor histology of mucinous carcinoma were each an independent significant risk factor to invasion beyond the internal sphincter muscle, whereas the Pb-cancer, the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and the mucinous carcinoma were each an independent significant risk factor to invasion into the intermuscular groove.
  • CONCLUSION: The anus-preserving operation with sphincter muscle resection was theoretically possible for low rectal cancer in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19966638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Murad-Regadas SM, Regadas FS, Rodrigues LV, Barreto RG, Monteiro FC, Landim BB, Holanda EC: Role of three-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography in the assessment of rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy: preliminary results. Surg Endosc; 2009 Jun;23(6):1286-91
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

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  • BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional anorectal ultrasound (3-DAUS) scanning provides accurate information on tumor size and its relation to the anal muscles.
  • The patients were grouped according to the distance (cm) between the distal tumor edge and the proximal border of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) (group I, presenting anal canal invasion; group II, < or =2.0 cm; group III, >2.0 cm).
  • Tumor regression made sphincter-saving surgery possible in 13 patients (eight in group III, four complete tumor regression, and one nonconclusive on 3-DAUS).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18813985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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100. Kao PS, Chang SC, Wang LW, Lee RC, Liang WY, Lin TC, Chen WS, Jiang JK, Yang SH, Wang HS, Lin JK: The impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on advanced low rectal cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;102(7):771-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six patients with rectal cancer (<10  cm from anal verge) were enrolled prospectively between July 2000 and December 2004.
  • The effect of sphincter preservation with preoperative CCRT is questionable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20872811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin
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