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1. Drozdov I, Kidd M, Nadler B, Camp RL, Mane SM, Hauso O, Gustafsson BI, Modlin IM: Predicting neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid) neoplasia using gene expression profiling and supervised machine learning. Cancer; 2009 Apr 15;115(8):1638-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predicting neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid) neoplasia using gene expression profiling and supervised machine learning.
  • BACKGROUND: A more accurate taxonomy of small intestinal (SI) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is necessary to accurately predict tumor behavior and prognosis and to define therapeutic strategy.
  • METHODS: Seventy-three clinically and World Health Organization pathologically classified NET samples (primary tumor, n = 44 samples; liver metastases, n = 29 samples) and 30 normal human enterochromaffin (EC) cell preparations were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • Transcript levels were normalized to 3 NET housekeeping genes (asparagine-linked glycosylation 9 or ALG9, transcription factor CP2 or TFCP2, and zinc finger protein 410 or ZNF410) using geNorm analysis.
  • RESULTS: Primary SI NETs could be differentiated from normal human EC cell preparations with 100% specificity and 92% sensitivity.
  • Well differentiated NETs (WDNETs), well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and poorly differentiated NETs (PDNETs) were classified with a specificity of 78%, 78%, and 71%, respectively; whereas poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas were misclassified as either WDNETs or PDNETs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that gene expression profiling and supervised machine learning can be used to classify SI NET subtypes and accurately predict metastasis.
  • The authors believe that the application of this technique will facilitate accurate molecular pathologic delineation of NET disease, better define its extent, facilitate the assessment of prognosis, and provide a guide for the identification of appropriate strategies for individualized patient treatment.


2. Miyamoto H, Kurita N, Nishioka M, Ando T, Tashiro T, Hirokawa M, Shimada M: Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review. J Med Invest; 2006 Aug;53(3-4):317-20
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum: report of a case and literal review.
  • A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of anal bleeding.
  • Colonoscopy and barium enema revealed type 4 tumor in the rectum.
  • Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The resected tumor was diagnosed pathologically as neuroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • Treatment for neuroendocrine cell carcinoma of the rectum was controversial.
  • Surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy might be one of the methods for gastrointestinal neruroendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16953071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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3. Deng X, Liu H, Huang J, Cheng L, Keller ET, Parsons SJ, Hu CD: Ionizing radiation induces prostate cancer neuroendocrine differentiation through interplay of CREB and ATF2: implications for disease progression. Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;68(23):9663-70
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  • [Title] Ionizing radiation induces prostate cancer neuroendocrine differentiation through interplay of CREB and ATF2: implications for disease progression.
  • Although some patients respond well to the treatment, approximately 10% of low-risk and up to 60% of high-risk prostate cancer patients experience recurrent tumors.
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor recurrence remain largely unknown.
  • Here we show that fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) induces differentiation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells into neuroendocrine (NE)-like cells, which are known to be implicated in prostate cancer progression, androgen-independent growth, and poor prognosis.
  • These results suggest that radiation therapy-induced NE-like differentiation may represent a novel pathway by which prostate cancer cells survive the treatment and contribute to tumor recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19047143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-26S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023168-28S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023168-27S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023168-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-28S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-27S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CCSG CA23168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023168
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATF2 protein, human; 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 2; 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS289051; NLM/ PMC3100895
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4. Linnoila RI, Jensen-Taubman S, Kazanjian A, Grimes HL: Loss of GFI1 impairs pulmonary neuroendorine cell proliferation, but the neuroendocrine phenotype has limited impact on post-naphthalene airway repair. Lab Invest; 2007 Apr;87(4):336-44
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  • [Title] Loss of GFI1 impairs pulmonary neuroendorine cell proliferation, but the neuroendocrine phenotype has limited impact on post-naphthalene airway repair.
  • Naphthalene exposure kills lung airway epithelial (Clara) cells, but is rapidly followed by Clara cell reconstitution coincident with proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC).
  • Although a role for mature PNEC in the reconstitution process has been excluded, the reconstituting progenitor cells have been suggested to enter a transient neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation phase before differentiating to Clara cells.
  • Furthermore, these progenitors were suggested to be the target population for transformation to a NE tumor; small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • The modest proliferation seen in Gfi1(-/-) NE cells is consistent with the previously proposed role for Gfi1 in controlling neuroendocrine cancer growth.

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  • (PMID = 17377622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112405; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112405-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112405; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112405-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Gfi1 protein, mouse; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Transcription Factors; 2166IN72UN / naphthalene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS179920; NLM/ PMC2839158
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5. Ash SC, Yang DQ, Britt DE: LYRIC/AEG-1 overexpression modulates BCCIPalpha protein levels in prostate tumor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Jun 27;371(2):333-8
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  • [Title] LYRIC/AEG-1 overexpression modulates BCCIPalpha protein levels in prostate tumor cells.
  • LYRIC/AEG-1 is a unique protein that has been shown to promote tumor cell migration and invasion through activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  • Coincidentally, it was observed that overexpression of BCCIPalpha in DU145 prostate tumor cells induced an apparent neuroendocrine differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 18440304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017695; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR017695-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017695-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-P20 RR17695
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCCIP protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / MTDH protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS52534; NLM/ PMC2573900
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6. Kobayashi H, Ueno H, Hashiguchi Y, Ishiguro M, Omata J, Kajiwara Y, Shimazaki H, Mochizuki H: T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of anal canal after transanal resection for intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 May;36(5):325-8
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  • [Title] T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of anal canal after transanal resection for intramucosal adenocarcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the anal canal are rare, representing 1% of malignant tumors of the anal canal.
  • This tumor behaves aggressively and leads to poor outcomes.
  • We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of the anal canal arising from the site of a previous transanal excision performed 13 months earlier for intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • She underwent abdominoperineal resection after the initial diagnostic transanal excision of the neuroendocrine carcinoma, which had shown submucosal invasion.
  • In this case, it is likely that the neuroendocrine tumor, which infiltrated into the submucosal layer with venous invasion, had developed over the intervening 13 months following the original transanal excision of the adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16702164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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8. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • Because the first diagnostic specimen received in the pathology laboratory is usually a small, sometimes suboptimal biopsy, the distinction of these types of carcinoma can be difficult.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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9. Malone VS, Dobin SM, Jones KA, Donner LR: CD99-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with rearranged EWSR1 gene in an infant: a case of prognostically favorable tumor. Virchows Arch; 2010 Sep;457(3):389-95
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  • [Title] CD99-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with rearranged EWSR1 gene in an infant: a case of prognostically favorable tumor.
  • The first case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in an infant is presented.
  • The tumor arose at the anal verge of a 1-year-old girl.
  • The diagnosis of this CD99-positive tumor was supported by expression of epithelial (keratins, EMA, and Ep-CAM) and neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase) markers and absence of immunoreactivity for Fli-1.
  • Because the tumor was initially misclassified as an extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma, the patient was treated according to the Ewing's sarcoma treatment protocol.
  • She remains free of tumor 8 years after initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20617339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EWSR1 protein, human; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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10. Bellutti M, Fry LC, Schmitt J, Seemann M, Klose S, Malfertheiner P, Mönkemüller K: Detection of neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel by double balloon enteroscopy. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 May;54(5):1050-8
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  • [Title] Detection of neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel by double balloon enteroscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) account for one-third of all small bowel neoplasms.
  • The search for the primary tumor in NET is important, even though it is difficult to localize, as its surgical excision leads to a better prognosis, even in metastasized stages of the disease.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) for the detection of the primary tumor in patients with NET.
  • METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients (eight women, four men) with suspected carcinoid syndrome, either metastatic to the liver (n=5), symptoms of a neuroendocrine tumor with elevated tumor markers (n=5), or obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n=2) underwent DBE for the search of the primary tumor or the source of bleeding.
  • The CT scan and sonography of the abdomen as well as EGD and ileocolonoscopy were unable to detect the primary tumor in any patient.
  • A submucosal tumor of the ileum or the jejunum could be detected by DBE was detected in seven patients (58%) (anal route, n=4; oral route, n=3).
  • In four of these patients (33%) this finding could be confirmed by the surgical resection of a NET.
  • In two patients (17%) with a submucosal ileum protrusion suspicious for NET, laparotomy and intraoperative endoscopy did not confirm the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the diagnostic yield of DBE for primary tumor search in patients with metastatic or suspected NET was 33%.
  • Although endoscopic small bowel investigation by DBE seems to enrich the diagnostic possibilities for the diagnosis of small bowel-NET, at the present time DBE should only be performed in selected cases, possibly based on a positive previous work-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestine, Small / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18770038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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11. Makino A, Serra S, Chetty R: Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):644-7
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  • [Title] Composite adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • We describe a patient who complained of rectal pain and bleeding with a mixed or composite adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum.
  • Histological examination revealed a distinct adenocarcinoma of conventional type with glandular structures admixed intimately with a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The latter component was deeply infiltrative, while the adenocarcinoma occupied the more superficial aspect of the tumor.
  • What was interesting was the immunophenotype of the lesion: cytokeratin (CK) 20 expression was very focal in the adenocarcinoma component and negative in the neuroendocrine carcinoma, while CK 7 was expressed strongly in the adenocarcinoma and only focally in the neuroendocrine component.
  • This cytokeratin profile suggests a possible origin from the anal transitional zone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16508780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Huang J, Wu C, di Sant'Agnese PA, Yao JL, Cheng L, Na Y: Function and molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Jun;29(3):128-38
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  • [Title] Function and molecular mechanisms of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer.
  • Benign prostate contains luminal epithelial cells, basal cells and a minor component of neuroendocrine cells whose function may be to regulate the growth, differentiation and secretory function of the prostate gland.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are also present in prostate cancer (PC), and many studies have shown that their number increases in high-grade and high-stage tumors, particularly in hormonally treated and hormone-refractory (androgen independent) PC.
  • Unlike the non-neuroendocrine secretory-type PC cells, NE cells lack androgen receptor and are likely androgen independent.
  • Instead, these cells may be enriched after the therapy and they may establish paracrine networks to stimulate androgen-independent proliferation of PC, leading to tumor recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 17672372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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13. Shia J, Tang LH, Weiser MR, Brenner B, Adsay NV, Stelow EB, Saltz LB, Qin J, Landmann R, Leonard GD, Dhall D, Temple L, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Kelsen D, Wong WD, Klimstra DS: Is nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tubular gastrointestinal tract a distinct disease entity? Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):719-31
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  • [Title] Is nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tubular gastrointestinal tract a distinct disease entity?
  • Although small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is well-recognized, nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNEC) of this site remains undefined.
  • Guided primarily by the World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer criteria for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, we were able to classify 87 high-grade GI tract tumors that initially carried a diagnosis of either poorly differentiated carcinoma with or without any neuroendocrine characteristics, small cell carcinoma, or combined adenocarcinoma-neuroendocrine carcinoma into the following 4 categories.
  • The first was small cell carcinoma (n=23), which had features typical of pulmonary small cell carcinoma, although the cells tended to have a more round nuclear contour.
  • The second was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=31), which had a morphology similar to its pulmonary counterpart and showed positive immunoreactivity for either chromogranin (71%) or synaptophysin (94%) or both.
  • The third was mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=11), which had intermediate histologic features (eg, cells with an increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio but with apparent nucleoli), and positive immunoreactivity for at least 1 neuroendocrine marker.
  • The fourth was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (n=17).
  • In addition, 5 of the 87 tumors showed either nonsmall cell type neuroendocrine morphology (n=3) or immunohistochemical reactivity for neuroendocrine markers (n=2), but not both.
  • Further analysis showed that most HGNECs arising in the squamous lined parts (esophagus and anal canal) were small cell type (78%), whereas most involving the glandular mucosa were large cell (53%) or mixed (82%) type; associated adenocarcinomas were more frequent in large cell (61%) or mixed (36%) type than in small cell type (26%); and focal intracytoplasmic mucin was seen only in large cell or mixed type.
  • Given the current uncertainty as to whether large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is as chemosensitive as small cell carcinoma even in the lung, our data provide further evidence in favor of a dichotomous classification scheme (small cell vs. nonsmall cell) for HGNEC of the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. New York / epidemiology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18360283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Mita MM, Tolcher A, Gordon MS, Rosen L, Mita A, Fine G, Choy G, Berk G: A phase Ib dose-escalation study of orally administered MP-470, a multi-kinase inhibitor and supressor of Rad51, in combination with carboplatin doublet containing regimens shows activity in highly refractory solid tumor patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13511

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  • [Title] A phase Ib dose-escalation study of orally administered MP-470, a multi-kinase inhibitor and supressor of Rad51, in combination with carboplatin doublet containing regimens shows activity in highly refractory solid tumor patients.
  • : e13511 Background: MP-470 (MP) is an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor which inhibits a number of validated tumor targets including c-kit, flt3, and PDGFα.
  • Six PRs (2 neuroendocrine, 2 SCLC, 1 NSCLC, 1 small cell of anal canal) and 3 SDs (≥ 4 cycles) was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MP470 combined with carboplatin-containing regimens may promote tumor regression and may also sensitize/resensitize tumors to the anticancer effects of such agents.
  • An amendment will be issued to collect tumor tissue biopsy at baseline and during treatment to adequately evaluate DNA damage in tumor tissue.

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  • (PMID = 27961308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Mathieu A, Chamlou R, Le Moine F, Maris C, Van de Stadt J, Salmon I: Tailgut cyst associated with a carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature. Histol Histopathol; 2005 10;20(4):1065-9
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  • [Title] Tailgut cyst associated with a carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature.
  • Fortuitously a microscopic carcinoid tumor expressing immunohistochemically neuroendocrine markers was identified in the cystic wall.
  • The differential diagnoses include rectal duplication cysts, cystic sacrococcygeal teratomas, epidermal cysts, epidermoid cysts, anal duct or gland cysts.
  • To our knowledge, this is the eleventh case of carcinoid tumor arising in a tailgut cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16136488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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16. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Shinji E, Yokoi K, Horiba K, Kanazawa Y, Yamada T, Oaki Y, Tajiri T: Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Oct;74(5):377-81
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  • [Title] Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor.
  • The patient was a 40-year-old man who complained of anal bleeding.
  • Physical examination revealed a hard mass at the 12 o'clock position, 2 cm from the anal verge.
  • A biopsy of the rectal tumor showed the proliferation of epithelioid cells with pleomorphic features.
  • With the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • Thirteen days after the surgery, abdominal angiography was performed, which showed multiple hypervascular tumor stains in the liver.
  • As preoperative pathological diagnosis showed rare rectal tumor, we measured the chemosensitivity of the rectal tumor using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) to determine the most appropriate chemotherapy regimen for the patient.
  • Although the patient was treated with immunochemotherapy for metastatic liver tumor, he died because of progression of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17965534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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17. Tannapfel A, Wittekind C: [The current TNM system for gastrointestinal tumors part II]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):348-52
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  • Entirely new classifications are those for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas.
  • No changes were made for tumours of the anal canal, the gallbladder (excluding the inclusion of tumours of the cystic duct) and tumours of the pancreas and the ampulla of Vater.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / classification. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / classification. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / classification. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression. Gallbladder Neoplasms / classification. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / classification. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / classification. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / classification. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Pathologe. 2010 Sep;31(5):353-4 [20809402.001]
  • (PMID = 20798945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Ait-Ali D, Turquier V, Tanguy Y, Thouënnon E, Ghzili H, Mounien L, Derambure C, Jégou S, Salier JP, Vaudry H, Eiden LE, Anouar Y: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha persistently activates nuclear factor-kappaB signaling through the type 2 TNF receptor in chromaffin cells: implications for long-term regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in inflammation. Endocrinology; 2008 Jun;149(6):2840-52
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  • [Title] Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha persistently activates nuclear factor-kappaB signaling through the type 2 TNF receptor in chromaffin cells: implications for long-term regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in inflammation.
  • TNF-alpha-dependent signaling in neuroendocrine cells thus leads to a unique, persistent mode of NF-kappaB activation that features long-lasting transcription of both IkappaB and MIG-6, which may play a role in the long-lasting effects of TNF-alpha in regulating neuropeptide output from the adrenal, a potentially important feedback station for modulating long-term cytokine effects in inflammation.

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  • (PMID = 18292192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / Z01 MH002386
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408812
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19. Cuffy M, Abir F, Longo WE: Management of less common tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jan;5(5):327-37
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The majority of colorectal and anal malignancies are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancers, respectively.
  • A Medline search using "colon," "rectum,""anus," "lymphoma," "melanoma," "diffuse cavernous hemangioma," "squamous cell carcinoma," "carcinoid," "sarcoma," "leiomyosarcoma," "Kaposi's sarcoma," "Paget's disease," "Bowen's disease," and "basal cell carcinoma" as key words was performed as well as a cross-referencing of the bibliography cited in each work.
  • For some histotypes, such as squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoids of the rectum, treatment depends on location and size of the tumor.
  • For uncommon anal lesions, such as Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, and basal cell carcinoma, wide local excision (WLE) with negative margins is the standard of care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16512991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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20. Kwaan MR, Goldberg JE, Bleday R: Rectal carcinoid tumors: review of results after endoscopic and surgical therapy. Arch Surg; 2008 May;143(5):471-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Carcinoid Tumors.

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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether endoscopic treatment can clear local disease in patients with carcinoid tumor.
  • PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed as having a neuroendocrine tumor or carcinoid tumor of the rectum who were evaluated at our institution between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2006.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Margin status of tumor resection.
  • Of these, 38 patients (83%) had tumors with positive or indeterminate margins on histologic examination; of whom 6 (16%) had residual tumor on subsequent endoscopy and 1 (3%) had recurrence as metastatic disease.
  • One patient who had a negative margin had residual tumor on follow-up.
  • Eight patients who did not receive local clearance of tumor had metastases on presentation, had another active malignant neoplasm, or refused further surgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment is sufficient for tumors that are small, for tumors limited to the mucosa, and when a margin is negative for tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Surg. 2009 Feb;144(2):195-6 [19221336.001]
  • (PMID = 18490556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Zatelli MC, Tagliati F, Amodio V, Buratto M, Pelizzo M, Pansini G, Bondanelli M, Ambrosio MR, Degli Uberti EC: Role of pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst); 2010;33(5):207-16

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  • [Title] Role of pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We aimed at evaluating PTTG1 expression and function in human neoplastic parafollicular C-cells, represented by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) samples and by the TT cell line.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Cell Proliferation. Child. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Securin. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20978326.001).
  • [ISSN] 2210-7185
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; Thyroid cancer, medullary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4605813
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22. Kang Z, Webster Marketon JI, Johnson A, Sternberg EM: Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin represses MMTV promoter activity through transcription factors. J Mol Biol; 2009 Jun 12;389(3):595-605
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  • In this study, we found that LeTx repressed the activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter related to overexpression of the transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 3, octamer-binding protein 1, and c-Jun.
  • In addition, LeTx repressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced mouse mammary tumor virus promoter activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induction of endogenous c-Jun protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. COS Cells. Cercopithecus aethiops. Genes, Reporter. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / analogs & derivatives. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology. Transcription Factor AP-1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation

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  • (PMID = 19389405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / anthrax toxin; 56937-68-9 / phorbolol myristate acetate; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS112164; NLM/ PMC2754296
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23. Jackson LN, Li J, Chen LA, Townsend CM, Evers BM: Overexpression of wild-type PKD2 leads to increased proliferation and invasion of BON endocrine cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Sep 29;348(3):945-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract.
  • These data support an important role for PKD2 in carcinoid tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 16899224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK035608; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG010885; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007639; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007639-14; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01DK35608; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG010885-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32DK07639; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37AG10885; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK035608-200001; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG010885-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK048498-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK48498; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK035608-200001; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK007639-14; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK048498-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK048498
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.- / protein kinase D2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS53613; NLM/ PMC2430871
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24. Yan BC, Gong C, Song J, Krausz T, Tretiakova M, Hyjek E, Al-Ahmadie H, Alves V, Xiao SY, Anders RA, Hart JA: Arginase-1: a new immunohistochemical marker of hepatocytes and hepatocellular neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1147-54
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • The distinction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumor in the liver often presents a diagnostic challenge that carries significant impact on prognostication and therapy.
  • The sensitivities of Arg-1 in well, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCCs are 100%, 96.2%, and 85.7%, respectively, whereas, in comparison, HepPar-1 demonstrated sensitivities of 100%, 83.0%, and 46.4% for well, moderately, and poorly differentiated tumors, respectively.
  • We also examined Arg-1 expression in nonhepatocellular tumors, including many that are potential mimics of HCC (renal cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, melanomas, gastric adenocarcinomas, and adrenocortical carcinomas) and found that only 2 non-HCC tumors were reactive for Arg-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Hepatocytes / enzymology. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20661013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS316258; NLM/ PMC3160135
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25. Goldberg RM, Niedzwiecki D, Bertagnolli M, Blackstock AW, Tepper JE, Mayer RJ: Cancer and leukemia group B gastrointestinal cancer committee. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 2):3589s-95s
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  • The Committee has done trials in patients with esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon, rectal, and anal cancers.
  • New initiatives are under way in hepatocellular cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors originating in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The Committee has increasingly concentrated on translational studies using tumor blocks, germ-line DNA, and plasma to evaluate biological correlates of tumor response and clinical outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 16740790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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26. Yang JC, Ok JH, Busby JE, Borowsky AD, Kung HJ, Evans CP: Aberrant activation of androgen receptor in a new neuropeptide-autocrine model of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 1;69(1):151-60
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • Under these conditions, neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer (CaP) cells is often detected and neuropeptides released by these cells may facilitate the development of androgen independence.
  • In vivo studies have shown that AZD0530 profoundly inhibits tumor metastasis in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with GRP-autocrine LNCaP cells.

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  • (PMID = 19117998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060748-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK052659; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK 60748-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK 52659; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060748-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060748-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060748-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK060748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060748-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Benzodioxoles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 80043-53-4 / Gastrin-Releasing Peptide; 9KD24QGH76 / saracatinib; EC 2.7.1.- / BMX protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Kinase 1; EC 2.7.10.2 / PTK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS77881; NLM/ PMC2626435
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27. Wang J, Krishnamoorthi V, Wang E, Yang C, Baptista D, Wu X, Liu M, Gardner M, Elkins P, Hines J, Liu P: LC/MS characterization of impurities and degradation products of a potent antitumor peptidic dimer, CU201. J Pharm Biomed Anal; 2010 Mar 11;51(4):824-33
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  • It blocks the G(alphaq,11) signal of the heterotrimeric G proteins, stimulates c-Jun kinases, and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells with neuroendocrine features.
  • CU201 shows potent inhibition for small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro (ED(50)=0.15microM), as well as for small-cell lung cancer SHP-77 tumor growth in vivo.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19897331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Biomed Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N02-CM-27134; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N02-CM-72203
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CU201; 0 / Oligopeptides
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28. Samson WK, Zhang JV, Avsian-Kretchmer O, Cui K, Yosten GL, Klein C, Lyu RM, Wang YX, Chen XQ, Yang J, Price CJ, Hoyda TD, Ferguson AV, Yuan XB, Chang JK, Hsueh AJ: Neuronostatin encoded by the somatostatin gene regulates neuronal, cardiovascular, and metabolic functions. J Biol Chem; 2008 Nov 14;283(46):31949-59
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  • Somatostatin is important in the regulation of diverse neuroendocrine functions.
  • In a gastric tumor cell line, neuronostatin induced c-Fos expression, stimulated SRE reporter activity, and promoted cell proliferation.
  • Our findings demonstrate diverse neuronal, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular actions of a somatostatin gene-encoded hormone and provide the basis to investigate the physiological roles of this endogenously produced brain/gut peptide.

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  • (PMID = 18753129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL66023; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL68652
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / neuronostatin protein, rat; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2581552
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29. Ho JA, Chang HC, Shih NY, Wu LC, Chang YF, Chen CC, Chou C: Diagnostic detection of human lung cancer-associated antigen using a gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor. Anal Chem; 2010 Jul 15;82(14):5944-50
antibodies-online. View related products from antibodies-online.com (subscription/membership/fee required).

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  • The development of rapid and sensitive methods for the detection of immunogenic tumor-associated antigen is important not only for understanding their roles in cancer immunology but also for the development of clinical diagnostics.
  • Alpha-enolase (ENO1), a p48 molecule, is widely distributed in a variety of tissues, whereas gamma-enolase (ENO2) and beta-enolase (ENO3) are found exclusively in neuron/neuroendocrine and muscle tissues, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 20557064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 7440-57-5 / Gold; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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30. Solito E, Christian HC, Festa M, Mulla A, Tierney T, Flower RJ, Buckingham JC: Post-translational modification plays an essential role in the translocation of annexin A1 from the cytoplasm to the cell surface. FASEB J; 2006 Jul;20(9):1498-500
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  • Annexin A1 (ANXA1) has an important role in cell-cell communication in the host defense and neuroendocrine systems.

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  • (PMID = 16720734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 040269; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / N:069234/B/02/Z
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; S5UOB36OCZ / Mevalonic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2049060; NLM/ UKMS331
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31. Labriola L, Peters MG, Krogh K, Stigliano I, Terra LF, Buchanan C, Machado MC, Bal de Kier Joffé E, Puricelli L, Sogayar MC: Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines. BMC Cell Biol; 2009;10:49
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  • These cell lines expressed neuroendocrine and islets markers, confirming the expression profile found in the biopsies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Insulinoma. Male. Nesidioblastosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms. Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19545371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2121
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Insulin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2706802
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32. Rehfeld JF, Bundgaard JR, Hannibal J, Zhu X, Norrbom C, Steiner DF, Friis-Hansen L: The cell-specific pattern of cholecystokinin peptides in endocrine cells versus neurons is governed by the expression of prohormone convertases 1/3, 2, and 5/6. Endocrinology; 2008 Apr;149(4):1600-8
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  • To understand this difference, we examined the roles of the neuroendocrine prohormone convertases (PC) 1/3, PC2, and PC5/6 by measurement of proCCK, processing intermediates and bioactive, alpha-amidated, and O-sulfated CCK peptides in cerebral and jejunal extracts of null mice, controls, and in the PC5/6-expressing SK-N-MC cell-line.

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  • (PMID = 18096669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 13914; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK013914; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 20595; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK020595; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P60 DK020595
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 9011-97-6 / Cholecystokinin; 95690-77-0 / cholecystokinin 22 C-terminal fragment; EC 3.4.21.- / Proprotein Convertase 5; EC 3.4.21.93 / Proprotein Convertase 1; EC 3.4.21.94 / Proprotein Convertase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734493
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33. Giannopoulos A, Papaconstantinou I, Alexandrou P, Petrou A, Papalambros A, Felekouras E, Papalambros E: Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the rectum with aberrant immunophenotype: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Nov 28;13(44):5951-3
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the rectum with aberrant immunophenotype: a case report.
  • We report a case of a poorly differentiated epithelial tumour of the rectum with a highly pleomorphic morphology and an aberrant immunophenotype, including the expression of epithelial markers, the focal parameter of neuroendocrine differentiation, and the unexpected detection of CD-117 overexpression.
  • Colonoscopy showed an ulcerative bleeding mass located about 8 cm from the anal verge.
  • In immunohistochemical analysis, pankeratin and Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) immunolabeling proved the epithelial nature of the tumor cells.
  • The above phenotypic and immunohistochemical profile was consistent with an anaplastic carcinoma of the large intestine, with focal neuroendocrine differentiation and diffuse immunoreactivity to c-kit protein.
  • Given the resistance of this tumor to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, the incidence of the c-kit alteration may represent a novel approach to a gene-directed treatment using a c-kit inhibitor (STI571) similar to that which has been proposed in GISTs.

  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17990362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4205443
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34. Bellingham M, Fowler PA, Amezaga MR, Rhind SM, Cotinot C, Mandon-Pepin B, Sharpe RM, Evans NP: Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Environ Health Perspect; 2009 Oct;117(10):1556-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Ubiquitous environmental chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are associated with declining human reproductive health, as well as an increasing incidence of cancers of the reproductive system.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to a pollutant cocktail (sewage sludge) on the ovine fetal reproductive neuroendocrine axes, particularly the kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 (G-protein-coupled receptor 54) system.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations.

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  • (PMID = 20019906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 080388; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127684422; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 080388/Z/06/Z
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2790510
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; GPR54 / environmental chemicals / hypothalamus / kisspeptin / pituitary / prenatal exposure / sheep
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35. Cescato R, Erchegyi J, Waser B, Piccand V, Maecke HR, Rivier JE, Reubi JC: Design and in vitro characterization of highly sst2-selective somatostatin antagonists suitable for radiotargeting. J Med Chem; 2008 Jul 10;51(13):4030-7
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  • Radiolabeled sst 2 and sst 3 antagonists are better candidates for tumor targeting than agonists with comparable binding characteristics (Ginj, M.; Zhang, H.; Waser, B.
  • Because most of the neuroendocrine tumors express sst 2, we used the known antagonists acetyl- pNO 2Phe (2)- c[ dCys (3)-Tyr (7)- dTrp (8)-Lys (9)-Thr (10)-Cys (14)]- dTyr (15)-NH 2 ( 1) (Bass, R. T.

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  • Guide to Pharmacology. gene/protein/disease-specific - sst2 receptor - data and references .
  • Guide to Pharmacology. gene/protein/disease-specific - sst4 receptor - data and references .
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  • (PMID = 18543899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK059953-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK059953; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK059953; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK059953-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS141612; NLM/ PMC2789649
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36. De Preter K, Vandesompele J, Heimann P, Yigit N, Beckman S, Schramm A, Eggert A, Stallings RL, Benoit Y, Renard M, De Paepe A, Laureys G, Påhlman S, Speleman F: Human fetal neuroblast and neuroblastoma transcriptome analysis confirms neuroblast origin and highlights neuroblastoma candidate genes. Genome Biol; 2006;7(9):R84
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  • BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma tumor cells are assumed to originate from primitive neuroblasts giving rise to the sympathetic nervous system.
  • RESULTS: Expression of catecholamine metabolism genes, and neuronal and neuroendocrine markers in the neuroblasts indicated that the proper cells were microdissected.

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  • (PMID = 16989664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] Genome biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genome Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1794547
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37. Schäfer C, Rothfuss K, Kreichgauer HP, Stange EF: Efficacy of double-balloon enteroscopy in the evaluation and treatment of bleeding and non-bleeding small bowel disease. Z Gastroenterol; 2007 Mar;45(3):237-43
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  • In 4 patients, malignant neoplasias were newly diagnosed (2 gastrointestinal stroma tumors, 1 neuroendocrine tumor, 1 adenocarcinoma).
  • Other diagnostic modalities were helpful in preselecting patients for DBE and choosing the more favorable (oral or anal) access.

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  • (PMID = 17357953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Sorensen IV, Fenger C, Winther H, Foged NT, Lademann U, Brünner N, Usher PA: Characterization of anti-TIMP-1 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2006 Oct;54(10):1075-86
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

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  • All seven VT antibodies specifically immunostained the cytoplasm of islets of Langerhans cells in normal pancreas, epithelial cells of hyperplastic prostate, tumor cells of medullary thyroid carcinoma, and fibroblast-like cells of malignant melanoma.
  • Furthermore, when tested on a range of normal and neoplastic endocrine tissues, the VT7 clone demonstrated immunoreactivity with all neuroendocrine cell types.

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  • (PMID = 16517973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3957804
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39. Yang JY, Yang MQ, Luo Z, Ma Y, Li J, Deng Y, Huang X: A hybrid machine learning-based method for classifying the Cushing's Syndrome with comorbid adrenocortical lesions. BMC Genomics; 2008;9 Suppl 1:S23
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • We have also used immunohistochemistry techniques to measure the gene expression profiles from a number of antigens such as cyclin E, P27KIP1, FHIT, Ki-67, PCNA, Bax, Bcl-2, P53, Fas, FasL and hTERT in several particular types of neuroendocrine tumors such as pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and the adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), adenomas (ACA), and hyperplasia (ACH) involved with Cushing's syndrome.
  • This research has many potential applications; it might provide an alternative diagnostic tool and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation as well as information that is useful for treatment planning and cancer prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / classification

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  • (PMID = 18366613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2386065
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