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6. Lepère C, Rakotomalala S, Maindrault-Goebel F, Mitry E, Vaillant JN, Julie C, Otmezguine Y, Rougier P: [Conservative treatment undifferentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the anal canal: two cases]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Apr;31(4):445-7
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  • [Title] [Conservative treatment undifferentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the anal canal: two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement conservateur des tumeurs endocrines peu différenciées du canal anal.
  • Undifferentiated neuroendocrine tumors are rare, and are characteristically aggressive with a poor prognosis.
  • Most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and cannot undergo curative surgical treatment.
  • We report two cases of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors localized in the anal canal and treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulting in prolonged complete local remission and preventing extended surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17483787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly higher rate of adenoma formation (50.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001).
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Ortholan C, François E, Gérard JP: [Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Dec;92(12):1039-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie des cancers du canal anal.
  • Local control and sphincter preservation are the two challenges of anal canal cancer treatment.
  • These tumors are radio- and chemo-sensitive and treatment moved from surgical approach, with abdominoperineal resection, to definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Indications of chemoradiotherapy are locally advanced tumor T2 > or = 4 cm, T3-4 or N1-3 but the best modalities of combined treatment are still under debate.
  • This article is a review of past randomised trials, phases II and retrospective study on radiochemotherapy of anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16396750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrimidines; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Rossitto M, Pantè S, Manfrè A, Ciccolo A: [Post-operative analgesia in case of ano-rectal diseases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):459-61; discussion 461
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  • [Title] [Post-operative analgesia in case of ano-rectal diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] L'analgesia post-operatoria nel trattamento delle patologie ano-rettali.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was that to evaluate the post-operative pain in case of ano-rectal diseases wether treated by ketorolac, or buprenorphine or tramadol.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intensity of post-operative pain was evaluated in 60 patients with hemorrhoidal diseases, fistulae, abscesses and anal neoplasms, divided into three homogenous groups and treated with intramuscular ketorolac (Group I), transdermal buprenorphine (Group II) and tramadol in elastomeric pump (Group III).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Better compliance and lower operating costs have given the preference to the use of transdermal buprenorphine for the treatment of diseases of the post-operative pain in the diseases of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / surgery. Buprenorphine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Ketorolac / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Tramadol / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20476679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 39J1LGJ30J / Tramadol; 40D3SCR4GZ / Buprenorphine; YZI5105V0L / Ketorolac
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10. Fagan SP, Bellows CF 3rd, Albo D, Rodriquez-Barradas M, Feanny M, Awad SS, Berger DH: Length of human immunodeficiency virus disease and not immune status is a risk factor for development of anal carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2005 Nov;190(5):732-5
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  • [Title] Length of human immunodeficiency virus disease and not immune status is a risk factor for development of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The anal epithelium is subject to dysplastic change in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • We sought to determine if the duration of HIV disease or the patient's immune status were associated with the development of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: HIV-positive patients diagnosed with anal neoplasms were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients were identified, 7 with anal intraepithelial neoplasms (group 1) and 7 with anal carcinoma (group 2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most significant factor for the development of invasive anal carcinoma in patients with HIV is duration of disease.
  • As a result of improved long-term survival secondary to new HIV therapy, anal invasive carcinoma will become an increasing problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma / etiology. HIV. HIV Infections / complications. Immune Tolerance / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Antibodies / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Viral / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


11. Baatrup G, Bolstad M, Mortensen JH: Rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI are not interchangeable in determining the position of rectal cancers. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1169-73
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  • PURPOSE:. 1) To analyse for interchangeability of rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI in determining the distance from anus to tumour, and to determine if anterior/posterior location influences this difference.
  • 2) To analyse the effect of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy on the distance from anus to tumour.
  • RESULTS: The mean distance from the anal verge to the tumour measured by sigmoidoscopy was 82mm and by MRI 61mm (p<0.01).
  • The length of the tumours decreased by 16mm after neoadjuvant treatment, but the distance from tumour to anus increased by only 4mm. CONCLUSION:.
  • 1) MRI and sigmoidoscopy are not interchangeable in determining the distance from anus to tumour simply by correcting for the length of the anal canal.
  • 2) The gain in tumour free distance above the anus induced by neoadjuvant treatment is small.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoidoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19249188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • However, CT performed 2 years after the diagnosis showed a recurrence in the hilar and mediastinal lymph node.
  • However, the treatment response was graded as progressive disease, and the treatment was changed from CDDP to mitomycin C (MMC).
  • The patient developed non-hematologic toxicity and died within 3 years of the diagnosis.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


13. Hosono S, Ohira M, Maeda K, Muguruma K, Nishihara T, Inoue T, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K: Synchronous adenocarcinomas of the ileum and transverse colon detected by capsule endoscopy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):663-5
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  • Neither gastrointestinal endoscopy nor computed tomography showed by abnormal findings; however, a capsule endoscopy, performed to detect obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, revealed a tumor in the ileum.
  • When we tried to take biopsies of the ileal tumor by push enteroscopy via the anus, we found another tumor in the transverse colon.
  • On exploration, tumors were identified in the ileum and the transverse colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Capsule Endoscopy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16794807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2008 May;5(2):78-85
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia.
  • Anal cancer is a rare disease in the general population, but the incidence of anal cancer is higher in certain at-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), and immunosuppressed individuals, including those with HIV infection.
  • Among HIV-positive MSM, the incidence of anal cancer may be as high as 10 times greater than current rates of cervical cancer in the general population of women.
  • Anal cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may be preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN).
  • HGAIN and anal HPV infection are both highly prevalent in groups at risk for anal cancer.
  • Current issues include determining the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HGAIN and the incidence of anal cancer, optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to HGAIN, and determining the potential for prophylactic HPV vaccines to prevent anal HPV infection and anal cancer in at-risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18510893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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15. Pérez Pereyra J, Frisancho Velarde O, Ruiz Barahona E, Palomino A: [Fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal: therapeutic technique with rubber band ligation]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2008 Jan-Mar;28(1):37-42
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  • [Title] [Fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal: therapeutic technique with rubber band ligation].
  • [Transliterated title] Lesiones Fibroepiteliales del Canal Anal: alternativa terapéutica con ligadura de bandas elásticas.
  • When fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal increase in size and bleed, they can produce tenesmus and a sensation of a foreign body in the anus.
  • In the Gastroenterology Department of the "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" National Hospital (EsSALUD) between June 2000, and June, 2007, 16 patients with anal fibroepithelioma were included: 6 men and 10 women, with an average age of 44, aged between 21 to 75, and 44% aged 20 to 29.
  • All of these patients (100%) had anal tumors, 50% had prolapses, 28% had anal pain and, 12% intermittent slight bleeding.
  • Patients only required oral analgesics for the first hours after procedure; only one patient presented an acute anal fissure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18418455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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16. Gorez E, Staumont G: [Epidermoid anal carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2008 Oct 31;58(16):1783-92
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome epidermoïde anal.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women.
  • Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific.
  • The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography.
  • Key prognostic factors are infiltration of the initial tumour and presence of lymph node metastasis.
  • First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19143150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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17. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Horta SC, Ferreira AF, Almeida LV: Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2289-93
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases.
  • The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence


18. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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20. Divis P, Vlcek P, Capov I, Divisová K, Katolická J, Vanícek J, Kotulánová E: [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):421-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment].
  • The aim of the study was to compare the tumour volume reduction before and after the oncological therapy in relation to the change in the CEA value and to the outcome of the histopathological evaluation of response to the treatment.
  • The tumour volume before and after the CRT, percentage reduction in the tumour volume and the relation to the change in the CAE value and the histopathological evaluation were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The distance between the anus and the tumour was from 3 to 15 centimetres, the average value being 8.1 centimetres.
  • In 5 cases the tumour was not histologically found in the resected specimen.
  • The average tumour volume before CRT was 32.48, range 10.3-88.5, after the CRT the average volume was 20.13, range 4.7-55.1.
  • This relation however has not been proved in the N value change.
  • Only in one-third of the evaluated patients was there a positive change in both T and N classification.
  • No relation between the CEA value and the tumour volume change has been proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 21351419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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21. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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22. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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23. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders.
  • The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Monsonego J: [Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses: a perspective based on the cervical cancer model]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2010 Apr;38(4):250-4
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  • [Title] [Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses: a perspective based on the cervical cancer model].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer anal et papillomavirus humains: une pathologie en miroir de celle du cancer du col utérin.
  • Anal cancer is a rare pathology in the general population but the incidence of this cancer has been on the rise for certain high-risk groups, such as homosexual men and immunodepressed subjects.
  • The incidence of anal cancer is 10 times higher in the HIV-positive population than in the female population in general.
  • In anal cancer, HPV16 is present in over 75% of the cases.
  • The prevalence of HPV in anal cancer is higher in women (90%) than in men (75%).
  • Squamous cervical and anal cancers have strong similarities founded on the causal association to HPV, in particular HPV16.
  • Recent data indicate that anti-HPV vaccination has a significant potential in preventing HPV infections, precancerous lesions, and anal cancer in the general population as well as in the high-risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6682
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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25. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • [Cites] Int J Cancer. 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83 [19189402.001]
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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Durães Lde C, Sousa JB: [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):265-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação?
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare tumor, which incidence is influenced by sexual behavior.
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify the correlation between anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases, such as HPV, HIV, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection, syphilis and others.
  • METHODS: All the internments due to anal cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in public healthy in Brazil were collected at Datasus site between 1998 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: There was a high correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions (r=0.98, p<0.001).
  • There was negative correlation between anal cancer and Gonococci infection admissions (r=-0.81, p=0.005) and anal cancer and Chlamydia infection (r=-0.74, p=0.014).
  • There was not statistic significant correlation between anal cancer and HIV admissions (r=0.40, p=0.245), between anal cancer and other sexually transmitted diseases (r=0.55, p=0.1), and between anal cancer and syphilis (r=-0.61, p=0.059).
  • CONCLUSION: There was a high positive correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions in Brazil.
  • There were negative correlations between anal cancer and Gonococci infection and between anal cancer and Chlamydia infection admissions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21085842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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28. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • Twelve pts had undergone a surgical resection of the tumour before radiotherapy.
  • In multivariate analysis, a pre-radiotherapy resection (p=0.084) had an inverse impact on the tumour control reaching the level of statistical significance and the use of a belly board was of marginal influence (p=0.13).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Patient Positioning. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Nadal SR, Horta SH, Calore EE, Manzione CR: [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Jul-Aug;53(4):365-9
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  • [Title] [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos.
  • OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients.
  • Treatment consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sometimes followed by tumor resection.
  • This is a report of cases treated at the "Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas", Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • Thirty patients had high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN), treated with local resection, and 15 with anal canal invasive squamous cell carcinoma were first submitted to chemo radiation, while biopsies were obtained during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Treatment Refusal / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 17823743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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30. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • In multivariate analysis, tumor size (>or=40 mm) [RR=2.1], node involvement (RR=2.4), and poor response (<75%) to first course irradiation [RR=1.9], local relapse (RR=4.5) and distant metastases were factors of poor prognosis for SS.
  • Prognosis factors of LCR were tumor size (RR=2.5), response to first course of irradiation (RR=2.9).
  • Prognosis factors of SC were tumor size (RR=1.9) and response to first course of irradiation (RR=2.4).
  • As well as initial tumor extension, response to first course of irradiation was found as prognostic factor on LCR, SS, SC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1410-5; discussion 1415-6
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  • [Title] High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.
  • Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon.
  • We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years.
  • Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated.
  • Patients with disease amenable to local therapy were treated with office-based HRA-directed therapies.
  • HSIL was present in 33, with four undergoing planned staged treatment due to circumferential disease.
  • HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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33. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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34. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: At the end of RT with concomitant chemotherapy local tumor clinical complete response rate was 83%.
  • Out of 5 local tumor relapses, 3 were salvaged with APR.
  • The overall local tumor control (LC) rate with or without salvage local treatment were 88%.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival was 75%.
  • After multivariate analysis, 2 independent predicting factors significantly influenced the disease-free survival: HIV-positive pts (negative vs positive, P=0.032) and clinical tumor response after the first course of radiotherapy (<50% vs >or=50%, P=0.00032).
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • The clinical tumor response after the first course of RT and concomitant chemotherapy is probably the most important predictive factor on the disease-free survival.
  • For patients with T3 or T4 lesion and tumor regression <or=50% after the first course of radiation therapy, surgical non conservative treatment should be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Vajdic CM, Anderson JS, Hillman RJ, Medley G, Grulich AE: Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Oct;81(5):415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anal cytology smears are either collected "blind" (swab inserted 4 cm into anal canal and rotated) or guided through an anoscope (transformation zone visualised and then sampled).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blind cytology smears are superior to anoscope guided smears for screening for anal neoplasia in homosexual men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Proctoscopy / methods. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 16199742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1745038
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36. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Immune Tolerance. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Risk Factors. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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37. Rouquie D, Lasser P, Castaing M, Boige V, Goéré D, Pignon JP, Ducreux M, Elias D, Pocard M: [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jul-Aug;145(4):335-40
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  • [Title] [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)].
  • [Transliterated title] Résection R0, seul facteur pronostique dans les amputations abdominopérinéales de rattrapage des cancers du canal anal (série consécutive de 95 patients).
  • INTRODUCTION: When radiation therapy fails to control cancer of the anal canal, the only therapeutic alternative is salvage abdomino-perineal resection (APR).
  • There was no prognostic difference between salvage APR for disease progression (n=55) or for late recurrence (n=40).
  • CONCLUSION: When anal cancer recurs after radiation therapy, a salvage APR is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18955923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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38. Rakoto-Ratsimba HN, Rakototiana AF, Rakotosamimanana J, Ranaivozanany A: [Anal adenocarcinoma revealed by a fistula-in-ano. Report of a case]. Ann Chir; 2006 Nov;131(9):564-6
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  • [Title] [Anal adenocarcinoma revealed by a fistula-in-ano. Report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Fistule périanale révélatrice d'un adénocarcinome du canal anal. A propos d'une observation.
  • Anal adenocarcinoma revealed by a fistula-in-ano occurs rarely.
  • Symptomatology has no specificity and the diagnosis is often late, in an advanced stage of the sickness.
  • Recurrent or non recurrent fistula-in-ano requires multiple biopsies for pathology analysis in order to screen a related cancer.
  • Tumor dimension, lymph node involvement, histologic grade and treatment modality are independent prognosis factors for survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Fistula / complications

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  • (PMID = 16712770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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39. Hwang HJ, Bestani C, Jiménez R, Masciángioli G, Gutiérrez A, Cartelli C, Rafailovici L, Barugel M, Rodríguez G, Méndez G: [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2005;35(2):94-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] El tratamiento de los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del canal anal en los últimos 20 años en nuestro hospital.
  • Anal cancers compromise only 1.5% of all digestive tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical data from the medical records of all consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated by the Oncology Section in 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16127985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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40. Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Svendsen LB, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1527-32
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In our center since 2001, follow-up examination has included three-dimensional endosonography in all patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 38 consecutive patients who have had anal carcinoma and were investigated using three-dimensional endosonography in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination at Rigshospitalet from July 2001 to January 2005 under suspicion of local recurrence.
  • The observers scored each examination according to a five-point scale in which a score from 1 to 3 was regarded as benign endosonographic findings and a score from 4 to 5 was regarded as malignant endosonographic findings.
  • The endosonographic diagnosis for each examination was compared with histologic evaluation or when no biopsy had been taken with a follow-up period of at least six months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that three-dimensional endosonography surpasses two-dimensional endosonography in the evaluation of patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer especially in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16988854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • In 52 of these cases, a tumour was clinically suspected.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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42. Vorob'ev GI, Shelygin IuA, Nechushkin MI, Rybakov EG: [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(8):4-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors].
  • Radio- or chemotherapy is a modern standard of anal cancer treatment.
  • The study is aimed to evaluate the role of abdominoperineal resection in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal cancer.
  • The complete tumor regression after radiotherapy/radiochemotherapy was achieved in 74(61.1%) of 120 patients with cancer-specific survival rate of 81.7%.
  • Partial tumor regression was registered in 46 of 120 patients.
  • The abdominoperineal resection was performed in 39(84.8%) of patients with the residual tumor.
  • Thus, surgical treatment allowed secondary local tumor control in 76.9% of patients with the 5-year survival rates of 69.0%.
  • The locoregional tumor relapse was diagnosed in 10(13.74%) of 74 patients with the complete tumor regression.
  • The use of abdominoperineal resection allowed the secondary local tumor control and 5 year survival.
  • Thus, abdominoperineal resection remains the method of choice in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Russia / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18833142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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43. Nordenvall C, Nyrén O, Ye W: Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions. Gut; 2006 May;55(5):703-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between benign anal lesions and anal cancer is still unclear.
  • METHODS: We conducted a register based retrospective cohort study including 45,186 patients hospitalised for inflammatory anal lesions (anal fissures, fistulas, and perianal abscesses) as well as 79,808 haemorrhoid patients, from 1965 to 2002.
  • Multiple record linkages identified all incident anal (squamous cell carcinoma only) and colorectal cancers through to 2002.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory benign anal lesions are associated with a significantly increased long term risk of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Diseases / immunology. Female. Fissure in Ano / complications. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhoids / complications. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Fistula / complications. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • [Cites] Acta Radiol Oncol. 1984;23(5):305-13 [6095600.001]
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  • (PMID = 16299038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856114
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44. Charúa-Guindic L, Esquivel-Ocampo EA, Villanueva-Herrero JA, Jiménez-Bobadilla B, Muñoz-Cortés SB, Leal-Tamez M, Avendaño-Espinosa O: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(3):195-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients].
  • [Transliterated title] La neoplasia intraepitelial anal y la infección por virus del papiloma humano en pacientes anorreceptivos.
  • BACKGROUND: An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and progression to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and epidermoid cancer has been established.
  • Patients who accepted anal citology and high definition anoscopy and biopsies with a follow-up not minor of 3 months were included.
  • Anal cytology showed inflammatory alterations in 21 patients (28%), low grade intraepithelial lesion in 23 (52%); there were not patients with high grade epithelial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19858007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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45. Gavioli M, Losi L, Luppi G, Iacchetta F, Zironi S, Bertolini F, Falchi AM, Bertoni F, Natalini G: Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Oct 1;69(2):370-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter.
  • Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter.
  • The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass.
  • The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases.
  • It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy.
  • The distal margin was tumor free in these cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17524570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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46. van Lieshout A, Pronk A: [Increasing incidence of anal cancer in the Netherlands]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1163
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Increasing incidence of anal cancer in the Netherlands].
  • Anal cancer is a rare malignancy with a rapidly rising incidence.
  • The most important risk factor for anal cancer is persistent infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In the Netherlands, the incidence of anal cancer increased from 71 to 149 new patients each year over the period 1989-2006.
  • There has been a corresponding overall increase in mortality, although the exact level differs per year.
  • Not enough research has been done to date to clarify why the incidence of anal cancer is increasing.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 20456793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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47. Val-Bernal JF, Mayorga M, Diego C, González-Vela MC: Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal. Pathol Int; 2008 Jul;58(7):442-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal.
  • Lymphangioma is a rare benign lesion of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the large intestine is the least commonly involved site.
  • To the authors' knowledge a lymphangioma of the anal canal has not been reported.
  • Described herein is a case of pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the right lateral wall on the transitional zone of the anal canal measuring 1.7 x 1.3 x 1 cm in a 40-year-old woman.
  • A pedicle does not exclude the endoscopic diagnosis of lymphangioma.
  • Lymphangioma must be included in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Rectal Fistula / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18577114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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48. Freudenberg S, Palma P, Grobholz R, Ngendahayo L, Post S: HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug;48(8):1656-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case.
  • PURPOSE: This article describes and discusses primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the anus which is an extremely rare site of origin.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 38-year-old HIV+ Rwandan farmer had an 8-cm x 13-cm anal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the AIDS epidemic and the increase of anal malignant pathologies, anal Burkitt's lymphoma may appear more frequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colostomy. Fatal Outcome. HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16034658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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50. Barriger RB, Calley C, Cárdenes HR: Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Sep;11(9):609-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Immune-compromised populations show an increased incidence of anogenital tract neoplasms.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and toxicity in immune-compromised patients with anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We identified 25 patients with anal carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or history of solid-organ transplant on chronic medical immune-suppression.
  • One patient had metastatic disease at diagnosis.
  • Median radiation dose to the primary tumour was 50 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colostomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity / complications. HIV Seropositivity / immunology. HIV-1 / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19776001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Bruland O, Fluge O, Immervoll H, Balteskard L, Myklebust M, Skarstein A, Dahl O: Gene expression reveals two distinct groups of anal carcinomas with clinical implications. Br J Cancer; 2008 Apr 8;98(7):1264-73
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  • [Title] Gene expression reveals two distinct groups of anal carcinomas with clinical implications.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major aetiological agent in anal carcinomas.
  • We here present a study of global gene expression using microarray hybridisation in a collection of anal carcinoma biopsies.
  • Unsupervised cluster analysis, based on global mRNA expression, divided the tumour biopsies into two distinct groups.
  • To investigate whether this distinction in gene expression had prognostic impact, we studied protein expression in an independent cohort of 55 anal carcinomas not included in the microarray study of two differentially expressed candidate genes, minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A or p16).
  • CDKN2A (p16) mRNA was found significantly differentially expressed between the two tumour groups.
  • MCM7 is directly regulated by E2F and induced by HPV, and its mRNA was found differentially expressed between the two tumour groups.
  • High level of MCM7 protein was found to be associated with both improved relapse-free survival (RFS, P=0.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS, P=0.03) in anal cancer patients treated with radiation with or without additional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18349847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359638
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52. McCloskey JC, Metcalf C, French MA, Flexman JP, Burke V, Beilin LJ: The frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in anal/perianal warts is higher than previously recognized. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Aug;18(8):538-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in anal/perianal warts is higher than previously recognized.
  • A retrospective review of the prevalence of intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) in surgically removed perianal/anal warts from December 1995 to December 2004 was undertaken in patients referred to the Sexual Health Clinic at Royal Perth Hospital.
  • Perianal/anal IN within the warts was found in 78% (52% high grade) of men with HIV infection.
  • Rates of IN within perianal/anal warts in men with or without HIV infection are higher than previously reported, and suggest the likelihood of a substantial increase in the future incidence of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17686215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Lisovsky M, Patel K, Cymes K, Chase D, Bhuiya T, Morgenstern N: Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Aug;131(8):1304-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6.
  • Anal gland carcinoma (AGC) is a rare perianal invasive cancer composed of tubular glands lined by cuboidal epithelium.
  • The clinical features and histogenesis of AGC are not well understood and its origin from anal glands is often difficult to prove.
  • Little is known about immunophenotypic features of AGC that could be useful in establishing the diagnosis.
  • This study evaluated the immunohistochemical profile of 2 cases of AGC in comparison to anal glands from 11 hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • In biopsies from this case, the neoplastic anal glands had a tubular pattern, whereas most glands in the resection specimen exhibited mucinous features.
  • Normal anal glands showed immunoreactivity for myoepithelial and basal cell markers CK5/6 and p63 in basal and parabasal cell layers and for CK7 in superficial cell layers.
  • Anal gland carcinoma shares negativity for CDX2 and CK7+/CK20- profile with normal anal glands.
  • No evidence of myoepithelial cells was found in normal or malignant anal glands.
  • These data may be useful in establishing the diagnosis of AGC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Keratin-6 / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anal Canal / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Hemorrhoids / surgery. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Oct;132(10):1547-8 [18834205.001]
  • (PMID = 17683193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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54. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Studies on tumor biology and patient genetics are warranted to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from newer locoregional and systemic therapies.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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55. Das P, Bhatia S, Eng C, Ajani JA, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Bhosale P, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 1;68(3):794-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of locoregional failure, and predictors of recurrence and survival in patients treated with chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 167 patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal carcinoma were treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • RESULTS: The estimated 3-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 81%, 88%, 67%, and 84%, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that higher T stage and N stage independently predicted for a higher rate of locoregional failure; higher N stage and basaloid subtype independently predicted for a higher rate of distant metastasis; and higher N stage and positive human immunodeficiency virus status independently predicted for a lower rate of overall survival.
  • Among the patients who had locoregional failure, 18 (75%) had failure involving the anus or rectum, 5 (21%) had other pelvic recurrences, and 1 (4%) had inguinal recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Trials of more aggressive and innovative locoregional and systemic therapies are warranted in high-risk patients, based on their T and N stages.
  • The majority of locoregional failures involve the anus and rectum, whereas inguinal recurrences occur rarely.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17379452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Wong AK, Chan RC, Aggarwal N, Singh MK, Nichols WS, Bose S: Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):144-50
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection strongly correlates with the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas; however, few studies have characterized the distribution of the specific subtypes of the virus in the varying grades of dysplasia.
  • This report characterizes the distribution of HPV 16/18 in surgical specimens with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I-III and histological variants of anal carcinoma.
  • A total of 111 anal surgical specimens with no dysplasia (10), AIN I-III (53), and anal carcinomas (48) were evaluated for the presence of high-risk HPV infection and subtyped by nested PCR or the Invader Assay.
  • High-risk virus types were detected in progressively greater number of anal intraepithelial lesions from 56% in low grade to 88% in high grade.
  • The similarity in the prevalence of type 16 in high-grade dysplasia and squamous carcinomas suggests that anal intraepithelial lesion III is the true precursor of squamous carcinoma and warrants aggressive management.
  • Anal intraepithelial lesions II showed a virus distribution that was similar to low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Genotype. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19838162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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58. Martínez-Hernández-Magro P, Villanueva-Sáenz E, Chávez-Colunga LB: [Anal malignant melanoma. Case report and literature review]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(1):39-44
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  • [Title] [Anal malignant melanoma. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma maligno anal. Reporte de casos y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present two cases of anorectal malignant melanoma as due to its non specific presentation and rarity they are often misdiagnosed like hemorrhoids.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal melanomas are rare tumors that constitute less than 1% of the malignant colorectal tumors and represent both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.
  • Melanomas are often misdiagnosed by a lot of anorectal conditions and diagnosis must be suspected in patients with an anal mass.
  • CASE REPORT: We present two anorectal cases of malignant melanoma treated by wide local excision, the principal complain in both patients was the presence of an anal mass and bleeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal melanoma is a rare entity with a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19666318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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59. Squires J: Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2009 Dec;13(6):638-42
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  • [Title] Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer.
  • Anal fissures are a side effect of targeted therapies that can disrupt or stop treatment regimens.
  • Diagnosis and management of anal fissures by advanced practice nurses are crucial for maintaining the quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19948462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-067X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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60. Rivero Fernández M, García Martos M, Sanz Moya P, Vázquez Romero M, Fernández Amago MT, García Benayas MT, Sánchez-Pobre Bejarano P: [Kaposi's sarcoma with colorectal and anal canal involvement]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Aug-Sep;33(7):508-11
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma with colorectal and anal canal involvement].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma de Kaposi con afectación colorrectal y del canal anal.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade vascular tumor, with four main variants, one of which is fairly prevalent in HIV-infected patients.
  • The gastrointestinal tract is involved in 40% of patients, but rectal and anal canal involvement is exceptional.
  • We report the case of a 39-year-old HIV-infected man with an unusual presentation of KS with colorectal and anal canal involvement in the absence of cutaneous disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Colorectal Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Sarcoma, Kaposi

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  • [Copyright] .
  • (PMID = 20630624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Aguirre-Hernández J, Polton G, Kennedy LJ, Sargan DR: Association between anal sac gland carcinoma and dog leukocyte antigen-DQB1 in the English Cocker Spaniel. Tissue Antigens; 2010 Dec;76(6):476-81
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  • [Title] Association between anal sac gland carcinoma and dog leukocyte antigen-DQB1 in the English Cocker Spaniel.
  • Anal sac gland carcinomas occur frequently in English Cocker Spaniels and, to a lesser extent, in other spaniel breeds.
  • The disease typically presents in dogs aged 8 years or older and frequently metastasises to the local lymph nodes.
  • The association between anal sac gland carcinoma in English Cocker Spaniels and the major histocompatibility complex class II loci (the dog leukocyte antigen loci DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) was investigated in 42 cases and 75 controls.
  • This is the second disease in English Cocker Spaniels for which the most common DLA-DQB1 allele in the breed has been shown to have a higher frequency in cases than controls, while the second most common allele in the breed (*02001) has a significantly higher frequency in the controls, compared with the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / immunology. Gene Frequency / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / immunology. Neoplasms / immunology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 20727114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0039
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue antigens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Antigens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
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62. Czito BG, Pepek JM, Meyer JJ, Yoo S, Willett CG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1082-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • The contemporary treatment of anal cancer is combined-modality therapy with radiation therapy, fluorouracil, and mitomycin.
  • This therapy results in long-term disease-free survival and sphincter preservation in the majority of patients.
  • Tempering these positive results is the high rate of treatment-related morbidity associated with chemoradiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce acute and chronic treatment-related toxicity, minimize treatment breaks, and potentially improve disease-related outcomes by permitting radiation dose escalation in selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1092, 1094, 1096 [20017292.001]
  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1096, 1098 [20017293.001]
  • (PMID = 20017291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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63. Donigan M, Norcross LS, Aversa J, Colon J, Smith J, Madero-Visbal R, Li S, McCollum N, Ferrara A, Gallagher JT, Baker CH: Novel murine model for colon cancer: non-operative trans-anal rectal injection. J Surg Res; 2009 Jun 15;154(2):299-303

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel murine model for colon cancer: non-operative trans-anal rectal injection.
  • Different magnifications (10x versus 100x) were used for injection, and primary tumor growth and metastatic disease were studied.
  • RESULTS: In the initial study, 3/7 mice injected using 10x magnifications had notable, large tumor originating from the rectal wall, and histology revealed that all excised tumors were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • In the second study, 8/10 mice injected using 100x magnifications had notable tumor originating from the rectal well, and 4/8 mice had abnormal lung tissue with pathological evidence of hemorrhagic pulmonary edema.
  • The use of 10x magnification resulted in 43% tumor take.
  • In sharp contrast, 80% tumor take was observed with 100x magnification.
  • The overall success of tumor take was 65% using the trans-anal rectal injection model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation / methods. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Injections / methods. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19101690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Chin-Hong PV, Berry JM, Cheng SC, Catania JA, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Fishman F, Jay N, Pollack LM, Palefsky JM: Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med; 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in prevalence and is more common among men who have sex with men and HIV-positive individuals than cervical cancer is among women in the United States.
  • Cytology screening can detect the anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of self-collected versus clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to detect biopsy-confirmed AIN and the prevalence estimate of AIN in a community sample.
  • Participants were mailed anal cytology self-collection kits with instructions.
  • Clinicians repeated anal cytology and performed high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies as the diagnostic reference standard.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of anal HPV and AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of self-collected and clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to diagnose AIN were calculated.
  • Given limited resources and the limited number of clinicians trained in anoscopy, cytology screening may be the best current approach to identifying disease in the at-risk population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Homosexuality. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. San Francisco / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5 [19221387.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):I38 [18765696.001]
  • (PMID = 18765699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH54320
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Spugnini EP, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, Bufalini M, Giannini G, Citro G, Feroce F, Baldi A: Adjuvant electrochemotherapy for incompletely excised anal sac carcinoma in a dog. In Vivo; 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):47-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant electrochemotherapy for incompletely excised anal sac carcinoma in a dog.
  • Canine anal sac gland carcinoma (ASGC) is a frequently described neoplasm that is highly aggressive and can frequently lead to metastatic spread.
  • In this paper, we describe the successful treatment of an incompletely excised ASGC by using cisplatin selectively driven within the tumor cells by trains of biphasic pulses.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anal Sacs / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Electrochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dogs. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18396781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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66. Lepistö A, Kärkkäinen P, Järvinen HJ: Prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2008 Jun;14(6):775-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.
  • METHODS: The study sample included 441 consecutive patients who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis from 1993 to 2004 at the Helsinki University Central Hospital.
  • The failure rate of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis did not significantly differ between the 2 groups.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / etiology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Cholangiocarcinoma / etiology. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Pouchitis / etiology. Prevalence. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18253951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0998
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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68. Karandikar SS, Borley A, Crosby T, Williams G, Reynolds S, Radcliffe AG: A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales. Colorectal Dis; 2006 May;8(4):266-72
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  • [Title] A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales.
  • OBJECTIVES: A retrospective audit has been undertaken of Squamous (epidermoid) type of anal cancer diagnosed and treated in the principality of Wales over a five-year period (1995-99) with follow-up until 2005.
  • Twenty-six anal cancers were diagnosed per year in the region.
  • Ten percent had documented perianal Human Papilloma Virus related disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is a unique regional audit of anal cancer.
  • This study concurs that Human Papilloma Virus appears to predispose to Squamous anal cancer.
  • As recommended by NICE all patients should be referred to a multidisciplinary anal cancer team, which can provide individual treatment plans.
  • Increased specialization could mean specialist regional MDTs for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16630228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Cotter SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Malyapa RS, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Wang X, Abbey E, Tan B, Kodner IJ, Hunt SR, Lowney JK, Mutch MG, Dietz DW, Myerson RJ: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):720-5
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy.
  • In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT.
  • RESULTS: [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%.
  • CONCLUSION: [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16626889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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70. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.
  • On a per lesion basis, 73% of AIN 1 and 71% AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesion or AIN 1 or less, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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71. Takashima A, Shimada Y, Hamaguchi T, Ito Y, Masaki T, Yamaguchi S, Kondo Y, Saito N, Kato T, Ohue M, Higashino M, Moriya Y, Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group: Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):416-20
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  • [Title] Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: In Western countries, chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is well established as the standard therapy for stages II/III anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC).
  • In Japan, the therapeutic modalities for and outcomes of this disease have not been clarified because ASCC is quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] AIDS. 1994 Mar;8(3):283-95 [8031509.001]
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  • (PMID = 19856049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Investigator] Kondo Y; Ohtsuka K; Shiiba K; Sato T; Yoshimi F; Kotake K; Sawada T; Mochizuki H; Konishi F; Saito N; Moriya Y; Masaki T; Aoki T; Takahashi K; Hasegawa H; Kenichi S; Sumiyama Y; Sato T; Akaike M; Kudo S; Yamada T; Munakata Y; Shigeski Y; Kato T; Maeda K; Koizumi K; Monden M; Ohue M; Higashino M; Tanigawa M; Fukunaga M; Kato T; Okamura S; Kimura H; Okajima M; Takakura N; Tanada M; Shirouzu K; Kitano S
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72. Bernard JE, Butler MO, Sandweiss L, Weidner N: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):215-20
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization.
  • Accurate diagnosis and grading of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) can be problematic, especially in separating AIN from anal transitional-zone epithelium.
  • To investigate if p16 would help in more accurately diagnosing and grading AIN, particularly when attempting to distinguish benign transitional-zone epithelium from high-grade AIN, we separately assessed these stains in a blinded manner on a large number of consecutive anal biopsies and anal tissues and correlated the findings with the diagnosis and grade of AIN.
  • One hundred thirty-three consecutive anal tissue specimens, from 128 patients were studied.
  • One hundred and eight were anal biopsies and 25 were hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • We conclude that the correlation between AIN and p16 and HPV is strong enough to be quite useful in distinguishing true AIN from benign mimics, such as benign transitional-zone epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 18301250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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73. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Yokoi K, Oguro T, Oaki Y, Ishiwata T, Naito Z, Tajiri T: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from recurrent anal fistula. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Aug;74(4):319-24
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma arising from recurrent anal fistula.
  • Here, we report on a patient with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from recurrent anal fistula.
  • Six months before her admission to our hospital, anal pain developed.
  • She had no history of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Physical examination revealed three external fistulous openings at the two o'clock position, 2 cm from the anal verge.
  • Microscopic examination showed SCC arising from the anal fistula, which was accompanied by vessel invasion.
  • The tumor was observed to be continuous from the external opening but was not exposed to the internal opening of the rectal mucosa.
  • Urological examination revealed urinary bladder cancer, and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical tumor specimens for p53, MLH1, and MSH2 was performed.
  • The tumor specimens showed no MLH1 expression but did show normal MSH2 expression. p53 was not expressed.
  • Five microsatellite loci were examined using the tumor specimens to detect MSI, namely two loci with mononucleotide runs (i.e., BAT25 and BAT26) and three loci with dinucleotide repeats (i.e., APC, Mfd15, and D2S123).
  • The tumor specimens showed alternations in the repeated sequences of two loci (i.e., BAT26 and D2S123).
  • As a result, the tumor was classified as MSI-H (high) according to the Bethesda criteria.
  • Our patient had MSI and one of the smallest reported SCCs arising from recurrent anal fistulae.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Rectal Fistula / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Recurrence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17878704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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74. Wisniewski B, Vuong PN, Balaton A, Bauer P, Brugger S, Janzen J: [Anal metastasis from a lung cancer]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2006 Mar;30(3):471-2
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  • [Title] [Anal metastasis from a lung cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase anale d'un cancer broncho-pulmonaire.
  • We report an anal metastasis from a lung cancer which was diagnosed on symptoms mimicking an acute anal abcess.
  • The diagnosis was based on specific immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16633316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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75. Doniec JM, Schniewind B, Kovács G, Kahlke V, Loehnert M, Kremer B: Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy. Surg Endosc; 2006 Apr;20(4):673-8
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  • [Title] Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The most appropriate therapy for anal cancer is external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with chemotherapy (CTX).
  • We report on our experience of combined modality therapy of anal cancer and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided high-dose rate (HDR) afterloading therapy, referring to results of a study published in 1998 by the coauthors.
  • METHODS: From 1993 to 2001, 50 patients with anal cancer were treated.
  • RESULTS: In five patients (10%), tumor recurrence occurred or the tumor did not respond to therapy, and four (8%) developed distant lymph nodes or organ metastases.
  • Specific disease-related 5-year survival was 82%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TRUS-guided brachytherapy permits excellent local tumor control and results in minimal treatment-related morbidity.
  • Consequently, TRUS-guided brachytherapy may be a useful addition to current combined modality treatment regimens for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy. Endosonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Fecal Incontinence / epidemiology. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retreatment. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16432657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • Additional changes to the chemotherapy dosing, such as giving 5-FU continuously and decreasing mitomycin dose, are evaluated and considered in relation to radiation field sizes in an effort to reduce toxicity, maintain local tumor control, and limit need for colostomy.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


77. Stieler F, Wolff D, Lohr F, Steil V, Abo-Madyan Y, Lorenz F, Wenz F, Mai S: A fast radiotherapy paradigm for anal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Radiat Oncol; 2009;4:48
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  • [Title] A fast radiotherapy paradigm for anal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) volumes for anal cancer are large and of moderate complexity when organs at risk (OAR) such as testis, small bowel and bladder are at least partially to be shielded.
  • Volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT) might provide OAR-shielding comparable to step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for this tumor entity with better treatment efficiency.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on treatment planning CTs of 8 patients, we compared dose distributions, comformality index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TTT) for plans generated for VMAT, 3D-CRT and step-and-shoot-IMRT (optimized based on Pencil Beam (PB) or Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation) for typical anal cancer planning target volumes (PTV) including inguinal lymph nodes as usually treated during the first phase (0-36 Gy) of a shrinking field regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19852856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774855
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78. Sarma N, Boler AK, Bhattacharya SR: Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 Sep-Oct;75(5):551
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  • [Title] Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin.
  • Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella.
  • In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Porokeratosis / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19736460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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79. Koda K, Yasuda H, Hirano A, Kosugi C, Suzuki M, Yamazaki M, Tezuka T, Higuchi R, Tsuchiya H, Saito N: Evaluation of postoperative damage to anal sphincter/levator ani muscles with three-dimensional vector manometry after sphincter-preserving operation for rectal cancer. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Mar;208(3):362-7
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  • [Title] Evaluation of postoperative damage to anal sphincter/levator ani muscles with three-dimensional vector manometry after sphincter-preserving operation for rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine correlations between pressure profile of the anal canal and postoperative defecatory disorder after sphincter-preserving operation (SPO) for rectal cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Using three-dimensional vector manometry, pressure profile and length of the anal canal were evaluated more than 1 year after SPO according to operation method and degree of postoperative defecatory function in 53 patients with rectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Compared with high anterior resection as a control, the anal canal was shorter in operations with a pelvic floor maneuver, namely, low anterior resection, ultra-low anterior resection, and intersphincteric resection.
  • Patients with postoperative defecatory disorder showed significantly shorter anal canal length than patients with fair function.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Operative maneuvers at the pelvic floor during SPO for rectal cancer may damage anal sphincter or levator ani muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / injuries. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Fecal Incontinence / diagnosis. Manometry / methods. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Wounds, Penetrating / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19317997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Tougeron D, Tougeron-Brousseau B, Nasser Z, Benzerroug M, Lefebure B, Hamidou H, Michel P, Muraine M: Unusual iris metastasis from anal cancer: a case report. Dig Liver Dis; 2009 Jul;41(7):e1-3
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  • [Title] Unusual iris metastasis from anal cancer: a case report.
  • We report a case of anal cancer with iris metastasis and summarize the iris metastasis literature.
  • A 69 years old woman with a history of anal cancer presented with a visual field loss.
  • A review of medical records was performed to assess the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Anal carcinoma can metastasize to the iris.
  • Radiotherapy allows a good local control of tumour but the prognosis depends on systemic disease which is generally bad.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18294934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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81. Baik SH, Kim NK, Lee KY, Sohn SK, Cho CH: Analysis of anal sphincter preservation rate according to tumor level and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Jan;12(1):176-82
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  • [Title] Analysis of anal sphincter preservation rate according to tumor level and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.
  • The anal sphincter preservation rate (ASPR) according to tumor level and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherpy (CRT) has not been fully evaluated.
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the tumor level, neoadjuvant CRT, and the ASPR in rectal cancer patients.
  • We studied 544 patients (tumor level, 0-6 cm) who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer between 1991 and 2005.
  • Patients were divided six into groups according to tumor level over 1-cm intervals, and the ASPR was evaluated in patients with and without neoadjuvant CRT according to tumor level.
  • In an analysis according to tumor level, the ASPR was 0.0 vs 0.0% in <or=1 cm, 0.0 vs 2.1% in 1<or=2 cm (P=0.589), 11.8 vs 16.8% in 2<or=3 cm (P=0.599), 55.6 vs 20.2% in 3<or=4 cm (P=0.001), 57.7 vs 45.9% in 4<or=5 cm (P=0.227), and 66.7 vs 69.5% in 5<or=6 cm (P=0.827).
  • Neoadjuvant CRT did not increase the ASPR in tumor level within <or=6 cm.
  • However, for the tumor level (3<or=4 cm), neoadjuvant CRT significantly increased the ASPR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17694418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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82. Ho KS, Cranston RD: Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now? Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2010 Feb;23(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now?
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss current and future anal cytology screening programs to detect anal dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), in addition to other interventions aimed at early detection of anal cancer in this population.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence of progression from high-grade anal dysplasia to anal cancer has been recently demonstrated and strengthens the clinical imperative to diagnose and treat this lesion in at-risk populations.
  • The use of adjunct molecular techniques that improve specificity of anal cytology screening may have the potential to rationalize current screening referral pathways and focus resources on those at highest risk of progressing to cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Anal cytology, although sensitive for the detection of any anal dysplastic abnormality, has poor specificity to detect high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • As new molecular techniques are evolving, the most important immediate clinical intervention is to educate HIV-positive MSM in order to increase awareness of both risk and clinical symptoms suggestive of progression to anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. HIV Infections / pathology. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 19935419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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83. Canda AE, Terzi C, Gorken IB, Oztop I, Sokmen S, Fuzun M: Effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on anal sphincter functions and quality of life in rectal cancer patients. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Feb;25(2):197-204
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  • [Title] Effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on anal sphincter functions and quality of life in rectal cancer patients.
  • Significant reduction in anal canal resting pressures and squeeze pressures, Wexner score, and FIQL score were observed immediately after the completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / drug effects. Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Quality of Life. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19784660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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84. Colvin M, Delis A, Bracamonte E, Villar H, Leon LR Jr: Infiltrating adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma of the anal canal. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 28;15(28):3560-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infiltrating adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma of the anal canal.
  • Primary neoplasms arising in the anal canal are relatively unusual.
  • We describe an infiltrating, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma from the distal anal canal, in an otherwise healthy patient at low risk for gastrointestinal malignancy.
  • Examination revealed a blood-covered pedunculated mass with a long stalk protruding from the anus.
  • This was further evaluated under anesthesia and complete excision of distal anal tissue was performed.
  • Our report is the first describing the possible malignant degeneration of a villous adenoma in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19630115.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2715986
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85. Karnon J, Jones R, Czoski-Murray C, Smith KJ: Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer. J Public Health (Oxf); 2008 Sep;30(3):293-304
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cost-utility analysis of screening for anal cancer in high-risk groups from a UK perspective.
  • METHODS: Criteria for the assessment of screening programmes were combined in a Markov model representing the natural history of anal cancer and HIV infection in the UK population of men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Sensitivity analyses identified two important parameters: regression from low-grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and utility effects.
  • Increased AIN regression rates resulted in a minimum incremental cost per QALY gained of 39,405 pounds, whereas a best case scenario reduced the ratio to 20,996 pounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Public Health (Oxf). 2009 Mar;31(1):194
  • (PMID = 18559368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-3850
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of public health (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Public Health (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Ten patients have died of disease.
  • Tumour size was the main factor driving outcomes, especially survival.
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Sahai A, Kodner IJ: Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):88-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin.
  • Premalignant and malignant lesions of the anal margin are rare.
  • Understanding anal anatomy and performing a biopsy of any suspicious lesions are essential in avoiding a delay in diagnosis and appropriately treating these tumors.
  • Combined multimodality treatment has come to play an important role in managing patient with more advanced or metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 20011315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780101
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anus neoplasms / Bowen's disease / Paget's disease / squamous cell cancer
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88. Orlando G, Beretta R, Fasolo MM, Amendola A, Bianchi S, Mazza F, Rizzardini G, Tanzi E: Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males. Vaccine; 2009 May 29;27 Suppl 1:A24-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer are closely related to infection from high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes.
  • Since HPVs involved in disease progression are reported to vary by geographical regions, this study focuses on HPV genotypes spectrum in 289 males attending a Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) unit according to their nationality.
  • Anal cytology, Digene Hybrid Capture Assay (HC2) and HPV genotyping were evaluated in 226 Italian (IT) and 63 foreign born (FB) subjects, recruited between January 2003 and December 2006.
  • FB people were younger (median 32y-IQR 27-35 vs 36y-IQR 31-43, respectively; Mann-Whitney test p<0.0001) and had a higher rate of abnormal results (>or=atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)) on anal cytology (95.0% vs 84.04%) (p=0.032; OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.04-1.23).
  • HPV-16 is by far the most common genotype found in anal cytological samples independently from nationality while differences in distribution of other HPV genotypes were observed.
  • The relative contribution of each HPV genotype in the development of pre-neoplastic disease to an early age in the FB group cannot be argued by this study and more extensive epidemiological evaluations are needed to define the influence of each genotype and the association with the most prevalent high-risk HPVs on cytological intraepithelial lesions development.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. DNA, Viral / genetics. Genotype. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19480957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2518
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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89. Fox PA: Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):62-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A review of recent developments in the understanding of the natural history of anal squamous carcinoma arising from areas of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a consequence of chronic human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal and appears to be driven by high viral loads of human papillomavirus.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is equally prevalent in different age groups of men who have sex with men, but in other respects what is known of its natural history resembles that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HIV-positives who practise receptive anal intercourse are at highest risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Screening is easy to perform using cytology; the limitations of anal cytology being similar to those of cervical cytology.
  • Topical agents for multifocal disease include imiquimod and cidofovir.
  • SUMMARY: There is a need for large prospective cohort studies in men who have sex with men and HIV-positive patients to further our understanding of this disease and to evaluate treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 16374220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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90. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett CG: Prognostic factors derived from a prospective database dictate clinical biology of anal cancer: the intergroup trial (RTOG 98-11). Cancer; 2010 Sep 1;116(17):4007-13
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors derived from a prospective database dictate clinical biology of anal cancer: the intergroup trial (RTOG 98-11).
  • BACKGROUND: Only 4 prospective randomized phase 3 trials have been reported for anal cancer.
  • A prognostic factor analysis for anal cancer from a prospective database has been published from only 1 study (N = 110).
  • METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses of the baseline characteristics for 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were carried out.
  • Various combinations of tumor diameter and clinically positive nodes (N(+)) were analyzed to identify subgroups.
  • Tumor diameter >5 cm was associated with poorer 5-year DFS (P = .0003) and poorer 5-year OS (P = .0031), and N(+) was associated with poorer 5-year DFS (P </= .0001) and poorer 5-year OS (P = </= .0001) in the multivariate analysis.
  • In stratified analyses, N(+) had more adverse influence on DFS and OS than did tumor diameter.
  • Patients with >5-cm tumor and N(+) had the worst DFS (only 30% at 3 years compared with 74% for the best group; <5 cm primary and N0) and OS (only 48% at 4 years compared with 81% for the best group; <5 cm primary and N0).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This prospective prognostic factor analysis establishes tumor diameter as an independent prognosticator of poorer 5-year DFS and OS and confirms N(+) and male sex as poor prognostic factors.

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  • [Copyright] Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20564111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003596
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025741; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA129906-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA37422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA129906; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129906-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA172741; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032115
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS189746; NLM/ PMC3831519
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91. Sato M, Ogawa H, Shibata C, Miura K, Ando T, Saijo F, Haneda S, Kakyo M, Kinouchi M, Fukushima K, Funayama Y, Takahashi K, Sasaki I: [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Jun;107(6):885-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration].
  • Infliximab is effective in the treatment of steroid-resistant Crohn disease.
  • We report a case of anorectal cancer in long-standing perianal Crohn disease.
  • A 34-year-old patient with a long-standing perianal lesion of Crohn disease underwent 3 sessions of infliximab therapy.
  • Monitoring of patients with long-standing perianal Crohn disease is considered essential for early diagnosis of anal cancer after obtaining biopsy samples from perianal lesions.
  • Additionally, when infliximab is started for perianal Crohn disease, thorough examination for perianal lesion should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20530924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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92. Lee J, Corman M: Recurrence of anal adenocarcinoma after local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy: report of a case and review of the literature. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jan;13(1):150-4
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  • [Title] Recurrence of anal adenocarcinoma after local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumors arising from the anal canal are rare, comprising 1.5% of all gastrointestinal tumors in the USA.
  • The vast majority of these anal cancers are epidermoid (cloacogenic/basaloid and squamous cell carcinomas), while adenocarcinomas reportedly occur 5% to 19% of the time.
  • Because of its rarity, reports about anal adenocarcinoma are limited to small retrospective studies and case reports.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of recurrent anal adenocarcinoma after conservative management with local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Colectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18810561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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93. Saarilahti K, Arponen P, Vaalavirta L, Tenhunen M: The effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high dose rate brachytherapy on acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following chemoradiotherapy of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):383-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] The effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high dose rate brachytherapy on acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following chemoradiotherapy of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of anal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine consecutive patients treated by chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous cell cancer were evaluated for acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events.
  • In 29 patients, the boost dose to the primary tumour was given by HDR brachytherapy: 30 patients were treated only by external radiotherapy.
  • A correlation between the equivalent dose in 2Gy fractions (EQD2) at the wall of anal canal opposite to the tumour and radiation proctitis was observed.
  • In patients that received the final boost dose to the primary tumour by HDR brachytherapy, a trend towards lower incidence of radiation proctitis was observed (P=0.065).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT significantly reduces acute radiotherapy-associated adverse events in patients treated by chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18501454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


95. Wexler A, Berson AM, Goldstone SE, Waltzman R, Penzer J, Maisonet OG, McDermott B, Rescigno J: Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):73-81
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  • [Title] Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in patients with HIV is increasing.
  • We report the outcome after combined chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous-cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two HIV-positive patients treated at the St. Vincent's Cancer Care Center for anal squamous-cell carcinoma from 1997 through mid 2005 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Overall survival, anal cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and toxicity were assessed.
  • Five-year locoregional relapse, anal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 16 , 75, and 65 percent, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis, locoregional recurrence, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were all significantly associated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after chemoradiotherapy for HIV-related anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy is comparable to outcome in patients without HIV.
  • Earlier diagnosis and risk-adapted therapy could lead to improved survival and decreased treatment-related morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


96. Patel H, Polanco-Echeverry G, Segditsas S, Volikos E, McCart A, Lai C, Guenther T, Zaitoun A, Sieber O, Ilyas M, Northover J, Silver A: Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2668-73
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  • [Title] Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered as an important aetiological factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) but is not sufficient for tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Mutation. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Amino Acid Substitution. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutagenesis, Insertional. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sequence Deletion. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17721920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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97. Chen YW, Yen SH, Chen SY, Huang PI, Shiau CY, Liu YM, Lin JK, Wang LW: Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct 1;96(5):374-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Review of 42 patients (24 M/18 F; median age, 70 years; range, 13-95) with stage I-IIIB disease (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC], 33; adenocarcinoma, 9) who received curative radiotherapy between 1991 and 2004.
  • Radiotherapy comprised lower-pelvis irradiation with boost to primary tumor (median lower-pelvis dose, 45 Gy; range, 17.2-59; median primary-site dose, 56 Gy; range, 40-72).
  • The complete response rate was 67% (SqCC, 23/33; adenocarcinoma, 5/9); of 12 patients who failed treatment, primary tumor was the recurrent site in seven (median failure time, 5 months): six patients underwent salvage abdominoperineal resection.
  • Three-year overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 53% and 64%.
  • Five-year functional anus-preservation rate was 64%.
  • CONCLUSION: With careful monitoring of toxicity, non-surgical anus-preservation treatment with good tumor control is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17492635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Grabenbauer GG, Lahmer G, Distel L, Niedobitek G: Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3355-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are a possible prognostic factor in solid tumors.
  • We have evaluated the effect of T-cell subsets on survival in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma following radiochemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 38 patients with anal carcinomas were evaluated using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry for the presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells using CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 antibodies.
  • Prognostic effect of TIL subsets was evaluated by the log-rank test comparing no evidence of disease survival for groups with high and low numbers using median values as cutoff.
  • RESULTS: CD3+ and CD4+ TILs influenced no evidence of disease survival: 3-year rates for patients with low numbers were 89% and 95%, respectively, and 54% (P = 0.02) and 48%, (P = 0.01), respectively, in cases with high numbers.
  • Large numbers of tumor-infiltrating granzyme B+ cytotoxic cells had a significant negative prognostic effect (P = 0.008), whereas no effect was observed for Treg.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TILs were identified as negative prognostic indicators in anal squamous cell carcinomas with granzyme B+ cytotoxic cells showing highest effect on outcome.
  • This is possibly explained by the selection of therapy-resistant tumor cell clones.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16740757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Laurent A, Parc Y, McNamara D, Parc R, Tiret E: Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis for rectal cancer: a prospective, randomized study comparing handsewn vs. stapled anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Apr;48(4):729-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis for rectal cancer: a prospective, randomized study comparing handsewn vs. stapled anastomosis.
  • PURPOSE: Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis performed after complete proctectomy and total mesorectal excision for adenocarcinoma of the rectum can be handsewn or stapled.
  • The two groups were comparable for age, gender, distance between the tumor and the levator ani, tumor volume, and use of preoperative radiotherapy (3 in each group).
  • Mean +/- standard deviation operative time was shorter in stapled group (261 +/- 40 minutes) than in handsewn group (314 +/- 46 minutes; P = 0.0008), and median distance between the anastomosis and the anal verge was shorter in handsewn group (19 +/- 9 mm) than in stapled group (27 +/- 8 mm; P = 0.01).
  • Number of stools per 24 hours, urgency, incidence of fragmented stools, degree of continence, requirement for protective pad, and/or need to take medication at 3, 6, and 12 months were similar in both groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Colonic Pouches. Postoperative Complications. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Suture Techniques. Sutures

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  • (PMID = 15719189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Chaiyachati K, Cinti SK, Kauffman CA, Riddell J: HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2008 Nov-Dec;7(6):306-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases.
  • We describe 2 patients who had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and who first developed human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma and later, oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Careful screening for oral cancers may be indicated in HIV-infected patients with HPV-associated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Papillomavirus Infections / complications






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