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1. Spugnini EP, Filipponi M, Romani L, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, Baroni A, Ruocco E, Laieta MT, Montesarchio V, Cassandro R, Citro G, Baldi A: Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma. In Vivo; 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):897-9
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  • [Title] Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma.
  • Canine anal melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm that rapidly leads to constipation in dogs, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / pathology. Electrochemotherapy. Melanoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18019432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Sherwani RK, Kumar A, Raza MH: Haemorrhoids or anal melanoma, importance of preoperative histopathological examination: a case report. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(1):46-8
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  • [Title] Haemorrhoids or anal melanoma, importance of preoperative histopathological examination: a case report.
  • Haemorrhoids are the most common lesion affecting the anorectal region, whereas anal melanoma constitutes only 1% to 3% of all malignant tumours of anal canal.
  • We report a case of a female with classical clinical presentation of prolapsed haemorrhoids which on histopathological evaluation was found to be malignant melanoma.
  • The case highlights the significance of exact diagnosis prior to any surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhoids. Melanoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms. Humans. Rectum. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20496274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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3. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.

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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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4. Satzger I, Küttler U, Völker B, Schenck F, Kapp A, Gutzmer R: Anal mucosal melanoma with KIT-activating mutation and response to imatinib therapy--case report and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(1):77-81
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  • [Title] Anal mucosal melanoma with KIT-activating mutation and response to imatinib therapy--case report and review of the literature.
  • Recently 12 cases of metastatic melanoma and KIT-activating mutations have been published to be successfully treated with c-KIT blockers such as imatinib, sunitinib, dasatinib or sorafenib.
  • We report here on one of our patients with KIT-activating mutation in metastatic anal mucosal melanoma, who showed a response to imatinib therapy and summarize the available literature regarding this new therapeutic option.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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5. Govindarajan B, Sligh JE, Vincent BJ, Li M, Canter JA, Nickoloff BJ, Rodenburg RJ, Smeitink JA, Oberley L, Zhang Y, Slingerland J, Arnold RS, Lambeth JD, Cohen C, Hilenski L, Griendling K, Martínez-Diez M, Cuezva JM, Arbiser JL: Overexpression of Akt converts radial growth melanoma to vertical growth melanoma. J Clin Invest; 2007 Mar;117(3):719-29
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  • [Title] Overexpression of Akt converts radial growth melanoma to vertical growth melanoma.
  • Melanoma is the cancer with the highest increase in incidence, and transformation of radial growth to vertical growth (i.e., noninvasive to invasive) melanoma is required for invasive disease and metastasis.
  • We have previously shown that p42/p44 MAP kinase is activated in radial growth melanoma, suggesting that further signaling events are required for vertical growth melanoma.
  • Akt, a signaling molecule downstream of PI3K, was introduced into the radial growth WM35 melanoma in order to test whether Akt overexpression is sufficient to accomplish this transformation.
  • We demonstrated that Akt was associated with malignant transformation of melanoma through at least 2 mechanisms.
  • Targeting Akt and ROS may be of therapeutic importance in treatment of advanced melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 17318262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27502; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR02030; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59327; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA059327; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.6.- / Nox4 protein, rat; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797605
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6. Wietfeldt ED, Thiele J: Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):127-35
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  • [Title] Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin.
  • Malignancies of the anal margin and perianal skin are relatively uncommon lesions, comprising 3 to 4% of all anorectal malignancies.
  • Commonly included in this group of cancers are Bowen's disease (intraepithelial squamous cell cancer), perianal Paget's disease (intraepithelial adenocarcinoma), invasive squamous cell cancer, basal cell cancer, and malignant melanoma.
  • Proper diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion on the part of the surgeon.
  • Innocent local irritations will resolve in a short time with appropriate therapy; those that persist must be biopsied for tissue diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20436838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780245
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal margin cancer / diagnosis / local excision / radiation therapy / treatment options
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7. Sanli Y, Turkmen C, Kurul S, Taş F, Mudun A, Cantez S: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;20(9):629-31
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases.
  • Primary melanoma of the anal region is a rare pathological entity and its prognosis is generally poor.
  • The aim of this report is to demonstrate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with combined technique in patients with anal melanoma.
  • We report of two cases with anal melanoma that had wide local excision of the primary lesion and was referred for further evaluation.
  • Consequently, we suggest that SLN procedure with combined technique is also a useful technique in malignant melanomas similar to other anal canal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17294674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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8. Haddow J, Muthapati D, Arshad I, Gupta M, Agarwal P: Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Aug;12(4):303-4
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  • [Title] Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma.
  • A 58-year-old Caucasian woman with bleeding per rectum had a melanoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Jun;40(6):661-8 [9194459.001]
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  • (PMID = 17701012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Podnos YD, Tsai NC, Smith D, Ellenhorn JD: Factors affecting survival in patients with anal melanoma. Am Surg; 2006 Oct;72(10):917-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors affecting survival in patients with anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is an aggressive tumor with a predilection for early infiltration and distant spread, resulting in poor overall survival.
  • Because anal melanoma is rare, only small case series are reported in the literature, making it difficult to draw conclusions about optimal treatment and outcome.
  • The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify patients with anal melanomas from 1973 to 2001.
  • In addition to demographics, disease extent at presentation, treatment administered, overall survival, and survival by decade of diagnosis were collected.
  • A total of 126 patients with a mean age of 69.2 years was diagnosed with anal melanoma.
  • Neither age at diagnosis, operation performed, nor use of radiation significantly affected survival.
  • Anal melanoma remains an uncommon but lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17058735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Kiran RP, Rottoli M, Pokala N, Fazio VW: Long-term outcomes after local excision and radical surgery for anal melanoma: data from a population database. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Apr;53(4):402-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcomes after local excision and radical surgery for anal melanoma: data from a population database.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is rare and associated with a poor outcome.
  • This study evaluates survival of patients undergoing surgery for anal melanoma from a prospective, population-based database.
  • METHODS: Characteristics and survival of patients undergoing rectal resection or local excision for anal melanoma of the anus, anal canal, and overlapping region of the rectum from 1982 to 2002 were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database and compared.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with anal melanoma is similar after local excision or rectal resection irrespective of whether patients have localized or regional stage of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20305438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Olsha O, Mintz A, Gimon Z, Gold Deutch R, Rabin I, Halevy A, Reissman P: Anal melanoma in the era of sentinel lymph node mapping: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Apr;9(1):60-2
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma in the era of sentinel lymph node mapping: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • Melanoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that often has an atypical presentation.
  • We explored the possibility of applying the technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping to anal melanoma.
  • SLN mapping was performed in 2 patients with anal melanoma.
  • One patient had a wide local excision of the anal lesion with house flap anoplasty, while the other had abdominoperineal resection with total mesorectal excision.
  • The technique of SLN mapping and biopsy is easily adapted to surgery for malignant melanoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15868503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Hanley KZ, Weiss SW, Logani S: Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jan;37(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive, fast, and accurate diagnostic method for the evaluation of patients with locally recurrent or distant metastases of malignant melanoma.
  • In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis is straightforward with the characteristic cytologic features well documented in the literature.
  • Divergent differentiation (chondroid, neural, myofibroblastic, and osteocartilagenous) in a melanoma is rare and can potentially create diagnostic challenges if the evaluator is unaware of the same.
  • We report a case of a 46-year-old female with a history of primary anal melanoma who presented with a groin mass.
  • The FNA of the groin mass showed a neoplasm rich in chondroid matrix and raised the possibility of a second primary mesenchymal neoplasm rather than metastasis from the patient's known primary anal melanoma.
  • A review of the histologic features of the anal melanoma showed divergent chondroid differentiation in the anal melanoma with the metastatic deposit in the groin exhibiting extensive chondroid differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cartilage / pathology. Inguinal Canal / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18973120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Homsi J, Garrett C: Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):1004-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive cancer.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with anal melanoma treated at the H.
  • Lee Moffitt Cancer and Research Institute between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed.
  • Published anal melanoma studies, including more than ten patients with outcome data, also were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified (8 percent of all cancer of the anal canal).
  • Four patients had nodal involvement, and one had bone metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Five of the 11 patients without metastatic disease relapsed or died within the first year of diagnosis (4 had local excision and 1 had abdominoperineal resection).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal melanoma is a rare and challenging disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17468984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Dickson MA, Carvajal RD, Shah M, Tse AN, Dials H, Cane LM, Schwartz GK: A phase I clinical trial of FOLFIRI in combination with the pancyclin-dependentkinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14511

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumor types: colorectal, gastric, HCC, GE junction, small bowel, pancreas, bile duct, breast, bladder, ovarian, sarcoma, melanoma, anal, urethral, thymic, head & neck, unknown primary.
  • Clinical activity included 2 partial responses (small bowel cancer, 10.3 m; bladder cancer, 10 m) and 1 complete response (mucosal melanoma 10.3 m).
  • Of 25 pts with colorectal cancer, 11 had as best response SD for > 3m (median 6 m, range 4.2-15.4 m), despite failing ≥ 1 irinotecan-containing regimen.
  • Promising clinical activity is seen in mucosal melanoma and irinotecan-refractory colon cancer. (Supported by NCI R01CA67819) [Table: see text].

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  • (PMID = 27963517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ramalingam G, Gan EY, Kutt-Sing W: Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anorectal melanoma: a case report and review of the literature. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Aug;19(4):e149-51
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anorectal melanoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Anal melanoma is a rare colorectal disease, accounting for 4% of all anal malignancies.
  • Here we report the first case of a patient with anorectal melanoma who was treated laparoscopically.
  • The literature on anorectal melanoma has been reviewed and controversy still surrounds the optimal treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19692869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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16. Belli F, Gallino GF, Lo Vullo S, Mariani L, Poiasina E, Leo E: Melanoma of the anorectal region: the experience of the National Cancer Institute of Milano. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Jul;35(7):757-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the anorectal region: the experience of the National Cancer Institute of Milano.
  • AIMS: This study describes the experience of the National Cancer Institute of Milano in the treatment of anorectal melanoma over the last 32 years.
  • However, even when a radical surgery was undergone, the prognosis of patients with anal melanoma remains dismal.
  • CONCLUSION: Prognosis of anal melanoma remains poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18602790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Martínez-Hernández-Magro P, Villanueva-Sáenz E, Chávez-Colunga LB: [Anal malignant melanoma. Case report and literature review]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(1):39-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal malignant melanoma. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma maligno anal. Reporte de casos y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present two cases of anorectal malignant melanoma as due to its non specific presentation and rarity they are often misdiagnosed like hemorrhoids.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal melanomas are rare tumors that constitute less than 1% of the malignant colorectal tumors and represent both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.
  • Melanomas are often misdiagnosed by a lot of anorectal conditions and diagnosis must be suspected in patients with an anal mass.
  • CASE REPORT: We present two anorectal cases of malignant melanoma treated by wide local excision, the principal complain in both patients was the presence of an anal mass and bleeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal melanoma is a rare entity with a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19666318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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18. Murrell ZA, Dixon MR, Vargas H, Arnell TD, Kumar R, Stamos MJ: Contemporary indications for and early outcomes of abdominoperineal resection. Am Surg; 2005 Oct;71(10):837-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The indications for operation were primary rectal cancer (n = 31), recurrent rectal cancer (n = 6), intractable Crohn disease (n = 3), anal melanoma (n = 1), cloacogenic cancer (n = 1), squamous cell cancer (n = 1), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1).
  • Despite the significant morbidity associated with this surgery, APR may provide beneficial treatment for select cases of low rectal cancer, end-stage inflammatory bowel disease, and anal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 16468531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Trzcinski R, Kujawski R, Mik M, Sygut A, Dziki L, Dziki A: Malignant melanoma of the anorectum--a rare entity. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Aug;395(6):757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anorectum--a rare entity.
  • OBJECTIVE: Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare entity with a poor prognosis accounting for approximately 0.1-4.6% of anal tumours and 0.5-1.6% of all melanomas.
  • Almost 60% of patients have already disseminated disease at initial diagnosis.
  • METHOD: We report four cases of anorectal melanoma treated at our department from November 2006 to September 2008, as well as a review of the literature.
  • Three patients died on account of dissemination of melanoma, one patient is still alive.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal melanoma remains a deadly problem.
  • Clear guidelines for the therapy of anorectal melanoma have not been established.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1997 Jun;40(6):661-8 [9194459.001]
  • [Cites] Radiology. 2004 Jul;232(1):181-6 [15220501.001]
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  • (PMID = 20066546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Huang ZM, Li HZ, Xiao H, Ji ZG: [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Apr 27;90(16):1123-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of melanoma adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: A total of 48 cases of malignant melanoma from 1985 to 2007 were reviewed.
  • And three cases of melanoma adrenal metastasis were analyzed.
  • Two cases had a history of cutaneous melanoma and another one suffered previously from anal melanoma.
  • The other two cases underwent complete resection of melanoma metastasis.
  • When contralateral adrenal metastasis of melanoma was found 6 months later, left adrenalectomy laparoscopically was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Melanoma metastasis to adrenal gland is rare and it generally has a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with adrenal metastases from melanoma, either isolated or with a limited number of additional metastases, may achieve a survival benefit from surgical resection if all visible lesions are removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20646432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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21. Yaramov N, Sokolov M, Angelov K, Petrov B, Pavlov V: [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2010;(2-3):5-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum].
  • There is approximately 300 cases of malignant melanoma written in the world literature.
  • We write up 13 operated from us for 15 years cases of melanoma of the anus and rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21972686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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22. Heyn J, Placzek M, Ozimek A, Baumgaertner AK, Siebeck M, Volkenandt M: Malignant melanoma of the anal region. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2007 Sep;32(5):603-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anal region.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) of the anal region is an uncommon disease.
  • Owing to delayed diagnosis and early metastases, the prognosis is often poor.
  • Anorectal melanomas (AM) are most common in the rectum, followed by the anal canal and anal verge.
  • The diagnosis of an AM is usually made using a biopsy.
  • Adjuvant immunohistological markers are the calcium-binding protein S-100, the melanoma antigen HMB-45, the melanoma-expressed protein Melan A, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF).
  • We report on a 39-year old man who presented with a 5-week history of recurrent prolapse of an anal tumour.
  • The tumour was histologically confirmed to be malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Melanoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17376215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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23. Solaz Moreno E, Vallalta Morales M, Silla Búrdalo G, Cervera Miguel JI, Díaz Beveridge R, Rayón Martín JM: [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 May;7(4):171-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma primario de recto: una neoplasia infrecuente con una forma de presentación atípica.
  • Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an extremely aggressive biological behaviour.
  • The main clinical presentations are local symptoms such as rectal bleeding, anal mass or pain, or a change in bowel habits.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2003 Dec;4(12):2205-11 [14640919.001]
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  • (PMID = 15960927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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24. Chatelain D, Mokrani N, Fléjou JF: [Anal and anal margin tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Dec;27(6):459-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal and anal margin tumors].
  • Tumors of the anal canal and anal margin are rare.
  • The other malignant tumors are very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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25. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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26. Stanojević G, Rancić Z, Jovanović M, Stojanović M, Mihailović D, Branković B: [Anal canal melanoma-- case report]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(3):83-5
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  • [Title] [Anal canal melanoma-- case report].
  • Anal canal melanoma is a rare disease comprising 1% of all colorectal ie. anal malignant tumours with very poor long term prognosis.
  • At the moment of diagnosis even 30% of the patients have distant metastases.
  • Modern approach to the anal canal melanoma treatment implies two types of intervention: wide local excision preserving the sphincter mechanism and abdominoperineal resection of the rectum.
  • The authors report on a 61 years old women in which anal canal melanoma with left inguinal lymphatic metastases was detected during the inspection of "haemorrhoids".
  • After the diagnosis was established, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed with dissection of both inguinal regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Melanoma

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  • (PMID = 17338206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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27. Shia J: An update on tumors of the anal canal. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1601-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update on tumors of the anal canal.
  • CONTEXT: The anal canal possesses complex anatomy and histology and gives rise to a variety of tumor types.
  • Challenging issues remain with regard to both the pathologic diagnosis and the clinical management of these tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated overview of the histogenesis, clinical and pathologic characteristics, diagnostic terminology, and relevant clinical management of the various types of anal canal tumors.
  • DATA SOURCES: Recent literature on clinical and pathologic characteristics of anal canal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although most anal canal tumors are of squamous lineage, a complex variety of other tumors also occurs.
  • Recognition of such diverse tumor entities will allow accurate pathologic diagnosis and most optimal clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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29. Quintás-Cardama A, Lazar AJ, Woodman SE, Kim K, Ross M, Hwu P: Complete response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma expressing KIT Val560Asp to the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):737-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complete response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma expressing KIT Val560Asp to the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Stage IV M1b metastatic anal mucosal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Melanoma / therapy. Pyridines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18936790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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30. Emms SG: Anal sac tumours of the dog and their response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Aust Vet J; 2005 Jun;83(6):340-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal sac tumours of the dog and their response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy.
  • A retrospective study of anal sac tumours without pulmonary metastases, from the author's clinical records for the period July 1989 to July 2002, was conducted to establish the response to treatment with surgery and melphalan chemotherapy.
  • Of 21 dogs with tumours of the anal sacs 19 had apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin, one had a benign papillary cystadenoma and another had a malignant melanoma.
  • Two of the 19 dogs had bilateral anal sac adenocarcinomas.
  • Ten of the 19 dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin had sublumbar lymphadenopathy.
  • Fourteen dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin were treated by surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy with melphalan.
  • Cytoreduction was by local excision of the anal sac in all 14 dogs and concurrent removal of the sublumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes in the seven dogs with regional lymph node metastases.
  • The median survival time of dogs with sublumbar nodal metastasis was 20 months and for dogs with tumour localised to the anal sac the median survival time was 29.3 months.
  • This study suggests there is a role for melphalan in the treatment of dogs with anal sac adenocarcinoma when combined with cytoreductive surgery, with treatment survival times and the local recurrence rate of the primary tumour comparing favourably with previously published treatment regimes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anal Sacs. Dog Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenoma, Papillary / veterinary. Dogs. Female. Male. Melanoma / veterinary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Records as Topic / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Victoria / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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31. Zhang S, Gao F, Chen LS, Tang ZJ, Liang JL, Wu Q: [Clinical analysis of anorectal malignant melanoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Jul;8(4):309-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinicopathological characteristics of primary anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM).
  • RESULTS: Anorectal malignant melanoma had a female predominance.
  • The onset of symptom was hematochezia, then anus prolapses.
  • 94.7% of patients had AMM within 5 cm from anus margin; the average tumor size was (3.3+/- 2.1) cm.
  • Mile's operation was performed in most of patients (63%), while anal resection was performed in 30% of the patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal malignant melanoma is often misdiagnosed,surgical procedure is the first choice for patients with AMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16167248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Lens M, Bataille V, Krivokapic Z: Melanoma of the small intestine. Lancet Oncol; 2009 May;10(5):516-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the small intestine.
  • Intestinal melanomas can be primary tumours or metastases of cutaneous, ocular, or anal melanomas.
  • Primary intestinal melanoma is extremely rare, whereas metastatic melanoma of the small bowel is common because of the tendency for cutaneous melanoma to metastasise to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Because distinguishing between primary and metastatic intestinal melanoma can be difficult, the main features of each are discussed, and the diagnostic images used to detect intestinal melanoma are assessed.
  • Routine barium examinations and CT have limited sensitivity, but PET imaging can improve detection of melanoma metastases to the small bowel.
  • Although various treatment strategies have been tried in patients with intestinal melanoma, surgical removal of intestinal metastases is the treatment of choice in patients with resectable tumours.
  • No systemic therapy improves survival in patients with melanoma metastatic to the intestines; thus, the prognosis for these patients is poor.
  • Patients with primary melanoma of the small intestine have a worse prognosis than do patients with metastases of cutaneous melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms. Intestine, Small. Melanoma

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  • (PMID = 19410196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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33. Koo JH, Kim HT, Yoon HY, Kwon KB, Choi IW, Jung SH, Kim HU, Park BH, Park JW: Effect of xanthohumol on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Exp Mol Med; 2008 Jun 30;40(3):313-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of xanthohumol on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells.
  • Xanthohumol (XH), the principal prenylflavonoid of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), dose-dependently inhibited isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells, with little cytotoxicity at the effective concentrations.
  • [MeSH-minor] 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation. Drug Antagonism. Flavonoids. Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / antagonists & inhibitors. Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / biosynthesis. Melanoma, Experimental. Membrane Glycoproteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Mice. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / biosynthesis. Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors. Monophenol Monooxygenase / biosynthesis. Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics. Oxidoreductases / antagonists & inhibitors. Oxidoreductases / biosynthesis. Signal Transduction / drug effects. alpha-MSH / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18587269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mitf protein, mouse; 0 / Propiophenones; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.14.18.- / Tyrp1 protein, mouse; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.3.12 / dopachrome isomerase; T4467YT1NT / xanthohumol; TBT296U68M / 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679287
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34. Fratesi L, Alhusayen R, Walker J: Case report of primary rectal melanoma and review of the etiology of melanoma. J Cutan Med Surg; 2008 May-Jun;12(3):117-20
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report of primary rectal melanoma and review of the etiology of melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary rectal melanoma is a very rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • It is defined as melanoma arising in the rectal mucosa, more than 4 cm from the anal verge.
  • OBJECTIVE: A case of primary rectal melanoma is reported, and the theories of the etiology of melanoma are reviewed.
  • After immunohistochemical staining and microscopic examination, it was diagnosed as melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In light of primary melanoma in sun-shielded regions such as the rectum, theories of causation other than sun exposure merit consideration.
  • Factors such as genetics, immunosuppression, and virus infections, as well as ultraviolet radiation, may play a role in the etiology of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18544294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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35. Giricz O, Lauer JL, Fields GB: Variability in melanoma metalloproteinase expression profiling. J Biomol Tech; 2010 Dec;21(4):194-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variability in melanoma metalloproteinase expression profiling.
  • In the present study, RNA was isolated from multiple normal fibroblast and metastatic melanoma cell lines, as well as the isogenic normal tissue and tumor samples, and the gene expression levels of six ADAMs, eight MMPs, and four ADAMTSs were analyzed by real-time PCR.
  • Increased gene expression of several ADAM and MMP family members (MMP1, MMP8, MMP15, and ADAM15) occurred in melanoma tissue and was replicated in tissue cultures.
  • Passage-dependent expression patterns were observed for MMP8 and MMP9 in in-house-derived metastatic melanoma cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 21119930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomolecular techniques : JBT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomol Tech
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098799; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / T32 DE014318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98799; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE14318
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2977965
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ADAM / MMP / tissue
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36. Mariolis-Sapsakos T, Malamitsi J, Yakoumakis E, Orfanos F: Is sentinel node mapping useful in anorectal melanoma? Hell J Nucl Med; 2008 Jan-Apr;11(1):39-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is sentinel node mapping useful in anorectal melanoma?
  • Anorectal melanoma (AM) is a rare disease and few guidelines have been established regarding its therapeutic management.
  • Under rigid proctoscopy the anal scar received four submucosal injections of technetium-99m-sulfur nanocolloid of 29.6 MBq each.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin

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  • (PMID = 18392226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m nanocolloid
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37. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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38. Hay A, Liong J, Kumar D, Glees J: A striking response of anorectal melanoma to radiotherapy (locoregional disease confined to perineum and anal canal). Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2010 Jan;92(1):W10-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A striking response of anorectal melanoma to radiotherapy (locoregional disease confined to perineum and anal canal).
  • Anorectal melanoma is a rare disease with an exceedingly poor prognosis.
  • Literature evaluating outcomes is often difficult because of the infrequent diagnosis, delayed presentation and almost universally poor outcome.
  • We describe a case of a 78-year-old woman with a large anorectal melanoma without detectable metastasis following radiological investigation.
  • This is the first case of the successful use of radiotherapy alone in anorectal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Perineum. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20056049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Nilsson PJ, Ragnarsson-Olding BK: Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma. Br J Surg; 2010 Jan;97(1):98-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is rare and surgery is the recommended primary treatment.
  • METHODS: From the Swedish National Cancer Registry, 251 patients with anorectal melanoma were identified from 1960 to 1999.
  • CONCLUSION: Both APR and LE seem appropriate for anorectal melanoma provided clear margins can be achieved; prognosis is poor regardless of surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20013935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Haflidadóttir BS, Bergsteinsdóttir K, Praetorius C, Steingrímsson E: miR-148 regulates Mitf in melanoma cells. PLoS One; 2010;5(7):e11574
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] miR-148 regulates Mitf in melanoma cells.
  • The Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) is an important regulator in melanocyte development and has been shown to be involved in melanoma progression.
  • The current model for the role of Mitf in melanoma assumes that the total activity of the protein is tightly regulated in order to secure cell proliferation.
  • Here we show that microRNAs (miRNAs) are also involved in regulating Mitf in melanoma cells.
  • Furthermore, miR-148 was shown to affect Mitf mRNA expression in melanoma cells through a conserved binding site in the 3'UTR sequence of mouse and human Mitf.
  • Our data show that miR-148 and miR-137 present an additional level of regulating Mitf expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells.
  • Loss of this regulation, either by mutations or by shortening of the 3'UTR sequence, is therefore a likely factor in melanoma formation and/or progression.
  • [MeSH-major] 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. MicroRNAs / genetics. MicroRNAs / metabolism. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / genetics. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20644734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904378
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41. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour.
  • Malignant rectal melanoma is a rare tumour.
  • Biopsies proved it to be an amelanotic malignant melanoma, as protein S100, melanoma antigen HMB45 and Melan-A expression were found.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed as a substantial part of the internal anal sphincter was invaded.
  • Histology confirmed an amelanotic malignant melanoma.
  • With this case we want to illustrate that malignant rectal melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms, and histology may be misleading.
  • One should always check for protein S-100, melanoma antigen HMN-45 and Melan-A expression, as they are strongly suggestive of melanoma.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • Rectal melanoma has a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of between 10-20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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42. Uchiyama S, Imamura N, Ohuchida J, Hiyoshi M, Nagano M, Marutsuka K, Akiyama Y, Chijiiwa K: Late recurrence of malignant melanoma in the duodenum. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Sep-Oct;55(86-87):1619-21
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.

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  • [Title] Late recurrence of malignant melanoma in the duodenum.
  • Melanoma is a malignancy originating from melanocytes.
  • The primary melanoma usually occurs on the skin, retina, anal canal or occasionally at other organs such as the esophagus, penis or vagina.
  • Although melanoma represents about one-third of all metastatic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, metastasis of melanoma to the GI tract, detected radiologically or endoscopically, is relatively rare.
  • In most cases of malignant melanoma, recurrence and death occur within 10 years after treatment of the primary lesion.
  • We herein report a case showing a recurrence 17 years after extirpation of primary malignant melanoma in the foot.
  • A 65-year-old man, with a history of extirpation of a malignant melanoma in the sole of his foot 17 years before, presented with anorexia and severe anemia, and multiple duodenal tumors were pointed out with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  • Histologic examination of the endoscopic biopsy specimen revealed proliferation of large polygonal cells with distinct nucleoli, and malignant melanoma was diagnosed immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19102354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CC chemokine receptor 9; 0 / Receptors, CCR
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43. Lyle PL, Amato CM, Fitzpatrick JE, Robinson WA: Gastrointestinal melanoma or clear cell sarcoma? Molecular evaluation of 7 cases previously diagnosed as malignant melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jun;32(6):858-66
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal melanoma or clear cell sarcoma? Molecular evaluation of 7 cases previously diagnosed as malignant melanoma.
  • CCS and malignant melanoma (MM) share immunohistochemical profiles and ultrastructural features, but classic CCS has characteristic morphology with low mitotic activity and minimal pleomorphism.
  • This translocation has never been documented in cutaneous melanoma, and thus is regarded as specific for CCS.
  • Recent evidence suggests that primary "malignant melanomas" in unusual anatomic sites, most notably the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, may be CCS.
  • In total, we examined 7 cases: Four with no prior history of MM, 2 with histories of cutaneous MM, and 1 with an anal MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18408594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Old WM, Shabb JB, Houel S, Wang H, Couts KL, Yen CY, Litman ES, Croy CH, Meyer-Arendt K, Miranda JG, Brown RA, Witze ES, Schweppe RE, Resing KA, Ahn NG: Functional proteomics identifies targets of phosphorylation by B-Raf signaling in melanoma. Mol Cell; 2009 Apr 10;34(1):115-31
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  • [Title] Functional proteomics identifies targets of phosphorylation by B-Raf signaling in melanoma.
  • Melanoma and other cancers harbor oncogenic mutations in the protein kinase B-Raf, which leads to constitutive activation and dysregulation of MAP kinase signaling.
  • In order to elucidate molecular determinants responsible for B-Raf control of cancer phenotypes, we present a method for phosphoprotein profiling, using negative ionization mass spectrometry to detect phosphopeptides based on their fragment ion signature caused by release of PO(3)(-).
  • Ninety phosphorylation events were regulated by oncogenic B-Raf signaling, based on their responses to treating melanoma cells with MKK1/2 inhibitor.
  • We investigated MINERVA/FAM129B, a target belonging to a protein family with unknown category and function, and established the importance of this protein and its MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation in controlling melanoma cell invasion into three-dimensional collagen matrix.


45. Coleman C, Levine D, Kishore R, Qin G, Thorne T, Lambers E, Sasi SP, Yaar M, Gilchrest BA, Goukassian DA: Inhibition of melanoma angiogenesis by telomere homolog oligonucleotides. J Oncol; 2010;2010:928628
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  • [Title] Inhibition of melanoma angiogenesis by telomere homolog oligonucleotides.
  • We found that T-oligo-treated human melanoma (MM-AN) cells had decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2, angiopoeitin-1 and -2 and decreased VEGF secretion.
  • In melanoma SCID xenografts, two systemic T-oligo injections decreased by 60% (P < .004) total tumor microvascular density and the functional vessels density by 80% (P < .002).
  • These findings suggest that restriction of tumor angiogenesis is among the host's innate telomere-based anticancer responses and provide further evidence that T-oligos may offer a powerful new approach for melanoma treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20652008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2906154
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46. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Wu QJ, Yoo S, Clough RW, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1413-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption.
  • IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Male. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Sarcoma / radiotherapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hood BL, Grahovac J, Flint MS, Sun M, Charro N, Becker D, Wells A, Conrads TP: Proteomic analysis of laser microdissected melanoma cells from skin organ cultures. J Proteome Res; 2010 Jul 2;9(7):3656-63
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of laser microdissected melanoma cells from skin organ cultures.
  • Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored.
  • In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs) and grown for two weeks.
  • Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
  • The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, noninvolved skin.
  • This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment.

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  • (PMID = 20459140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091870-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA091870; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA091870-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTN4 protein, human; 0 / Tenascin; 11003-00-2 / Actinin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS209402; NLM/ PMC3733114
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48. Vinceti M, Bassissi S, Malagoli C, Pellacani G, Alber D, Bergomi M, Seidenari S: Environmental exposure to trace elements and risk of cutaneous melanoma. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol; 2005 Sep;15(5):458-62
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  • [Title] Environmental exposure to trace elements and risk of cutaneous melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the risk of melanoma in association with exposure to trace elements of toxicological and nutritional interest.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, selenium, copper and zinc in toenails of 58 patients with newly diagnosed cutaneous melanoma as well as in 58 age- and sex-matched control subjects, randomly selected from the population of Modena province in northern Italy.
  • RESULTS: Melanoma risk was substantially unrelated to toenail levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and selenium.
  • A weak direct association between zinc levels and melanoma risk also emerged in the multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results do not suggest an involvement of heavy metals in melanoma etiology, while they do give some support to a possible role of zinc and, in particular, copper and iron exposure in influencing disease risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Environmental Exposure. Melanoma / etiology. Melanoma / prevention & control. Metals, Heavy / poisoning. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15785778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4245
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals, Heavy; 0 / Trace Elements
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49. Minichsdorfer C, Hohenegger M: Autocrine amplification loop in statin-induced apoptosis of human melanoma cells. Br J Pharmacol; 2009 Aug;157(7):1278-90
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  • [Title] Autocrine amplification loop in statin-induced apoptosis of human melanoma cells.
  • In particular, melanoma cells have been found to be susceptible to statin-induced apoptosis, although only after longer incubation times.
  • EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The human melanoma A375 and 518A2 cell lines were exposed to various statins in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and indicators of apoptosis, caspase activity and individual apoptotic pathways were analysed for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase dependent and independent effects.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Simvastatin and atorvastatin are capable of triggering an 'autocrine' suicide factor, which amplifies apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway in human melanoma cells.
  • This pro-apoptotic stimulus implies possible therapeutic potential and may guide feasibility for more potent statins in anti-cancer strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Atorvastatin Calcium. Autocrine Communication. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Caspase 8 / metabolism. Caspase 9 / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation. Heptanoic Acids / pharmacology. Humans. Lovastatin / pharmacology. Melanoma. Pyridines / pharmacology. Pyrroles / pharmacology. Simvastatin / pharmacology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19563533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5381
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biological Factors; 0 / Heptanoic Acids; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrroles; 48A5M73Z4Q / Atorvastatin Calcium; 9LHU78OQFD / Lovastatin; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin; AM91H2KS67 / cerivastatin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743847
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50. Stang A, Schmidt-Pokrzywniak A, Lash TL, Lommatzsch PK, Taubert G, Bornfeld N, Jöckel KH: Mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma: results of the risk factors for uveal melanoma case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Jan 21;101(2):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma: results of the risk factors for uveal melanoma case-control study.
  • We recently reported an increased risk of uveal melanoma among mobile phone users.
  • Here, we present the results of a case-control study that assessed the association between mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma.
  • We recruited 459 uveal melanoma case patients at the University of Duisburg-Essen and matched 455 case patients with 827 population control subjects, 133 with 180 ophthalmologist control subjects, and 187 with 187 sibling control subjects.
  • We used a questionnaire to assess mobile phone use and estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of risk for uveal melanoma using conditional logistic regression.
  • Risk of uveal melanoma was not associated with regular mobile phone use (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.0 vs population control subjects; OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6 to 2.3 vs ophthalmologist control subjects; and OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.5 to 2.6 vs sibling control subjects), and we observed no trend for cumulative measures of exposure.
  • We did not corroborate our previous results that showed an increased risk of uveal melanoma among regular mobile phone users.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Phones / utilization. Melanoma / epidemiology. Uveal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19141780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639317
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51. Sayari S, Moussi A, Bel Haj Salah R, Gherib SB, Haouet K, Zaouche A: Primary anorectal melanoma: a case report. Tunis Med; 2010 Jun;88(6):430-2
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  • [Title] Primary anorectal melanoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is a rare but highly lethal malignancy.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to report a case concerning diagnostic and management of Anorectal melanoma.
  • Rectal examination revealed a tender mass arising from the 5 o'clock position of the anal canal that bled on touch.
  • A provisional diagnosis of rectal polyp was made and it was removed by local excision under general anaesthesia.
  • Histopathologic examination reported it as an anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: With this case we want to illustrate that malignant melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms and histology may be misleading.
  • Abdominoperineal resection has to be done only in the case of large tumors or when the anal sphincter is involved.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20517856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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52. Tanaka S, Ohta T, Fujimoto T, Makino Y, Murakami I: Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report. Acta Med Okayama; 2008 Dec;62(6):421-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report.
  • Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • In this report, we present a patient with anorectal melanoma who has survived for 9 years after endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • An 85-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment of an anal tumor 2 cm in size.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant melanoma.
  • Although melanoma recurred 4 times thereafter, endoscopic mucosal resection was performed for each recurrent lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19122689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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53. Lecis D, Drago C, Manzoni L, Seneci P, Scolastico C, Mastrangelo E, Bolognesi M, Anichini A, Kashkar H, Walczak H, Delia D: Novel SMAC-mimetics synergistically stimulate melanoma cell death in combination with TRAIL and Bortezomib. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jun 08;102(12):1707-16
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  • [Title] Novel SMAC-mimetics synergistically stimulate melanoma cell death in combination with TRAIL and Bortezomib.
  • The apoptotic activity of these molecules, alone or in combination with tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and/or Bortezomib, was tested in melanoma cell lines by MTT viability assays and western blot analysis of activated caspases.
  • RESULTS: We show that in melanoma cell lines, which are typically resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, XIAP knock-down sensitises cells to TRAIL treatment in vitro, also favouring the accumulation of cleaved caspase-8.
  • Finally, we show that the simultaneous administration of newly developed SMAC-mimetics with Bortezomib potently triggers apoptosis in a melanoma cell line resistant to the combined effect of SMAC-mimetics and TRAIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Cell Death / drug effects. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mitochondrial Proteins / pharmacology. Pyrazines / pharmacology. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / pharmacology. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20461078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10950
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / DIABLO protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883696
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54. Ferrer P, Asensi M, Segarra R, Ortega A, Benlloch M, Obrador E, Varea MT, Asensio G, Jordá L, Estrela JM: Association between pterostilbene and quercetin inhibits metastatic activity of B16 melanoma. Neoplasia; 2005 Jan;7(1):37-47
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  • [Title] Association between pterostilbene and quercetin inhibits metastatic activity of B16 melanoma.
  • Inhibition of cancer growth by resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene; RESV), a phytoalexin present in many plant species, is limited by its low bioavailability.
  • In vitro growth of highly malignant B16 melanoma F10 cells (B16M-F10) is inhibited (56%) by short-time exposure (60 min/day) to PTER (40 microm) and QUER (20 microm) (approximate mean values of plasma concentrations measured within the first hour after intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg each polyphenol).
  • Our findings demonstrate that the association of PTER and QUER inhibits metastatic melanoma growth and extends host survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Phenols / therapeutic use. Quercetin / therapeutic use. Stilbenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15736313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha4beta1; 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Nitrites; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Stilbenes; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 537-42-8 / pterostilbene; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1490314
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55. Liu Y, He J, Xie X, Su G, Teitz-Tennenbaum S, Sabel MS, Lubman DM: Serum autoantibody profiling using a natural glycoprotein microarray for the prognosis of early melanoma. J Proteome Res; 2010 Nov 5;9(11):6044-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum autoantibody profiling using a natural glycoprotein microarray for the prognosis of early melanoma.
  • The poor prognosis of melanoma and the high cost of lymph node biopsy for melanoma patients have led to an urgent need for the discovery of convenient and accurate prognostic indicators.
  • Here, we have developed a natural glycoprotein microarray to discover serum autoantibodies to distinguish between patients with node negative melanoma and node positive melanoma.
  • Dual-lectin affinity chromatography was used to extract glycoproteins from a melanoma cell line.
  • The serum autoantibodies were investigated by exposing these proteins to sera from 43 patients that have already been diagnosed to have different stages of early melanoma.
  • Recombinant proteins were used to confirm the results using a sample set with 79 patients with diagnosed melanoma.
  • The glycoarray platform provides a convenient and highly reproducible method to profile autoantibodies that could be used as serum biomarkers for prognosis of melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 20879797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106402; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA124441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA106402; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA124441
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247246; NLM/ PMC2974814
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56. Qi J, Chen N, Wang J, Siu CH: Transendothelial migration of melanoma cells involves N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and activation of the beta-catenin signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell; 2005 Sep;16(9):4386-97
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transendothelial migration of melanoma cells involves N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and activation of the beta-catenin signaling pathway.
  • Cancer metastasis is a multistep process involving many types of cell-cell interactions, but little is known about the adhesive interactions and signaling events during extravasation of cancer cells.
  • Transendothelial migration of cancer cells was investigated using an in vitro assay, in which melanoma cells were seeded on top of a monolayer of endothelial cells.
  • Attachment of melanoma cells on the endothelium induced a twofold increase in N-cadherin expression in melanoma cells and the redistribution of N-cadherin to the heterotypic contacts.
  • Whereas N-cadherin and beta-catenin colocalized in the contact regions between melanoma cells and endothelial cells during the initial stages of attachment, beta-catenin disappeared from the heterotypic contacts during transmigration of melanoma cells.
  • Concomitantly, an increase in the nuclear level of beta-catenin occurred in melanoma cells, together with a sixfold increase in beta-catenin-dependent transcription.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Cell Movement. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Signal Transduction / physiology. beta Catenin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15987741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-1524
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CDH2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / beta Catenin; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1196346
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57. Li LZ, Zhou R, Xu HN, Moon L, Zhong T, Kim EJ, Qiao H, Reddy R, Leeper D, Chance B, Glickson JD: Quantitative magnetic resonance and optical imaging biomarkers of melanoma metastatic potential. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Apr 21;106(16):6608-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative magnetic resonance and optical imaging biomarkers of melanoma metastatic potential.
  • Noninvasive or minimally invasive prediction of tumor metastatic potential would facilitate individualized cancer management.
  • Studies were performed on a panel of human melanoma xenografts that spanned the full range of metastatic potential measured by an in vivo lung colony assay and an in vitro membrane invasion culture system.
  • Three imaging methods potentially transferable to the clinic [dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, T(1(rho))-MRI, and low-temperature fluorescence imaging (measurable on biopsy specimens)] distinguished between relatively less metastatic and more metastatic human melanoma xenografts in nude mice.
  • K(trans) was significantly higher in the core of the least metastatic melanoma (A375P) than in the core of the most metastatic melanoma (C8161).
  • C8161 melanoma had more blood vascular structures but fewer functional blood vessels than A375P melanoma.
  • The A375P melanoma exhibited mean T(1(rho)) values that were significantly higher than those of C8161 melanoma.
  • The mitochondrial redox ratio, Fp/(Fp + NADH), where Fp and NADH are the fluorescences of oxidized flavoproteins and reduced pyridine nucleotides, respectively, varied linearly with the in vitro invasive potential of the 5 melanoma cell lines (A375P, A375M, A375P10, A375P5, and C8161).
  • This study shows that a harsh microenvironment may promote melanoma metastasis and provides potential biomarkers of metastatic potential.

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  • (PMID = 19366661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA56690-09A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA059702; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL081185; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA 093372; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01-HL081185; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54-CA105008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105490; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR002305; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1-CA105490; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059702; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59702; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA056690; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105008; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR002305
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2672511
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58. Kornspan JD, Tarshis M, Rottem S: Invasion of melanoma cells by Mycoplasma hyorhinis: enhancement by protease treatment. Infect Immun; 2010 Feb;78(2):611-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasion of melanoma cells by Mycoplasma hyorhinis: enhancement by protease treatment.
  • Mycoplasma hyorhinis (strain MCLD) was recently isolated from a melanoma cell culture.
  • Adherence of M. hyorhinis to melanoma cells followed saturation kinetics.
  • Furthermore, although M. hyorhinis has been considered to remain attached to the surface of the host cells, we show for the first time, qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitatively by a gentamicin resistance assay, that MCLD is able to invade melanoma cells.
  • Both adherence to and invasion of melanoma cells by M. hyorhinis strain MCLD were dramatically enhanced by mild proteolytic digestion with proteinase K (2.5 microg/mg cell protein for 2.5 min at 37 degrees C) that affected the surface-exposed proteins of this organism, mainly the major 47-kDa lipoprotein.
  • We suggest that the intracellular location of M. hyorhinis strain MCLD is a privileged niche, which may explain the survival of M. hyorhinis in tissue cultures.
  • The enhanced binding to and invasion of melanoma cells by protease treatment may be due to either the activation or the enhanced exposure of an adhesin(s) on the mycoplasmal cell surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Endopeptidase K / metabolism. Melanoma / microbiology. Mycoplasma Infections / enzymology. Mycoplasma hyorhinis / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 19917715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5522
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.64 / Endopeptidase K
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2812198
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59. Pisano M, Pagnan G, Loi M, Mura ME, Tilocca MG, Palmieri G, Fabbri D, Dettori MA, Delogu G, Ponzoni M, Rozzo C: Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. EUGENOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancer and chemotherapeutic agents currently in use are still unsatisfactory.
  • Prevention and early diagnosis are the only effective tools against this tumour whose incidence and mortality rates are highly increased during the last decades in fair skin populations.
  • Aim of this work was to identify and test new compounds with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on melanoma cells.
  • We tested eugenol together with six natural and synthetic eugenol-related compounds for their capability to inhibit cell growth on primary melanoma cell lines established from patients' tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: Eugenol and isoeugenol monomers and their respective O-methylated forms did not show to inhibit melanoma cells proliferation.
  • Then IC50 and minimal effective doses and times have been established for the melanoma cell lines tested.
  • Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induced by treating melanoma cells with eugenol-related biphenyls was partially dependent by caspase activation.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the eugenol related biphenyl (S)-6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol elicits specific antiproliferative activity on neuroectodermal tumour cells partially triggering apoptosis and its activity should be further investigated on in vivo melanoma models in order to evaluate the real anticancer effectiveness on such tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Eugenol / analogs & derivatives. Eugenol / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17233906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 2L9GJK6MGN / diphenyl; 3T8H1794QW / Eugenol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1785384
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60. Klose A, Zigrino P, Dennhöfer R, Mauch C, Hunzelmann N: Identification and discrimination of extracellularly active cathepsins B and L in high-invasive melanoma cells. Anal Biochem; 2006 Jun 1;353(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Identification and discrimination of extracellularly active cathepsins B and L in high-invasive melanoma cells.
  • The method was applied to analyze cathepsin activities in cell culture supernatants of the high-invasive melanoma cell line MV3.
  • This novel method permits not only the enzymatic analysis of purified cysteine proteases but also the identification and discrimination of different cathepsin activities in biological fluids, cell lysates, or supernatants, especially of cathepsins B and L, which are closely linked to major inflammatory and malignant processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cathepsin B / analysis. Cathepsins / analysis. Cysteine Endopeptidases / analysis. Melanoma / chemistry. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16620747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Dipeptides; 134448-10-5 / N-(3-propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-isoleucyl-proline; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; DIQ16UC154 / dodecyl sulfate; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; GMW67QNF9C / Leucine; L5W337AOUR / aloxistatin
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61. Antonescu CR, Busam KJ, Francone TD, Wong GC, Guo T, Agaram NP, Besmer P, Jungbluth A, Gimbel M, Chen CT, Veach D, Clarkson BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR: L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):257-64
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  • [Title] L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition.
  • Activating mutations in either BRAF or NRAS are seen in a significant number of malignant melanomas, but their incidence appears to be dependent to ultraviolet light exposure.
  • More recently, activating KIT mutations have been described in rare cases of metastatic melanoma, without further reference to their clinical phenotypes.
  • In this study, we investigated a group of anal melanomas for the presence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT and PDGFRA mutations.
  • No BRAF or PDGFRA mutations were identified in either KIT positive or negative anal melanomas.
  • These results suggest that a subset of anal melanomas show activating KIT mutations, which are susceptible for therapy with specific kinase inhibitors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17372901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA047179; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA064593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / HL/DK55748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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62. Ma Z, Lui WO, Fire A, Dadras SS: Profiling and discovery of novel miRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanoma and nodal specimens. J Mol Diagn; 2009 Sep;11(5):420-9
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  • [Title] Profiling and discovery of novel miRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanoma and nodal specimens.
  • A reliable, robust methodology is needed to take full advantage of archived human cancers, especially for those where fresh-frozen tumor banks are unavailable, for example, malignant melanoma.
  • Using a "poison primer" strategy (ie, primer silencing), we blocked the amplification of ribosomal RNA, enabling the successful sequencing of 17 novel and 53 known miRNAs (including small RNAs) from 10-year-old archived normal skin, cutaneous scalp melanoma, and sentinel lymph nodes (both negative and positive for metastasis) excised from a 52-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Formaldehyde / chemistry. Melanoma / pathology. MicroRNAs / genetics. Neoplasms / pathology. Paraffin Embedding / methods. Tissue Fixation / methods

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  • (PMID = 19710399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7811
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729839
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63. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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64. Vad NM, Yount G, Moore D, Weidanz J, Moridani MY: Biochemical mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in melanoma cell lines. J Pharm Sci; 2009 Apr;98(4):1409-25
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  • [Title] Biochemical mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in melanoma cell lines.
  • In this work, we investigated the biochemical mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular cancer therapeutic target.
  • The IC(50) (48 h) of APAP towards SK-MEL-28, MeWo, SK-MEL-5, B16-F0, and B16-F10 melanoma cells was 100 microM whereas it showed no significant toxicity towards BJ, Saos-2, SW-620, and PC-3 nonmelanoma cells, demonstrating selective toxicity towards melanoma cells.
  • AA and GSH were effective in preventing APAP induced melanoma cell toxicity.
  • Trifluoperazine and cyclosporin A, inhibitors of permeability transition pore in mitochondria, significantly prevented APAP melanoma cell toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 18759348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6017
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15 CA122044; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15 CA122044-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R15CA122044-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS64733; NLM/ PMC2650003
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65. Shah M, Bhoumik A, Goel V, Dewing A, Breitwieser W, Kluger H, Krajewski S, Krajewska M, Dehart J, Lau E, Kallenberg DM, Jeong H, Eroshkin A, Bennett DC, Chin L, Bosenberg M, Jones N, Ronai ZA: A role for ATF2 in regulating MITF and melanoma development. PLoS Genet; 2010 Dec 23;6(12):e1001258
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  • [Title] A role for ATF2 in regulating MITF and melanoma development.
  • The transcription factor ATF2 has been shown to attenuate melanoma susceptibility to apoptosis and to promote its ability to form tumors in xenograft models.
  • To directly assess ATF2's role in melanoma development, we crossed a mouse melanoma model (Nras(Q61K)::Ink4a⁻/⁻) with mice expressing a transcriptionally inactive form of ATF2 in melanocytes.
  • In contrast to 7/21 of the Nras(Q61K)::Ink4a⁻/⁻ mice, only 1/21 mice expressing mutant ATF2 in melanocytes developed melanoma.
  • MITF downregulation by ATF2 was confirmed in the skin of Atf2⁻/⁻ mice, in primary human melanocytes, and in 50% of human melanoma cell lines.
  • On melanoma tissue microarrays, a high nuclear ATF2 to MITF ratio in primary specimens was associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis.
  • Our findings establish the importance of transcriptionally active ATF2 in melanoma development through fine-tuning of MITF expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Activating Transcription Factor 2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21203491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099961; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 078327; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 2; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mitf protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3009656
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66. Kakutani K, Doita M, Nishida K, Miyamoto H, Kurosaka M: Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site. Eur Spine J; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S271-4
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  • [Title] Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site.
  • Melanoma is an interesting tumor, showing the appearance of metastasis without any trace of its primary lesion.
  • To report a very rare case of malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary origin.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma.
  • No obvious primary malignant melanoma was detected on the skin surface, on the oral or anal mucosa, or in the fundus oculi.
  • However the patient died nine months after initial diagnosis.
  • Malignant melanoma in the sacrum with an unknown primary site, showing S1 radiculopathy is reported for the first time.
  • The melanoma could have been a metastatic tumor of the sacrum, although the primary site was not detected.
  • The incidence of primary melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer.
  • Thus treatment of patients with spinal metastasis of melanoma is an important challenge for orthopedic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / pathology. Sacrum / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18075762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525896
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67. Patrick RJ, Fenske NA, Messina JL: Primary mucosal melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):828-34
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  • [Title] Primary mucosal melanoma.
  • The distribution of head and neck, female genital tract, anal/rectal, and urinary tract sites is 55.4%, 18.0%, 23.8%, and 2.8%, respectively.
  • The median age at presentation is the seventh decade, and women are given the diagnosis more frequently than men.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane

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  • (PMID = 17349716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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68. Andreu-Pérez P, Hernandez-Losa J, Moliné T, Gil R, Grueso J, Pujol A, Cortés J, Avila MA, Recio JA: Methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:265
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Methylthioadenosine (MTA) inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer without effective treatment.
  • In this study we have assessed the therapeutic potential of MTA in melanoma treatment.
  • METHODS: To investigate the therapeutic potential of MTA we performed in vitro proliferation and viability assays using six different mouse and human melanoma cell lines wild type for RAS and BRAF or harboring different mutations in RAS pathway.
  • We also have tested its therapeutic capabilities in vivo in a xenograft mouse melanoma model and using variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture we investigated its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties.
  • RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that MTA treatment inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and viability in a dose dependent manner, where BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines appear to be more sensitive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MTA inhibits melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth particularly in BRAF mutant melanoma cells.
  • These data reveal a naturally occurring drug potentially useful for melanoma treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thionucleosides / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20529342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ribosomal Protein S6; 0 / Thionucleosides; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Braf protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2891639
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69. Iqbal J, Jirovsky D, Lee SY, Zimmermann H, Müller CE: Capillary electrophoresis-based nanoscale assays for monitoring ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity and inhibition in preparations of recombinant enzyme and melanoma cell membranes. Anal Biochem; 2008 Feb 1;373(1):129-40
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  • [Title] Capillary electrophoresis-based nanoscale assays for monitoring ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity and inhibition in preparations of recombinant enzyme and melanoma cell membranes.
  • In addition, the online assay was successfully applied to melanoma cell membrane preparations natively expressing the human ecto-5'-NT.
  • [MeSH-major] 5'-Nucleotidase / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Capillary / methods. Melanoma / enzymology. Nanotechnology

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  • (PMID = 17980347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase
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70. Khaled A, Hammami H, Fazaa B, Kourda N, Kamoun MR, Ben Jilany S, Zoghlami A: Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma: an uncommon neoplasia with poor prognosis. Pathologica; 2009 Jun;101(3):126-9
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  • [Title] Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma: an uncommon neoplasia with poor prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is a rare and aggressive mucosal cancer.
  • There is usually a delay in diagnosis because about 30% of these cancers are amelanotic and are often mistaken for benign conditions.
  • Herein, we report a case of amelanotic anorectal malignant melanoma with an unusual metastatic deposit in the vulva and also review the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old woman presented with a history of prolapse of an anal tumour.
  • Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining of all tumours demonstrated malignant melanoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Nine cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma have been reported in the literature.
  • The age at diagnosis ranged from 45 to 77 years.
  • Anorectal melanoma is most common in the rectum, followed by the anal canal.
  • Our case is the tenth case of amelanotic anorectal melanoma and probably corresponds to multiple synchronous primary melanomas of the anorectal region and the vulva, with the possibility that one of the lesions is a primary melanoma and the others are satellite lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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71. Yang Z, Cox JL: Cathepsin L increases invasion and migration of B16 melanoma. Cancer Cell Int; 2007;7:8
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  • [Title] Cathepsin L increases invasion and migration of B16 melanoma.
  • METHODS: We have examined the role of cathepsin L in highly metastatic B16F10 murine melanoma cells through genetic antisense constructs of cathepsin L.
  • The effects of cathepsin L antisense were examined for melanoma cell proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion.
  • Cathepsin L contributed to melanoma cell invasion and also augmented melanoma cell migration.
  • Finally, the inhibition of melanoma cell migration via down-regulation of cathepsin L appears to be independent of cystatin C expression.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows that cathepsin L facilitates high metastatic B16 melanoma cell invasion and migration.

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  • (PMID = 17488522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1885792
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72. Briggs JJ, Haugen MH, Johansen HT, Riker AI, Abrahamson M, Fodstad Ø, Maelandsmo GM, Solberg R: Cystatin E/M suppresses legumain activity and invasion of human melanoma. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cystatin E/M suppresses legumain activity and invasion of human melanoma.
  • In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis.
  • Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied.
  • METHODS: A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used.
  • Two melanoma cell lines lacking detectable secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with a cystatin E/M expression plasmid (pCST6), and migration and invasiveness were studied by a Matrigel invasion assay.
  • RESULTS: Cystatin E/M was undetectable in media from all established melanoma cell lines examined, whereas strong immunobands were detected in two of five primary melanoma lines and in two of six lines derived from patients with metastatic disease.
  • Among the four melanoma lines secreting cystatin E/M, the glycosylated form (17 kD) was predominant compared to the non-glycosylated form (14 kD).
  • In the melanoma lines where cystatin E/M was secreted, cystatin C was generally absent or expressed at a very low level.
  • When melanoma cells lacking secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with pCST6, their intracellular legumain activity was significantly inhibited.
  • Furthermore, invasion was suppressed in cystatin E/M over-expressing melanoma cell lines as measured by the transwell Matrigel assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the level of cystatin E/M regulates legumain activity and hence the invasive potential of human melanoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystatin M / biosynthesis. Cysteine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20074384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Cystatin M; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.- / Cysteine Proteases; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.34 / asparaginylendopeptidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2822816
  •  go-up   go-down


73. Zubieta MR, Furman D, Barrio M, Bravo AI, Domenichini E, Mordoh J: Galectin-3 expression correlates with apoptosis of tumor-associated lymphocytes in human melanoma biopsies. Am J Pathol; 2006 May;168(5):1666-75
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression correlates with apoptosis of tumor-associated lymphocytes in human melanoma biopsies.
  • The immune system recognizes diverse melanoma antigens.
  • Here, we have investigated 33 biopsies (eight primary and 25 metastases) from 24 melanoma patients (15-72 years old) and describe the correlation between the expression of galectin-3 or galectin-1 and the level of apoptosis of tumor-associated lymphocytes using immunohistochemistry and an in situ nick translation assay.
  • Considering the complex process of cancer immunoediting, various interacting factors must be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Biopsy. Galectin 1 / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16651632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / LGALS1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1606586
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74. Nathanson KL: Using genetics and genomics strategies to personalize therapy for cancer: focus on melanoma. Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Sep 1;80(5):755-61
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Using genetics and genomics strategies to personalize therapy for cancer: focus on melanoma.
  • Individualizing therapeutic selection for patients is a major goal in cancer treatment today.
  • This goal is best facilitated by understanding both an individual's inherited genetic variation and the somatic genetic changes arising during cancer development.
  • Clinical decision making based on inherited genetic variation is done for those patients with cancer susceptibility syndromes and more generally to personalize drug dosing.
  • BRAF V600E mutations are the most common found in melanoma; specific inhibitors of mutant BRAF have been developed and are currently in clinical trials.
  • In addition, other melanoma sub-groups have been identified genetically, which respond to other inhibitors.
  • These studies focus on somatic genetic changes in cancer, which can be targeted directly by therapies.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20412787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093372-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118871; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114478; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118871-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093372-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118871-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS206452; NLM/ PMC2897934
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75. Feder-Mengus C, Ghosh S, Weber WP, Wyler S, Zajac P, Terracciano L, Oertli D, Heberer M, Martin I, Spagnoli GC, Reschner A: Multiple mechanisms underlie defective recognition of melanoma cells cultured in three-dimensional architectures by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Br J Cancer; 2007 Apr 10;96(7):1072-82
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Multiple mechanisms underlie defective recognition of melanoma cells cultured in three-dimensional architectures by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
  • Cancer cells' growth in three-dimensional (3D) architectures promotes resistance to drugs, cytokines, or irradiation.
  • We investigated effects of 3D culture as compared to monolayers (2D) on melanoma cells' recognition by tumour-associated antigen (TAA)-specific HLA-A(*)0201-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL).
  • Culture of HBL, D10 (both HLA-A(*)0201+, TAA+) and NA8 (HLA-A(*)0201+, TAA-) melanoma cells on polyHEMA-coated plates, resulted in generation of 3D multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS).
  • Co-culture with melanoma MCTS, resulted in defective TAA recognition by CTL as compared to 2D as witnessed by decreased IFN-gamma production and decreased Fas Ligand, perforin and granzyme B gene expression.
  • Second, expression of melanoma differentiation antigens is downregulated in MCTS.
  • Third, expression of HLA class I molecules can be downregulated in melanoma MCTS, possibly due to decreased interferon-regulating factor-1 gene expression.
  • These data suggest that melanoma cells growing in 3D, even in the absence of immune selection, feature characteristics capable of dramatically inhibiting TAA recognition by specific CTL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Melanoma / immunology. Spheroids, Cellular / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17342088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-A1 Antigen; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins; 126465-35-8 / Perforin; EC 3.4.21.- / Granzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360115
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76. Zhou HT, Zhou ZX, Zhang HZ, Bi JJ, Zhao P: Wide local excision could be considered as the initial treatment of primary anorectal malignant melanoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Mar 5;123(5):585-8
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  • [Title] Wide local excision could be considered as the initial treatment of primary anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anorectal malignant melanoma was a rare disease with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment strategies of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: The data of 57 patients with anorectal malignant melanoma was collected and retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Rectal bleeding and anal mass were found to be common symptoms of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • The preoperative diagnosis rate of anorectal malignant melanoma was 48.6%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identified no survival advantage to abdominoperineal resection in treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma, and we propose that wide local excision could be considered as the initial treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20367986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Przybyło M, Pocheć E, Link-Lenczowski P, Lityńska A: Beta1-6 branching of cell surface glycoproteins may contribute to uveal melanoma progression by up-regulating cell motility. Mol Vis; 2008;14:625-36
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  • [Title] Beta1-6 branching of cell surface glycoproteins may contribute to uveal melanoma progression by up-regulating cell motility.
  • PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of integrin expression as well as the oligosaccharide structure of surface N-glycoproteins on cell behavior of two primary uveal (92-1 and Mel202) and two primary cutaneous (FM55P and IGR-39) melanoma cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Unlike the two examined cutaneous melanoma cell lines, neither of the uveal melanoma cells adhered to fibronectin.
  • In contrast, uveal melanoma cells repaired scratch wounds on fibronectin-coated surfaces twice as fast as cutaneous melanoma cells did.
  • The expression of alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(4)beta(1), alpha(5)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, acting as fibronectin receptors, differed between the tested cell lines, and no distinct pattern distinguished uveal melanoma from cutaneous melanoma except for high expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin on both FM55P and IGR-39 cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The role of integrins and their N-glycosylation in the regulation of uveal melanoma growth and progression is largely unknown.
  • These results reveal that cell surface complex-type N-glycans with GlcNAc beta1-6 branches are important factors determining the migration of primary uveal melanoma cells on fibronectin.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / physiopathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18385798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 0 / Receptors, Fibronectin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2276181
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78. Walts AE, Bose S: BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):246-51
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  • [Title] BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of perineal biopsies can include squamous intraepithelial lesions, extramammary Paget's disease, and melanoma.
  • BD ProEx C is a recently developed immunoassay that targets expression of two genes shown to be associated with cervical cancer.
  • Immunostaining for ProEx C has been validated in cervical cytology and positive staining has also been shown to be strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in biopsies.
  • We observed positive staining for ProEx C in Paget cells in all of 26 cases of Paget's disease irrespective of tissue site (extramammary, mammary) and in melanoma cells in all of 12 cases of primary perineal melanoma with immunostaining in >50% of malignant cells in 73% of Paget disease cases and 43% of perineal melanoma cases.
  • In situ hybridization was negative for low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes in all Paget and melanoma cases that were tested.
  • Currently neither of these lesions is known to be HPV related although according to the literature the possibility of a role for HPV in melanoma is still unsettled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Perineum / pathology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Mucous Membrane / enzymology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18931649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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79. Naumann SC, Roos WP, Jöst E, Belohlavek C, Lennerz V, Schmidt CW, Christmann M, Kaina B: Temozolomide- and fotemustine-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells: response related to MGMT, MMR, DSBs, and p53. Br J Cancer; 2009 Jan 27;100(2):322-33
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  • [Title] Temozolomide- and fotemustine-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells: response related to MGMT, MMR, DSBs, and p53.
  • Malignant melanomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • First-line chemotherapeutics used in melanoma therapy are the methylating agents dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ) and the chloroethylating agents BCNU and fotemustine.
  • Here, we determined the mode of cell death in 11 melanoma cell lines upon exposure to TMZ and fotemustine.
  • We show for the first time that TMZ induces apoptosis in melanoma cells, using therapeutic doses.
  • MGMT inactivation by O(6)-benzylguanine sensitized all melanoma cell lines expressing MGMT to TMZ and fotemustine-induced apoptosis, and MGMT transfection attenuated the apoptotic response.
  • This supports that O(6)-alkylguanines are critical lesions involved in the initiation of programmed melanoma cell death.
  • Although these data indicate that methylating drug resistance of melanoma cells can be acquired by down-regulation of mismatch repair, a correlation between MSH2 and MSH6 expression in the different lines and TMZ sensitivity was not found.
  • Apoptosis in melanoma cells induced by TMZ and fotemustine was accompanied by double-strand break (DSB) formation (as determined by H2AX phosphorylation) and caspase-3 and -7 activation as well as PARP cleavage.
  • Melanoma lines expressing p53 wild-type were more resistant to TMZ and fotemustine than p53 mutant melanoma lines, which is in marked contrast to previous data reported for glioma cells treated with TMZ.
  • Overall, the findings are in line with the model that in melanoma cells TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine triggers the apoptotic (and necrotic) pathway through DSBs, whereas for chloroethylating agents apoptosis is triggered in a more complex manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded / drug effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / drug effects. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / COL11A2 protein, human; 0 / Collagen Type XI; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2634706
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80. Freudlsperger C, Schumacher U, Reinert S, Hoffmann J: The Critical Role of PPARgamma in Human Malignant Melanoma. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:503797
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  • [Title] The Critical Role of PPARgamma in Human Malignant Melanoma.
  • The past 30 years have only seen slight improvement in melanoma therapy.
  • Part of the reason for this treatment failure is the broad chemoresistance of melanoma, which is due to an altered survival capacity and an inactivation of apoptotic pathways.
  • Several targetable pathways, responsible for this survival/apoptosis resistance in melanoma, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways.
  • However, only a few studies have focused on the effects of PPARgamma agonists in melanoma, showing conflicting results.
  • The use of PPARgamma agonists in melanoma therapy has to be carefully weighted against considerable, undesirable side effects, as their mode of action is not fully understood and even pro-proliferative effects have been described.
  • In the current review, we discuss the role of PPARs, in particular PPARgamma in melanoma and their potential role as a molecular target for melanoma therapy.

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  • (PMID = 18483619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2377344
  •  go-up   go-down


81. Baljinnyam E, Iwatsubo K, Kurotani R, Wang X, Ulucan C, Iwatsubo M, Lagunoff D, Ishikawa Y: Epac increases melanoma cell migration by a heparan sulfate-related mechanism. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2009 Oct;297(4):C802-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epac increases melanoma cell migration by a heparan sulfate-related mechanism.
  • Melanoma, the most malignant form of human skin cancer, has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability.
  • It was recently demonstrated that Epac, an effector molecule of cAMP, is involved in regulating cell migration; however, the role of Epac in melanoma cell migration remains unclear.
  • We thus examined whether Epac regulates cell migration and metastasis of melanoma.
  • Epac activation, by either specific agonist or overexpression of Epac, increased melanoma cell migration.
  • Deletion of endogenous Epac with small interfering RNA decreased basal melanoma cell migration.
  • These data suggested a major role of Epac in melanoma cell migration.
  • Finally, Epac overexpression enhanced lung colonization of melanoma cells in mice.
  • Taken together, these data indicate that Epac regulates melanoma cell migration/metastasis mostly via syndecan-2 translocation and heparan sulfate production.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.
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