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1. Glynne-Jones R, Meadows H, Wan S, Gollins S, Leslie M, Levine E, McDonald AC, Myint S, Samuel L, Sebag-Montefiore D, National Cancer Research Institute Anal Sub Group and Colorectal Clinical Oncology Group: EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Sep 1;72(1):119-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with epidermoid anal carcinoma.
  • This phase II trial aimed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of capecitabine, MMC and radiotherapy (RT) in anal cancer patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT) II trial (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine with MMC and RT in with patients anal carcinoma is well tolerated, with minimal toxicity and acceptable compliance.
  • We recommend testing this schedule in future national Phase III studies in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18472366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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2. Zhang D, Bai Y, Ge Q, Qiao Y, Wang Y, Chen Z, Lu Z: Microarray-based molecular margin methylation pattern analysis in colorectal carcinoma. Anal Biochem; 2006 Aug 1;355(1):117-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microarray-based molecular margin methylation pattern analysis in colorectal carcinoma.
  • The positive surgical margins are associated with postsurgical recurrence in colorectal carcinoma patients, and molecular margin analysis is considered to be more sensitive in detecting preneoplastic lesions than is conventional histological margin examination.
  • Here, we developed a microarray and established six calibration curves for hMLH1 gene methylation patterns analysis in 20 colorectal resected margin specimens and corresponding tumor tissue specimens as well as four normal tissue specimens.
  • The results indicated that a moderate methylation level (8-42%) was found in 20 surgical margin tissues, extensive methylation (25-58%) was detected in 20 tumor tissues, and little or no methylation was observed in normal tissues.
  • Of the six paired probes, the average methylation levels in 20 tumor tissues were 60, 35, 43, 53, 38, and 27%, whereas the average methylation levels of the six paired probes in 20 surgical margin tissues were 43, 16, 24, 28, 21, and 11%.
  • In addition, it will contribute significant information to our understanding of CpG island methylation for cancer diagnosis and postoperative recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 16756932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides
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3. Gurfinkel R, Walfisch S: Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):235-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis.
  • The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with subsequent repeated local biopsy has become the standard treatment of epidermoid carcinoma.
  • The optimal treatment of metastatic anal carcinomas is controversial.
  • We present the case of 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic basaloid anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16328122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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5. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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6. Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M: Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1447-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men.
  • Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures.
  • Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested.
  • The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening.
  • METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy.
  • Reliability for the Bethesda classification system was at least moderate, except for the cytologic category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (kappa = 0.12).
  • Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by > or = 3 pathologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Observer Variation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Krengli M, Milia ME, Turri L, Mones E, Bassi MC, Cannillo B, Deantonio L, Sacchetti G, Brambilla M, Inglese E: FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:10
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach.
  • We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20137093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851594
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8. Norton C: Constipation in older patients: effects on quality of life. Br J Nurs; 2006 Feb 23-Mar 8;15(4):188-92
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  • In long-term survivors of colorectal or anal carcinoma, constipation is one of the factors that has the most negative impact on quality of life.

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  • (PMID = 16603983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Antacids; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Cholinergic Antagonists; 0 / Iron Compounds
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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9. Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Svendsen LB, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In our center since 2001, follow-up examination has included three-dimensional endosonography in all patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 38 consecutive patients who have had anal carcinoma and were investigated using three-dimensional endosonography in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination at Rigshospitalet from July 2001 to January 2005 under suspicion of local recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that three-dimensional endosonography surpasses two-dimensional endosonography in the evaluation of patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer especially in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16988854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Compérat E, Egevad L, Camparo P, Roupret M, Vaessen C, Valdman A, Jonmarker S, Capron F, Cussenot O, Charlotte F: Clinical significance of intratumoral CD8+ regulatory T cells in prostate carcinoma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Feb;32(1):39-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical significance of intratumoral CD8+ regulatory T cells in prostate carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore Foxp3, a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors, which is a major gene for regulatory T (Treg) cell development of CD4+CD25+ or CD8+CD25+ phenotype.
  • Serum prostate-specific antigen levels before and after RP, Gleason score (GS), surgical margin status and pathologic stage were available.
  • CONCLUSION: Treg cells were more common in cancer than in benign prostatic tissue.
  • Patients with prostate cancer show an immunosuppressive regulatory profile, including nonresponsive Tregs.

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  • (PMID = 20701086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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11. Mudrikova T, Jaspers C, Ellerbroek P, Hoepelman A: HPV-related anogenital disease and HIV infection: not always 'ordinary' condylomata acuminata. Neth J Med; 2008 Mar;66(3):98-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for various diseases in the anogenital region which range from benign condylomata acuminata to anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications


12. Kantor G, Mahé MA, Giraud P, et les contributeurs des protocoles, Alapetite C, Durdux C, Fourquet A, Gardner M, Le Prisé E, Maire JP, Richaud P, Vendrely V, Caron J, Dejean C, Lisbona A, Munos C, Zefkili S, Mazal A: [French national evaluation for helicoidal tomotherapy: description of indications, dose constraints and set-up margins]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Nov;11(6-7):331-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluation nationale de la tomothérapie hélicoïdale: description des indications, des contraintes de dose et des seuils de repositionnement.
  • After a request for proposal initiated by National Institute against cancer (INCa) in 2005, three French centers in France started tomotherapy in the first semester of 2007.
  • Description of dose, IMRT levels and constraints are achieved according to each selected indication as: sarcoma, head and neck tumors, lung cancer, mesothelioma, bone metastases, anal carcinoma and craniospinal irradiation.

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  • (PMID = 17962061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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13. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • Patients received a dose of 30 Gy to the gross tumour volume plus 3 cm margin in all directions.
  • Only one patient experienced any grade 3 toxicity (skin).
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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14. Engstrom PF, Arnoletti JP, Benson AB 3rd, Berlin JD, Berry JM, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Cooper HS, Dilawari RA, Early DS, Enzinger PC, Fakih MG, Fleshman J Jr, Fuchs C, Grem JL, Knol JA, Leong LA, Lin E, Mulcahy MF, Rohren E, Ryan DP, Saltz L, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Small W, Sofocleous C, Thomas J, Venook AP, Willett C, NCCN: NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Anal carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):106-20
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  • [Title] NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Anal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20064293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Zhang J, Martins CR, Fansler ZB, Roemer KL, Kincaid EA, Gustafson KS, Heitjan DF, Clark DP: DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6544-9
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  • [Title] DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with human papillomavirus infection and may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is increasing in immunocompromised patients.
  • We hypothesize that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and that detection of these events may be used to improve screening programs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-six patients were identified who underwent anal cytology screening and subsequent biopsy at our institution between 1999 and 2004.
  • The specimens from these patients included 184 anal biopsies [normal, n = 57; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), n = 74; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), n = 41; and invasive SCC, n = 12] and 37 residual liquid-based anal cytology specimens (normal, n = 11; LSIL, n = 12; HSIL, n = 14).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent event in anal HSIL and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adult. Biopsy. Carrier Proteins. Cell Adhesion Molecules. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16166431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CADM1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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16. Faus C, Roda D, Frasson M, Roselló S, García-Granero E, Flor-Lorente B, Navarro S: The role of the pathologist in rectal cancer diagnosis and staging and surgical quality assessment. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 May;12(5):339-45
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  • [Title] The role of the pathologist in rectal cancer diagnosis and staging and surgical quality assessment.
  • Since the introduction of the total mesorectal excision by Heald, many changes in the therapeutic management of rectal cancer have been incorporated.
  • The multidisciplinary approach to colorectal cancer, integrated in a team of different specialists, ensures individualised treatment for each patient with rectal cancer.
  • The knowledge of preoperative staging, distance between tumour and anal verge or in patients subjected to a neoadjuvant treatment is necessary for the pathologist to make a detailed, accurate and good-quality report.
  • Parameters such as the macroscopic quality of the mesorectum, the status of the circumferential resection margin and the lymph node harvest are considered basic criteria recommended by the current guidelines for the multidisciplinary team audit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / standards. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Pathology, Clinical. Professional Role. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20466618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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17. Jongen J: Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006). Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Oct;22(10):1289
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  • [Title] Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006).
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology

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  • [CommentOn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42 [15864603.001]
  • (PMID = 16703315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Kato T, Takagi H, Mori Y, Sakamoto K, Yamada T, Umeda Y, Fukumoto Y, Hirose H: Simultaneous operation of ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and rectal cancer. Heart Vessels; 2005 Jul;20(4):167-70
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  • [Title] Simultaneous operation of ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and rectal cancer.
  • A 68-year-old man with ischemic heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and rectal cancer was referred.
  • Barium enema revealed stenosis 4 cm in length 5 cm inward from the anal verge, and an endoscopic finding was ulcerated type tumor with a clear margin and circumferential stenosis.
  • Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma, and the clinical stage in the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma was II according to other examinations.
  • Simultaneous operations were scheduled because of the jeopardized collaterals of the coronary arteries, rapid expansion of the aneurysm, and subileus due to the cancer.
  • The patient is doing well 12 months after the operation, without myocardial ischemic symptoms or recurrence of the cancer.


19. Sunesen KG, Nørgaard M, Thorlacius-Ussing O, Laurberg S: Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):675-84
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  • [Title] Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005.
  • Compromised immune function may increase the risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We examined the risk of anal SCC in patients with HIV infection and other chronic disorders associated with immunosuppression.
  • A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR).
  • We identified all patients with a first-time hospital contact or procedure for HIV infection, solid organ transplantation or autoimmune disease or a first-time record of haematologic malignancy in the DCR, 1978-2005, and followed these for a subsequent anal SCC, starting follow-up 1 year after diagnosis of the index disease.
  • Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of anal SCCs, based on national age-, sex- and period-specific rates.
  • Among 4,488 patients with HIV, we observed 21 anal SCCs with 0.3 expected (SIR: 81.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.6-121.9)).
  • Risk of anal SCC was markedly increased among 5,113 solid organ recipients (SIR: 14.4 (CI: 7.0-26.4)) and 30,165 patients with haematologic malignancies (SIR: 2.3 (CI: 1.1-4.2)) but only moderately increased among 242,114 patients with autoimmune diseases (SIR: 1.3 (CI: 1.0-1.6)).
  • In conclusion, we found HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, haematologic malignancies and a range of specific autoimmune diseases strongly associated with increased risk of anal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Immunocompromised Host


20. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Title] [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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21. Wexler A, Berson AM, Goldstone SE, Waltzman R, Penzer J, Maisonet OG, McDermott B, Rescigno J: Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):73-81
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  • [Title] Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in patients with HIV is increasing.
  • We report the outcome after combined chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous-cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two HIV-positive patients treated at the St. Vincent's Cancer Care Center for anal squamous-cell carcinoma from 1997 through mid 2005 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Overall survival, anal cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and toxicity were assessed.
  • Five-year locoregional relapse, anal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 16 , 75, and 65 percent, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis, locoregional recurrence, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were all significantly associated with tumor size.
  • Acute toxicity included: Grade 3 skin in 25 percent of patients, Grade 3 diarrhea: 28 percent, and Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity in 21 and 48 percent, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after chemoradiotherapy for HIV-related anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy is comparable to outcome in patients without HIV.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


22. Gu J, Li J, Yao Y, Lu A, Wang H: Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma. Front Med China; 2007 Jul;1(3):333-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma.
  • It is difficult to distinguish a rectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.
  • The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.
  • Five months after resection, he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.
  • For this reason, we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.
  • It is very important to differentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available, especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 24573877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-7342
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of medicine in China
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Med China
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Koh DM, Dzik-Jurasz A, O'Neill B, Tait D, Husband JE, Brown G: Pelvic phased-array MR imaging of anal carcinoma before and after chemoradiation. Br J Radiol; 2008 Feb;81(962):91-8
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  • [Title] Pelvic phased-array MR imaging of anal carcinoma before and after chemoradiation.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the MR findings of anal carcinoma using an external pelvic phased-array coil before and after chemoradiation treatment.
  • 15 patients with carcinoma of the anal canal underwent T(2) weighted and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging before and after chemoradiation.
  • Pelvic phased-array MR imaging is useful for local staging of anal carcinoma and assessing treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18238920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Hogg ME, Popowich DA, Wang EC, Kiel KD, Stryker SJ, Halverson AL: HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):891-7
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  • [Title] HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of HIV status on outcome of treatment for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated at a single academic institution between January 1996 and December 2006.
  • RESULTS: Our search identified 87 (21 HIV-positive) patients who had invasive squamous-cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality


25. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Stamatakos M, Kountouras J, Lygidakis NJ: Local recurrence following curative low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):94-6
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  • [Title] Local recurrence following curative low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Local recurrence is a formidable problem after potentially curative resection for rectal cancer.
  • We attempted to identify possible factors affecting the frequency of local recurrence, focusing on the clearance of the tumor and the margin of resection.
  • METHODOLOGY: The clinical cohort consisted of 66 patients suffering from rectal carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Analysis by distance of the tumor from the anal verge revealed that 5 out of 33 patients (15.15%) from the upper rectal group and 7 out of 19 patients (36.8%) from the mid rectal group developed local recurrences (36.8% vs. 15.15% P=0.0369).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Rectal Neoplasms / mortality. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. Sato H, Maeda K, Koide Y, Matsuoka H, Noro T, Honda K, Shiota M, Endo T, Ozeki S, Fukuda M: [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2647-9
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  • [Title] [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy].
  • We reviewed clinical records of 4 cases with squamous cell carcinoma in anus to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the chemoradiotherapy.
  • The radiation therapy consisted of 40 Gy was delivered to pelvis and bilateral inguinal lesion, and perianal booster dose of 20 Gy, in fractions of 2.0 Gy per day, was given five days a week.
  • All patients had complete response in the anal lesion after chemoradiotherapy.
  • No patients had any sign of recurrence in anal lesion.
  • Chemoradiotherapy was expected to be a safe and effective treatment to improve prognosis for anal squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21224667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Daniel WJ: Anorectal pain, bleeding and lumps. Aust Fam Physician; 2010 Jun;39(6):376-81
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  • BACKGROUND: The patient presenting with anal pain, anal lump or rectal bleeding is a common occurrence in the general practice setting and the combination of symptoms usually gives an indication of the most likely diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: This article discusses three common anorectal conditions: perianal haematoma, haemorrhoids and anal fissure, and briefly discusses the less common, but not to be missed conditions: anal carcinoma and low rectal carcinoma.
  • Initial treatment for anal fissure is with a high fibre diet, faecal softeners, topical local anaesthetic gel and glycerol trinitrate ointment.
  • Chronic fissures produce intense and constant pain in the anal region and in these cases surgical sphincterotomy is often necessary to cure the condition, but can result in faecal incontinence.
  • Anal cancer has similar presentation to haemorrhoids and carcinoma of distal rectum can initially present with a haemorrhoid, so the possibility of anorectal cancer should be considered in any patient presenting with haemorrhoids, tenesmus and change in bowel habit.

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  • (PMID = 20628675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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28. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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29. Giovannini M, Ardizzone S: Anorectal ultrasound for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Feb;20(1):113-35
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  • Accurate staging of rectal and anal carcinoma is crucial for planning surgery and indicating adjuvant therapy.
  • Although, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are very sensitive in detecting metastatic disease, the local staging of rectal cancer with these techniques has been disappointing.
  • Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and anal endosonography (AE) remain the most accurate methods for staging rectal and anal cancer.
  • Anal endosonography is also of value in evaluating perianal sepsis: it can assist the surgeon in planning the surgical strategy by delineating the anatomy of fistula tracts, and can aid in puncturing abscesses in the operating room.
  • In this new millennium, new developments in ERUS and anal endosonography, such as tri-dimensional ERUS and anal endosonography and radial electronic probing, widen the role of ERUS in the staging of rectal and anal carcinoma, as well as for perianal inflammatory conditions.

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  • (PMID = 16473804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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30. Alcindor T: Activity of paclitaxel in metastatic squamous anal carcinoma. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Jul;23(7):717
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  • [Title] Activity of paclitaxel in metastatic squamous anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18335224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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31. Gatta G, Ciccolallo L, Kunkler I, Capocaccia R, Berrino F, Coleman MP, De Angelis R, Faivre J, Lutz JM, Martinez C, Möller T, Sankila R, EUROCARE Working Group: Survival from rare cancer in adults: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Feb;7(2):132-40
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  • [Title] Survival from rare cancer in adults: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Rare cancers are a challenge to clinical practice, and treatment experience, even in major cancer centres to which rare cancers are usually referred, is often limited.
  • We also estimated the adjusted relative excess risk of death for every rare cancer.
  • FINDINGS: Overall 5-year relative survival was good (ie, >65%) for placental choriocarcinoma (85.4% [95% CI 81.4-89.5]), thyroid medullary carcinoma (72.4% [69.2-75.5]), ovarian germ-cell cancer (73.0% [70.0-76.0]), lung carcinoid (70.1% [67.3-72.9]), and cervical adenocarcinoma (65.5% [64.3-66.6]); intermediate (ie, 35-65%) for testicular cancer at age 65 years or older (64.0% [59.3-68.7]), sarcoma of extremities (60.0% [58.9-61.2]), digestive-system endocrine cancers (55.6% [54.9-56.3]), anal squamous-cell carcinoma (53.1% [51.5-54.8]), and uterine sarcoma (43.5% [42.0-44.9]); low for carcinoma of adrenal-gland cortex (32.7% [28.3-37.2]) and bladder squamous-cell carcinoma (20.4% [18.8-22.0]); and poor for angiosarcoma of liver (6.4% [1.8-11.0]) and mesothelioma (4.7% [4.3-5.2]).
  • Survival significantly improved over time for ovarian germ-cell cancer, sarcomas of extremities, digestive-system endocrine tumours, anal squamous-cell carcinoma, and angiosarcoma of liver.

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  • (PMID = 16455477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Mareedu RK, Shah MS, Mesa JE, McCauley CS: Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale: a case series and literature review. Clin Med Res; 2007 Dec;5(4):218-26
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  • One patient developed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and one patient developed thrombotic complications at 7 months post-procedure secondary to the progression of her anal carcinoma and subsequently died.

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  • (PMID = 18086906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2275750
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33. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-defining cancers and HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):146-53
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  • Apart from Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer, which are considered as AIDS-defining, several additional cancers, referred to as non-AIDS-defining cancers, are also statistically increased in HIV-infected persons.
  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.
  • However, the types of cancer observed at an increased frequency and the relative risks reported vary widely among studies.

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  • (PMID = 16091262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Oct;22(10):1289 [16703315.001]
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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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35. Sato H, Maeda K, Hanai T, Matsumoto M, Aoyama H, Matsuoka H: Modified double-stapling technique in low anterior resection for lower rectal carcinoma. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):30-6
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  • [Title] Modified double-stapling technique in low anterior resection for lower rectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical outcomes of 90 patients who underwent low anterior resection (LAR) for lower rectal carcinoma.
  • Low anterior resection was performed with IO-DST in 34 patients (IO-DST group), with the single-stapling technique (SST) in 47 (SST group), and with per anal anastomosis (PAA) in 9 (PAA group).
  • RESULTS: The distances from the anal verge to the tumor and to the anastomosis were significantly shorter in the IO-DST group than in the SST group (5.8 cm, 4.0 cm vs 7.0 cm, 5.0 cm, respectively), whereas it was equivalent in the IO-DST and PAA groups (5.0 cm, 4.0 cm).
  • There were no significant differences in the length of the distal surgical margin among the three groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IO-DST is a feasible and safe procedure for performing low anastomosis, which results in less bowel frequency after LAR for lower rectal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16378190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Salama JK, Mell LK, Schomas DA, Miller RC, Devisetty K, Jani AB, Mundt AJ, Roeske JC, Liauw SL, Chmura SJ: Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4581-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience.
  • PURPOSE: To report a multicenter experience treating anal canal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2000 to June 2006, 53 patients were treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal squamous cell carcinoma at three tertiary-care academic medical centers.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary outcomes suggest that concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal canal cancers is effective and tolerated favorably compared with historical standards.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):688; author reply 688-9 [18235135.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):694
  • (PMID = 17925552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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38. Patel H, Polanco-Echeverry G, Segditsas S, Volikos E, McCart A, Lai C, Guenther T, Zaitoun A, Sieber O, Ilyas M, Northover J, Silver A: Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2668-73
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  • [Title] Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered as an important aetiological factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) but is not sufficient for tumour progression.
  • This carcinoma is poorly understood at the molecular level.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Mutation. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17721920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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39. Kreuter A, Wieland U, Brockmeyer N: [Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infections]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jul;4(7):611-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infections].
  • [Transliterated title] Analkarzinom und anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie bei HIV-Infektion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


40. Rabbani AN, Zlotecki RA, Kirwan J, George TJ Jr, Morris CG, Rout WR, Mendenhall WM: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;33(1):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of definitive radiotherapy (RT) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


41. Oblak I, Petric P, Anderluh F, Velenik V, Hudej R, Fras AP: Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience. Neoplasma; 2009;56(2):150-5
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  • [Title] Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience.
  • Results of radiochemotherapy in 50 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, treated with radical radiochemotherapy between January 2003 and September 2007, at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana are presented.
  • Late anal stenosis, chronic ulceration and grade 2-3 incontinence developed in 3 (6 %), 2 (4 %) and 5 (10 %) of colostomy-free survivors, respectively.
  • </p> KEYWORDS: anal cancer, radiochemotherapy, survival, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19239330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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42. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett CG: US intergroup anal carcinoma trial: tumor diameter predicts for colostomy. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1116-21
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  • [Title] US intergroup anal carcinoma trial: tumor diameter predicts for colostomy.
  • PURPOSE: The US Gastrointestinal Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 anal carcinoma trial showed that cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of colostomy compared with mitomycin-based therapy.
  • Established prognostic variables for patients with anal carcinoma include tumor diameter, clinical nodal status, and sex, but pretreatment variables that would predict the likelihood of colostomy are unknown.
  • In the multivariate analysis, tumor-related prognosticators for poorer OS included node-positive cancer (P < or = .0001), large (> 5 cm) tumor diameter (P = .01), and male sex (P = .016).
  • CONCLUSION: The combined analysis of the two arms of RTOG 98-11, representing the largest prospective database, reveals that tumor diameter (irrespective of the nodal status) is the only independent pretreatment variable that predicts TTC and 5-year colostomy rate in patients with anal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun 20;27(18):3064; author reply 3065 [19414660.001]
  • (PMID = 19139424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025741; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032115
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667813
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43. Fallai C, Cerrotta A, Valvo F, Badii D, Olmi P: Anal carcinoma of the elderly treated with radiotherapy alone or with concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Mar;61(3):261-8
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma of the elderly treated with radiotherapy alone or with concomitant radio-chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To analyse the results achieved with radio-chemotherapy (RTCT) or radiotherapy alone (RT) in elderly patients (pts) affected with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17085056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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44. Kagawa R, Yamaguchi T, Furuta R: Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Surg Today; 2006;36(10):885-91
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  • [Title] Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the development of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the expression patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The expression patterns of HPV in the cancer cell nuclei was investigated by in situ hybridization (ISH) using HPV probes.
  • RESULTS: Amplification of DMD genes was confirmed in 8 of 20 patients with anal SCC, suggesting that tumor DNA was preserved in these patients.
  • In two patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS), the cancer cells showed only a diffuse pattern (DP), and in two patients with invasive cancer, the cancer cell showed only an oligo-dot pattern (OP).
  • In one patient with lesions ranging from CIS to invasive cancer, the histologic features varied in each area, from DP to OP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that HPV16 infection is closely involved in the development of anal SCC and suggest that the change in the genome occurs at the stage of microinvasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • [Cites] Front Biosci. 2002 Mar 01;7:e77-84 [11861218.001]
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  • (PMID = 16998682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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45. Ficari F, Fazi M, Garcea A, Nesi G, Tonelli F: Anal carcinoma occurring in Crohn's disease patients with chronic anal fistula. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S31
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma occurring in Crohn's disease patients with chronic anal fistula.
  • This paper reports six patients with perianal Crohn's disease (CD), who developed anal cancer in chronic anal fistulas.
  • Patients with perianal CD should undergo a careful surveillance program for ano-rectal carcinoma, including routine biopsy of any suspected lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16437885.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C: Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA; 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21
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  • [Title] Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial.
  • CONTEXT: Chemoradiation as definitive therapy is the preferred primary therapy for patients with anal canal carcinoma; however, the 5-year disease-free survival rate from concurrent fluorouracil/mitomycin and radiation is only approximately 65%.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of cisplatin-based (experimental) therapy vs mitomycin-based (standard) therapy in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: US Gastrointestinal Intergroup trial RTOG 98-11, a multicenter, phase 3, randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with fluorouracil plus mitomycin and radiotherapy vs treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal carcinoma enrolled between October 31, 1998, and June 27, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with anal canal carcinoma, cisplatin-based therapy failed to improve disease-free-survival compared with mitomycin-based therapy, but cisplatin-based therapy resulted in a significantly worse colostomy rate.
  • These findings do not support the use of cisplatin in place of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7 [19047998.001]
  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411 [18812528.001]
  • (PMID = 18430910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003596
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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47. Gingelmaier A, Weissenbacher T, Kost B, Kaestner R, Sovric M, Mylonas I, Friese K, Bergauer F: Anal cytology as a screening tool for early detection of anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1719-23
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  • [Title] Anal cytology as a screening tool for early detection of anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: HIV-infected patients show a high rate of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma but there is no gold standard for early detection.
  • Therefore, the objectives of this prospective study were: a) evaluation of an anal screening using anal/perianal cytology;.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In every HIV-infected woman visiting our gynaecological outpatient clinic, an anal and perianal swab for anal cytology was taken.
  • The results of 13 (13.5%) anal cytologies were classified as suspicious for low-grade or high-grade anal dysplasia and 6 of these were confirmed in an anal biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, anal screening using anal cytology showed 13.5% suspected anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women.
  • All performed biopsies revealed the presence of a high-grade anal lesion.
  • In summary, we found anal cytology to be a useful tool to early detect anal dysplasia of high-risk patients such as HIV-infected women.
  • How far this screening method contributes to the prevention of anal cancer has to be evaluated in further investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytological Techniques / methods. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology


48. Ramirez JM, Aguilella V, Gracia JA, Ortego J, Escudero P, Valencia J, Esco R, Martinez M: Local full-thickness excision as first line treatment for sessile rectal adenomas: long-term results. Ann Surg; 2009 Feb;249(2):225-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Removing rectal adenomas not only relieves symptoms, but also eradicates the incidence of carcinoma.
  • No statistical differences were found when comparing the histologic findings by tumor size, distance to the anal verge, or location.In 10 (5.8%) cases, the dissection was considered uncompleted because of a normal mucosa margin smaller than 1 mm.
  • At a mean follow-up of 35 months (range, 12-82 months), all carcinoma patients were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Proctoscopy. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19212174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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50. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality


51. Saranovic D, Barisic G, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric-Stefanovic A: Endoanal ultrasound evaluation of anorectal diseases and disorders: technique, indications, results and limitations. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Mar;61(3):480-9
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  • CT and conventional barium studies offer limited information in local staging of rectal and perirectal neoplasms, anal carcinomas and extension perianal fistulas in patients with inflamamatory bowel disease, or in evaluating patients with fecal incontinence.
  • During past decade, sonography and MR imaging have resulted in significant improvement in the imaging of rectal and perirectal and anal and perianal disease.
  • The aim of this article is to review possibility of the EAUS in the evaluation both normal anal anatomy and anorectal disease and disorders (anal carcinoma, sphincter defects, anal fistulas, perianal abscesses and other pathological conditions).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Rectal Diseases / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17188828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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52. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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53. Blazy A, Hennequin C, Gornet JM, Furco A, Gérard L, Lémann M, Maylin C: Anal carcinomas in HIV-positive patients: high-dose chemoradiotherapy is feasible in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1176-81
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  • [Title] Anal carcinomas in HIV-positive patients: high-dose chemoradiotherapy is feasible in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma, a common disease in HIV-positive patients, is usually treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • We report our experience of treating anal carcinoma in the era of new antiviral drugs.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 2001, nine men on highly active antiretroviral therapies with good immune status before chemoradiotherapy received concomitant chemoradiotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatinum, and high-dose radiotherapy (60-70 Gy) for anal carcinoma.
  • CD4+ cell counts were <200/ml for four patients, between 200/ml and 500/ml for four, and >500/ml for one.
  • Grade 3 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred in four patients.
  • No association was observed between high-grade toxicity and CD4+ cell count.
  • Among them, four had no or minor anal function impairment at the last follow-up visit.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinomas is feasible with low toxicity in HIV-positive patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 15906137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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54. Contu SS, Agnes G, Damin AP, Contu PC, Rosito MA, Alexandre CO, Damin DC: Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4566-70
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  • [Title] Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk.
  • AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive anal carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with anal cancer, and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls.
  • CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in anal carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 19777616.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2752002
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55. Bass G, O'Mahony CA, Smith R, Dennison MS, Goss JA: Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus. Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Dec;179(4):605-6
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  • [Title] Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • However, we recently encountered a patient who presented with biliary-tree tumor encasement as a first metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As obstructive jaundice is a relatively common presenting sign in the emergency room and in general surgical clinics, we thus recommend early consideration of metastatic disease as a differential diagnosis in patients post-chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinoma who present with obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary

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  • [Cites] Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Oct;53(10):2822-5 [18274902.001]
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  • (PMID = 20734157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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56. Eng C, Crane CH, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7
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  • [Title] Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal?

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21 [18430910.001]
  • (PMID = 19047998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4386
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Nordenvall C, Nyrén O, Ye W: Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions. Gut; 2006 May;55(5):703-7
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  • [Title] Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between benign anal lesions and anal cancer is still unclear.
  • METHODS: We conducted a register based retrospective cohort study including 45,186 patients hospitalised for inflammatory anal lesions (anal fissures, fistulas, and perianal abscesses) as well as 79,808 haemorrhoid patients, from 1965 to 2002.
  • Multiple record linkages identified all incident anal (squamous cell carcinoma only) and colorectal cancers through to 2002.
  • Among inflammatory lesion and haemorrhoid patients, a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed only in the first year after hospitalisation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory benign anal lesions are associated with a significantly increased long term risk of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications

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  • (PMID = 16299038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women. AIDS Alert; 2006 Mar;21(3):22-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women.
  • Investigators compared United States surveillance data for cancer in the pre-HIV era, HIV era, and antiretroviral treatment era and found that squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal incidence rates increased significantly in the latter era.


60. Hatfield P, Cooper R, Sebag-Montefiore D: Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):419-24
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  • [Title] Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 17919842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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61. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Sendagorta E, Herranz P, Guadalajara H, Zamora FX, Gonzalez J: Anal carcinoma in an HIV-infected woman. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:986-7
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in an HIV-infected woman.
  • A 42-year-old HIV-infected woman with an antecedent of HPV-related genital disease is diagnosed with invasive anal carcinoma due to HPV 16.
  • Anal cancer is becoming an increasing problem in HIV-infected woman.


63. Deo SV, Shukla NK, Raina V, Mohanti BK, Sharan R, Kar M, Rath GK: Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep-Oct;24(5):201-4
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  • [Title] Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • AIM: To study the efficacy of an organ-preserving, sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this treatment fails.
  • METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and methotrexate, followed by 45 to 60 (median 50) Gy external beam radiotherapy.
  • Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the anal verge.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation is effective in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer and has acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16361764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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64. Selvindos PB, Ho YH: Multimedia article. Laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection with colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Nov;51(11):1710-1
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  • [Title] Multimedia article. Laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection with colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis.
  • PURPOSE: Optimal treatment of mid to distal rectal cancers includes total mesorectal excision for oncologic clearance and, where reanastomosis is feasible, a colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis improves bowel function.
  • Bowel continuity was restored by an intracoporeal double-cross stapled colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis, but where not possible a coloplasty with pull-through handsewn coloanal anastomosis was performed.
  • The indications were adenocarcinoma (n = 51), squamous-cell carcinoma of rectum (n = 1), dermoid tumor of mesorectum (n = 1), large villous adenoma (n = 1), and carcinoid with local lymph node metastases (n = 1).
  • The adenocarcinomas were a median distance of 6 (3-12) cm from the anal verge.
  • Of those who underwent curative resection (Stages I-III), the distal resection margin was 2.9 +/- 0.7 cm (mean +/- standard error) and the radial resection margins were at least 2 mm in all patients.
  • The level of the coloanal anastomosis was a median 3.5 (0-4.5) cm from the anal verge; a coloanal pull-through anastomosis was required in one patient who had a distal cancer.
  • Four other patients had smaller pelvic collections that resolved with antibiotics; pelvic collections were associated with advanced stage of cancer (P = 0.047).
  • This brought the rectum proximally and anteriorly, aiding with the laparoscopic stapler transection of the distal rectum, especially if the cancer was distal, the patient was obese, and the pelvis was narrow.
  • Further randomized, controlled studies that include assessing five-year cancer survival/recurrence, pelvic nerve dysfunction, and bowel function are needed before laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection becomes widely accepted.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Colonic Pouches. Laparoscopy / methods. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18679748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Interactive Tutorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Capdevila J, Ramos FJ, Macarulla T, Elez E, Ruiz-Echarri M, Perez-Garcia J, Tabernero J: Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jul;21(4):374-80
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  • [Title] Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers.
  • The increasing development of new targeted therapies in human cancer has also impacted in these rare gastrointestinal malignancies providing a wide range of possibilities in the design of future clinical trials.
  • The results of the biggest phase III trial in locally advanced anal carcinoma have been recently published.
  • Finally, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor has also showed promising activity in anal carcinomas.
  • Although the major advances in targeted therapy have been introduced in the treatment of colorectal cancer, new interesting approaches have been reported in less frequent gastrointestinal tumors such as esophageal, biliary tract, and anal canal carcinoma opening a new hope in the treatment of these rare tumors in the molecular targeted therapy era.

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  • (PMID = 19412097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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66. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • T categories (International Union against Cancer) were T1 (15), T2 (36), T3 (34), and T4 (16).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • However, patients with larger lesions of the perianal skin are at high risk for locoregional recurrence and possible treatment intensification in this subgroup seems desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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67. Szynglarewicz B, Matkowski R, Kasprzak P, Sydor D, Forgacz J, Pudelko M, Kornafel J: Sphincter-preserving R0 total mesorectal excision with resection of internal genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiation for T4 rectal cancer in females. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Apr 28;13(16):2339-43
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  • [Title] Sphincter-preserving R0 total mesorectal excision with resection of internal genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiation for T4 rectal cancer in females.
  • AIM: To evaluate the impact of chemoradiation admi-nistered pre- or postoperatively on prognosis in females following R0 extended resection with sphincter-preserving total mesorectal excision (TME) for locally advanced rectal cancer and to assess the association between chemoradiation and intra- and postoperative variables.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one females were treated for locally advanced but preoperatively assessed as primarily resectable rectal cancer involving reproductive organs.
  • RESULTS: Survival rate decreased in anaemic females (51.5% vs 57.4%), in patients older than 60 years (41.8% vs 66.7%) with poorly differentiated cancers (50.0% vs 55.6%) and tumors located<or=7 cm from the anal verge (42.9% vs 68.1%) but with the lack of importance.
  • Preoperative chemoradiation compared to adjuvant radiochemotherapy was not significantly associated with the duration of surgery, incidence of intraoperative bowel perforation and blood loss>or=1 L, rate of postoperative bladder and anorectal dysfunction, and minimal distal resection margin.
  • It significantly influenced minimal radial margin (mean 4.2 mm vs 1.1 mm; P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite involving internal genitalia, long-term disease-free survival and sphincter preservation may be achieved with combined-modality therapy for females with T4 locally advanced rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17511034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4147144
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68. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Bellò M, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Mussa A: [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S32-3
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  • [Transliterated title] La tecnica del linfonodo sentinella nei pazienti affetti da neoplasia dell'ano.
  • Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm, representing 1-2% of all large bowel cancers.
  • In order to assess inguinal lymph node status we applied the sentinel node technique to patients affected by anal cancer.
  • Considering the strong correlation between prognosis and node involvement, we consider this technique an important and simple method for evaluating the lymph node status and for an adequate pre-treatment staging of anal carcinoma. fundamental in the choice of radiation plane.

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  • (PMID = 16437886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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69. Christensen AF, Nielsen BM, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer. Acta Radiol; 2008 Mar;49(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: New techniques using image guidance other than computed tomography (CT) and traditional two-dimensional (2D) endosonography might improve interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with anal carcinoma were referred to interstitial brachytherapy under 3D endosonographic guidance after external radiotherapy.
  • The procedure was initiated by anal endosonography performed with a 10-MHz rotating endoprobe.
  • Cross-sectional images of the anal sphincters were stored on a 3D system during retraction of the endoprobe through the anal canal.
  • The needles were inserted through holes in an externally fixated anal template.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D endosonography guidance of interstitial brachytherapy in anal carcinoma seems to optimize the implant procedure and offer better information for dose planning.

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  • (PMID = 18300134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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70. Zaleski L, Turiansky GW: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cutis; 2010 Mar;85(3):143-5
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is an increasing concern in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2010 Mar;85(3):119 [20408506.001]
  • (PMID = 20408513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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71. Blumetti J, Bastawrous AL: Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is an uncommon disease, but has increased in incidence with the HIV epidemic.
  • This review provides an overview of the historical, current, and future treatments of epidermoid anal canal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20436831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780240
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal malignancy / Nigro protocol / chemoradiation / epidermoid carcinoma
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72. Ramamoorthy S, Luo L, Luo E, Carethers JM: Tobacco smoking and risk of recurrence for squamous cell cancer of the anus. Cancer Detect Prev; 2008;32(2):116-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tobacco smoking and risk of recurrence for squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • OBJECTIVE: Squamous cell cancer of the anus is associated with multiple risk factors, including infection with human papillomavirus, immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and tobacco smoking, although there is little data on these factors for the prediction of recurrent disease.
  • Here, we evaluated the risk of recurrence and mortality of anal carcinoma in association with tobacco smoking.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of cases of anal carcinoma from two local hospitals.
  • We obtained information on treatment response and cancer recurrence, as well as tobacco usage from medical records.
  • RESULTS: We identified 64 patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus, and 34 of these (53%) had a tobacco smoking history.
  • Current smokers had higher carcinoma recurrence rates (11/34, 32%) than non-smokers (6/30, 20%).
  • Overall mortality was 33% (21/64), and cancer-related mortality was 23% (15/64).
  • CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking appears to be associated with anal carcinoma disease recurrence, and is related to increased mortality.
  • This data suggests that patients should be cautioned about tobacco smoking once a diagnosis of anal carcinoma is made in attempt to improve their long-term outcome.

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  • (PMID = 18639388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1500
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK067287-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS209533; NLM/ PMC3427794
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73. Martin FT, Kavanagh D, Waldron R: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surgeon; 2009 Aug;7(4):232-7
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract.
  • Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19736891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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74. Nahas CS, Shia J, Joseph R, Schrag D, Minsky BD, Weiser MR, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Klimstra DS, Tang LH, Wong WD, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Sep;50(9):1393-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate one institution's experience with treatment outcomes for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using our prospective Colorectal Database, we identified patients diagnosed with rectal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution between 1983 and 2005.
  • Pathology was rereviewed, tumor immunophenotype was compared to control cases of anal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, treatment modalities and outcomes were analyzed.
  • Median distal extent of tumors was 7 (range, 5-8) cm from the anal verge.
  • Immunophenotypical analysis showed similar keratin expression profile between rectal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 5) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 5), which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 10).
  • Immunohistochemistry suggests a common cellular origin for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colectomy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17661147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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75. Khan GN, Siddiqui M, Ben-Josef E, Zalupski MM: An unusual case of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;32(5):543-4
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  • [Title] An unusual case of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23061097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Houvenaeghel G, Ghouti L, Moutardier V, Buttarelli M, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in radical oncopelvic surgery: a safe and useful procedure. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Dec;31(10):1185-90
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  • RESULTS: Between 1989 and 1998, 46 patients underwent pelvi-perineal reconstruction with RAM flaps after radical pelvic surgery for carcinoma of the cervix (n=22), anal carcinoma (n=11), rectal carcinoma (n=7), or other pelvic tumours types (n=6).

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  • (PMID = 16126359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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78. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
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  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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79. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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80. Meyer J, Willett C, Czito B: Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2010 May;12(3):168-74
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  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer.
  • Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C) is established as a sphincter-preserving treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This review discusses the evolution of therapy for anal cancer, from early clinical trials establishing the current standard to more recent studies evaluating cisplatin, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab.

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  • (PMID = 20425076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Klenova A, Balabanova A: [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):25-31
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  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases].
  • PURPOSE: The conservative treatment for carcinoma of the anal canal has become the standard care for this malignancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and December 2003 six female patients with UICC T2-3, No, Mo, G1-G2 squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated.
  • The therapy was well tolerated, with good anal continence and moderate late side effects, including soft chronic diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20063470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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82. Nese N, Kandiloglu AR, Simsek G, Lekili M, Ozdamar A, Catalkaya A, Coskun T: Comparison of the desmoplastic reaction and invading ability in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and prostatic adenocarcinoma based on the expression of heat shock protein 47 and fascin. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Apr;32(2):90-101
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  • [Title] Comparison of the desmoplastic reaction and invading ability in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and prostatic adenocarcinoma based on the expression of heat shock protein 47 and fascin.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diversity within invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) by evaluating immunohistochemical expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and fascin, the molecules that are related to desmoplasia and invasion, and analyze its correlation with clinicopathologic parameters.
  • Fascin expression correlated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity, tumor size and stage in IDC and surgical margin status in PCa.


83. Scarpini C, White V, Muralidhar B, Patterson A, Hickey N, Singh N, Mullerat J, Winslet M, Davies RJ, Phillips ML, Stacey P, Laskey RA, Miller R, Nathan M, Coleman N: Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2855-64
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  • [Title] Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome.
  • Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value.
  • We tested the suitability in this context of minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, accurate markers of the deregulated cell cycle entry that characterizes malignancy and premalignancy.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab.
  • MCM LIs in the superficial layers were significantly greater than LIs for Ki67, an alternative marker of cell cycle entry (P<0.0001).
  • By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, immunopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18843031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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84. Harris AT, Rennie A, Waqar-Uddin H, Wheatley SR, Ghosh SK, Martin-Hirsch DP, Fisher SE, High AS, Kirkham J, Upile T: Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer. Head Neck Oncol; 2010 Oct 05;2:26
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  • [Title] Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer.
  • In recent years there has been much interest in the use of optical diagnostics in cancer detection.
  • Early diagnosis of cancer affords early intervention and greatest chance of cure.
  • Raman has been used successfully in key health areas such as cardiovascular diseases, and dental care but there is a paucity of literature on Raman spectroscopy in Head and Neck cancer.
  • Following the introduction of health care targets for cancer, and with an ever-aging population the need for rapid cancer detection has never been greater.
  • It could reduce the need for whole pathological specimen examination, in theatre it could help to determine margin status, and finally peripheral blood diagnosis may be an achievable target.

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  • (PMID = 20923567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2958871
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85. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


86. Arikawa S, Uchida M, Ogoh E, Uozumi J, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Kaida H, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K, Hayabuchi N: [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):727-30
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  • [Title] [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal].
  • We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • We suspected erythema multiforme based on the appearance of wheals and target lesions of the skin and a patient history of chemoradiotherapy.
  • Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response.
  • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20414036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
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  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. DNA, Viral / drug effects. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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88. Cho BC, Ahn JB, Seong J, Roh JK, Kim JH, Chung HC, Sohn JH, Kim NK: Chemoradiotherapy with or without consolidation chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in anal squamous cell carcinoma: long-term results in 31 patients. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:8
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  • [Title] Chemoradiotherapy with or without consolidation chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in anal squamous cell carcinoma: long-term results in 31 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate long-term results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin and the potential benefit of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC).
  • CONCLUSION: our study shows that CRT with 5-FU and cisplatin, with or without consolidation chemotherapy, was well tolerated and proved highly encouraging in terms of long-term survival and the preservation of anal function in ASCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18194582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2245963
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89. Voong KR, Davison J, Pawlik TM, Uy MO, Hsu CC, Winter J, Hruban RH, Laheru D, Rudra S, Swartz MJ, Nathan H, Edil BH, Schulick R, Cameron JL, Wolfgang CL, Herman JM: Resected pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma: clinicopathologic review and evaluation of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in 38 patients. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jan;41(1):113-22
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  • [Title] Resected pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma: clinicopathologic review and evaluation of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in 38 patients.
  • Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare morphological variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with an especially poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study is to identify clinicopathologic features associated with prognosis, assess whether the percentage of squamous differentiation in pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma is associated with an inferior prognosis, and examine the impact of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy on overall survival.
  • Forty-five (1.2%) of 3651 patients who underwent pancreatic resection at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, between 1986 and 2007 were identified with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with any squamous differentiation.
  • Seventy-six percent of carcinomas were node positive, 37% were margin-positive resections, and 68% had 30% or more squamous differentiation.
  • Median overall survival of the pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma cohort was 10.9 months (range, 2.1-140.6 months; 95% confidence interval, 8.2-12.5 months).
  • Adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was associated with superior overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (P = .005).
  • The proportion of squamous differentiation was not associated with median overall survival (< 30% versus > or = 30%, P = .82).
  • Survival after pancreatic resection of pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma is poor.
  • The proportion of squamous differentiation in resected pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma specimens does not appear to impact overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19801164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA126607
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS433902; NLM/ PMC3556992
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90. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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91. Sahai A, Kodner IJ: Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):88-93
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  • [Title] Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin.
  • Premalignant and malignant lesions of the anal margin are rare.
  • Understanding anal anatomy and performing a biopsy of any suspicious lesions are essential in avoiding a delay in diagnosis and appropriately treating these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20011315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780101
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anus neoplasms / Bowen's disease / Paget's disease / squamous cell cancer
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92. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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93. Heitland W: [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2008 Feb;79(2):183-91; quiz 192
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostik und Therapie des Analkarzinoms.
  • Of all carcinomas in the anal canal, 75-80% are squamous cell carcinomas-the remaining 25% being adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of the anal margin are to be differentiated from basal cell carcinomas and Paget's and Bowen's diseases.
  • More than 80% of anal carcinomas show high-risk HP viruses.
  • Every suspicious lesion in the anal canal and margins must be examined histologically.
  • Primary radiochemotherapy is the first treatment option for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal and anal margin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18227955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • This progression could be related to severity of the dysplasia and, albeit not yet confirmed, treatment of these lesions would prevent the evolution to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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95. Damin DC, Rosito MA, Schwartsmann G: Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):247-52
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review.
  • AIMS: To review the studies investigating the efficacy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in anal canal carcinoma and to evaluate its potential role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with the malignancy.
  • METHODS: A literature search in the PubMed database was preformed using the key words "sentinel lymph node" and "anal cancer".
  • All indexed original articles (except case reports) on the SLN procedure in cancer of the anal canal were analysed.
  • Although SLN procedure is still in an early phase of investigation in this type of cancer, it emerges as an objective method to guide individual therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16289647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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96. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):364-9
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis.
  • Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide.
  • Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18.
  • Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding.
  • According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage.
  • Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease.
  • Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation.

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  • (PMID = 20464850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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97. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


98. Irabor DO, Dongo AE: Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed? Trop Doct; 2009 Jan;39(1):7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed?
  • The paper is a retrospective look at the clinicopathological presentation of carcinoma of the anal canal in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
  • Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with anal carcinoma over a five-year period (2002-2006) from a total of 394 patients who had malignancies of the colon, rectum and anus.
  • The male: female ratio was 1.2: 1 showing a slight male predominance; the average age was 48 years; tenesmus, bleeding per rectum and anal pain were the most common presenting features.
  • The most predominant histopathological subtype was adenocarcinoma - a departure from the hitherto squamous cell cancer dominance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors. Tropical Climate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19211411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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99. Winter L, Bruhn H, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, Felix R, Hänninen LE: Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution. Acta Radiol; 2007 May;48(4):379-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution.
  • PURPOSE: To assess image quality and overall accuracy of 3-Tesla (3T)-sustained high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for diagnostic preoperative workup in suspected rectal carcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with suspected rectal cancer underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed pelvic high-resolution MR imaging using a four-channel phased-array pelvic coil at 3T.
  • Image quality, tumor stage, distance from the anorectal margin, and sphincter-saving resectability were prospectively assessed by two blinded readers.
  • MRI allowed correct identification of tumor extension and its relation to surgically relevant pelvic structures including the anorectal margin and mesorectal fascia.
  • Thus, this noninvasive diagnostic approach appeared highly suitable for the assessment of patients with suspected rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17453515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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100. Fraunholz I, Rabeneck D, Weiss C, Rödel C: Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):361-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients.






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