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1. Parra RS, Almeida AL, Badiale GB, Moraes MM, Rocha JJ, Féres O: Melanoma of the anal canal. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010;65(10):1063-5
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  • [Title] Melanoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21120314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2972593
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2. Ramalingam G, Gan EY, Kutt-Sing W: Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anorectal melanoma: a case report and review of the literature. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Aug;19(4):e149-51
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anorectal melanoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Anal melanoma is a rare colorectal disease, accounting for 4% of all anal malignancies.
  • Here we report the first case of a patient with anorectal melanoma who was treated laparoscopically.
  • The literature on anorectal melanoma has been reviewed and controversy still surrounds the optimal treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19692869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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3. Kim JW, Abramson DH: Topical treatment options for conjunctival neoplasms. Clin Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep;2(3):503-15
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  • Over the past ten years, topical agents have been used by investigators to treat various premalignant and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva, such as primary acquired melanosis with atypia, conjunctival melanoma, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and pagetoid spread of the conjunctiva arising from sebaceous cell carcinoma.
  • In this review, we present specific guidelines for treating both melanocytic and squamous neoplasms of the conjunctiva, utilizing the available data in the literature as well as our own clinical experience at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

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  • (PMID = 19668748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694026
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 5-Fluorouracil / Mitomycin-C / conjunctival neoplasms melanosis / topical therapies
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4. Nilsson PJ, Ragnarsson-Olding BK: Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma. Br J Surg; 2010 Jan;97(1):98-103
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  • [Title] Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is rare and surgery is the recommended primary treatment.
  • METHODS: From the Swedish National Cancer Registry, 251 patients with anorectal melanoma were identified from 1960 to 1999.
  • CONCLUSION: Both APR and LE seem appropriate for anorectal melanoma provided clear margins can be achieved; prognosis is poor regardless of surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20013935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Bavaresco L, Bernardi A, Braganhol E, Wink MR, Battastini AM: Dexamethasone inhibits proliferation and stimulates ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activity in C6 rat glioma cell line. J Neurooncol; 2007 Aug;84(1):1-8
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  • Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the adult central nervous system.

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Purines; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase
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6. Messadi M, Bessaid A, Taleb-Ahmed A: Extraction of specific parameters for skin tumour classification. J Med Eng Technol; 2009;33(4):288-95
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  • Melanomas are the most malignant skin tumours.
  • This type of cancer is increasing rapidly; its related mortality rate is increasing more modestly, and inversely proportional to the thickness of the tumour.
  • Using skin tumour features such as colour, symmetry and border regularity, an attempt is made to determine if the skin tumour is a melanoma or a benign tumour.
  • In this work, we are interested in extracting specific attributes which can be used for computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma, especially among general practitioners.
  • Then, a sequences of transformations is applied to the image to measure a set of attributes (A: asymmetry, B: border, C: colour and D: diameter) which contain sufficient information to differentiate a melanoma from benign lesions.
  • Finally, the various signs of specific lesion (ABCD) are provided to an artificial neural network to differentiate between malignant tumours and benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19384704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-522X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical engineering & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Eng Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2683694
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7. van't Riet M, Giard RW, de Wilt JH, Vles W: Melanoma of the anus disguised as hemorrhoids: surgical management illustrated by a case report. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Jul;52(7):1745-7
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  • [Title] Melanoma of the anus disguised as hemorrhoids: surgical management illustrated by a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1914244
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8. Kakutani K, Doita M, Nishida K, Miyamoto H, Kurosaka M: Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site. Eur Spine J; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S271-4
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  • [Title] Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site.
  • Melanoma is an interesting tumor, showing the appearance of metastasis without any trace of its primary lesion.
  • To report a very rare case of malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary origin.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma.
  • No obvious primary malignant melanoma was detected on the skin surface, on the oral or anal mucosa, or in the fundus oculi.
  • However the patient died nine months after initial diagnosis.
  • Malignant melanoma in the sacrum with an unknown primary site, showing S1 radiculopathy is reported for the first time.
  • The melanoma could have been a metastatic tumor of the sacrum, although the primary site was not detected.
  • The incidence of primary melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer.
  • Thus treatment of patients with spinal metastasis of melanoma is an important challenge for orthopedic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / pathology. Sacrum / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525896
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9. Tezuka K, Inaba Y, Hayashi K, Miura T, Moriya T, Takiguchi M, Isobe H, Watabe S, Yanagawa N: [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy].
  • We report a case on hemodialysis with liver metastases from anorectal malignant melanoma treated by dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • A 61-year-old man presented with anal bleeding.
  • An elastic soft mass was palpated in the anal canal, and a biopsy specimen was diagnosed as anorectal malignant melanoma histologically.
  • Subsequently, the patient died of respiratory failure 4 years after surgery, 1 year and 7 months after the diagnosis of multiple liver metastases.
  • We conclude that administration of DTIC undergoing hemodialysis for malignant melanoma with renal failure seems to be useful without severe adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 17940397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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11. Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, Milazzo M, Wallace MR, Spooner K, Blazes DL, Agan BK, Armstrong A, Fraser S, Crum NF: Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer; 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1505-11
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  • Cancer incidence rates were race specific and were adjusted for age; these were compared with national rates using logistic regression to assess predictors of NADC development.
  • The most frequent NADCs were skin carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell), Hodgkin disease, and anal carcinoma.
  • The results showed that there were higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease among the HIV-infected cohort compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population.
  • A low CD4 nadir or CD4 count at diagnosis (< 200 cells/mL) was not predictive of NADCs.
  • Melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease occurred at higher rates among HIV-infected individuals.
  • Most risk factors for the development of NADCs are nonmodifiable; however, the use of HAART appeared to be beneficial in protecting against the development of malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Female. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. United States / epidemiology


12. Mannava S, Grachtchouk V, Wheeler LJ, Im M, Zhuang D, Slavina EG, Mathews CK, Shewach DS, Nikiforov MA: Direct role of nucleotide metabolism in C-MYC-dependent proliferation of melanoma cells. Cell Cycle; 2008 Aug;7(15):2392-400
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  • [Title] Direct role of nucleotide metabolism in C-MYC-dependent proliferation of melanoma cells.
  • To identify C-MYC targets rate-limiting for proliferation of malignant melanoma, we stably inhibited C-MYC in several human metastatic melanoma lines via lentivirus-based shRNAs approximately to the levels detected in normal melanocytes.
  • C-MYC depletion also resulted in reduction in the amounts of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and inhibition of proliferation. shRNA-mediated suppression of TS, IMPDH2 or PRPS2 resulted in the decrease of dNTP pools and retardation of the cell cycle progression of melanoma cells in a manner similar to that of C-MYC-depletion in those cells.
  • Reciprocally, concurrent overexpression of cDNAs for TS, IMPDH2 and PRPS2 delayed proliferative arrest caused by inhibition of C-MYC in melanoma cells.
  • Moreover, all three proteins express at higher levels in cells from several metastatic melanoma lines compared to normal melanocytes.

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  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA076581; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA120244-A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120244
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleotides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMPDH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.7.6.1 / Ribose-Phosphate Pyrophosphokinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS486377; NLM/ PMC3744895
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13. Zabouo G, Imbert AM, Jacquemier J, Finetti P, Moreau T, Esterni B, Birnbaum D, Bertucci F, Chabannon C: CD146 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in human breast tumors and with enhanced motility in breast cancer cell lines. Breast Cancer Res; 2009;11(1):R1
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  • [Title] CD146 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in human breast tumors and with enhanced motility in breast cancer cell lines.
  • INTRODUCTION: Metastasis is a complex process involving loss of adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation of cancer cells.
  • CD146 (MCAM) is associated with an advanced tumor stage in melanoma, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer.
  • Studies of CD146 expression and function in breast cancer remain scarce except for a report concluding that CD146 could act as a tumor suppressor in breast carcinogenesis.
  • By flow cytometry, we characterized CD146 expression on different breast cancer cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In addition to its expression in the vascular compartment, CD146 is expressed on a subset of epithelial cells in malignant breast.
  • CD146 may directly or indirectly contribute to tumor aggressiveness by promoting malignant cell motility.

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  • (PMID = 19123925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / MCAM protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687703
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14. Haddow J, Muthapati D, Arshad I, Gupta M, Agarwal P: Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Aug;12(4):303-4
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  • [Title] Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma.
  • A 58-year-old Caucasian woman with bleeding per rectum had a melanoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary

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15. Zarling AL, Polefrone JM, Evans AM, Mikesh LM, Shabanowitz J, Lewis ST, Engelhard VH, Hunt DF: Identification of class I MHC-associated phosphopeptides as targets for cancer immunotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Oct 3;103(40):14889-94
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  • [Title] Identification of class I MHC-associated phosphopeptides as targets for cancer immunotherapy.
  • Alterations in phosphorylation of cellular proteins are a hallmark of malignant transformation.
  • Degradation of these phosphoproteins could generate cancer-specific class I MHC-associated phosphopeptides recognizable by CD8+ T lymphocytes.
  • In a comparative analysis of phosphopeptides presented on the surface of melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, and B lymphoblastoid cells, we find 5 of 36 that are restricted to the solid tumors and common to both cancers.
  • Recognition of the peptides on cancer cells by phosphopeptide-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes validates the potential of these phosphopeptides as immunotherapeutic targets.

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  • (PMID = 17001009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 20963; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI020963; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI033993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 33993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI033993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI020963
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; 0 / IRS2 protein, human; 0 / Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Irs2 protein, mouse; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Phosphopeptides; 0 / Phosphoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1595446
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16. Bavaresco L, Bernardi A, Braganhol E, Cappellari AR, Rockenbach L, Farias PF, Wink MR, Delgado-Cañedo A, Battastini AM: The role of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 in glioma cell line proliferation. Mol Cell Biochem; 2008 Dec;319(1-2):61-8
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  • Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors in the brain and, despite treatment, patients with these tumors have a poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 18636315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4919
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 38048-32-7 / 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 46S541971T / Thioinosine; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
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17. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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18. Podnos YD, Tsai NC, Smith D, Ellenhorn JD: Factors affecting survival in patients with anal melanoma. Am Surg; 2006 Oct;72(10):917-20
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  • [Title] Factors affecting survival in patients with anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is an aggressive tumor with a predilection for early infiltration and distant spread, resulting in poor overall survival.
  • Because anal melanoma is rare, only small case series are reported in the literature, making it difficult to draw conclusions about optimal treatment and outcome.
  • The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify patients with anal melanomas from 1973 to 2001.
  • In addition to demographics, disease extent at presentation, treatment administered, overall survival, and survival by decade of diagnosis were collected.
  • A total of 126 patients with a mean age of 69.2 years was diagnosed with anal melanoma.
  • Neither age at diagnosis, operation performed, nor use of radiation significantly affected survival.
  • Anal melanoma remains an uncommon but lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17058735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Fradet-Turcotte A, Archambault J: Recent advances in the search for antiviral agents against human papillomaviruses. Antivir Ther; 2007;12(4):431-51
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  • Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is extremely common and associated with the development of benign warts or malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa.
  • Infection by a high-risk (oncogenic) anogenital HPV type, most often through sexual contacts, is the starting point of virtually all cases of cervical cancers and the majority of anal cancers.
  • The same viral types are also increasingly being linked with a subset of head-and-neck and non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • Although prophylactic vaccines are now available to protect against the four types most commonly found in cervical and anal cancers (HPV16 and HPV18) and anogenital warts (HPV6 and HPV11), these neither protect against all genital HPVs nor are of therapeutic utility for already infected patients.

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  • (PMID = 17668552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 68885-1; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 68885-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 192
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS5300; NLM/ PMC4646640
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20. Heyn J, Placzek M, Ozimek A, Baumgaertner AK, Siebeck M, Volkenandt M: Malignant melanoma of the anal region. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2007 Sep;32(5):603-7
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anal region.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) of the anal region is an uncommon disease.
  • Owing to delayed diagnosis and early metastases, the prognosis is often poor.
  • Anorectal melanomas (AM) are most common in the rectum, followed by the anal canal and anal verge.
  • The diagnosis of an AM is usually made using a biopsy.
  • Adjuvant immunohistological markers are the calcium-binding protein S-100, the melanoma antigen HMB-45, the melanoma-expressed protein Melan A, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF).
  • We report on a 39-year old man who presented with a 5-week history of recurrent prolapse of an anal tumour.
  • The tumour was histologically confirmed to be malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Melanoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17376215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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21. Mittal R, Perakath B, Chase S, Jesudason MR, Nayak S: Transanal excision of anorectal lesions--a single centre experience. Trop Gastroenterol; 2010 Jan-Mar;31(1):65-8
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  • Patients were divided into three groups. (1) Resection for benign disease (2) Curative and (3) Palliative resection for malignant disease.
  • RESULTS: Forty six patients underwent transanal excision, 21 for benign and 25 for malignant disease, 20 with curative and 5 with palliative intent.
  • Seventeen patients with adenocarcinoma, two with melanoma and one with verrucous carcinoma underwent curative resection.
  • Four patients with malignant melanoma and one with adenocarcinoma underwent palliative resection.
  • It offers good palliation of local symptoms in advanced malignant disease.
  • It can be used in a carefully selected group of patients with early rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20860237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Berman DM, Wincovitch S, Garfield S, Romeo MJ: Grading melanocytic dysplasia in paraffin wax embedded tissue by the nucleic acid index. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;58(11):1206-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Although nucleic acid derangements are the hallmark of melanocytic dysplasia, the gold standard for its diagnosis remains the microscopic evaluation of haematoxylin and eosin stained slides.
  • RESULTS: When applied to benign naevi, dysplastic naevi, and melanoma, a very strong significant association was seen between lower NAI and malignant potential (p < 0.0001).
  • Interestingly, the NAI for dysplastic naevi is between that of melanoma and most benign naevi, consistent with their intermediate biological behaviour and histological appearance.
  • CONCLUSION: By providing a quantitative measure for melanocytic neoplasia, the NAI may improve the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions and the selection of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanocytes / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Mitotic Index. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / genetics. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16254113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
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23. Berretta R, Moscato P: Cancer biomarker discovery: the entropic hallmark. PLoS One; 2010;5(8):e12262
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  • [Title] Cancer biomarker discovery: the entropic hallmark.
  • BACKGROUND: It is a commonly accepted belief that cancer cells modify their transcriptional state during the progression of the disease.
  • We propose that the progression of cancer cells towards malignant phenotypes can be efficiently tracked using high-throughput technologies that follow the gradual changes observed in the gene expression profiles by employing Shannon's mathematical theory of communication.
  • Methods based on Information Theory can then quantify the divergence of cancer cells' transcriptional profiles from those of normally appearing cells of the originating tissues.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using melanoma and prostate cancer datasets we illustrate how it is possible to employ Shannon Entropy and the Jensen-Shannon divergence to trace the transcriptional changes progression of the disease.
  • We establish how the variations of these two measures correlate with established biomarkers of cancer progression.
  • The Information Theory measures allow us to identify novel biomarkers for both progressive and relatively more sudden transcriptional changes leading to malignant phenotypes.
  • At the same time, the methodology was able to validate a large number of genes and processes that seem to be implicated in the progression of melanoma and prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We thus present a quantitative guiding rule, a new unifying hallmark of cancer: the cancer cell's transcriptome changes lead to measurable observed transitions of Normalized Shannon Entropy values (as measured by high-throughput technologies).
  • At the same time, tumor cells increment their divergence from the normal tissue profile increasing their disorder via creation of states that we might not directly measure.
  • This unifying hallmark allows, via the the Jensen-Shannon divergence, to identify the arrow of time of the processes from the gene expression profiles, and helps to map the phenotypical and molecular hallmarks of specific cancer subtypes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Mice. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20805891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923618
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24. Pisano M, Pagnan G, Loi M, Mura ME, Tilocca MG, Palmieri G, Fabbri D, Dettori MA, Delogu G, Ponzoni M, Rozzo C: Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancer and chemotherapeutic agents currently in use are still unsatisfactory.
  • Prevention and early diagnosis are the only effective tools against this tumour whose incidence and mortality rates are highly increased during the last decades in fair skin populations.
  • Aim of this work was to identify and test new compounds with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on melanoma cells.
  • We tested eugenol together with six natural and synthetic eugenol-related compounds for their capability to inhibit cell growth on primary melanoma cell lines established from patients' tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: Eugenol and isoeugenol monomers and their respective O-methylated forms did not show to inhibit melanoma cells proliferation.
  • Then IC50 and minimal effective doses and times have been established for the melanoma cell lines tested.
  • Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induced by treating melanoma cells with eugenol-related biphenyls was partially dependent by caspase activation.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the eugenol related biphenyl (S)-6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol elicits specific antiproliferative activity on neuroectodermal tumour cells partially triggering apoptosis and its activity should be further investigated on in vivo melanoma models in order to evaluate the real anticancer effectiveness on such tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Eugenol / analogs & derivatives. Eugenol / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BIPHENYL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. EUGENOL .
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  • (PMID = 17233906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 2L9GJK6MGN / diphenyl; 3T8H1794QW / Eugenol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1785384
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25. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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26. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8
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  • [Title] Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour.
  • Malignant rectal melanoma is a rare tumour.
  • Biopsies proved it to be an amelanotic malignant melanoma, as protein S100, melanoma antigen HMB45 and Melan-A expression were found.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed as a substantial part of the internal anal sphincter was invaded.
  • Histology confirmed an amelanotic malignant melanoma.
  • With this case we want to illustrate that malignant rectal melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms, and histology may be misleading.
  • One should always check for protein S-100, melanoma antigen HMN-45 and Melan-A expression, as they are strongly suggestive of melanoma.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • Rectal melanoma has a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of between 10-20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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27. Freudlsperger C, Schumacher U, Reinert S, Hoffmann J: The Critical Role of PPARgamma in Human Malignant Melanoma. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:503797
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  • [Title] The Critical Role of PPARgamma in Human Malignant Melanoma.
  • The past 30 years have only seen slight improvement in melanoma therapy.
  • Part of the reason for this treatment failure is the broad chemoresistance of melanoma, which is due to an altered survival capacity and an inactivation of apoptotic pathways.
  • Several targetable pathways, responsible for this survival/apoptosis resistance in melanoma, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways.
  • However, only a few studies have focused on the effects of PPARgamma agonists in melanoma, showing conflicting results.
  • The use of PPARgamma agonists in melanoma therapy has to be carefully weighted against considerable, undesirable side effects, as their mode of action is not fully understood and even pro-proliferative effects have been described.
  • In the current review, we discuss the role of PPARs, in particular PPARgamma in melanoma and their potential role as a molecular target for melanoma therapy.

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  • (PMID = 18483619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2377344
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28. Kiran RP, Rottoli M, Pokala N, Fazio VW: Long-term outcomes after local excision and radical surgery for anal melanoma: data from a population database. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Apr;53(4):402-8
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  • [Title] Long-term outcomes after local excision and radical surgery for anal melanoma: data from a population database.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is rare and associated with a poor outcome.
  • This study evaluates survival of patients undergoing surgery for anal melanoma from a prospective, population-based database.
  • METHODS: Characteristics and survival of patients undergoing rectal resection or local excision for anal melanoma of the anus, anal canal, and overlapping region of the rectum from 1982 to 2002 were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database and compared.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with anal melanoma is similar after local excision or rectal resection irrespective of whether patients have localized or regional stage of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery


29. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Shinji E, Yokoi K, Horiba K, Kanazawa Y, Yamada T, Oaki Y, Tajiri T: Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Oct;74(5):377-81
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  • [Title] Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor.
  • We report on a patient with rectal malignant melanoma.
  • The patient was a 40-year-old man who complained of anal bleeding.
  • His grandmother had died of pancreatic cancer and his mother had been operated for rectal cancer.
  • Physical examination revealed a hard mass at the 12 o'clock position, 2 cm from the anal verge.
  • With the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • However, the final pathological diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen was malignant amelanotic melanoma of the rectum.
  • As preoperative pathological diagnosis showed rare rectal tumor, we measured the chemosensitivity of the rectal tumor using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) to determine the most appropriate chemotherapy regimen for the patient.
  • However, there were no anticancer drugs tested by CD-DST for malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17965534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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30. Wiltgen M, Gerger A, Wagner C, Bergthaler P, Smolle J: Evaluation of texture features in spatial and frequency domain for automatic discrimination of histologic tissue. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Aug;29(4):251-63
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of different texture features in automatic discrimination of microscopic views from benign common nevi and malignant melanoma lesions.
  • RESULTS: Features from the histogram and the co-occurrence matrix enable correct classification of 94.7% of nevi elements and 92.6% of melanoma elements in the training set.
  • Discriminant analysis based on the percentage of "malignant elements" showed correct classification of all nevi cases and 95% of melanoma cases.
  • Features derived from the wavelet and Fourier spectrum showed correct results for 88.8% and 79.3% of nevi and 85.6% and 81.5% of melanoma elements, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 17879634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Sherwani RK, Kumar A, Raza MH: Haemorrhoids or anal melanoma, importance of preoperative histopathological examination: a case report. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(1):46-8
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  • [Title] Haemorrhoids or anal melanoma, importance of preoperative histopathological examination: a case report.
  • Haemorrhoids are the most common lesion affecting the anorectal region, whereas anal melanoma constitutes only 1% to 3% of all malignant tumours of anal canal.
  • We report a case of a female with classical clinical presentation of prolapsed haemorrhoids which on histopathological evaluation was found to be malignant melanoma.
  • The case highlights the significance of exact diagnosis prior to any surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhoids. Melanoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms. Humans. Rectum. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20496274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Kawano N, Tashiro M, Taguchi M, Kihara Y, Yoshikawa I, Syukuwa K, Yamasaki M, Kume K, Otsuki M: [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;105(11):1627-33
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • A 73-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having advanced anorectal malignant melanoma (Stage IV), was treated with combination chemotherapy using dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta.
  • After the first course of chemotherapy, rectal tumor was decreased in size with less anal pain and liver tumor was disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18987448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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33. Homsi J, Garrett C: Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):1004-10
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  • [Title] Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive cancer.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with anal melanoma treated at the H.
  • Lee Moffitt Cancer and Research Institute between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed.
  • Published anal melanoma studies, including more than ten patients with outcome data, also were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified (8 percent of all cancer of the anal canal).
  • Four patients had nodal involvement, and one had bone metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Five of the 11 patients without metastatic disease relapsed or died within the first year of diagnosis (4 had local excision and 1 had abdominoperineal resection).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal melanoma is a rare and challenging disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17468984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Enomoto K, Okamoto H, Numata Y, Takemoto H: A simple and rapid assay for heparanase activity using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence. J Pharm Biomed Anal; 2006 Jun 7;41(3):912-7
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  • Degradation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by heparanase is an important process in tissue invasion by malignant tumor cells and inflammatory cells.
  • Degradation of the substrate by incubation with murine melanoma cell extract was detected by measuring the time-resolved fluorescence after addition of XL665 (cross-linked allophycocyanin, fluorescence acceptor)-labeled streptavidin.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucuronidase / metabolism. Melanoma, Experimental / enzymology. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods

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  • (PMID = 16495030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-7085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Biomed Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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35. May KM, Vogt A, Bachas LG, Anderson KW: Vascular endothelial growth factor as a biomarker for the early detection of cancer using a whole cell-based biosensor. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2005 Jun;382(4):1010-6
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelial growth factor as a biomarker for the early detection of cancer using a whole cell-based biosensor.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a cytokine and endothelial cell (EC) mitogen that has been studied for its role in angiogenesis of malignant tumors.
  • Elevated quantities of VEGF in the serum and plasma of patients have been correlated with the presence of cancer and metastasis.
  • The practical applicability of the biosensor was also established with cultured human melanoma cells WM793 (nonmetastatic) and 1205LU (metastatic).
  • [MeSH-major] Biosensing Techniques / methods. Endothelial Cells / chemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15928947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2642
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
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36. Walts AE, Bose S: BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):246-51
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  • [Title] BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of perineal biopsies can include squamous intraepithelial lesions, extramammary Paget's disease, and melanoma.
  • BD ProEx C is a recently developed immunoassay that targets expression of two genes shown to be associated with cervical cancer.
  • Immunostaining for ProEx C has been validated in cervical cytology and positive staining has also been shown to be strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in biopsies.
  • We observed positive staining for ProEx C in Paget cells in all of 26 cases of Paget's disease irrespective of tissue site (extramammary, mammary) and in melanoma cells in all of 12 cases of primary perineal melanoma with immunostaining in >50% of malignant cells in 73% of Paget disease cases and 43% of perineal melanoma cases.
  • In situ hybridization was negative for low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes in all Paget and melanoma cases that were tested.
  • Currently neither of these lesions is known to be HPV related although according to the literature the possibility of a role for HPV in melanoma is still unsettled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Perineum / pathology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Mucous Membrane / enzymology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18931649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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37. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.

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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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38. Rusiecki JA, Patel R, Koutros S, Beane-Freeman L, Landgren O, Bonner MR, Coble J, Lubin J, Blair A, Hoppin JA, Alavanja MC: Cancer incidence among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect; 2009 Apr;117(4):581-6
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this study we evaluated the incidence of cancer among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS).
  • RESULTS: We found no associations between permethrin and all malignant neoplasms combined, or between permethrin and melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, or cancers of the colon, rectum, lung, or prostate.

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  • (PMID = 19440497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / Z01 CP010119; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES049030; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 509F88P9SZ / Permethrin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679602
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; agriculture / cancer / multiple myeloma / occupation / permethrin / pesticide applicator / pesticides / pyrethroid
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39. Ingold B, Schraml P, Heppner FL, Moch H: Homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity correlates with an unmethylated MGMT promoter status in brain metastases of various solid tumors. PLoS One; 2009;4(3):e4775
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  • The O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status is a predictive parameter for the response of malignant gliomas to alkylating agents such as temozolomide.
  • Therefore, we assessed MGMT promoter methylation of various brain metastases including those derived from lung (n = 91), breast (n = 72) kidney (n = 49) and from malignant melanomas (n = 113) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and MGMT immunoreactivity.
  • The methylation rate was the highest in brain metastases derived from lung carcinomas (46.5%) followed by those from breast carcinoma (28.8%), malignant melanoma (24.7%) and from renal carcinoma (20%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkylating Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Methylation. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19274096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2652028
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40. Murrell ZA, Dixon MR, Vargas H, Arnell TD, Kumar R, Stamos MJ: Contemporary indications for and early outcomes of abdominoperineal resection. Am Surg; 2005 Oct;71(10):837-40
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  • The indications for operation were primary rectal cancer (n = 31), recurrent rectal cancer (n = 6), intractable Crohn disease (n = 3), anal melanoma (n = 1), cloacogenic cancer (n = 1), squamous cell cancer (n = 1), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1).
  • Despite the significant morbidity associated with this surgery, APR may provide beneficial treatment for select cases of low rectal cancer, end-stage inflammatory bowel disease, and anal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 16468531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Klose A, Zigrino P, Dennhöfer R, Mauch C, Hunzelmann N: Identification and discrimination of extracellularly active cathepsins B and L in high-invasive melanoma cells. Anal Biochem; 2006 Jun 1;353(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Identification and discrimination of extracellularly active cathepsins B and L in high-invasive melanoma cells.
  • The method was applied to analyze cathepsin activities in cell culture supernatants of the high-invasive melanoma cell line MV3.
  • This novel method permits not only the enzymatic analysis of purified cysteine proteases but also the identification and discrimination of different cathepsin activities in biological fluids, cell lysates, or supernatants, especially of cathepsins B and L, which are closely linked to major inflammatory and malignant processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cathepsin B / analysis. Cathepsins / analysis. Cysteine Endopeptidases / analysis. Melanoma / chemistry. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16620747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Dipeptides; 134448-10-5 / N-(3-propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-isoleucyl-proline; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; DIQ16UC154 / dodecyl sulfate; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; GMW67QNF9C / Leucine; L5W337AOUR / aloxistatin
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42. Chang Y, Stanley RJ, Moss RH, Van Stoecker W: A systematic heuristic approach for feature selection for melanoma discrimination using clinical images. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Aug;11(3):165-78
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  • [Title] A systematic heuristic approach for feature selection for melanoma discrimination using clinical images.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous features are derived from the asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter of the skin lesion in dermatology for diagnosing malignant melanoma.
  • The feature selection process is applied to 19 shape and color features for a clinical image data set containing 355 malignant melanomas, 125 basal cell carcinomas, 177 dysplastic nevi, 199 nevocellular nevi, 139 seborrheic keratoses, and 45 vascular lesions.
  • Specifically, average test lesion classification error rates for discriminating malignant melanoma from non-melanoma lesions were reduced from 26.6% for 19 features to 23.2% for 13 features over five randomly generated training and test sets.

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  • (PMID = 15998327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA101639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R43 CA-101639-01
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS327059; NLM/ PMC3193077
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43. Stanojević G, Rancić Z, Jovanović M, Stojanović M, Mihailović D, Branković B: [Anal canal melanoma-- case report]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(3):83-5
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  • [Title] [Anal canal melanoma-- case report].
  • Anal canal melanoma is a rare disease comprising 1% of all colorectal ie. anal malignant tumours with very poor long term prognosis.
  • At the moment of diagnosis even 30% of the patients have distant metastases.
  • Modern approach to the anal canal melanoma treatment implies two types of intervention: wide local excision preserving the sphincter mechanism and abdominoperineal resection of the rectum.
  • The authors report on a 61 years old women in which anal canal melanoma with left inguinal lymphatic metastases was detected during the inspection of "haemorrhoids".
  • After the diagnosis was established, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed with dissection of both inguinal regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Melanoma

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  • (PMID = 17338206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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44. Wall SJ, Werner E, Werb Z, DeClerck YA: Discoidin domain receptor 2 mediates tumor cell cycle arrest induced by fibrillar collagen. J Biol Chem; 2005 Dec 2;280(48):40187-94
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  • During malignant invasion tumor cells establish contact with extracellular matrix proteins, including fibrillar collagen.
  • Here we provide evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of fibrillar collagen on proliferation of human melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells that involves activation of the tyrosine kinase discoidin domain receptor 2 and is independent of effects on cell spreading.

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  • (PMID = 16186104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA042919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA42919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058207-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA98469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA057621-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057621-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057621; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA57621
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Mitogen; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / discoidin receptor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS152810; NLM/ PMC2768768
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46. Ma Z, Lui WO, Fire A, Dadras SS: Profiling and discovery of novel miRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanoma and nodal specimens. J Mol Diagn; 2009 Sep;11(5):420-9
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  • [Title] Profiling and discovery of novel miRNAs from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanoma and nodal specimens.
  • A reliable, robust methodology is needed to take full advantage of archived human cancers, especially for those where fresh-frozen tumor banks are unavailable, for example, malignant melanoma.
  • Using a "poison primer" strategy (ie, primer silencing), we blocked the amplification of ribosomal RNA, enabling the successful sequencing of 17 novel and 53 known miRNAs (including small RNAs) from 10-year-old archived normal skin, cutaneous scalp melanoma, and sentinel lymph nodes (both negative and positive for metastasis) excised from a 52-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Formaldehyde / chemistry. Melanoma / pathology. MicroRNAs / genetics. Neoplasms / pathology. Paraffin Embedding / methods. Tissue Fixation / methods

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  • (PMID = 19710399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7811
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729839
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47. Katona TM, Shienbaum AJ, Wyatt LL, Brown GA, Cheng L: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the glans penis: a case report. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):39-42
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the glans penis: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has been regarded as the most common sarcoma of older adults.
  • However, recent opinion regards pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma as an undifferentiated high grade pleomorphic sarcoma not otherwise classifiable utilizing current techniques available in surgical pathology.
  • Notwithstanding controversy regarding its nomenclature, malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the penis is exceedingly rare, with only 4 cases previously described, to our knowledge.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma remains a diagnosis of exclusion.
  • Therapeutically important entities in the differential diagnosis that must be ruled out include other poorly differentiated sarcomas, sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 16566278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Sanli Y, Turkmen C, Kurul S, Taş F, Mudun A, Cantez S: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;20(9):629-31
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases.
  • Primary melanoma of the anal region is a rare pathological entity and its prognosis is generally poor.
  • The aim of this report is to demonstrate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with combined technique in patients with anal melanoma.
  • We report of two cases with anal melanoma that had wide local excision of the primary lesion and was referred for further evaluation.
  • Consequently, we suggest that SLN procedure with combined technique is also a useful technique in malignant melanomas similar to other anal canal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17294674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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49. Ishizone S, Koide N, Karasawa F, Akita N, Muranaka F, Uhara H, Miyagawa S: Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Dec;23(12):1257-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a relatively rare disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18633625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Olsha O, Mintz A, Gimon Z, Gold Deutch R, Rabin I, Halevy A, Reissman P: Anal melanoma in the era of sentinel lymph node mapping: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Apr;9(1):60-2
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma in the era of sentinel lymph node mapping: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • Melanoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that often has an atypical presentation.
  • We explored the possibility of applying the technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping to anal melanoma.
  • SLN mapping was performed in 2 patients with anal melanoma.
  • One patient had a wide local excision of the anal lesion with house flap anoplasty, while the other had abdominoperineal resection with total mesorectal excision.
  • The technique of SLN mapping and biopsy is easily adapted to surgery for malignant melanoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15868503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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51. Rasmussen MA, Colding-Jørgensen M, Hansen LT, Bro R: Multivariate evaluation of pharmacological responses in early clinical trials - a study of rIL-21 in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Br J Clin Pharmacol; 2010 Apr;69(4):379-90
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  • [Title] Multivariate evaluation of pharmacological responses in early clinical trials - a study of rIL-21 in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • METHODS: A multivariate chemometric approach was developed and applied for evaluating clinical laboratory parameters and biomarkers obtained from two clinical trials investigating recombinant human interleukin-21 (rIL-21) in the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Interleukins / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20406222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2125
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / interleukin-21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848411
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52. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Nilsson PJ, Olding LB, Nilsson BR: Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):125-31
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  • [Title] Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze 251 patients (101 males and 150 females) diagnosed with ano-rectal malignant melanoma (ARMM) reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1960-1999.
  • 54% of the tumours were primary in the anal canal, 24% engaged the whole ano-rectal unit and 10% were located at the anal verge (11% unknown primary site).
  • Although ARMM were rare in absolute numbers, their density (number of tumours/square unit) was higher than that of cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM) on average.
  • The majority of ARMM emerged primary in the anal canal and a primary location exclusively in the colonic mucosa of the rectum is questionable.
  • The higher density of ARMM as compared to the average density of CMM tallies with the result of our previous studies on vulvar melanoma and might be instrumental in exploring non-UV light associated factors in melanoma genesis.
  • The concentration of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma to population-dense urban areas, as previously reported, was not found in cases of ARMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18607861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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53. Finger PT, Latkany P, Kurli M, Iacob C: The Finger iridectomy technique: small incision biopsy of anterior segment tumours. Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;89(8):946-9
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  • Diagnoses included iris naevus, iris stroma, malignant melanoma, melanocytoma, epithelial inclusion cyst, and sarcoid granuloma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy / methods. Female. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 16024840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1772780
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54. Katona TM, Lopez-Beltran A, MacLennan GT, Cheng L, Montironi R, Cheng L: Soft tissue tumors of the penis: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Aug;28(4):193-206
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  • The purpose of this review is to aid the practicing surgical pathologist in distinguishing penile soft tissue tumors, such as sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma, from other prognostically and therapeutically important entities in the differential diagnosis.
  • Soft tissue tumors of the penis may be classified as benign or malignant, as superficial or deep and in terms of age at presentation. All are rare.
  • Among reported cases, the most frequent malignant penile soft tissue tumors are Kaposi sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • Distinguishing sarcomas from sarcomatoid carcinoma and melanoma is particularly important.
  • Accurate diagnosis is best facilitated by consideration of all available aspects of the case, including clinical information, histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical results.

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  • (PMID = 16927639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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55. Zhong J, Zhou JN, Xu FP, Shang JQ: [Diagnosis and treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma--a report of 22 cases with literature review]. Ai Zheng; 2006 May;25(5):619-24
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma--a report of 22 cases with literature review].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is an aggressive malignant tumor, and its treatment still remains controversial.
  • This study was to summarize our experience on diagnosis and treatment of AMM.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathologic records, including clinical feature, diagnosis, operation patterns, and prognosis, of 22 patients with AMM, treated in Jiangsu Provincial Cancer Hospital from 1977 to 2003, were analyzed retrospectively with literature review.
  • RESULTS: The 22 patients with AMM accounted for 0.04% of all the patients diagnosed as malignant tumors of large bowel simultaneously in our hospital.
  • The most common complaints of AMM patients were hematochezia (86%), anus pain or discomfort (59%), local mass (27%), and so on.
  • The definite pathologic diagnosis rate before surgery was 48%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colostomy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16687086.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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56. Barbus R, Rancea A, Fetica B, Spârchez Z, Kacsó G: Malignant melanoma of the anal canal: a case report. J Contemp Brachytherapy; 2009 Oct;1(3):151-153
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anal canal: a case report.
  • : This article is one case report of 49 year-old woman diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27807457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1689-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of contemporary brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adjuvant brachytherapy / anal melanoma / conservative resection
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57. Huang ZM, Li HZ, Xiao H, Ji ZG: [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Apr 27;90(16):1123-5
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  • [Title] [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of melanoma adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: A total of 48 cases of malignant melanoma from 1985 to 2007 were reviewed.
  • And three cases of melanoma adrenal metastasis were analyzed.
  • Two cases had a history of cutaneous melanoma and another one suffered previously from anal melanoma.
  • The other two cases underwent complete resection of melanoma metastasis.
  • When contralateral adrenal metastasis of melanoma was found 6 months later, left adrenalectomy laparoscopically was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Melanoma metastasis to adrenal gland is rare and it generally has a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with adrenal metastases from melanoma, either isolated or with a limited number of additional metastases, may achieve a survival benefit from surgical resection if all visible lesions are removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20646432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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58. Baljinnyam E, Iwatsubo K, Kurotani R, Wang X, Ulucan C, Iwatsubo M, Lagunoff D, Ishikawa Y: Epac increases melanoma cell migration by a heparan sulfate-related mechanism. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2009 Oct;297(4):C802-13
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  • [Title] Epac increases melanoma cell migration by a heparan sulfate-related mechanism.
  • Melanoma, the most malignant form of human skin cancer, has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability.
  • It was recently demonstrated that Epac, an effector molecule of cAMP, is involved in regulating cell migration; however, the role of Epac in melanoma cell migration remains unclear.
  • We thus examined whether Epac regulates cell migration and metastasis of melanoma.
  • Epac activation, by either specific agonist or overexpression of Epac, increased melanoma cell migration.
  • Deletion of endogenous Epac with small interfering RNA decreased basal melanoma cell migration.
  • These data suggested a major role of Epac in melanoma cell migration.
  • Finally, Epac overexpression enhanced lung colonization of melanoma cells in mice.
  • Taken together, these data indicate that Epac regulates melanoma cell migration/metastasis mostly via syndecan-2 translocation and heparan sulfate production.

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  • (PMID = 19657062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1563
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-067773; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-059139
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / RAPGEF3 protein, human; 0 / Tubulin; 149769-25-5 / Syndecan-2; 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.8 / heparitin sulfotransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770742
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59. Shibata Y: Boron distribution in the normal rat brain after intravenous injection of boronophenylalanine-fructose. J Neurooncol; 2008 Mar;87(1):35-41
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  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy for malignant brain tumors and peripheral melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 18026910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boron Compounds; 30237-26-4 / Fructose; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; N9E3X5056Q / Boron
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60. Hanley KZ, Weiss SW, Logani S: Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jan;37(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive, fast, and accurate diagnostic method for the evaluation of patients with locally recurrent or distant metastases of malignant melanoma.
  • In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis is straightforward with the characteristic cytologic features well documented in the literature.
  • Divergent differentiation (chondroid, neural, myofibroblastic, and osteocartilagenous) in a melanoma is rare and can potentially create diagnostic challenges if the evaluator is unaware of the same.
  • We report a case of a 46-year-old female with a history of primary anal melanoma who presented with a groin mass.
  • The FNA of the groin mass showed a neoplasm rich in chondroid matrix and raised the possibility of a second primary mesenchymal neoplasm rather than metastasis from the patient's known primary anal melanoma.
  • A review of the histologic features of the anal melanoma showed divergent chondroid differentiation in the anal melanoma with the metastatic deposit in the groin exhibiting extensive chondroid differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cartilage / pathology. Inguinal Canal / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18973120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Gökaslan H, Sişmanoğlu A, Pekin T, Kaya H, Ceyhan N: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report and review of the current treatment options. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Aug 1;121(2):243-8
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report and review of the current treatment options.
  • A case with primary malignant melanoma located in the posterior lower third of the vagina was encountered and treated by surgery, postoperative immunotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The tumor was close to the anal sphincter and posterior exenteration was done to achieve tumor-free surgical margins.
  • We focused on the treatment options and the possible complication that may arise during the treatment of the primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16054970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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62. Sauer CJ, Klaase JM, Gerritsen JJ, Mastboom WJ: [A malignant tumour in the breast is not always primary breast cancer]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Apr 2;149(14):729-34
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  • [Title] [A malignant tumour in the breast is not always primary breast cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Een maligne mammatumor: niet altijd een primair mammacarcinoom.
  • In a 75-year-old woman with a swelling in her left breast, a 39-year-old woman with an anal fissure due to diarrhoea and a 65-year-old woman with chest pain, a mammary tumour was diagnosed that did not originate in mammary tissue.
  • These were a recurrent melanoma, a carcinoma of the thyroid and a B-cell lymphoma, respectively.
  • Breast cancer is one of the most frequently occurring neoplasms in women.
  • Most of these cases concern haematological malignancies and metastases from melanoma and lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Jun 18;149(25):1426; author reply 1426 [15997699.001]
  • (PMID = 15835620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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63. Naumann SC, Roos WP, Jöst E, Belohlavek C, Lennerz V, Schmidt CW, Christmann M, Kaina B: Temozolomide- and fotemustine-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells: response related to MGMT, MMR, DSBs, and p53. Br J Cancer; 2009 Jan 27;100(2):322-33
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  • [Title] Temozolomide- and fotemustine-induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells: response related to MGMT, MMR, DSBs, and p53.
  • Malignant melanomas are highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • First-line chemotherapeutics used in melanoma therapy are the methylating agents dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ) and the chloroethylating agents BCNU and fotemustine.
  • Here, we determined the mode of cell death in 11 melanoma cell lines upon exposure to TMZ and fotemustine.
  • We show for the first time that TMZ induces apoptosis in melanoma cells, using therapeutic doses.
  • MGMT inactivation by O(6)-benzylguanine sensitized all melanoma cell lines expressing MGMT to TMZ and fotemustine-induced apoptosis, and MGMT transfection attenuated the apoptotic response.
  • This supports that O(6)-alkylguanines are critical lesions involved in the initiation of programmed melanoma cell death.
  • Although these data indicate that methylating drug resistance of melanoma cells can be acquired by down-regulation of mismatch repair, a correlation between MSH2 and MSH6 expression in the different lines and TMZ sensitivity was not found.
  • Apoptosis in melanoma cells induced by TMZ and fotemustine was accompanied by double-strand break (DSB) formation (as determined by H2AX phosphorylation) and caspase-3 and -7 activation as well as PARP cleavage.
  • Melanoma lines expressing p53 wild-type were more resistant to TMZ and fotemustine than p53 mutant melanoma lines, which is in marked contrast to previous data reported for glioma cells treated with TMZ.
  • Overall, the findings are in line with the model that in melanoma cells TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine triggers the apoptotic (and necrotic) pathway through DSBs, whereas for chloroethylating agents apoptosis is triggered in a more complex manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded / drug effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / drug effects. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / COL11A2 protein, human; 0 / Collagen Type XI; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2634706
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64. Chen KG, Valencia JC, Lai B, Zhang G, Paterson JK, Rouzaud F, Berens W, Wincovitch SM, Garfield SH, Leapman RD, Hearing VJ, Gottesman MM: Melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs contributes to the intractability of malignant melanomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jun 27;103(26):9903-7
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  • [Title] Melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs contributes to the intractability of malignant melanomas.
  • Multidrug resistance mechanisms underlying the intractability of malignant melanomas remain largely unknown.
  • Thus, our experiments provide evidence that melanosomes contribute to the refractory properties of melanoma cells by sequestering cytotoxic drugs and increasing melanosome-mediated drug export.
  • Preventing melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting the functions of melanosomes may have great potential as an approach to improving the chemosensitivity of melanoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Cisplatin / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanosomes / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism