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1. Ho KS, Cranston RD: Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now? Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2010 Feb;23(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now?
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss current and future anal cytology screening programs to detect anal dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), in addition to other interventions aimed at early detection of anal cancer in this population.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence of progression from high-grade anal dysplasia to anal cancer has been recently demonstrated and strengthens the clinical imperative to diagnose and treat this lesion in at-risk populations.
  • The use of adjunct molecular techniques that improve specificity of anal cytology screening may have the potential to rationalize current screening referral pathways and focus resources on those at highest risk of progressing to cancer.
  • Candidate biomarkers that are currently being investigated include protein surrogates of cell cycle deregulation (such as p16ink4a and minichromosomal maintenance proteins), DNA damage biomarkers (53BP1) in addition to testing for human papillomavirus genotype, gamma tubulin and beta defensin levels.
  • SUMMARY: Anal cytology, although sensitive for the detection of any anal dysplastic abnormality, has poor specificity to detect high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • As new molecular techniques are evolving, the most important immediate clinical intervention is to educate HIV-positive MSM in order to increase awareness of both risk and clinical symptoms suggestive of progression to anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. HIV Infections / pathology. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 19935419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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2. González E, Gutiérrez E, Galeano C, Chevia C, de Sequera P, Bernis C, Parra EG, Delgado R, Sanz M, Ortiz M, Goicoechea M, Quereda C, Olea T, Bouarich H, Hernández Y, Segovia B, Praga M, Grupo Madrileño De Nefritis Intersticiales: Early steroid treatment improves the recovery of renal function in patients with drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis. Kidney Int; 2008 Apr;73(8):940-6
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  • The role of steroid treatment in drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) is controversial.
  • We performed a multicenter retrospective study to determine the influence of steroids in 61 patients with biopsy-proven DI-AIN, 52 of whom were treated with steroids.
  • The final serum creatinine was significantly lower in treated patients while almost half of untreated patients remained on chronic dialysis.
  • After withdrawal of the presumed causative drug, we found that when steroid treatment was delayed (by an average of 34 days) renal function did not return to baseline levels compared to those who received steroid treatment within the first 2 weeks after withdrawal of the offending agent.
  • Our study shows that steroids should be started promptly after diagnosis of DI-AIN to avoid subsequent interstitial fibrosis and an incomplete recovery of renal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Creatinine / blood. Nephritis, Interstitial / drug therapy. Steroids / administration & dosage


3. Velazquez EF, Cubilla AL: Penile squamous cell carcinoma: anatomic, pathologic and viral studies in Paraguay (1993-2007). Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Aug;29(4):185-98
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  • [Title] Penile squamous cell carcinoma: anatomic, pathologic and viral studies in Paraguay (1993-2007).
  • In developed countries, penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) account for < 1% of all malignancies in men.
  • In Paraguay, approximately 30-40 new cases are diagnosed per year.
  • It is important for surgical pathologists to know the anatomy of the penis and possible routes of tumor spread because negative resection margins are crucial to avoid local recurrences.
  • Probable precursor lesions of penile carcinoma include squamous hyperplasia, low and high grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and lichen sclerosus.

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  • (PMID = 17879626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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4. Reda SM, Afifi HM, Amine MM: Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Egyptian children: a single-center study. J Clin Immunol; 2009 May;29(3):343-51
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  • [Title] Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Egyptian children: a single-center study.
  • INTRODUCTION: Sixty-four primary immunodeficiency patients were registered at the Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Department, Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
  • DATA: Predominantly antibody deficiencies were the most common category (35.9%) followed by combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies (29.7%), other well defined immunodeficiency syndromes (18.7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (12.5%), and diseases of immune dysregulation (3.1%).
  • The most frequent disorder was common variable immunodeficiency (18.7%).
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 29.9 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary immunodeficiency disorders are not rare in Egyptian children.
  • It is a prerequisite to establish a national registry of primary immunodeficiency in Egypt.

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  • (PMID = 19002574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Chuang ST, Yang XJ: Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer on tissue sections. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Oct;17(5):442-50
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  • Two sets of color optical images were acquired from prostate tissue sections stained with a double-chromogen triple-antibody cocktail combining alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, p63, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin.
  • The first set of images consisted of 20 training images (10 malignant) used for developing the computer technique and 15 test images (7 malignant) used for testing and optimizing the technique.
  • The computer technique identified image segments of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase-labeled malignant epithelial cells (red), p63, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin-labeled benign basal cells (brown), and secretory and stromal cells (blue) for identifying prostate cancer automatically.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the computer technique were 94% (16/17) and 94% (17/18), respectively, on the first (training and test) set of images, and 88% (79/90) and 97% (136/140), respectively, on the second (validation) set of images.
  • If high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, which is a precursor of cancer, and atypical cases were included, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% (97/114) and 89% (165/185), respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19417626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA97308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097308-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092361; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097308-01; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006466-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006466-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS100571; NLM/ PMC2836393
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6. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • The patient underwent local full-thickness excision of the lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


7. Hefny AF, Eid HO, Al-Bashir M, Abu-Zidan FM: Blast injuries of large tyres: case series. Int J Surg; 2010;8(2):151-4
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  • [Title] Blast injuries of large tyres: case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Severe blast injuries of large tyres are similar to those resulting from landmine explosions with neither thermal nor chemical effects.
  • Little has been written about the destructive nature of these blasts.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who had tyre blast injuries and were admitted to Al-Ain or Tawam Hospitals between March 2003 and September 2009 were retrospectively studied.
  • On arrival to the hospital, two patients were unconscious with GCS of 3/15.
  • Three patients had multiple injuries to different body parts (43%).
  • Five patients were admitted to the ICU with a median (range) ICU stay of 2 (1-2) days.
  • [MeSH-major] Blast Injuries / etiology. Motor Vehicles. Multiple Trauma / diagnosis. Multiple Trauma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Injuries / diagnosis. Abdominal Injuries / mortality. Abdominal Injuries / therapy. Adult. Air Pressure. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnosis. Craniocerebral Trauma / mortality. Craniocerebral Trauma / therapy. Explosions. Fracture Fixation / methods. Humans. Injury Severity Score. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Survival Analysis. United Arab Emirates. Wound Healing / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Gasztonyi B, Pár G, Pár A, Hunyady B: [Safety of pegylated interferon in patients with hepatitis C virus induced cirrhosis]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Nov 27;146(48):2431-4
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  • OBJECTIVES: The authors described their experience with the therapy with pegylated interferon and its safety in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced liver cirrhosis treated at First Department of Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs and at Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and/or histological examination of liver biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Different genotypes of HCV were detected: genotype 1 in 7 cases, genotype 2 in 1 person, genotype 3 in 3 cases.
  • Thirteen of 24 patients were not treated earlier, 6 persons were non-responders to previous interferon monotherapy, pegylated interferon was administered to 5 patients because of relapse.
  • Biochemical parameters showed improvement in 16 cases (16/24, 66.66%), but did not in 5 patients.
  • Temporary dose reduction was needed in 13/24 cases (54.16%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pegylated interferon treatment is well tolerated by patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (Child-Pough stage A).
  • Frequent side-effects (half of all cases) were usually mild or moderate requiring discontinuation only in 2 of 24 patients.
  • The incidence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia emphasizes the need of frequent blood cell count tests and patients follow up.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Drug Resistance, Viral. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hungary. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Recombinant Proteins. Severity of Illness Index. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. United Arab Emirates

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  • (PMID = 16408382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2a; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2b; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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9. Kreuter A, Jesse M, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Bechara FG, Pfister H, Wieland U: Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):490-8
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  • [Title] Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, especially in men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of AIN might prevent development of anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression of 8 promising proliferative biomarkers in anal dysplasia and to compare the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM3, MCM4, MCM6, and MCM7), p21, Ki-67, p16, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed in a total of 49 specimens of normal anal mucosa and high- and low-grade anal dysplasia.
  • HPV typing for 36 high- and low-risk HPVs was performed, and high-risk HPV-DNA loads were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV-types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • RESULTS: A total of 392 immunohistochemical slides were analyzed in this study.
  • In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade dysplasia, we found significant differences in the expression of all biomarkers.
  • A cutoff of 25% or 50% lesional immunopositivity for the 4 MCMs, Ki-67, and p16 resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity to diagnose high-grade AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of PCNA and p21 for a high-grade AIN diagnosis were lower.
  • HPV-DNA was detectable in 100% of high-grade AIN and 87.5% of low-grade AIN lesions.
  • All MCMs, p16, Ki-67, and PCNA, but not p21 correlated with cumulative lesional high-grade HPV-DNA loads.
  • LIMITATIONS: The relatively small number of samples is a limitation, especially for adequate subgroup analyses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs, Ki67, and p16 are reliable immunohistochemical adjuncts for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biopsy, Needle. DNA, Viral / analysis. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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10. Heselmeyer-Haddad K, Sommerfeld K, White NM, Chaudhri N, Morrison LE, Palanisamy N, Wang ZY, Auer G, Steinberg W, Ried T: Genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene (TERC) in pap smears predicts the development of cervical cancer. Am J Pathol; 2005 Apr;166(4):1229-38
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  • This provided the rationale for the development of a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe set as a diagnostic tool for the direct detection of TERC gains in Pap smears.
  • We previously used this probe set to show that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN3 lesions could be distinguished from normal samples, atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and CIN1, with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90%, independent of the cytomorphological assessment.
  • In the current study, we explored whether gain of 3q and amplification of TERC could predict progression from CIN1/CIN2 to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma.
  • Of note, 3q gain was found in 33% of cytologically normal Pap smears from women who were diagnosed with CIN3 or invasive cervical carcinoma after a short latency.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. RNA / genetics. Telomerase / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vaginal Smears


11. Edgren G, Sparén P: Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Apr;8(4):311-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: The first vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease is now available.
  • Associations between HPV and vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers are well established, but the full extent in terms of age and time since diagnosis of these associations is not well known.
  • Using national registration numbers, we linked this cohort to nationwide population, migration, cancer, and death registers.
  • The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of vaginal, vulvar, anal, and rectal cancer in women with a history of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN), grade 3, compared with women with no such history were estimated by use of multivariate Poisson regression.
  • FINDINGS: Women with a history of grade 3 CIN had increased risks of cancer of the vagina (6.74 [95% CI 5.24-8.56]), vulva (2.22 [1.79-2.73]), and anus (IRR 4.68 [3.87-5.62]).
  • For all four anatomical sites, the IRRs varied substantially with the amount of time that had elapsed since the date of first diagnosis of grade 3 CIN.
  • Analyses stratified by attained age during follow-up showed that the risk of cancer conferred by a history of diagnosis of grade 3 CIN was highly age dependent.
  • The observed increased risks were not explained by smoking or socioeconomic status.
  • INTERPRETATION: This study confirms the known association between history of CIN, presumed HPV infection, and increased risk of cancers of the vagina, vulva, and anus by use of large and complete databases, but also shows that this risk varies both by the time from initial diagnosis of grade 3 CIN and by the age of the individual.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prospective Studies. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Regression Analysis. Risk Factors. Sweden / epidemiology. Time Factors


12. Health Quality Ontario: Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2007;7(4):1-43
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  • [Title] Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC.
  • High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard.
  • CLINICAL NEED: TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection.
  • Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
  • Anal cancer is rare.
  • It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy.
  • Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
  • Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men.
  • The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s.
  • The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic disease state of long-term immunosuppression.
  • About 28% of the newly diagnosed HIV infections are in women, a doubling since 1999.
  • It has also been estimated that 1 of 3 people living with HIV do no know it.
  • HEALTH TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination.
  • Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology.
  • It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions.
  • Several HPV deoxyribonucleic acid detection technologies such as the Hybrid 11 Capture and the polymerase chain reaction are available to detect and differentiate HPV viral strains.
  • Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia.
  • The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups.
  • That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
  • Assessments of current practices were obtained through consultations with various agencies and individuals including the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care AIDS Bureau; Public Health Infectious Diseases Branch, Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Cancer Care Ontario; HIV/AIDS researchers; pathology experts; and HIV/AIDS clinical program directors.
  • FINDINGS: No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality.
  • In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia.
  • The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
  • Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia.
  • All studies involved experienced pathologists, so the results generally represent best-case scenarios.
  • Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
  • In the largest study of HIV-positive males, sensitivity varied from 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-56%) to 69% (95% CI, 60%-78%).
  • In the only study of HIV-negative males, sensitivity ranged from 26% (95% CI, 5%-47%) to 47% (95% CI, 26%-68%).
  • In comparison, cervical Pap testing has also been evaluated mainly in settings where there is a high prevalence of the disease, and estimates of sensitivitykij and specificity were also low and highly variable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity.
  • Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer.
  • Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
  • The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test.
  • In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications.
  • A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.

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  • (PMID = 23074504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377578
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13. Adley BP, Yang XJ: Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):1-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review.
  • Since its discovery, AMACR has gained wide acceptance for use in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemical staining for basal cell markers.
  • This review focuses on AMACR expression in prostate cancer and its morphologic variants, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenosis and benign conditions of the prostate.
  • We also focus on the utility and technical aspects of the now-popular "triple stain" immunohistochemical antibody cocktail, consisting of antibodies to high-molecular-weight keratin, p63 and AMACR.
  • Finally, we emphasize diagnostic pitfalls in the application of AMACR to small, atypical foci of glands seen on prostate needle core biopsy and project future diagnostic as well as clinical applications for the protein.

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  • (PMID = 16566275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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14. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.
  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • Moreover, data are provided on penile and oral HPV-associated diseases, for which only limited information is available in the literature.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • Penile and oral HPV-associated diseases seem to be more frequent in HIV-positive men than reported for HIV-negative heterosexual men.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • More study is required to get better insights into the natural history of penile and oral HPV-associated benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology


15. Truesdale MD, Goldstone SE: The fear factor: drivers and barriers to follow-up screening for human papillomavirus-related anal cancer in men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Jul;21(7):482-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The fear factor: drivers and barriers to follow-up screening for human papillomavirus-related anal cancer in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer incidence is rising in men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Retrospective chart review identified MSM with anal dysplasia.
  • From June 2007 to March 2008, subjects completed a questionnaire in-person at the time of screening or via telephone (LTF).
  • Questionnaires were completed after anal dysplasia diagnosis.
  • RF were more likely to describe their HPV diagnosis as 'upsetting' (P = 0.003).
  • MSM with high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were more likely to be RF versus those with low-grade intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.001.
  • Positive predictors for screening compliance include an upsetting experience during the HPV diagnosis, physical symptoms driving the initial visit and HSIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Early Detection of Cancer / psychology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data


16. M'Koma AE, Blum DL, Norris JL, Koyama T, Billheimer D, Motley S, Ghiassi M, Ferdowsi N, Bhowmick I, Chang SS, Fowke JH, Caprioli RM, Bhowmick NA: Detection of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic prostate disease by MALDI profiling of urine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2007 Feb 16;353(3):829-34
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  • [Title] Detection of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic prostate disease by MALDI profiling of urine.
  • Existing prostate cancer screening paradigms have relatively poor specificity for cancer relative to other prostate diseases, commonly benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  • A method for discrimination of BPH, HGPIN, and PCa urine proteome was developed through testing 407 patient samples using matrix assisted laser desorption-mass spectrometry time of flight (MALDI-TOF).
  • The high throughput, low-cost assay method developed is amenable for large patient numbers required for supporting biomarker identification.

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  • (PMID = 17194448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098348-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM068543-04; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM068543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA68485; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM068543-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98348; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5K12GM068543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098348-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS16682; NLM/ PMC2562600
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17. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


18. Papachristou F, Printza N, Farmaki E, Leontsini M, Kavaki D, Kollios K: Antibiotics-induced acute interstitial nephritis in 6 children. Urol Int; 2006;76(4):348-52
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  • INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a rare disorder in children, and the diagnosis is often delayed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 6 children, age range from 10 months to 14 years, with biopsy-confirmed antibiotics-induced AIN.
  • RESULTS: Symptoms of AIN started 2-4 weeks after antimicrobial therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics in 5 children and with gentamicin in 1 child.
  • The glomerular filtration rate was dramatically reduced in 2 cases and mildly reduced in 4 patients.
  • Two of our patients had supportive treatment, 2 received corticosteroid therapy, and 2 children remained under peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 22 days, respectively.
  • Five patients had a full recovery of their renal function, and 1 child, 2 years later, still presented impairment of the renal function.
  • CONCLUSION: AIN should be considered in case of acute renal failure in children, mostly when other common causes have been excluded, and there is a history of drug exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16679839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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19. Palefsky JM: HPV infection in men. Dis Markers; 2007;23(4):261-72
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  • While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men.
  • Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood.
  • Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men.
  • However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Male / etiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / etiology. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / etiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Sexual Partners

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  • (PMID = 17627061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3851123
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20. Scholefield JH, Castle MT, Watson NF: Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Sep;92(9):1133-6
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: The natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is uncertain.
  • METHODS: All patients were diagnosed with high-grade AIN (AIN III) between 1994 and 2003.
  • Diagnosis was by full-thickness biopsy and histopathological examination.
  • Excision of localized high-grade AIN was carried out in 28 patients with minimal morbidity.
  • Six patients were systemically immunosuppressed at diagnosis, all of whom had multifocal perianal lesions.
  • Three immunosuppressed patients developed invasive anal squamous carcinoma during follow-up.
  • By contrast, no invasive carcinomas were identified among immunocompetent patients with either localized or multifocal perianal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: AIN III appears to have a relatively low potential for malignant transformation in the immunocompetent patient.
  • However, immunosuppressed patients are more likely to have extensive AIN III and a greater risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16044425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Sella R, Flomenblit L, Goldstein I, Kaplinsky C: Detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia of infancy: a multicenter study. Isr Med Assoc J; 2010 Feb;12(2):91-6
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  • [Title] Detection of anti-neutrophil antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia of infancy: a multicenter study.
  • Primary AIN is characterized by neutrophil count < 500 ml and a benign self-limiting course.
  • Detecting specific antibodies against the polymorphic human neutrophil antigen usually confirms the diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We evaluated 120 children with a clinical suspicion of AIN, whose sera were analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of autoantibodies using the indirect granulocyte immunofluorescence test.
  • RESULTS: Our method showed specificity of 85%, sensitivity of 62.5%, and a positive predictive value of 91.8%, values quite similar to those obtained by more traditional methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / blood. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Neutropenia / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20550032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
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22. Dedes KJ, Beneder C, Samartzis N, Muller MD, Fink D, Fehr MK: Outcome of treated anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. J Reprod Med; 2008 Dec;53(12):947-51
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  • [Title] Outcome of treated anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics and clinical course of high-grade anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.
  • STUDY DESIGN: HIV-positive women with biopsy-proven high-grade (II and III) vulvar (VIN), vaginal (VAIN) or perianal intraepithelial neoplasia (PAIN) were identified in the electronic databases of 2 colposcopy clinics.
  • Of the patients, 77.4% had VIN, 12.9% VAIN and 9.7% PAIN at first diagnosis.
  • Age at diagnosis of IN was 36.2 years (SD +/- 5.2; range, 23.5-47.0).
  • Ninety percent of patients received antiretroviral therapy at first diagnosis of IN; 65% (13 of 20) of patients with a follow-up of > 2 years required a second treatment, and 2 developed invasive vulvar cancer (10%).
  • CONCLUSION: AIN among HIV-positive women shows a high relapse rate despite treatment modality used and a substantial invasive potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


23. Eid HO, Hefny AF, Joshi S, Abu-Zidan FM: Non-traumatic perforation of the small bowel. Afr Health Sci; 2008 Mar;8(1):36-9
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  • Diseases that cause small bowel perforation vary in different areas of the world.
  • OBJECTIVE: To highlight difficulties in the diagnosis and management of non-traumatic perforation of small bowel.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of four patients who have presented with non-traumatic perforation of the small bowel and were treated at Al-Ain Hospital during the last 5 years were studied retrospectively.
  • Erect chest X-ray has shown free air under diaphragm in 3 patients.
  • Leukocytosis was present in only one patient.
  • HIV was confirmed in one patient.
  • Patients were diagnosed to have typhoid, HIV, hook worms and tuberculosis.
  • Only the HIV patient died while the others were discharged home in a good condition.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical findings of small bowel perforation are usually non specific and diagnosis is usually reached after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Hookworm Infections / complications. Ileal Diseases / etiology. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Typhoid Fever / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antinematodal Agents / administration & dosage. Antinematodal Agents / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / complications. Crohn Disease / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Mebendazole / administration & dosage. Mebendazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tuberculosis / complications. Tuberculosis / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal / complications. Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Am Surg. 2000 Feb;66(2):219-22 [10695758.001]
  • [Cites] Hepatogastroenterology. 2002 Jul-Aug;49(46):1017-22 [12143191.001]
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  • (PMID = 19357730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1729-0503
  • [Journal-full-title] African health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr Health Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antinematodal Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408541
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24. Al-Hammadi S, Al-Maskari F, Bernsen R: Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 2010;151(4):336-42
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  • [Title] Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates.
  • However, the prevalence of FA in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has not yet been determined.
  • This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of FA among school children aged 6-9 years in Al-Ain city, UAE.
  • METHODS: We used multistage random sampling in order to get a sample of 397 school children whose parents completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the presence or absence of physician diagnosis of FA and other allergic diseases.
  • RESULTS: The study showed that the prevalence of physician-diagnosed FA in children was 8% (95% CI 5.4-10.8%).
  • FA was independently related to a family history of FA, to a small sibship size and to a personal history of other atopic diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FA in Al-Ain city was 8%.
  • A history of FA in first-degree family members and a small sibship size were associated with a higher risk of FA in children.
  • FA was related to a personal history of other atopic diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Fish Products / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires. United Arab Emirates

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19851075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of allergy and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens
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25. Tadic M, Grgurevic I, Scukanec-Spoljar M, Bozic B, Marusic S, Horvatic I, Galesic K: Acute interstitial nephritis due to mesalazine. Nephrology (Carlton); 2005 Apr;10(2):103-5
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  • A case of mesalazine-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) in a 41-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis (UC) is reported here.
  • Clinical symptoms such as fever and arthralgia, and laboratory findings such as eosinophilia and renal failure suggested AIN, which was confirmed by biopsy.
  • With withdrawal of mesalazine and intravenous methylprednisolone the patient's renal function was recovered.
  • Delayed diagnosis may lead to permanent renal function impairment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15877665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5358
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrology (Carlton)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine
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26. Walts AE, Lechago J, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):795-801
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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • P16 is a tumor suppressor gene product, shown to be overexpressed in most cervical carcinomas and dysplasias associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.
  • HPV is also associated with anal squamous dysplasias and carcinomas.
  • Significant interobserver and intraobserver variation exists in the interpretation of biopsies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was undertaken to assess the potential role of p16 and Ki67 immunohistochemical expression in refining the diagnosis and grading of AIN.One-hundred and four anal biopsies from 74 patients were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of the department.
  • After discrepancies were resolved and concurrence was achieved by at least 2 of 3 reviewing pathologists, the diagnoses were as follows: 37 negative, 12 condylomas without overt dysplasia, 14 AIN I, 25 AIN II, and 16 AIN III. p16 and Ki67 expression was evaluated by ABC immunoperoxidase staining whereas the presence of the high-risk subtypes of HPV virus was determined by in situ hybridization on a subset of the biopsies.
  • Results were reviewed by 2 pathologists and positive and negative staining was correlated with H&E diagnoses.
  • Nuclear and/or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was considered as positive for p16 when present in >10% of squamous cells.
  • A band-like pattern of p16 immunoreactivity was seen in 21.4% AIN I, 80% AIN II, and 87.5% AIN III cases.
  • None of the condylomas and only 1 of the negative cases showed a band of p16 positive staining.
  • Spotty p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 8.1% negative, 8.3% condyloma, 14.3% AIN I, 12.0% AIN II, and 12.5% AIN III cases.
  • More than 50% of nuclei stained positive for Ki67 in 28.6% AIN I, 48.0% AIN II, and 75.0% AIN III cases but in none of the negative or condyloma cases.
  • On the basis of these results, a band-like pattern of p16 staining and Ki67 positivity in >50% of the squamous cell nuclei were strongly associated with high-grade AIN.
  • Most AIN I lesions stained similar to the nondysplastic cases.
  • A small subset of biopsies studied did not conform to the pattern described above: 4 of 14 (28.6%) AIN I lesions showed a band-like pattern of p16 staining and/or >50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • 4 of 25 (16.0%) AIN II lesions comprising 9.8% of the 41 high-grade AINs (AIN II and III) showed spotty p16 positivity and <50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • We conclude that when used together and evaluated in conjunction with H&E stained sections, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 16819320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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27. Bean SM, Meara RS, Vollmer RT, Conner MG, Crowe DR, Novak L, Eltoum IA, Robboy SJ, Chhieng DC: p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jul;13(3):145-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is subjective.
  • Previous studies have shown p16 and Ki-67 expressions to correlate with AIN grade.
  • The objectives were (1) to determine the extent of interobserver agreement in evaluating AIN on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections and (2) to test whether p16 and/or Ki-67 staining improve interobserver diagnostic agreement.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven anal specimens were retrieved.
  • Blind to the original diagnoses, 4 pathologists assessed H&E alone, p16 alone, Ki-67 alone, and all 3 simultaneously.
  • Diagnoses were normal/reactive, AIN I/HPV, AIN II, and AIN III.
  • Fair agreement was observed using H&E diagnosis alone (kappa = 0.38, S = 0.56).
  • The p16 diagnostic evaluation demonstrated the highest agreement (kappa = 0.57, S = 0.73).
  • When the pathologists' diagnoses for all diagnostic evaluations were compared with consensus diagnoses, the lowest average magnitude of disagreement was seen with Ki-67 alone, followed by p16 alone, H&E/p16/Ki-67 combined, and H&E alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement for diagnosis of AIN was fair when based solely on H&E preparation. p16 alone improved interobserver agreement and demonstrated superior agreement when compared with H&E, Ki-67, and H&E/p16/Ki-67 combined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biopsy. Clinical Competence. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19550211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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28. Kreepala C, Changsirikulchai S, Chalermsanyakorn P: Pulmonary hemorrhage with acute renal injury in a patient with IgA nephropathy. J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Jun;92 Suppl 3:S80-4
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  • [Title] Pulmonary hemorrhage with acute renal injury in a patient with IgA nephropathy.
  • IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a form of glomerular diseases which is usually aggravated by infection in respiratory or gastrointestinal systems.
  • Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has been previously described as an unusual cause of acute renal injury in IgAN.
  • We reported a patient who presented with fever hemoptysis from diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, and acute renal injury.
  • Renal biopsy revealed IgAN concomitant with AIN which was the cause of renal dysfunction.
  • Renal biopsy is a mandatory investigation to make the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomerulonephritis, IGA / diagnosis. Hemoptysis / drug therapy. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Nephritis, Interstitial / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19702073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 75J73V1629 / Ceftriaxone; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
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29. Walts AE, Lechago J, Hu B, Shwayder M, Sandweiss L, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN). Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:7-13
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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN).
  • BACKGROUND: Significant variation is reported in the diagnosis of HPV-associated AIN.
  • We previously observed that band-like positivity for p16 in >90% of contiguous cells coupled with Ki67 positivity in >50% of lesional cells is strongly associated with high grade AIN.
  • This study was undertaken to determine if addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostaining would reduce inter- and intraobserver variability in diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • DESIGN: H&E stained slides of 60 anal biopsies were reviewed by three pathologists and consensus diagnoses were achieved: 25 negative, 12 low (condyloma and/or AIN I) and 23 high (9 AIN II and 14 AIN III) grade lesions.
  • The H&E stained slides were diagnosed independently by three additional ("participant") pathologists.
  • RESULTS: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains reduced intra- and interobserver variability, improved concurrence with consensus diagnoses and reduced two-step differences in diagnosis.
  • Negative and high grade AIN diagnoses showed the most improvement in concurrence levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains is helpful in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.

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  • (PMID = 21876646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3159996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki67 / P16 / anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) / condyloma / human papilloma virus (HPV) / interobserver variability / intraobserver variability
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30. Ochi K, Horiuchi Y, Tazaki K, Nishi K, Kawashima H, Yabe H: Spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve palsy with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Mod Rheumatol; 2010 Oct;20(5):514-7
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  • A 74-year-old woman diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) complained of difficulty in flexing her left thumb and index finger.
  • Electromyography demonstrated isolated anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy, with no other peripheral neuropathy.
  • We diagnosed this case as spontaneous AIN palsy complicated with CSS, the first case of this kind.

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  • (PMID = 20458608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7609
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Rheumatol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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31. Pantanowitz L, Leiman G, Dezube BJ: Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page? AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):182-3
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  • [Title] Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Mass Screening. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Washington / epidemiology

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  • [CommentOn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):178-86 [19554736.001]
  • (PMID = 19554737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Sassone J, Schaefer W, Schwartz T, Valenti WM: Trends in HIV care, Part 1: new antiretrovirals, anal dysplasia, and reimbursement for diagnostic testing--a roundtable discussion. AIDS Read; 2008 Dec;18(12):615-21
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  • [Title] Trends in HIV care, Part 1: new antiretrovirals, anal dysplasia, and reimbursement for diagnostic testing--a roundtable discussion.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases. Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures / economics. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Insurance, Health, Reimbursement. Papillomavirus Infections


33. Walts AE, Bose S: BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):246-51
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  • [Title] BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of perineal biopsies can include squamous intraepithelial lesions, extramammary Paget's disease, and melanoma.
  • Immunostaining for ProEx C has been validated in cervical cytology and positive staining has also been shown to be strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in biopsies.
  • We observed positive staining for ProEx C in Paget cells in all of 26 cases of Paget's disease irrespective of tissue site (extramammary, mammary) and in melanoma cells in all of 12 cases of primary perineal melanoma with immunostaining in >50% of malignant cells in 73% of Paget disease cases and 43% of perineal melanoma cases.
  • Positive staining was heterogeneous and exclusively nuclear in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Perineum / pathology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Mucous Membrane / enzymology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18931649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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34. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Such screenings should only be performed if pathological findings result in further diagnostic steps and, if necessary, appropriate treatment.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • This classification is important because of the difference in treatment regimens.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
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35. Hullmann M, Reichert TE, Dahse R, von Eggeling F, Pistner H, Kosmehl H, Driemel O: [Oral cytology: historical development, current status, and perspectives]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2007 Jan;11(1):1-9
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  • By brushing it is possible to reach deeper layers of the oral mucosa where squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) begins.
  • The biological potential of the oral epithelial cells obtained can be evaluated by the following additional methods: computer-assisted image analysis (OralCDx), DNA cytometry, immunohistochemistry, monolayer cytology, and molecular biological analysis.
  • Nevertheless, there are reports that oral epithelial carcinomas were not identified.
  • No comparative study exists allowing conclusions to be drawn about the value of the single methods.
  • Oral brush biopsy as a non invasive diagnostic method can be useful for the early detection of oral mucosal lesions.
  • Positive findings or progression of the lesion despite negative findings are indications to refer the patient to a specialized clinic where a surgical biopsy should be performed, followed by histopathological analysis.
  • Histopathology remains the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of oral malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy / methods. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17177045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / kalinin
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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36. Al-Muhairi SS, Zoubeidi TA, Ellis ME, Safa WF, Joseph J: Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Saudi Med J; 2006 Jul;27(7):1044-8
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  • [Title] Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive value of commonly used clinical and laboratory factors for mortality in patients with pneumonia in the Arab world.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyze the data collected from all inpatients over the age of 16 years with a diagnosis of pneumonia in Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates between the years 1997 and 2002.
  • The most common comorbid risk factors were diabetes mellitus in 23.7% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 19.5%.
  • Simple logistic regression analysis showed increasing age, presence of comorbidity, low systolic blood pressure, confused mental status, low serum albumin, high serum creatinine, raised blood urea nitrogen and raised partial pressure of carbon dioxide at the time of admission were associated with higher mortality.
  • On the Stepwise-multilogistic regression analysis, the most significant factors influencing mortality were: older age, altered mental status, low systolic blood pressure, low serum albumin and raised serum creatinine.
  • Older age, altered mental status, low systolic blood pressure, low serum albumin concentration and raised serum creatinine at admission were predictive of poor outcome in this cohort of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Pneumonia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / complications. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. United Arab Emirates / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16830028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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37. El-Debeiky MS, Safan HA, Shafei IA, Kader HA, Hay SA: Long-term functional evaluation of fecal continence after laparoscopic-assisted pull-through for high anorectal malformations. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2009 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S51-4
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  • BACKGROUND: The use of laparoscopy while performing an abdominal dissection for the mobilization of rectovesical fistula should have an impact on anorectal function, as compared to the original posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, where muscle complex was not cut and the rectum was pulled in a way similar to the old techniques for the abdominoperineal pull-through.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective case study included 15 patients treated with a laparoscopic-assisted pull-through for high anorectal malformation.
  • After the approval of the Ethical Committee for Medical Research in the Department of Surgery at Ain Sams University (Cairo, Egypt) and obtaining an informed consent from the parents, they were subjected to a full clinical history and a checklist about motions and soiling to be filled in over 1 month, a barium enema to check for any dilatation, anorectal manometry to evaluate resting pressure, maximum squeezing pressure, and sphincter relaxation, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate the central situation of the rectum within the sphincter and the degree of development of the sphincter.
  • RESULTS: Six of 9 patients are clean without any attacks of fecal soiling or incontinence, and they evacuate spontaneously but need the application of a rectal suppository for evacuation from time to time.
  • Manometry showed a high resting pressure that decreased on straining in the 7 clean patients and low in 2.
  • The resting pressure did not increase on squeezing and all showed weak rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR).
  • One patient developed dysurea and constipation 1 year after surgery, as diagnosed by VCUG (voiding cystourethrogram) to have a diverticulum at the site of excised fistula causing rectal and urethral obstruction treated by a transabdominal excision with a good functional result.
  • CONCLUSION: The state of continence with the laparoscopic technique in high anorectal malformations in this study showed acceptable results but needs bigger series with longer follow-up for a proper evaluation of this technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Laparoscopy. Rectum / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 19281419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • This paper looks at the current definition, diagnostic methods and management of AIN.
  • The incidence of AIN has increased significantly in the last decades.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In cases of more severe and localized lesions (AIN II and AIN III), surgical resection should be considered if the predictive postoperative morbidity is low.
  • Screening programs for AIN are not currently in place and there might be much effort to study the management of HPV in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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39. Mirghani HM, Khair H: Comparison between visual and computerized cardiotocography in low risk pregnancy. Saudi Med J; 2005 Aug;26(8):1228-30
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  • The study was carried out at Al-Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, between August 2004 and December 2004.
  • The difference in cesarean section rate was not statistically significant.
  • Observers' interpretation and cCTG did not correlate well with Apgar score at 5 minutes and admission to special care baby unit.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome


40. Chin-Hong PV, Berry JM, Cheng SC, Catania JA, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Fishman F, Jay N, Pollack LM, Palefsky JM: Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med; 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6
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  • [Title] Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in prevalence and is more common among men who have sex with men and HIV-positive individuals than cervical cancer is among women in the United States.
  • Cytology screening can detect the anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Little is known about self-collected samples for AIN screening, and few community-based AIN estimates exist.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of self-collected versus clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to detect biopsy-confirmed AIN and the prevalence estimate of AIN in a community sample.
  • DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
  • Participants were mailed anal cytology self-collection kits with instructions.
  • Clinicians repeated anal cytology and performed high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies as the diagnostic reference standard.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of anal HPV and AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of self-collected and clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to diagnose AIN were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy-proven AIN was diagnosed in 57% of HIV-positive and 35% of HIV-negative participants (P = 0.04), and 80% provided adequate self-collected specimens for interpretation.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 75% (95% CI, 51% to 93%) when self-collected and 90% (CI, 68% to 99%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 48% (CI, 26% to 70%) and 62% (CI, 38% to 82%).
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 50% (CI, 22% to 78%) when self-collected and 64% (CI, 36% to 86%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 86% (CI, 71% to 94%) and 85% (CI, 72% to 93%).
  • LIMITATIONS: The study sample was from a narrowly defined geographical area.
  • CONCLUSION: In a community-based sample, a high proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men have AIN.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN is higher for clinician-collected versus self-collected specimens and for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative men.
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN is higher in HIV-negative versus HIV-positive men.
  • However, the probability of AIN in a patient with a negative cytology result may not be low enough (23% for HIV-negative men and 45% for HIV-positive men with a patient-collected specimen) for clinicians to be comfortable recommending no anoscopy for those with a negative cytology result if done as a one-time test.
  • Given limited resources and the limited number of clinicians trained in anoscopy, cytology screening may be the best current approach to identifying disease in the at-risk population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Homosexuality. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. San Francisco / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5 [19221387.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):I38 [18765696.001]
  • (PMID = 18765699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH54320
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Moscicki AB, Schiffman M, Kjaer S, Villa LL: Chapter 5: Updating the natural history of HPV and anogenital cancer. Vaccine; 2006 Aug 31;24 Suppl 3:S3/42-51
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  • The major steps in cervical carcinogenesis include infection of the metaplastic epithelium of the cervical transformation zone with one or more of the 12-18 carcinogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, viral persistence, clonal progression of the persistently-infected epithelium to cervical precancer, and invasion.
  • The importance of the transformation zone in cervical cancer has been extended to other HPV-induced cancers such as anal or tonsillar cancers.
  • Natural history studies show that HPV with normal cervical cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 behave similarly, with the majority of both showing regression.
  • Whether equivalent lesions diagnosed later differ in their natural history remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / virology. Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Time Factors. United States

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  • (PMID = 16950017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA051323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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42. Wiley DJ, Huh J, Rao JY, Chang C, Goetz M, Poulter M, Masongsong E, Chang CI, Bernard HU: Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jun 1;39(2):143-51
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  • [Title] Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men.
  • Intra-anal malignancies disproportionately affect individuals who engage in anal intercourse because of infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), with an increased risk attributed to infection with HIV because of a declining immunity against HPvs. Long-term persistence of HPVs suggests yet other mechanisms that determine the clinical outcome, however.
  • Because methylation of HPV DNA represses oncogene expression in cervical samples, we investigated whether this mechanism also occurs in HIV-positive men and studied the methylation of CpG dinucleotides overlapping with the HPV-16 enhancer and promoter in 16 anal samples.
  • In low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), methylation was high in CpGs overlapping the viral enhancer but rare in promoter positions, whereas methylation was high in promoter regions in high-grade AIN, especially in samples with a high load of viral genomes.
  • We also detected de novo methylation at methylated (me) CpA, meCpT, and meCpC dinucleotides.
  • Our study expands the observation and mapping of HPV DNA methylation to anal infections and the HIV-positive patient population.
  • DNA methylation, taken together with virus load, may be useful to diagnose the emergence of a population of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / virology. Base Sequence. Biopsy. DNA Primers. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Dinucleoside Phosphates / analysis. Enhancer Elements, Genetic. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Virus Latency. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 15905729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-91964; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-91964
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Dinucleoside Phosphates; 2382-65-2 / cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
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43. Hefny AF, Ahmed I, Branicki FJ, Ramadan K, Czechowski J, Abu-Zidan FM: Management of mesenteric vascular occlusion. Singapore Med J; 2008 Apr;49(4):316-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate our recent clinical management of mesenteric vascular occlusion (MVO) at Al-Ain Hospital, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was performed including all patients who were diagnosed to have MVO from December 2001 to May 2005.
  • The records were studied with regard to clinical features, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • The main risk factor for MAO was ischaemic heart disease with atrial fibrillation in four patients (80 percent).
  • No predisposing factors were identified in three patients with MVT (primary MVT 43 percent).
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed in all patients and was diagnostic in 12 (86 percent) patients.
  • One patient died on the ninth postoperative day (overall mortality rate 7 percent).
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of anticoagulation therapy, with operative intervention when indicated, are essential for a favourable outcome.

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  • (PMID = 18418524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants
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44. Bakr IM, Ismail NA: Domestic violence among women attending out-patient clinics in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc; 2005;80(5-6):629-50
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  • [Title] Domestic violence among women attending out-patient clinics in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.
  • A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of domestic violence among ever married females presenting to out patient clinics in Ain Shams university hospitals and to identify factors affecting it.
  • Out of a total number of 509 women, 89.8% had experienced one or more episodes of violent behavior by their husbands of which 56%, 88.4% and 47.9% suffered physical, control and threat violence.
  • The most common form of violence among the study group was husband's shouting followed by being kept short of money.
  • This proposes the importance of effective screening, diagnosis and management of domestic violence victims.

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  • (PMID = 17187746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-2446
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Public Health Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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45. Al-Maskari F, El-Sadig M: Prevalence of risk factors for diabetic foot complications. BMC Fam Pract; 2007;8:59
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  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for foot complications among diabetic patients in Al-Ain district, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • METHODS: The study was part of a general cross-sectional survey carried out to assess the prevalence of DM complications in Al-Ain district, UAE.
  • All completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent medical assessment including foot examination and assessment of presence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD).
  • RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the study populations were diagnosed to have DM without presenting with symptoms of diabetes and 35% had hypertension.
  • There were no cases of amputation and only one case had previous history of lower extremity ulceration.
  • Significant risk factors for PN and PVD were: male gender, poor level of education, UAE nationality, increased duration of diabetes, type 2 DM, presence of hypertension and microalbuminuria (MA).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the low prevalence of foot ulceration and amputation among the study population, nevertheless, a substantial proportion had potential risk factors for foot complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Albuminuria / complications. Albuminuria / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Educational Status. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / complications. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology. Peripheral Vascular Diseases / complications. Peripheral Vascular Diseases / epidemiology. Prevalence. Process Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires. United Arab Emirates / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17927826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2296
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC family practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Fam Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2174471
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46. Afifi AM, Mady GE, Ahmad AA, el-Shar-Kawy ME, Aly AR, Khalil HH: Pattern of renal diseases among elderly Egyptians patients with acute or chronic renal diseases in Ain Shams University and Nasser Institute Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol; 2005 Dec;35(3):911-24
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  • [Title] Pattern of renal diseases among elderly Egyptians patients with acute or chronic renal diseases in Ain Shams University and Nasser Institute Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.
  • This study among elderly renal Egyptian patients (n=220) with only 20 of them were subjected to renal biopsy.
  • Other cardiovascular risk factors and smoking are reported by previous workers to be HS related to renal diseases.
  • Age was significantly related to GFR, BUN and Cr. but sex difference was not significantly related to renal diseases.
  • Multiple myeloma, lupus nephritis, vasculitis and hepatitis B were all recorded in few numbers of elderly Egyptians.
  • HCV was more common and more likely to cause renal diseases.
  • Abdomino-pelvic ultrasound was confirmatory to clinical renal diseases diagnosis.
  • Ultrasound results among the biopsy group were confirmatory to clinical diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Diseases / diagnosis. Kidney Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Kidney Function Tests. Male

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  • (PMID = 16333899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0583
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Soc Parasitol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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47. Goldstone SE, Moshier E: Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus impacts anal screening guidelines in men who have sex with men. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1135-42
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  • [Title] Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus impacts anal screening guidelines in men who have sex with men.
  • PURPOSE: It has been shown that testing for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV+) improves the sensitivity of cytologic diagnosis of atypical cells of undetermined significance in the cervix and anus, reducing the number of patients requiring colposcopy or high-resolution anoscopy.
  • We endeavored to determine whether HPV testing could predict future high-grade dysplasia (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) and modify screening internals.
  • METHODS: This investigation was conducted via a retrospective chart review of subjects with atypical cells of undetermined significance anal cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and HPV testing.
  • Of 224 subjects monitored for >2 years, the hazard ratio for developing high-grade dysplasia was 77% less for men who have sex with men who never had oncogenic HPV (HPV-) vs those who stayed HPV+ (P < .013).
  • The hazard ratio for high-grade dysplasia in those who were HPV- vs those who became HPV- was not different.
  • Risk of high-grade dysplasia was 28% within 6 months of becoming HPV+.
  • The 3-year high-grade dysplasia risk was 15% and 54% for HPV- vs HPV+ subjects (P = .0006).
  • Frequency of high-grade dysplasia in subjects who remained HPV- with predominantly atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 1, 2, or 3 years was 2%, 0% and 0% and was 17%, 0%, and 0% in HIV+ subjects.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis for HIV- subjects with HPV- predominantly atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 1 year showed <5% incidence of high-grade dysplasia at 4 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Change in HPV status can predict the risk of high-grade dysplasia.
  • Subjects with predominantly HPV- atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 2 years have a decreased risk of high-grade dysplasia.
  • HPV testing when screening for anal dysplasia could alter screening parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Homosexuality, Male. Mass Screening / standards. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Colonoscopy. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Incidence. Male. Precancerous Conditions. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology


48. Klaudel-Dreszler M, Pietrucha B, Skopczynska H, Pac M, Kurenko-Deptuch M, Heropolitanska-Pliszka E, Wolska-Kusnierz B, Maslanka K, Bernatowska E: [Chronic neutropenia - experience from the Department of Immunology, Children's Memorial Health Institute]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Apr-Jun;11(2 Pt 1):145-52
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  • [Title] [Chronic neutropenia - experience from the Department of Immunology, Children's Memorial Health Institute].
  • The diagnosis was based on: bone marrow smears, ANC, immunologic investigation.
  • RESULTS: we established the diagnosis of: Kostmann disease (KD), cyclic neutropenia (CyN), hyperIgM syndrome (HIGM), Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), severe chronic neutropenia (SCN) and chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) in: 4, 2, 2, 1, 21 and 20 children respectively.
  • Due to positive results of tests: MAIGA, GIFT or GAT autoimmune neutropenia of infancy (AIN) was confirmed in 7 children.
  • In 3 infants neutropenia was connected with HCMV- infection and Gancyclovir therapy.
  • A boy, with the same diagnosis, underwent bone marrow transplantation from related donor but died from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
  • During observation period all children suffered from upper respiratory tract infections, 19 had chronic gingivitis.
  • Severe infections- bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, severe varicella and measles were observed in 30, 5, 2 and 1 patient respectively.
  • 2. AIN proved to be a mild condition, although ANC decreased below 500.
  • In this entity rHuG-CSF is recommended during severe infections and before surgery.
  • 3. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for children with: KD, CyN, GSD1b, CN in 1st year of life, HIGM; in other cases it is considered individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Autoimmune Diseases / therapy. Neutropenia / diagnosis. Neutropenia / therapy. Neutrophils / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hospitals. Humans. Infant. Infection / diagnosis. Infection / immunology. Infection / therapy. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / immunology. Leukemia / therapy. Leukocyte Count. Male. Poland. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17625284.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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49. Al-Daraji WI, Al-Mahmoud RM, Ilyas M: Gastric changes following colchicine therapy in patients with FMF. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Aug;53(8):2079-82
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  • The salient features of this disease include brief recurrent episodes of peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis, which are usually associated with fever.
  • Colchicine is highly effective in the treatment of FMF and in preventing the development of recurrent attacks and amyloidosis, and it is essential to make the correct diagnosis and institute daily therapy with colchicine (0.5-0.6 mg bid).
  • In this study, effects of colchicines on the gastrointestinal tract were evaluated in patients with FMF treated with colchicine.
  • METHODS: Biopsies were reviewed from 43 patients attending Ain Shams University Hospital (Egypt) who were diagnosed with FMF and treated with colchicine.
  • This included biopsies from stomach body (38), stomach antrum (50), and colon (24).
  • In addition, gastric biopsies were reviewed from 17 control patients who did not have FMF and were not on colchicine.
  • RESULTS: Three patients known to have FMF and on colchicine therapy showed typical histological features of colchicine (metaphase mitoses, epithelial pseudoproliferation, mucin depletion, and frequent apoptosis).
  • These features were seen only in gastric antral biopsies and not in colonic biopsies.
  • None of the control group showed the characteristic morphological features of colchicine toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of histological changes seen in the stomach following colchicine therapy.
  • In contrast with previous reports, we did not find any definitive change in the large intestine.
  • If these finding are seen histologically, they merit correlation with the clinical impression and should not be interpreted as toxicity in isolation.

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  • [RetractionIn] Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Dec;54(12):2772 [19789978.001]
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  • (PMID = 18080195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Retracted Publication
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SML2Y3J35T / Colchicine
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50. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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51. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):364-9
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis.
  • Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide.
  • Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18.
  • Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding.
  • Pain or sensation of a rectal mass is experienced in 30% of patients, whereas 20% have no tumor-specific symptoms.
  • According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage.
  • Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease.
  • Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 20464850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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52. Mirasoli M, Guardigli M, Simoni P, Venturoli S, Ambretti S, Musiani M, Roda A: Multiplex chemiluminescence microscope imaging of P16(INK4A) and HPV DNA as biomarker of cervical neoplasia. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2009 Jun;394(4):981-7
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  • [Title] Multiplex chemiluminescence microscope imaging of P16(INK4A) and HPV DNA as biomarker of cervical neoplasia.
  • Classification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in low-grade (CIN1) or high-grade (CIN2-3) ones is crucial for optimal patient management, but current histological diagnosis on bioptic samples is often hampered by inter-observer variability.
  • To allow objective classification, we have exploited the peculiar characteristics of chemiluminescence detection, such as high sensitivity and easy quantification of the luminescence signal, to perform sequentially in the same tissue section both an immunohistochemical quantitative detection of p16(INK4A) (a protein marker of high-grade CIN lesions) and an in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (generally accepted as a necessary but insufficient cause of cervical carcinoma).
  • The multiplexed method allowed detection of two complementary biomarkers and provided discrimination between different lesions (non-neoplastic, low-grade and high-grade CIN).
  • This assay might thus represent an accurate and objective diagnostic test providing important information for counseling, selection of therapy and follow up after surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Luminescent Measurements / methods. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 19263042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2650
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
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53. Jawas A, Abu-Zidan FM: Management algorithm for complete blunt renal artery occlusion in multiple trauma patients: case series. Int J Surg; 2008 Aug;6(4):317-22
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  • [Title] Management algorithm for complete blunt renal artery occlusion in multiple trauma patients: case series.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the management of complete renal artery occlusion in multiple trauma patients so as to develop a management algorithm.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective study.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All blunt trauma patients who had complete renal artery occlusion and were treated at Tawam and Al-Ain Hospitals during 2005-2007 were studied.
  • Three had the injury on the right side while two on the left side.
  • The kidney was left in situ in one patient who underwent damage control laparotomy.
  • An attempted renal artery repair was aborted due to haemo-dynamic instability in another patient.
  • One patient developed hypertension and had interval nephrectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / complications. Algorithms. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / surgery. Renal Artery / injuries. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Angiography / methods. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injury Severity Score. Male. Multiple Trauma / diagnosis. Multiple Trauma / mortality. Multiple Trauma / therapy. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. United Arab Emirates. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 18590988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Devaraj B, Cosman BC: Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):36-40
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  • [Title] Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV.
  • PURPOSE: Anal squamous dysplasia is commonly found in patients with HIV infection.
  • This study reviews a series of patients with HIV and an abnormal anal examination who had squamous dysplasia and who have been followed with physical examination alone and with repeat biopsies as necessary for new or suspicious lesions.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 40 HIV-positive men who had squamous dysplasia of the anal canal and anal margin, focusing on history, physical findings, histologic diagnosis, and the occurrence of invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Forty HIV-positive men (mean age, 39 years) were followed for anal squamous dysplasia.
  • Biopsies revealed dysplasia, which was usually multifocal.
  • The grade of dysplasia varied, but 28 of 40 patients had at least one area of severe dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extensive excision for dysplasia in the context of HIV confers high morbidity and questionable benefit, and other treatments are of uncertain value.
  • In a group of patients followed expectantly, most did not develop invasive cancer, and in those who did, early cancers could be identified and cured.
  • Physical examination surveillance for invasive carcinoma may be acceptable for following patients with HIV and biopsy-proven squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Decision Making. HIV / immunology. HIV Antibodies / immunology. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Oct;49(10):1648-9; author reply 1649-50 [16972138.001]
  • (PMID = 16283561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Antibodies
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55. Praga M, González E: Acute interstitial nephritis. Kidney Int; 2010 Jun;77(11):956-61
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  • Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a frequent cause of acute kidney injury, accounting for 15-27% of renal biopsies performed because of this condition.
  • By and large, drug-induced AIN is currently the commonest etiology of AIN, with antimicrobials and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs being the most frequent offending agents.
  • Pathogenesis is based on an immunologic reaction against endogenous nephritogenic antigens or exogenous antigens processed by tubular cells, with cell-mediated immunity having a major pathogenic role.
  • A significant proportion of AIN has nowadays an oligosymptomatic presentation, although the presence of specific extrarenal symptoms such as fever, skin rash, arthralgias, and peripheral eosinophilia has an important role to orientate clinical diagnosis.
  • Identification and removal of the offending drug are the mainstay of the treatment, but recent studies strongly suggest that early steroid administration (within 7 days after diagnosis) improves the recovery of renal function, decreasing the risk of chronic renal impairment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Disease Progression. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Recovery of Function. Risk Factors. Steroids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Kidney Int. 2011 Jan;79(1):137-8; author reply 138 [21157464.001]
  • (PMID = 20336051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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56. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • A 54-year-old HIV-positive homosexual man presented with erythematous and pigmented plaques on background erythema in the perianal region, histologically consistent with Bowen's disease.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


57. Wahl RU, Blazek C, Megahed M: [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)]. Hautarzt; 2009 May;60(5):371-2
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  • [Title] [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)].
  • [Transliterated title] HPV-Typ-16-assoziierte anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie (AIN).
  • A 25-year-old woman had suffered from a perianal ulcer for approximately 1 year.
  • Employing virologic and histologic techniques, we confirmed the diagnosis of an intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is induced by carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.
  • Because of its frequency, AIN is a crucial differential diagnosis for lesions of the anogenital area region failing to respond to standard therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2008 Sep;110(3 Suppl 1):S18-25 [18653221.001]
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  • (PMID = 19430747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Chung AP, Rosenfeld DB: Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting. Am Surg; 2007 Dec;73(12):1279-83
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  • [Title] Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia III (AIN III) is a risk factor for anal cancer with poor curative results and high morbidity.
  • High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) is a minimally invasive means of identifying and treating AIN III early.
  • We retrospectively reviewed HRA in the treatment of AIN III in a community setting.
  • From January 2002 through November 2005, 76 patients with AIN III diagnosed by anal Pap smear, colposcopy, or biopsy underwent HRA for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Twenty-one patients with AIN III on initial HRA underwent follow-up HRA for reassessment and treatment at 6 months.
  • Recurrence/persistence of disease was recorded and compared with patient characteristics.
  • Twelve of 21 (57%) had intraanal recurrence/persistence; nine of 21 (43%) had no AIN III.
  • Three (75%) HIV-negative patients had no recurrence/persistence; one of four (25%) had recurrence; and 11 of 17 (65%) HIV-positive patients had persistence of disease.
  • HRA is an alternative tool to treat AIN III and can be performed in a community setting yielding results comparable to the university setting.
  • As the prevalence of AIN III increases, it will be more important for community surgeons to treat AIN III with HRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Bowen's Disease / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Community Health Services. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Private Practice. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18186390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Nahas CS, Lin O, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Stier EA: Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1581-6
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  • [Title] Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to describe perianal disease in a cohort of HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • All patients underwent anal canal and perianal high-resolution anoscopy in the office with biopsy of suspicious areas.
  • Patients with high-grade intraepithelial perianal lesions underwent multiple biopsies under general anesthesia in the operating room to rule out malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 52 patients, 19 (37 percent) had perianal abnormalities noted on high-resolution anoscopy and underwent punch biopsy.
  • Office perianal biopsies diagnosed two patients with invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and nine with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Seven of the nine patients with perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on office biopsy were submitted to multiple biopsies under general anesthesia.
  • One of these seven had an occult perianal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal disease was common in this group of HIV-infected patients; 11 patients (21 percent of total) were diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Because only 19 patients had clinically suspicious perianal lesions biopsied, this may be an underestimate.
  • Our data suggest that anal canal neoplasia often is accompanied by perianal disease and illustrates the need for biopsy of any suspicious perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Proctoscopy / methods


60. Esteve JB, Launay-Vacher V, Brocheriou I, Grimaldi A, Izzedine H: COX-2 inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Nephrol; 2005 May;63(5):385-9
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  • [Title] COX-2 inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis: case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) in a 50-year-old diabetic woman, who had been treated with celecoxib for 4 weeks before presentation.
  • A kidney biopsy specimen showed AIN with intense tubuli and eosinophilic infiltrate in the interstitium.
  • A review of the literature yielded eight cases of COX-2 inhibitor-associated AIN with a biopsy-proven diagnosis.
  • Among the reported cases, AIN was diagnosed after an average of 8.3 months of therapy (SD 12 months, range 3 days - 3 years) with 25 mg rofecoxib or 200 mg celecoxib daily.
  • Renal failure was common at the time of diagnosis.
  • Mean serum creatinine levels were 0.86 +/- 0.11 mg/dl, 5.66 +/- 3.50 mg/dl and 1.15 +/- 0.24 before treatment, at time of diagnosis and 1 - 2 months after COX-2 inhibitor withdrawal, respectively.
  • After cessation of COX-2 inhibitor treatment, patients recovered completely with a normalized serum creatinine level after one to two months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Function Tests. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15909599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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61. Silva MA, Ataide Tda R, Oliveira SL, Sant'ana AE, Cabral Júnior CR, Balwani Mdo C, de Oliveira FG, Santos MC: [Hepatoprotective effect of diheptanoin and tritreptanoin chronic consumption against steatosis in rats]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Oct;52(7):1145-55
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  • [Transliterated title] Efeito hepatoprotetor do consumo crônico de dieptanoína e trieptanoína contra a esteatose em ratos.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chronic consumption of di- and triheptanoin on hepatic steatosis (HS) in rats.
  • METHODOLOGY: Wistar rats were submitted to a diet AIN-93 with 0, 30 or 50% of its oil substituted with an oil rich in di- and triheptanoin, groups TAGC(7)0, TAGC(7)30 and TAGC(7)50 respectively, for nine months.
  • The control group received Labina(R).
  • The experimental oil reduced RLW and showed a tendency in the reduction of body weight, ALW, percentage of hepatic lipids and the severity of HS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that di- and triheptanoin have a hepatoprotector effect against HS, in rats, in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholesterol / blood. Diglycerides / administration & dosage. Fatty Liver / prevention & control. Triglycerides / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Blood Glucose / analysis. Kidney / pathology. Lipids / blood. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Regression Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2010 Aug;54(6):584-7 [20857067.001]
  • (PMID = 19082303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Diglycerides; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Triglycerides; 2P6O7CFW5K / triheptanoin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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62. Zawislak AA, Price JH, Dobbs SP, McClelland HR, McCluggage WG: the management of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia in Northern Ireland. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):780-5
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  • [Title] the management of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia in Northern Ireland.
  • In this study, we present the findings of a regional retrospective audit of all cases of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) diagnosed in Northern Ireland (NI) over an 11-year period (1989-1999).
  • During the period of the study, there were 97 cases of VIN.
  • The most common histopathologic diagnosis was VIN III (73%).
  • In 52% of the cases, there was multifocal VIN, and in 43%, there was involvement of other sites such as the cervix, vagina, or anal region.
  • During the study period, 18 of 90 patients (20%) for whom follow-up was available developed invasive vulval squamous carcinoma.
  • Most of the vulval cancers were superficially invasive, but three patients died of vulval cancer during the study period.
  • This study illustrates that in NI, VIN is treated at many institutions by a multitude of clinicians.
  • VIN should be managed by clinicians with expertise in this field and who are treating significant numbers of patients according to evidence-based protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Northern Ireland / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16681760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Shepherd NA: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):969-87, ix
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region.
  • Anal cancer is rare and this helps to explain why anal pre-neoplastic conditions are poorly understood, especially with regard to their natural history and management.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is closely linked to human papillomavirus infection and is particularly common in homosexuals and in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS.
  • The high regression rates of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia may simply reflect inconsistent pathologic reporting.
  • Higher grades of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may remain static for long periods of time in immunocompetent patients, but those with HIV/AIDS show early and rapid malignant transformation.
  • In general, most anal pre-neoplastic conditions are best diagnosed by biopsy and treated by surgical excision, although local recurrence is a problem.
  • In anal Paget's disease, it is important to ascertain, at the time of diagnosis, whether it is due to a primary in-situ apocrine-type of neoplasia of the anus or if the disease is secondary to an invasive primary carcinoma of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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64. Geevasinga N, Coleman PL, Webster AC, Roger SD: Proton pump inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 May;4(5):597-604
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  • Although well-tolerated, there have been case reports and a recent case series implicating these drugs in acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and progression to acute renal failure (ARF).
  • The aim of this study was to investigate how widespread this complication is in Australia, to identify which PPIs are implicated, and to establish whether PPI-induced AIN is a class effect.
  • METHODS: We undertook a retrospective case review of potential cases at 2 teaching hospitals and a review of registry data from the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia (TGA).
  • Parameters sought included the drug implicated, concurrent medications, symptoms, signs, serum creatinine, and time of onset after prescription.
  • RESULTS: We identified 18 cases of biopsy-proven PPI-induced AIN causing ARF in the retrospective case review, which is the largest hospital-based case series to date.
  • CONCLUSION: With the ever more widespread use of this class of medications, PPI-induced AIN is likely to become more frequent.
  • Failure to recognize this entity might have catastrophic long-term consequences including chronic kidney disease.
  • Increased awareness might facilitate more rapid diagnosis and management of this potentially reversible condition.
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia. Benzimidazoles / adverse effects. Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use. Dyspepsia / diagnosis. Dyspepsia / drug therapy. Education, Medical, Continuing. Female. Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis. Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Omeprazole / adverse effects. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Omeprazole / therapeutic use. Prevalence. Prognosis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution. Sulfoxides / adverse effects. Sulfoxides / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Oct;4(10):1296-7; author reply 1297 [17045214.001]
  • (PMID = 16630752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 0 / Sulfoxides; D8TST4O562 / pantoprazole; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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65. Bean SM, Chhieng DC, Roberson J, Raper JL, Broker TR, Hoesley CJ, Eltoum IA, Jin G: Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):90-6
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  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We describe the cytological distribution of disease, correlate cytological diagnoses with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status and surgical biopsy diagnoses, determine if CD4 counts correlate with lesion severity, and compare anal-rectal data of HIV-infected patients (primarily men) with cervical data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the computerized database identified 118 HIV-positive patients who had anal-rectal cytology.
  • Cytology results were compared with available follow-up data including repeat anal-rectal cytology tests, surgical biopsy, CD4 counts, and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping.
  • RESULTS: Cytological diagnoses included 3% unsatisfactory for diagnosis, 41% negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 23% atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US), 31% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 2% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-US/squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.7:1).
  • Two anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) II, 10 AIN III, and 1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma were histologically detected (11%).
  • The majority of AIN II was preceded by LSIL, 54%; ASC-US, 15%; and HSIL, 8%.
  • Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were 92%, 8%, 33%, and 67%, respectively.
  • Of those HPV tested concurrent with the first cytology specimen, 48% NILM, 78% ASC-US, and 100% LSIL were HPV positive.
  • Mean CD4 counts (per microliter) were lower in patients with HSIL (243 [SD, 65]) compared with LSIL (400 [SD, 261]) and NILM (428 [SD, 232]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal-rectal cytology is a useful screening test.
  • A high percentage of AIN II lesions were detected in this at-risk population, and the majority was detected following cytological abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20354415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83679
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • METHODS: A total of 125 men who have sex with men (MSM) were enrolled from a group of MSM identified by random digit dialing: HIV-negative = 85, HIV-positive = 35, and unknown status = 5.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Giraldo P, Jacyntho C, Costa C, Iglesias M, Gondim C, Carvalho F, Giraldo H, Gonçalves AK: Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Jan;142(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions (ASIL) in women with genital squamous intra-epithelial lesions (GSIL).
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, 184 patients with histopathological diagnosis of GSIL and 76 controls without GSIL, were submitted to anuscopy in order to determine the presence of ASIL.
  • All the women were HIV-negative with anal aceto-white lesions were biopsed for histological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: The frequency of ASIL was 17.4% in the GSIL group (3.2% high grade ASIL) and only 2.6% in the control group (0% high grade ASIL) (p<0.001).
  • All the high grade ASIL diagnoses were found in women with cervical SIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Muscular Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19019529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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68. Punnose J, Agarwal MM, Bin-Uthman S: Type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in Al-Ain: a case series. East Mediterr Health J; 2005 Jul;11(4):788-97
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  • [Title] Type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in Al-Ain: a case series.
  • To characterize the features of type 2 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in Al-Ain, the records of every child with diabetes attending a teaching hospital in the city from January 1990 to December 2001 were retrospectively examined.
  • Of 96 young people newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, 11 were identified as type 2.
  • This case series adds to the evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging among children in our region.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Blood Glucose / metabolism. C-Peptide / blood. Child. Epidemiologic Studies. Fasting. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Hospitals, Urban. Humans. Insulin / blood. Insulin Resistance. Islets of Langerhans / immunology. Male. Obesity / complications. Obesity / epidemiology. Pedigree. Puberty. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. United Arab Emirates / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16700395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1020-3397
  • [Journal-full-title] Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East. Mediterr. Health J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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69. Darvishian F, Stier EA, Soslow RA, Lin O: Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation. Cancer; 2006 Feb 25;108(1):66-71
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  • [Title] Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology has been proposed as a potential screening tool in the evaluation of squamous anorectal disease in view of the morphologic similarities between anal and cervical squamous lesions.
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that p16 overexpression correlates with the degree of dysplasia in the uterine cervix with promising results.
  • Due to potential diagnostic pitfalls in anal cytology, p16 overexpression in these specimens was studied.
  • One slide of each case was destained.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 43 cases demonstrated the presence of squamous cells immunoreactive for p16 in cytology specimens.
  • The p16-positive cells were identified in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n = 3 cases), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (n = 22 cases), and invasive squamous carcinoma (n = 1 case), and in 2 cases with negative follow-up biopsies.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of p16 immunoreactivity in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma were 72% and 71%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of p16 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of dysplasia in anal specimens.
  • However, the sensitivity and specificity of this marker are not high.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16404747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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70. Alkaabi JM, Mushtaq A, Al-Maskari FN, Moussa NA, Gariballa S: Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: a case series, review of the literature and update of management. Eur J Emerg Med; 2010 Feb;17(1):45-7
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  • [Title] Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: a case series, review of the literature and update of management.
  • The objective of this study was to present a case series of patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
  • We described all patients with diagnosis of hypokalemic periodic paralysis admitted to the Al Ain Hospital (UAE) during the year 2006.
  • Seventeen patients, all males and mostly Asians, were presented to the Al Ain Hospital over a 12-month period.
  • In conclusion, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion, especially among Asians presenting with flaccid paralysis and hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Emigrants and Immigrants. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Potassium / therapeutic use. Seasons. Thyrotoxicosis / complications. United Arab Emirates. Young Adult


71. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • In total, 244 men were screened and 235 (96%) of the samples were adequate for cytological interpretation using the Bethesda 2001 system.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Printza N, Koukourgianni F, Saleh T, Goga C, Papachristou F: Drug-induced interstitial nephritis in a child with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl; 2009 Nov;20(6):1072-5
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  • Both the clinical picture of the patient as well as laboratory, imaging and histopathological findings may help in the diagnosis.
  • We present a case of drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), complicated with ARF, in a 2(1/2) -year-old girl with active INS.
  • The child was referred to the Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece hospital with steroid-resistant NS; renal biopsy was performed, which did not show any remarkable findings and cyclosporine was administered in addition to steroid therapy.
  • The first day after biopsy, the child developed gross hematuria and abdominal pain and an antibiotic was added to her treatment.
  • Ultrasound study revealed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenity and loss of corticomedullary differentiation.
  • A second renal biopsy was performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis.
  • The child did not require dialysis therapy.
  • Our case re-emphasizes the need for investigation of factors precipitating ARF in children with idiopathic NS.

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  • (PMID = 19861874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-2442
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Steroids; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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73. Saad AA, Awed NM, Abdel-Hafeez ZM, Kamal GM, Elsallaly HM, Alloub AI: Prognostic value of immunohistochemical classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into germinal center B-cell and non-germinal center B-cell subtypes. Saudi Med J; 2010 Feb;31(2):135-41
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of immunohistochemical classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into germinal center B-cell and non-germinal center B-cell subtypes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of germinal center B-cell (GCB)/activated B-cell like-related proteins to get optimal stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, and correlate this with the established clinical and laboratory parameters.
  • METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively on 30 archival paraffin tissue blocks of DLBCL.
  • All patients were diagnosed between April 2004 and January 2007 at Ain Shams University Hospital and National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Each case included in this study was investigated by immunohistochemical reaction for multiple myeloma-1/interferon regulatory factor-4, B-cell/lymphoma 6, and cluster of differentiation10 monoclonal antibodies.
  • RESULTS: Patients were classified as GCB group (17 patients) and non-GCB group (13 patients).
  • We found a statistically significant association between non-GCB phenotype and performance status (PS) more than 1, high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, advanced international prognostic index (IPI), and poor patient outcome.
  • Non-GCB phenotype, high LDH level, and PS more than 1 were all associated with increased mortality risk.
  • The median survival time was 46.9 months in group A compared to 19.6 months in group B (hazard ratio[HR]=3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.52-21.10).
  • CONCLUSION: The subclassification of DLBCL into GCB and non-GCB groups using immunohistochemistry may be useful for identifying those patients whose prognosis is so poor that more aggressive therapy can be given at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / classification

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  • (PMID = 20174727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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74. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • This progression could be related to severity of the dysplasia and, albeit not yet confirmed, treatment of these lesions would prevent the evolution to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • T CD4+ lymphocyte counts were also evaluated to check if the immunologic status caused more advanced dysplasia.
  • Low grade AIN (LAIN) occurred in 30 and HAIN in 13 patients.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • This fact demonstrated that isolated systemic immunity did not seem to interfere in the genesis of these lesions, suggesting that aspects of local immunity should be studied.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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75. Walts AE, Thomas P, Bose S: Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing? Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):152-6
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  • [Title] Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing?
  • There is an increased incidence of anal squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia [AIN]) among persons who engage in anal-receptive sex.
  • Analogous to cervical cancer screening, anal Papanicplaou (Pap) smears currently are used to screen these high-risk populations.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in anal carcinoma pathogenesis and this study was performed to assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to anal cytology.
  • We correlated cytological diagnoses and HPV DNA (Digene Hybrid Capture [HC II] assay) in anal specimens collected in SurePath liquid medium from 118 patients; 54.8% of cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 87.8% diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or above tested positive for high- risk HPV DNA (B+).
  • Although a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US or above was a reliable indicator for AIN, cytology frequently did not accurately predict the grade of SIL in subsequent biopsy.
  • Our findings suggest that reflex HPV DNA testing would be helpful in triaging patients diagnosed with ASC-US.
  • However, patients diagnosed with LSIL or above should go directly to ansocopic biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078257.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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76. El-Ashaal YI, Al-Olama AK, Abu-Zidan FM: Trans-anal rectal injuries. Singapore Med J; 2008 Jan;49(1):54-6
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  • [Title] Trans-anal rectal injuries.
  • INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of trans-anal rectal injuries is usually delayed because of the patient's denial.
  • We aimed to study the causes, clinical presentation, management and clinical outcome of transanal rectal injuries.
  • METHODS: The records of 12 patients (nine males) with a median age of 36.5 (range 20-64) years, had trans-anal rectal injury and were treated between 1993 and 2006 at Al-Ain Hospital, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Injury was caused by a fall on a sharp object in five patients, by a rectal foreign body in two patients, by a compressed air hose in two patients, by sexual assault in two patients, and by rectal cleansing enema in one patient.
  • Seven patients presented two hours after the injury, four patients within 8-24 hours, and one sexually-assaulted patient presented after seven days.
  • The complication rate was significantly higher in the colostomy patients compared with primary repair (5/6 compared with 0/6, p-value is less than 0.02, Fisher's exact test).
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of trans-anal rectal injuries is usually delayed because of late presentation.
  • Colostomy is not always mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / injuries. Rectum / injuries. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / diagnosis. Wounds, Penetrating / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18204770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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77. Murphy N, Ring M, Heffron CC, King B, Killalea AG, Hughes C, Martin CM, McGuinness E, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ: p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;58(5):525-34
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  • [Title] p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer.
  • AIM: To analyse and compare expression patterns of three potential biomarkers-p16(INK4A), CDC6, and MCM5-and evaluate their use as predictive biomarkers in squamous and glandular cervical preinvasive neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Immunocytochemical analysis of p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was performed on 20 normal, 38 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 33 CIN2, 46 CIN3, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 19 cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (cGIN), and 10 adenocarcinoma samples.
  • Staining intensity was assessed using a 0-3 scoring system. p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was also examined in ThinPrep slides exhibiting mild, moderate, and severe dyskaryosis.
  • RESULTS: All three markers showed a linear correlation between expression and grade of dysplasia. p16(INK4A) and MCM5 protein expression was upregulated in all grades of squamous and glandular dysplasia.
  • CDC6 protein was preferentially expressed in high grade lesions and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: p16(INK4A) expression was closely associated with high risk HPV infection-all grades of squamous and glandular cervical lesions were immunohistochemically positive.
  • MCM5 staining intensity was independent of high risk HPV infection, highlighting its potential as a biomarker in both HPV dependent and independent cervical dysplasia.
  • CDC6 may be a biomarker of high grade and invasive lesions of the cervix, with limited use in low grade dysplasia. p16(INK4A) was the most reliable marker of cervical dysplasia.
  • Combinations of dysplastic biomarkers may be useful in difficult diagnostic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Blotting, Western / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15858126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC6 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins; 0 / mcm5 protein, S pombe
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770660
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78. Settin A, Abu-Saif IS, El-Baz R, Dowaidar M, Kasim RA, Shabana S: Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Disorders and Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome using Interphase Fluorescent In-Situ Hyperidization Technique. Int J Health Sci (Qassim); 2007 Jul;1(2):203-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Disorders and Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome using Interphase Fluorescent In-Situ Hyperidization Technique.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of guidelines used for prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) as well as sex chromosomal disorders including interphase Fluorescent In Situ Hyperidization (FISH) technique.
  • METHODS: Enrolled cases were among those presenting to Genetics and Neonatology Units, Mansoura and Ain-Shams University hospitals,(Egypt) during 2002 to 2004.
  • Groups 2 comprised suspected cases with sex chromosomal disorders including neonates with ambiguous genitalia (64 cases) and adults with primary amenorrhea (69 cases) or infertility (38 cases).
  • They were subjected to a diagnostic workup including RESULTS: Among the pregnant women group, seven were found to be at a high risk of having DS fetuses including 3 cases with a history of affected off-springs, 2 cases with age above 35 years, and 2 cases with high triple test.
  • Only one case had positive trisomy 21 on interphase FISH confirmed by karyogram on cultured amniotic cells.
  • Regarding the other group, 5 cases out of the 9 females were proved to be feminized males, one proved mosaic turner, one proved mixed gonadal dysgenesis and 2 normal females.
  • On the other hand one out of three males were proved to be verilized female while the other one was a male with incomplete testicular feminization and the last one was a male with infertility diagnosed as Klinefelter syndrome at the age of 26 years.
  • It adds to the diagnostic utility of routine cytogenetics and its use on interphase nuclei overcomes the difficulty of conventional cytogenetics.
  • It could be used in the prenatal diagnosis of DS in addition to ultrasonography, and triple test.

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  • (PMID = 21475429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1658-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Health Sci (Qassim)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3068641
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79. Wang X, Zheng B, Zhang RR, Li S, Chen X, Mulvihill JJ, Lu X, Pang H, Liu H: Automated analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) labeled genetic biomarkers in assisting cervical cancer diagnosis. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jun;9(3):231-42
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  • [Title] Automated analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) labeled genetic biomarkers in assisting cervical cancer diagnosis.
  • The numerical and/or structural deviation of some chromosomes (i.e., monosomy and _polysomy of chromosomes 3 and X) are routinely used as positive genetic biomarkers to diagnose cervical cancer and predict the disease progression.
  • Among the available diagnostic methods to analyze the aneusomy of chromosomes 3 and X, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has demonstrated significant advantages in assisting clinicians to more accurately detect and diagnose cervical carcinoma at an early stage, in particular for the women at a high risk for progression of low-grade and high-grade squamous intra-epithelium lesions (LSIL and HSIL).
  • In order to increase the diagnostic accuracy, consistency, and efficiency from that of manual FISH analysis, this study aims to develop and test an automated FISH analysis method that includes a two-stage scheme.
  • In the first stage, an interactive multiple-threshold algorithm is utilized to segment potential interphase nuclei candidates distributed in different intensity levels and a rule-based classifier is implemented to identify analyzable interphase cells.
  • In the second stage, FISH labeled biomarker spots of chromosomes 3 and X are segmented by a top-hat transform.
  • Finally, the ratio of abnormal interphase cells with numerical changes of chromosomes 3 and X is calculated to detect positive cases.
  • The experimental results of four test cases showed high agreement of FISH analysis results between the automated scheme and the cytogeneticist's analysis including 92.7% to 98.7% agreement in cell segmentation and 4.4% to 11.0% difference in cell classification.
  • This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of potentially applying the automatic FISH analysis method to expedite the screening and detecting cervical cancer at an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Automation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Female. Humans. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 20441233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136700; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136700-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136700
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS220245; NLM/ PMC2916642
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80. Chang VT, Cartwright PS, Bean SM, Palmer GM, Bentley RC, Ramanujam N: Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy. Neoplasia; 2009 Apr;11(4):325-32
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  • [Title] Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy.
  • The ability to quantify physiological and morphological changes in the cervix is not only useful in the diagnosis of cervical precancers but also important in aiding the design of cost-effective detection systems for use in developing countries that lack well-established screening and diagnostic programs.
  • We assessed the capability of a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique to identify contrasts in optical biomarkers that vary with different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal cervical tissues.
  • The technology consists of an optical probe and an instrument (with broadband light source, dispersive element, and detector), and a Monte Carlo algorithm to extract optical biomarker contributions including total hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Hb saturation, and reduced scattering coefficient from the measured spectra.
  • Among 38 patients and 89 sites examined, 46 squamous normal sites, 18 CIN 1, and 15 CIN 2(+) sites were included in the analysis.
  • Hemoglobin saturation was not significantly altered in CIN 2(+) compared with normal and CIN 1.

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  • (PMID = 19308287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108490; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21-CA108490-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2657880
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81. Saadi H, Carruthers SG, Nagelkerke N, Al-Maskari F, Afandi B, Reed R, Lukic M, Nicholls MG, Kazam E, Algawi K, Al-Kaabi J, Leduc C, Sabri S, El-Sadig M, Elkhumaidi S, Agarwal M, Benedict S: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population-based sample in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 2007 Dec;78(3):369-77
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  • [Title] Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population-based sample in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • AIMS: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications in the adult population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and assess the degree of metabolic control in subjects with diagnosed DM.
  • METHODS: A random sample of houses of Emirati citizens living in Al Ain, UAE was surveyed.
  • Fasting blood glucose was determined by glucose meter and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted if blood sugar was <7 mmol/l.
  • Pre-diabetes status was based on fasting venous blood glucose concentration of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or 2h post-OGTT venous blood glucose level of 7.8-11.0 mmol/l.
  • RESULTS: There were 2455 adults (>18) living in the 452 surveyed houses of which 10.2% reported having the diagnosis of DM.
  • A total of 373 men and non-pregnant women underwent testing, and after adjustment for factors affecting participation probability the prevalence of diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM and pre-diabetes was 10.5, 6.6 and 20.2%, respectively.
  • Age-standardized rates for DM (diagnosed and undiagnosed) and pre-diabetes among 30-64 years old were 29.0 and 24.2%, respectively.
  • Logistic regression analysis showed that only age and body mass index (BMI) were significantly independently related to undiagnosed DM.
  • In patients with diagnosed DM, the prevalence rates for retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and coronary heart disease were 54.2, 34.7, 40.8, 11.1 and 10.5%, respectively.
  • The proportion of subjects with diagnosed DM who achieved internationally recognized targets for HbA1c (<7%), LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/l) and blood pressure (<130/80 mmHg) was 33.3, 30.8 and 42.1%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previously reported high prevalence of DM in the UAE.
  • Diabetic complications were highly prevalent among subjects with diagnosed and undiagnosed DM.
  • Metabolic control was suboptimal in most subjects with diagnosed DM.

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  • (PMID = 17532085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8227
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes research and clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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82. Türkoglu-Raach G, Gröne HJ, Sitter T, Fischereder M: [Another "suspect": homeopathic agent associated with acute interstitial nephritis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2010 Jun;135(24):1224-7
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  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: The chronic renal failure caused by an interstitial nephritis was treated with corticosteroids and hemodialysis treatment was started.
  • The trigger for AIN could not be found, there was no infectious or systemically disease nor a nephrotoxic medication identified.
  • For nearly six months the patient had taken a homeopathic agent which is a dilution of penicillium chrysogenum.
  • In case of a determined allergy to penicillin, an extract of the fungus producing penicillin could possibly cause an interstitial nephritis.
  • The patient was dialysis-independent with a GFR about 8 - 10 ml/min at the time of discharge.

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 20533155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Penicillins; 0 / Plant Extracts
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83. Voss JS, Kipp BR, Campion MB, Sokolova IA, Henry MR, Halling KC, Clayton AC: Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Jun;32(3):121-30
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  • [Title] Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN 2+) in patients with a cytologic diagnosis of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Residual samples from 115 LSIL-diagnosed cervical cytology specimens were evaluated by high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) HC2 testing and FISH using biotin-labeled probes to HR-HPV and chromosomal probes to 3q26 (TERC) and 8q24 (CMYC).
  • A cervical biopsy diagnosis of CIN 2+ was considered as evidence of high grade disease.
  • The sensitivities of HC2 and FISH for CIN 2+ were not significantly different (100% vs. 90%, p = 0.25), while the specificity of HC2 was significantly lower than that of FISH (28% vs. 48%, p=0.003).
  • FISH diagnosed fewer specimens as positive as compared to HC2 (62% vs. 79%).


84. Vucic S, Yiannikas C: Anterior interosseous nerve conduction study: normative data. Muscle Nerve; 2007 Jan;35(1):119-21
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  • [Title] Anterior interosseous nerve conduction study: normative data.
  • Neurophysiological techniques assessing anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) function and employing surface electrode recordings from the flexor pollicis longus (FPL), have been limited by technical difficulties.
  • The aim of this study was to describe a surface electrode recording technique of investigating the AIN by recording compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from FPL.
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / physiology. Adult. Aged. Electrodes / standards. Electromyography / instrumentation. Electromyography / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Median Neuropathy / complications. Median Neuropathy / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Paresis / diagnosis. Paresis / etiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16967471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-639X
  • [Journal-full-title] Muscle & nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Muscle Nerve
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Voigt W, Kegel T, Weiss M, Mueller T, Simon H, Schmoll HJ: Potential activity of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep;131(9):585-90
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  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal course in the mostly elderly patients with a median survival after diagnosis of 4-12 months.
  • Recently, based on preclinical data Ain et al. conducted a clinical phase II study with paclitaxel 96 h infusion in ATC achieving a promising response rate of 53%.
  • To further improve therapeutic options in ATC, we evaluated the activity of topotecan, oxaliplatin, vinorelbine, gemcitabine and paclitaxel in comparision to cisplatin and doxorubicin (1 and 96 h drug exposure) alone or in combination in the ATC cell lines SW1736 and 8505C.
  • The activity of doxorubicin and cisplatin was moderate with RAA ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 and 0.2 to 0.3, respectively.
  • Combined drug exposure of gemcitabine/paclitaxel and gemcitabine/vinorelbine was synergistic with a Loewe index > 0.
  • However, these results did not reach statistical significance with p > 0.05.
  • At clinically relevant drug concentrations paclitaxel, gemcitabine and vinorelbine but not oxaliplatin exerted a sustained growth inhibition after cessation of drug exposure for the complete assay time of 15 days.
  • In conclusion, paclitaxel, gemcitabine and vinorelbine but not topotecan or oxaliplatin appeared to be active in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma based on RAA or growth delay at clinically relevant drug concentrations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Drug Synergism. Humans. Organoplatinum Compounds / pharmacology. Topotecan / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16021466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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86. Dey P, Sharma N, Samanta S: Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Dec;32(6):320-2
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  • [Title] Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of fractal dimension (FD) in distinguishing normal and different grades of cervical intraepithelial lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We selected 15 cases each of normal samples and low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 14 cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
  • The LSIL diagnosis was verified by two cytopathologists.
  • In each case at least 10 abnormal cells were selected in LSIL and HSIL cases and 10 normal cells in normal smears.
  • The FD was measured in nucleus of each cell by box counting FD method with the help of appropriate software.
  • RESULTS: The mean FD of the normal, LSIL, and HSIL nucleus was 1.2425 +/- 0.09188, 1.3504 +/- 0.6766, and 1.4379 +/- 0.08830, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 21456343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Mansour HE, Metwaly KM, Hassan IA, Elshamy HA, Elbeblawy MM: Antibodies to mutated citrullinated vimentin in rheumatoid arthritis: diagnostic value, association with radiological damage and axial skeleton affection. Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord; 2010 May 24;3:33-42
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  • [Title] Antibodies to mutated citrullinated vimentin in rheumatoid arthritis: diagnostic value, association with radiological damage and axial skeleton affection.
  • BACKGROUND: Early definitive diagnosis and effective treatment are mandatory in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as it can halt the disease progression and subsequent joints destruction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) and its correlation with disease activity, peripheral and axial skeleton affection in RA patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 123 patients with different rheumatic diseases were enrolled in a prospective-two year study at Ain Shams University hospital: 64 patients with RA and 59 patients with other rheumatic diseases as controls.
  • RA patients were fulfilling the traditional and the new ACR/EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA.
  • At baseline, all RA patients were subjected to: Clinical assessment of disease activity by taking full histories, general and local examination, measurement of 28 joint count of tender and swollen joints with calculation of disease activity score (DAS-28) for each patient.
  • Complete blood count, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor titers were performed.
  • Anti-MCV IgG immunoglobulins' assay was performed at the study endpoint by ELISA.
  • RESULTS: Anti-MCV antibodies were found to be of high sensitivity (79.6%) and specificity (96.6%) in diagnosing RA.
  • The area under the curve was 0.893 at 95% confidence interval (CI), confers an odds ratio of 23.5.
  • Anti-MCV positive RA patients had significantly higher DAS-28 and SEN-scores than anti-MCV negative patients; who were found to have more benign disease with lower incidence of erosions (P < 0.05).
  • MRI scans revealed that; 17/22 (77%) had cervical joints involvement while, 8 (36%) had lumbo-sacral joint lesions (P < 0.05), both were correlated significantly with aggressive peripheral joint disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Anti-MCV antibodies are promising diagnostic and prognostic marker in RA, with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • They may identify a subset of RA patients with aggressive early erosive disease.
  • The axial skeleton-especially the cervical spine-could be affected in RA and this was correlated with aggressive peripheral joints' disease.
  • MRI scanning is a sensitive method for detecting axial skeleton involvement in RA, in attempt for better disease control and outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 21124694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-5441
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine insights. Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989636
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; RA / anti-MCV / anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin / rheumatoid arthritis
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88. Lane SW, Hassell P, Kennedy GA, Fung YL, Williams BA: Characterization of the bone marrow immunofluorescence test in childhood autoimmune neutropenia. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Oct;31(5):567-71
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  • It may be used to differentiate childhood autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) from other causes of childhood neutropenia, even when circulating neutrophil counts are low.
  • We sought to characterize the diagnostic utility of the BMIFT in childhood AIN.
  • Patients were classified as AIN or nonautoimmune causes.
  • There were 45 patients diagnosed with AIN, 28 with nonimmune neutropenia and three failed tests.
  • The median age of children with AIN was 1.2 years (range 0.3-15.3), compared with 3.6 years (range 0.1-15.7) in the nonautoimmune group.
  • The median neutrophil count in AIN was 0.3 x 10(9)/l (0.9 x 10(9)/l in nonautoimmune).
  • BMIFT was positive in 24 of 45 patients with AIN and 0 of 28 with nonautoimmune neutropenia (sensitivity 53%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) 100%, negative predictive value 57%).
  • Ten patients had other autoimmune diatheses at diagnosis.
  • The BMIFT is a simple, highly specific test with excellent PPV and thus is a clinically useful test to confirm AIN in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Bone Marrow / immunology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Neutropenia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18637806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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89. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • Because the first diagnostic specimen received in the pathology laboratory is usually a small, sometimes suboptimal biopsy, the distinction of these types of carcinoma can be difficult.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • The p63 protein has been previously shown to be involved in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and is known to be related to squamous carcinomas in many sites.
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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90. Sarzo G, Del Mistro A, Finco C, Frayle-Salamanca H, Marino F, Franzetti M, Ferrara R, Mistrangelo M, Savastano S, Vecchiato M, Merigliano S: Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7 Online):e128-34
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  • [Title] Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of extensive anal condylomatosis in relation to treatment modalities, patient comorbidity and immune function, and associated papillomavirus (HPV) sequences.
  • Histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses for HPV search and typing were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients [14 males, median age 41.8 years (range 19-66)] affected by extensive anal condylomatosis [10 Buschke-Lowenstein Tumors (BLT) and 6 condylomatosis] treated in three different Italian institutions were included.
  • There was associated preoperative anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (AIN3) in one and invasive carcinoma in three patients.
  • Viral variant L83V was present in 3/4 HPV 16 positive recurrent cases.
  • Typing of HPV sequences in the management of patients affected by extensive anal condylomatosis may be useful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Colorectal Dis. 2010 Oct;12(10):1072. Mistro, A [corrected to Del Mistro, A]
  • (PMID = 19508521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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91. Simpson IJ, Marshall MR, Pilmore H, Manley P, Williams L, Thein H, Voss D: Proton pump inhibitors and acute interstitial nephritis: report and analysis of 15 cases. Nephrology (Carlton); 2006 Oct;11(5):381-5
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  • The aim of the present study was to report and analyse the clinical features of 15 patients with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and acute renal failure from PPI that were referred to renal services in Auckland over a period of 3 years.
  • The diagnosis of AIN was made by renal biopsy in 12 cases.
  • In all patients, the time-course of drug exposure and improvement of renal function on withdrawal suggested PPI were causal.
  • RESULTS: The median patient age was 78 years.
  • The mean baseline serum creatinine level was 83 micromol/L, peak level 392 micromol/L, and recovery level 139 micromol/L.
  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein were elevated at the time of diagnosis in the 11 and 12 patients, respectively, where this information was collected (ESR mean 85 mm/h, and C-reactive protein mean 81 mg/L).
  • AIN occurred at 8 per 100 000 patient years (95% confidence level 2.6-18.7 per 100 000 patient years).
  • CONCLUSION: PPI are now the most commonly identified cause of AIN in the Auckland area.
  • Early diagnosis may be facilitated by clinician awareness of the insidious onset of renal failure, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles / adverse effects. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Ulcer Agents / adverse effects. Biopsy. Blood Sedimentation. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Nephrology (Carlton). 2006 Oct;11(5):379-80 [17014548.001]
  • (PMID = 17014549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5358
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrology (Carlton)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; D8TST4O562 / pantoprazole; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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92. Kamel H, Abdelazim I, Habib SM, El Shourbagy MAA, Ahmed NS: Immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in malignant ovarian epithelial tumours. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2010 Jun;32(6):580-586
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  • [Title] Immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in malignant ovarian epithelial tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in malignant ovarian epithelial tumours and to detect the relation between the degree of MMP-2 expression and the histological grade and surgical stage of the studied cases.
  • METHODS: This study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, between March 2004 and December 2005.
  • Thirty patients with malignant ovarian epithelial tumours diagnosed after histopathological examination of the specimens were included in this study.
  • The staining intensity of MMP-2 was correlated with the clinical and pathological parameters of the studied cases, including patient's age, surgical stage, histological grade, omental metastasis, and lymph node metastasis.
  • The results were compared with the clinical and pathological parameters, including patient's age, tumour stage, and histological grade.
  • The MMP-2 expression was found to be significantly correlated with the histological grade (r = 0.52, P < 0.05) and with the surgical stage (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) of the studied tumours, but not with the age of the patients.
  • In this study, there was a direct correlation between the degree of expression of MMP-2 and histologically undifferentiated or advanced stages of ovarian epithelial tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / enzymology. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20569539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1701-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol Can
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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93. Greene MD: Diagnosis and management of HPV-related anal dysplasia. Nurse Pract; 2009 May;34(5):45-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of HPV-related anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Nurse Practitioners / organization & administration. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Primary Health Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Algorithms. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. Decision Trees. Humans. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Nursing Assessment. Patient Education as Topic. Primary Prevention. Proctoscopy. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19390399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8662
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nurse practitioner
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurse Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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94. Samaratunga H, Gardiner RA, Yaxley J, Brown I: Atypical prostatic glandular proliferations on needle biopsy: Diagnostic implications, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical significance. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):104-10
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  • [Title] Atypical prostatic glandular proliferations on needle biopsy: Diagnostic implications, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical significance.
  • In recent times, PSA screening and a substantial increase in prostate needle biopsies have not only resulted in detection of minute foci of cancer but have also very likely resulted in increased detection of atypical glandular proliferations.
  • Not uncommonly, there are only a limited number of atypical glands in these biopsies, and these require careful evaluation to enable an accurate diagnosis.
  • We describe diagnostic implications, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical significance of these lesions.
  • Foci of atypical glands, also labeled atypical small acinar proliferation of uncertain significance, have features suspicious for but not diagnostic of cancer.
  • Atypical foci include a broad group of lesions of differing clinical significance.
  • Definite diagnosis requires accurate histopathologic assessment and judicious use of immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 16637513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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95. Hefny AF, Eid HO, Al-Hussona M, Idris KM, Abu-Zidan FM: Necrotizing fasciitis: a challenging diagnosis. Eur J Emerg Med; 2007 Feb;14(1):50-2
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  • [Title] Necrotizing fasciitis: a challenging diagnosis.
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate our recent experience in diagnosis and management of necrotizing fasciitis.
  • Records of patients who were diagnosed as having necrotizing fasciitis at Al-Ain Hospital in the period between March 2003 and August 2005 were studied retrospectively with regard to clinical features, risk factors, diagnosis, causative organisms, treatment, and outcome.
  • The main risk factor was diabetes mellitus in seven patients (64%).
  • The provisional clinical diagnosis was incorrect in seven patients (64%).
  • Pure beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A or B was the causative organism in five patients (46%).
  • High clinical suspicion is essential for the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis.
  • Accurate early diagnosis, aggressive resuscitation, using proper antibiotics, and extensive surgical debridement are essential for a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Fasciitis, Necrotizing / diagnosis. Streptococcal Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Debridement. Diabetes Complications / diagnosis. Diabetes Complications / therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Social Class. Streptococcus / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 17198329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-9546
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of emergency medicine : official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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96. Mathews WC, Cachay ER, Caperna J, Sitapati A, Cosman B, Abramson I: Estimating the accuracy of anal cytology in the presence of an imperfect reference standard. PLoS One; 2010 Aug 19;5(8):e12284
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  • [Title] Estimating the accuracy of anal cytology in the presence of an imperfect reference standard.
  • BACKGROUND: The study aim is to estimate sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology for histologic HSIL in analyses adjusted for the imperfect biopsy reference standard.
  • METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of an anal dysplasia screening program for HIV infected adults.
  • The study cohort included 261 patients with 3 available measures:.
  • The prevalence of biopsy HSIL varied according to the concurrent HRA cytology result: 64.5% for HSIL or ASC-H, 12.6% for LSIL, 10.9% for ASCUS, and 6.3% for no abnormality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of a single dataset yields widely different estimates of anal cytology operating characteristics that depend on difficult to verify assumptions regarding the accuracy of the imperfect reference standard.

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  • (PMID = 20808869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI036214; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R24 AI067039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 36214; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924391
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97. Ogino Y, Osada K, Nakamura S, Ohta Y, Kanda T, Sugano M: Absorption of dietary cholesterol oxidation products and their downstream metabolic effects are reduced by dietary apple polyphenols. Lipids; 2007 Mar;42(2):151-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Absorption of dietary cholesterol oxidation products and their downstream metabolic effects are reduced by dietary apple polyphenols.
  • Exogenous and endogenous cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) perturb various metabolic processes, and thereby they may induce various homeostasis-related disorders.
  • Here, we observed that procyanidin-rich dietary apple polyphenol (APP) from unripe apples alleviates the perturbation of lipid metabolism by decreasing the exogenous COP levels in rats.
  • Dietary COPs may be the greatest source of COPs found in the human body.
  • Rats (4 weeks of age) were fed AIN-purified diets containing 0.3% COPs supplemented with 0.5 or 2.5% APP for 3 weeks.
  • Dietary APP alleviated the growth inhibition action of the exogenous COPs.
  • However, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels increased following the intake of dietary APP.
  • Further, dietary APP inhibited the increase in lipid peroxide levels in the liver and serum by COPs.
  • The activity of hepatic Delta6 desaturase was lowered by dietary APP in a dose-dependent manner, although exogenous COPs generally increased the activity of this enzyme.
  • In keeping with this observation, Delta6 desaturation indices in the phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of the liver and serum lipids were lower in the APP-fed groups than those in the control group.
  • Dietary APP also promoted the excretion of exogenous COPs, cholesterol, and acidic steroids in feces.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholesterol, Dietary / pharmacokinetics. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Malus / chemistry. Phenols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Chromatography, Gas. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Erythrocytes / metabolism. Feces / chemistry. Intestinal Absorption / drug effects. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. Lipid Peroxides / metabolism. Lipids / blood. Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Structure. Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects. Polyphenols. Prostaglandins / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Steroids / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17393221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-4201
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Lipid Peroxides; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / Prostaglandins; 0 / Steroids; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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98. Wienecke R, Brockmeyer NH, Kreuter A: [Human papilloma virus-induced disease in HIV-positive patients]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):994-8
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