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1. Strander B, Ryd W, Wallin KL, Wärleby B, Zheng B, Milsom I, Gharizadeh B, Pourmand N, Andersson-Ellström A: Does HPV-status 6-12 months after treatment of high grade dysplasia in the uterine cervix predict long term recurrence? Eur J Cancer; 2007 Aug;43(12):1849-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does HPV-status 6-12 months after treatment of high grade dysplasia in the uterine cervix predict long term recurrence?
  • BACKGROUND: Women once treated for high grade cervical dysplasia have a high long term risk for developing new dysplasia or cancer.
  • METHODS: Women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasi (CIN)2-3, treated for dysplasia and with recurrence of CIN2+ more than 2 years after treatment were compared with controls without recurrence, matched for age and date of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: HPV-status 6-12 months after treatment of high grade dysplasia is of limited value for the design of long term follow up.

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  • (PMID = 17614272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG000205-190004; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / P01 HG000205; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / P01 HG000205-190004
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS151296; NLM/ PMC2933034
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2. Palefsky J: Biology of HPV in HIV infection. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):99-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The risks for HPV-associated high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (IN) and cancer are also increased.
  • The prevalence of oral, anal, and cervical HPV infection in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative individuals increases with progressively lower CD4+ levels, as does incident high-grade IN.
  • In addition, epigenetic changes occur with increasing frequency in high-grade IN and cancer, such as hypermethylation leading to down-regulation of potential tumor suppressor genes.
  • Analysis of these data together suggests that immune suppression plays a more prominent role in the earlier stages of HPV-associated disease, up to and including incident high-grade IN.
  • Persistent high-grade IN and development of cancer may be more strongly related to the cumulative effect of HPV-associated genetic instability and the resulting host genetic changes.
  • There are few data to suggest a direct role for HIV in the pathogenesis of HPV-associated neoplasia, but HIV-associated attenuation of HPV-specific immune responses may allow for persistence of high-grade IN and sufficient time for accumulation of genetic changes that are important in progression to cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16672559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-0737
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA54053; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE07946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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3. Walts AE, Thomas P, Bose S: Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing? Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):152-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing?
  • There is an increased incidence of anal squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia [AIN]) among persons who engage in anal-receptive sex.
  • Analogous to cervical cancer screening, anal Papanicplaou (Pap) smears currently are used to screen these high-risk populations.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in anal carcinoma pathogenesis and this study was performed to assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to anal cytology.
  • We correlated cytological diagnoses and HPV DNA (Digene Hybrid Capture [HC II] assay) in anal specimens collected in SurePath liquid medium from 118 patients; 54.8% of cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 87.8% diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or above tested positive for high- risk HPV DNA (B+).
  • High-grade SIL (HSIL) was present in 31 of the 51 patients with follow-up.
  • Although a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US or above was a reliable indicator for AIN, cytology frequently did not accurately predict the grade of SIL in subsequent biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078257.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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4. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Hochdorfer B, Weissenborn SJ, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr;52(4):603-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) represents a precursor lesion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a clear association to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HIV infection is strongly associated with a higher prevalence of genital HPV infection, a higher incidence of AIN, and, consecutively, an increased risk for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of AIN and lesional HPV colonization in a cohort of homosexual men who were HIV positive and had a history of receptive anal intercourse.
  • RESULTS: Of all patients, 86% had anal HPV infection at their first visit.
  • Histologically, 7 (35%), 7 (35%), and 6 (30%) of the patients had AIN grade I, II, or III, respectively.
  • All verrucous lesions were graded as high-grade intraepithelial lesions in cytology, whereas 6 of the 11 leukoplakic lesions (55%) were low grade.
  • Standardized screening programs for anal cancer prevention and treatment protocols for AIN in patients infected with HIV must be implemented.


5. Ronco G, Cuzick J, Pierotti P, Cariaggi MP, Dalla Palma P, Naldoni C, Ghiringhello B, Giorgi-Rossi P, Minucci D, Parisio F, Pojer A, Schiboni ML, Sintoni C, Zorzi M, Segnan N, Confortini M: Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial. BMJ; 2007 Jul 7;335(7609):28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more at blindly reviewed histology, with atypical cells of undetermined significance or more severe cytology considered a positive result.
  • RESULTS: In an intention to screen analysis liquid based cytology showed no significant increase in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (relative sensitivity 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.56) whereas the positive predictive value was reduced (relative positive predictive value v conventional cytology 0.58, 0.44 to 0.77).
  • Liquid based cytology detected more lesions of grade 1 or more (relative sensitivity 1.68, 1.40 to 2.02), with a larger increase among women aged 25-34 (P for heterogeneity 0.0006), but did not detect more lesions of grade 3 or more (relative sensitivity 0.84, 0.56 to 1.25).
  • Results were similar when only low grade intraepithelial lesions or more severe cytology were considered a positive result.
  • CONCLUSION: Liquid based cytology showed no statistically significant difference in sensitivity to conventional cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control. Cytological Techniques / standards. Mass Screening / standards. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


6. Ondracek RP, Parker F, Allen A, Davis W, Ray M, McCann W, Marshall JR: Standardization of nuclear morphometry-based biomarkers. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Oct;29(5):309-16
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  • We consider 14 features of 934 prostatic nuclei diagnosed by a single pathologist (Rodolfo Montironi) within a region of either normal tissue or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN).

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  • (PMID = 17987811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Negri G, Moretto G, Menia E, Vittadello F, Kasal A, Mian C, Egarter-Vigl E: Immunocytochemistry of p16INK4a in liquid-based cervicovaginal specimens with modified Papanicolaou counterstaining. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Aug;59(8):827-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Immunocytochemical analyses were carried out with p16(INK4a) and modified Papanicolaou counterstain on 81 liquid-based samples, including 23 of within normal limits (WNL), 6 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 20 of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 16 of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 16 of atypical squamous cells, high-grade lesion cannot be excluded (ASC-H).
  • The intensity of immunostaining in cases of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) was assessed using a 0-3 scoring system.
  • Excluding two cases with no residual dysplastic cells in the immunocytochemistry, all cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or CIN3 at follow-up expressed p16(INK4a) and none of the p16(INK4a)-negative cases showed a high-grade lesion at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Papanicolaou Test. Staining and Labeling / methods. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods

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  • (PMID = 16467166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860457
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8. Dey P, Sharma N, Samanta S: Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Dec;32(6):320-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of fractal dimension (FD) in distinguishing normal and different grades of cervical intraepithelial lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We selected 15 cases each of normal samples and low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 14 cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
  • The LSIL diagnosis was verified by two cytopathologists.

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  • (PMID = 21456343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • Of 27 high-grade AIN specimens tested by CGH, 8 (30%) showed regional DNA copy number abnormalities (CNAs).
  • Our data suggest that there may be several oncogenes in this region that are coactivated to contribute to progression to high-grade AIN.

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Darvishian F, Stier EA, Soslow RA, Lin O: Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation. Cancer; 2006 Feb 25;108(1):66-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology has been proposed as a potential screening tool in the evaluation of squamous anorectal disease in view of the morphologic similarities between anal and cervical squamous lesions.
  • Due to potential diagnostic pitfalls in anal cytology, p16 overexpression in these specimens was studied.
  • The p16-positive cells were identified in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n = 3 cases), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (n = 22 cases), and invasive squamous carcinoma (n = 1 case), and in 2 cases with negative follow-up biopsies.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of p16 immunoreactivity in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma were 72% and 71%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of p16 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of dysplasia in anal specimens.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16404747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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11. McCloskey JC, Metcalf C, French MA, Flexman JP, Burke V, Beilin LJ: The frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in anal/perianal warts is higher than previously recognized. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Aug;18(8):538-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The frequency of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in anal/perianal warts is higher than previously recognized.
  • A retrospective review of the prevalence of intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) in surgically removed perianal/anal warts from December 1995 to December 2004 was undertaken in patients referred to the Sexual Health Clinic at Royal Perth Hospital.
  • Perianal/anal IN within the warts was found in 78% (52% high grade) of men with HIV infection.
  • In men without HIV infection, the overall rate of IN within warts was 33% (20% high grade).
  • The IN rate was 8.3% for HIV-negative women (2.8% high grade).
  • Rates of IN within perianal/anal warts in men with or without HIV infection are higher than previously reported, and suggest the likelihood of a substantial increase in the future incidence of anal cancer.


12. Theelen W, Speel EJ, Herfs M, Reijans M, Simons G, Meulemans EV, Baldewijns MM, Ramaekers FC, Somja J, Delvenne P, Hopman AH: Increase in viral load, viral integration, and gain of telomerase genes during uterine cervical carcinogenesis can be simultaneously assessed by the HPV 16/18 MLPA-assay. Am J Pathol; 2010 Oct;177(4):2022-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Only 5 out of 37 normal tissue samples or low-grade cervical lesions (ie, CIN1 and condyloma) showed either an HPV16 viral load higher than 25 copies per cell, viral integration, and/or gain of one of the telomerase-related genes, whereas for the high-grade cervical lesions, one or more of these risk factors was found in 25 of 30 cases.
  • Furthermore, the feasibility of the MLPA assay was shown for cytological samples, where in 57% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases, the high-risk factors were detected using this assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Telomerase / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Viral Load. Virus Integration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / etiology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Uterus / metabolism. Uterus / pathology. Young Adult


13. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Peng Y, Jiang Y, Chuang ST, Yang XJ: Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer on tissue sections. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Oct;17(5):442-50
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  • If high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, which is a precursor of cancer, and atypical cases were included, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% (97/114) and 89% (165/185), respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19417626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA97308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097308-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092361; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097308-01; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006466-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006466-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006466-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA097308-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS100571; NLM/ PMC2836393
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15. Van der Kwast TH, Zlotta AR, Fleshner N, Jewett M, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R: Thirty-five years of noninvasive bladder carcinoma: a plea for the use of papillary intraurothelial neoplasia as new terminology. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Dec;30(6):309-15
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  • [Title] Thirty-five years of noninvasive bladder carcinoma: a plea for the use of papillary intraurothelial neoplasia as new terminology.
  • In line with the tendency during the last few decades to label flat precancerous lesions of various organs intraepithelial neoplasms, we may now also refer to dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the urinary tract as low and high grade intraurothelial neoplasia, respectively.
  • To harmonize nomenclature, we now propose that the terms low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma be replaced by low and high grade papillary intraurothelial neoplasiafor all noninvasive urothelial cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19160695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M: Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1447-56
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  • [Title] Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men.
  • Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures.
  • Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested.
  • The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening.
  • METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy.
  • Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by > or = 3 pathologists.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Wang X, Zheng B, Zhang RR, Li S, Chen X, Mulvihill JJ, Lu X, Pang H, Liu H: Automated analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) labeled genetic biomarkers in assisting cervical cancer diagnosis. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jun;9(3):231-42
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  • [Title] Automated analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) labeled genetic biomarkers in assisting cervical cancer diagnosis.
  • Among the available diagnostic methods to analyze the aneusomy of chromosomes 3 and X, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has demonstrated significant advantages in assisting clinicians to more accurately detect and diagnose cervical carcinoma at an early stage, in particular for the women at a high risk for progression of low-grade and high-grade squamous intra-epithelium lesions (LSIL and HSIL).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Automation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Female. Humans. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 20441233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136700; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136700-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136700
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS220245; NLM/ PMC2916642
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18. Davey E, d'Assuncao J, Irwig L, Macaskill P, Chan SF, Richards A, Farnsworth A: Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study. BMJ; 2007 Jul 7;335(7609):31
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  • More slides were classified as abnormal by imager read cytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher).
  • Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology.
  • Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology.
  • Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies.
  • CONCLUSION: The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy.
  • More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


19. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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20. Chang VT, Bean SM, Cartwright PS, Ramanujam N: Visible light optical spectroscopy is sensitive to neovascularization in the dysplastic cervix. J Biomed Opt; 2010 Sep-Oct;15(5):057006
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  • Neovascularization in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is studied because it is the precursor to the third most common female cancer worldwide.
  • Total vessel density, however, was not significantly associated with dysplastic grade.

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  • (PMID = 21054122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108490; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21-CA108490-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Hemoglobins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966494
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21. Valdman A, Häggarth L, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R, Ekman P, Egevad L: Expression of redox pathway enzymes in human prostatic tissue. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Dec;31(6):367-74
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  • Another TMA containing benign prostatic tissue, atrophy, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and PCa from 40 patients was stained with all 3 antibodies.

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  • (PMID = 20698352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TXN protein, human; 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins; EC 1.11.1.15 / PRDX2 protein, human; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins; EC 1.8.1.9 / TXNRD2 protein, human; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin Reductase 2
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22. Singh SS, Ray MJ, Davis W, Marshall JR, Sakr WA, Mohler JL: Manual and automated systems in the analysis of images from prostate tissue microarray cores. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Dec;32(6):311-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To compare manual and automated image analysis systems in morphologic analysis of nuclei from benign prostate, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostate cancer (CaP).

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  • (PMID = 21456342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116673; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77739
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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23. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):364-9
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis.
  • Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide.
  • Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18.
  • Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding.
  • According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage.
  • Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease.
  • Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 20464850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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24. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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25. Park IU, Palefsky JM: Evaluation and Management of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2010 Mar;12(2):126-33
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  • [Title] Evaluation and Management of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) is striking and has not been mitigated by the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Detection and treatment of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) may reduce the incidence of anal cancer.
  • Anal cytology is a useful tool to detect HGAIN; annual screening of HIV-positive MSM and biennial screening of HIV-negative MSM appears to be cost-effective.
  • Large prospective studies are needed to document the efficacy of screening and treatment of HGAIN on anal cancer incidence.
  • The HPV vaccine holds promise for primary prevention of anal cancer in MSM, but significant implementation challenges remain.

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  • (PMID = 20461117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-3146
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Proca DM, Williams JD, Rofagha S, Tranovich VL, Keyhani-Rofagha S: Improved rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia detection in human papillomavirus DNA hybrid capture testing. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Aug;29(4):264-70
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  • [Title] Improved rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia detection in human papillomavirus DNA hybrid capture testing.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established a link between human papillomavirus (HPV), squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and carcinoma of the cervix.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of DNA hybrid capture HPV testing for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were 86%, 44%, 26% and 93%, respectively.
  • The respective values for cytology detection of high-grade CIN were 17%, 97%, 56% and 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: HPV testing was significantly more sensitive for detecting high-grade CIN than cytology (86% vs. 17%).


27. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
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  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • Five patients (26%) had recurrent high-grade AIN after a mean time of 24.6 months.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • 55% of these new AIN lesions were high-grade lesions and most of them were located intra-anally and associated with high-risk HPV types not detectable before therapy.

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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28. Nathan M, Hickey N, Mayuranathan L, Vowler SL, Singh N: Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jul;19(7):445-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study.
  • Treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal canal disease has been unsatisfactory.
  • The objective of our study was to determine the treatment outcome in our cohort with anal HPV disease.
  • Eighty-eight patients (48.6%) with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 82 patients (45.3%) with low-grade AIN underwent treatment.
  • Treatment outcome showed no evidence of being affected by age, sexual preference, history of smoking or presence of high-grade disease.
  • Contrary to the current view that treatment of HPV-related anal disease is difficult, unrewarding due to recurrences and may lead to substantial morbidity, we demonstrate that effective treatment is possible for both low- and high-grade AIN.

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  • (PMID = 18574114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Sarzo G, Del Mistro A, Finco C, Frayle-Salamanca H, Marino F, Franzetti M, Ferrara R, Mistrangelo M, Savastano S, Vecchiato M, Merigliano S: Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7 Online):e128-34
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  • [Title] Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of extensive anal condylomatosis in relation to treatment modalities, patient comorbidity and immune function, and associated papillomavirus (HPV) sequences.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients [14 males, median age 41.8 years (range 19-66)] affected by extensive anal condylomatosis [10 Buschke-Lowenstein Tumors (BLT) and 6 condylomatosis] treated in three different Italian institutions were included.
  • There was associated preoperative anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (AIN3) in one and invasive carcinoma in three patients.
  • Typing of HPV sequences in the management of patients affected by extensive anal condylomatosis may be useful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Colorectal Dis. 2010 Oct;12(10):1072. Mistro, A [corrected to Del Mistro, A]
  • (PMID = 19508521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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30. Palefsky JM, Berry JM, Jay N, Krogstad M, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Lee JY: A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1151-5
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  • [Title] A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test a therapeutic vaccine consisting of a fusion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein and the Mycobacterium bovis heat shock protein 65 (SGN-00101) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN) in HIV-positive individuals.
  • Anal disease was assessed at baseline, 8, 12, 24 and 48 weeks and was classified as the more severe of anal cytology and anal biopsy.
  • Anal HPV DNA was detected using L1 consensus primer-based PCR followed by type-specific probing and dot-blot hybridization (DBH).

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  • (PMID = 16691066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70047
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / heat-shock protein 65, Mycobacterium; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
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31. Voss JS, Kipp BR, Campion MB, Sokolova IA, Henry MR, Halling KC, Clayton AC: Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Jun;32(3):121-30
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  • [Title] Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN 2+) in patients with a cytologic diagnosis of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).
  • A cervical biopsy diagnosis of CIN 2+ was considered as evidence of high grade disease.


32. Bean SM, Chhieng DC, Roberson J, Raper JL, Broker TR, Hoesley CJ, Eltoum IA, Jin G: Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):90-6
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  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We describe the cytological distribution of disease, correlate cytological diagnoses with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status and surgical biopsy diagnoses, determine if CD4 counts correlate with lesion severity, and compare anal-rectal data of HIV-infected patients (primarily men) with cervical data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the computerized database identified 118 HIV-positive patients who had anal-rectal cytology.
  • Cytology results were compared with available follow-up data including repeat anal-rectal cytology tests, surgical biopsy, CD4 counts, and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping.
  • RESULTS: Cytological diagnoses included 3% unsatisfactory for diagnosis, 41% negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 23% atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US), 31% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 2% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-US/squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.7:1).
  • Two anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) II, 10 AIN III, and 1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma were histologically detected (11%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal-rectal cytology is a useful screening test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20354415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83679
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Murphy N, Ring M, Heffron CC, King B, Killalea AG, Hughes C, Martin CM, McGuinness E, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ: p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;58(5):525-34
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  • [Title] p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer.
  • AIM: To analyse and compare expression patterns of three potential biomarkers-p16(INK4A), CDC6, and MCM5-and evaluate their use as predictive biomarkers in squamous and glandular cervical preinvasive neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Immunocytochemical analysis of p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was performed on 20 normal, 38 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 33 CIN2, 46 CIN3, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 19 cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (cGIN), and 10 adenocarcinoma samples.
  • RESULTS: All three markers showed a linear correlation between expression and grade of dysplasia. p16(INK4A) and MCM5 protein expression was upregulated in all grades of squamous and glandular dysplasia.
  • CDC6 protein was preferentially expressed in high grade lesions and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CDC6 may be a biomarker of high grade and invasive lesions of the cervix, with limited use in low grade dysplasia. p16(INK4A) was the most reliable marker of cervical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Blotting, Western / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15858126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC6 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins; 0 / mcm5 protein, S pombe
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770660
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34. Véo CA, Saad SS, Nicolau SM, Melani AG, Denadai MV: Study on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):103-7
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  • [Title] Study on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III.
  • The women in group I who presented high-grade neoplasia in colpocytological tests underwent collection of material from the uterine cervix and anal canal for investigating HPV DNA using the Hybrid Capture II technique.
  • RESULTS: In group I, 39 women (97.5%) were positive for HPV in the uterine cervix and 14 women (35%) in the anal canal.
  • In group II, only four women (10%) had a positive HPV test, for both the uterine cervix and the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV in the anal canal of the women with CIN III was greater than in the women without CIN III.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anal Canal / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18472205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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35. Lin GL, Qiu HZ, Xiao Y, Wu B, Meng WC: [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;11(1):39-43
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  • [Title] [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) and early rectal carcinoma.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis by biopsy and endoanal ultrasonography (EUS): rectal low-grade IN in 8 cases, high-grade IN in 4 and early rectal carcinoma in 3.
  • The average distance of tumors from the anal verge was 7.2(4-15) cm.
  • The post-operative pathological diagnosis: rectal low-grade IN in 5 cases, high-grade IN in 6, early submucous invasive carcinoma (pT(1)) in 2, advanced carcinoma (pT(2)) in 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18197492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Nathan M, Singh N, Garrett N, Hickey N, Prevost T, Sheaff M: Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings. AIDS; 2010 Jan 28;24(3):373-9
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  • [Title] Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings.
  • OBJECTIVES: The success of cervical cytology in screening for cervical neoplasia has led to the concept of anal cytology screening for anal neoplasia.
  • Our objective is to study the performance of anal cytology as a screening tool.
  • DESIGN: We assessed anal cytology against histology and high-resolution anoscopy in a clinical setting.
  • METHODS: Anal pap test was obtained prior to high-resolution anoscopy examinations and biopsies.
  • RESULTS: From 395 individuals (93% men), 584 anal pap tests were obtained.
  • On the basis of 288 histology results, the sensitivity of anal cytology to detect disease was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 64-75], whereas the specificity was 67% (95% CI 38-88).
  • For high-grade disease (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3), sensitivity of anal cytology was 81% (95% CI 70-90), and the negative predictive value was 85% (95% CI 76-92).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology performs similar to cervical cytology in a clinical setting.
  • Sensitivity of anal smear is dependent on the area (quadrants) of disease present.
  • Sensitivity of anal cytology is enhanced when CD4 cell count is less than 400 cells/microl in HIV-positive men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / pathology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS. 2010 Jan 28;24(3):463-5 [19926960.001]
  • (PMID = 20057313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5
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  • [Title] A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether imiquimod was more effective than placebo for the treatment of high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-ACIN).
  • METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-positive patients were randomized to self-application of imiquimod cream or matched placebo into the anal canal three times a week for 4 months.
  • In the imiquimod group, four patients resolved and eight patients downgraded to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with a median follow-up of 33 months.
  • Five of these patients cleared their anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (ACIN) and four patients downgraded to LSIL.
  • During this extended follow-up period, 61% have exhibited sustained absence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).


38. Longatto-Filho A, Malheiro LF, Milanezi F, Pinheiro C, Baltazar F, Schmitt FC, Montironi R: Lymphatic vessel density in the normal-looking columnar epithelium adjacent to and distant from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer assessed in whole-mount sections. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Oct;31(5):269-75
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  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density in the normal-looking columnar epithelium adjacent to and distant from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer assessed in whole-mount sections.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in radical prostatectomy using the lymphatic marker D2-40 and analyze if LVD is variable within the whole-mounting samples of prostatectomy in different areas of carcinoma, high- and low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and nodular hyperplasia.
  • The LVD of D2-40 positive endothelial cells into the radical prostatectomy was estimated by drawing the areas of interest (lymphatic endothelium) dispersed along the prostate zone to facilitate the counting of the positive cells within prostate areas (normal-looking cells, hyperplastic cells, intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive neoplasia).
  • RESULTS: LVD counting for nodular hyperplasia of prostate, low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate carcinoma was 1.29, 1.20, 1.26 and 1.13, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 20701093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


40. Kruijt B, van der Snoek EM, Sterenborg HJ, Amelink A, Robinson DJ: A dedicated applicator for light delivery and monitoring of PDT of intra-anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Mar;7(1):3-9
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  • [Title] A dedicated applicator for light delivery and monitoring of PDT of intra-anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • The objective of this study was to develop an applicator for delivery of light and monitoring of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the anal cavity for treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (AIN III), which can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Lighting / instrumentation. Photochemotherapy / instrumentation. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20230986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
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41. Gu L, Zhu XH, Visakorpi T, Alanen K, Mirtti T, Edmonston TB, Nevalainen MT: Activating mutation (V617F) in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 is absent in locally-confined or castration-resistant prostate cancer. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst); 2010;33(2):55-9
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  • Moreover, Stat5a/b activation in prostate cancer is associated with high histological grade of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Janus Kinase 2 / genetics. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20966544.001).
  • [ISSN] 2210-7185
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4605774
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42. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


43. Walts AE, Lechago J, Hu B, Shwayder M, Sandweiss L, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN). Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:7-13
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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN).
  • BACKGROUND: Significant variation is reported in the diagnosis of HPV-associated AIN.
  • We previously observed that band-like positivity for p16 in >90% of contiguous cells coupled with Ki67 positivity in >50% of lesional cells is strongly associated with high grade AIN.
  • This study was undertaken to determine if addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostaining would reduce inter- and intraobserver variability in diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • DESIGN: H&E stained slides of 60 anal biopsies were reviewed by three pathologists and consensus diagnoses were achieved: 25 negative, 12 low (condyloma and/or AIN I) and 23 high (9 AIN II and 14 AIN III) grade lesions.
  • RESULTS: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains reduced intra- and interobserver variability, improved concurrence with consensus diagnoses and reduced two-step differences in diagnosis.
  • Negative and high grade AIN diagnoses showed the most improvement in concurrence levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains is helpful in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.

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  • (PMID = 21876646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3159996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki67 / P16 / anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) / condyloma / human papilloma virus (HPV) / interobserver variability / intraobserver variability
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44. Giraldo P, Jacyntho C, Costa C, Iglesias M, Gondim C, Carvalho F, Giraldo H, Gonçalves AK: Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Jan;142(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions (ASIL) in women with genital squamous intra-epithelial lesions (GSIL).
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, 184 patients with histopathological diagnosis of GSIL and 76 controls without GSIL, were submitted to anuscopy in order to determine the presence of ASIL.
  • All the women were HIV-negative with anal aceto-white lesions were biopsed for histological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: The frequency of ASIL was 17.4% in the GSIL group (3.2% high grade ASIL) and only 2.6% in the control group (0% high grade ASIL) (p<0.001).
  • All the high grade ASIL diagnoses were found in women with cervical SIL.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Muscular Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19019529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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45. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling


46. Aboumarzouk OM, Coleman R, Goepel JR, Shorthouse AJ: PNET/Ewing's sarcoma of the rectum: a case report and review of the literature. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • Serial CT scanning and endoscopy revealed no recurrence after 7 years of follow-up, when she presented with a malignant anal fissure.
  • Imaging and subsequently abdominoperineal resection revealed no evidence of metastases from either the anal cancer or the PNET tumour.
  • Histopathology showed a T1N0R0 basaloid squamous carcinoma originating from grade III squamous intraepithelial neoplasia with no obvious wart viral infection.

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  • (PMID = 21691396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029497
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47. Alvarez J, de Pokomandy A, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Vézina S, Coté P, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Franco EL, Coutlée F, HIPVIRG Study Group: Episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-seropositive men. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2355-63
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  • [Title] Episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-seropositive men.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) loads in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) in anal infection and to study the association between episomal and integrated HPV-16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Overall, 135 (54.7%) men provided 665 HPV-16-positive anal samples.
  • RESULTS: The HPV-16 DNA forms in anal samples were characterized as episomal only in 627 samples (94.3%), mixed in 22 samples (3.3%) and integrated only in nine samples (1.4%).
  • HPV-16 episomal load [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1], number of HPV types (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and current smoking (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.3-18.6) were associated with high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3) after adjusting for age and CD4 cell counts.

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  • (PMID = 20706109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] Allaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Coté S; Coté P; Coutlée F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco EL; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpré D; McLeod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trépanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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48. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Tsoumpou I, Arbyn M, Kyrgiou M, Wentzensen N, Koliopoulos G, Martin-Hirsch P, Malamou-Mitsi V, Paraskevaidis E: p16(INK4a) immunostaining in cytological and histological specimens from the uterine cervix: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev; 2009 May;35(3):210-20
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  • We also estimated the mean proportion of samples that were positive for p16(INK4a) in cytology and histology, stratified by the grade of the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus. Cervix Uteri / chemistry. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervicitis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Colposcopy. Cytological Techniques / utilization. Female. Histological Techniques / utilization. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / utilization. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Research Design. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology. Vaginal Smears


50. Santoso JT, Long M, Crigger M, Wan JY, Haefner HK: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Sep;116(3):578-82
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, and to compare anal cytology with colposcopy for their effectiveness in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening.
  • METHODS: Women with confirmed intraepithelial neoplasia on the cervix, vagina, or vulva were referred for gynecologic oncology care.
  • All patients underwent anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy.
  • RESULTS: Women with average age of 39.6 years (range 14 to 83 years) underwent anal cytology and anoscopy (N=205).
  • Of the 205 patients with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, 25 patients (12.2%) had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Twelve patients (5.9%) had abnormal anal cytology (nine with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], three with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL]).
  • None of the nine patients with anal ASC-US had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Of the three patients with anal LSIL, two had anal intraepithelial neoplasia II and one had condyloma on biopsy.
  • However, 78 patients (38%) had abnormal anoscopy findings that resulted in 25 biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasias (8 anal intraepithelial neoplasia I, 5 anal intraepithelial neoplasia II, 12 anal intraepithelial neoplasia III)), condylomas (n=11), and hyperkeratosis (n=8).
  • Anoscopy identified 32% (25 patients) with anal intraepithelial neoplasia out of 78 abnormal anoscopic examinations.
  • In diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia, anoscopy has 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity; anal cytology has 8% sensitivity and 94% specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia have 12.2% prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and should be screened with high-resolution anoscopy.
  • In anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening, anoscopy is more sensitive but less specific than anal cytology.

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep;116(3):566-7 [20733435.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov;116(5):1224
  • (PMID = 20733438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Rocher AE, Gonzalez A, Palaoro LA, Blanco AM: Usefulness of AgNOR technique and CEA expression in atypical metaplastic cells from cervical smears. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Jun;28(3):130-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proliferating capacity of atypical metaplastic cells in cervical smears by AgNOR technique and image analysis and investigate the probable relation with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) using immunocytochemical assay for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Eight cervical smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain for diagnosis of atypical metaplastic cells.
  • The CEA was investigated by immunocytochemical staining in smears with atypical metaplastic cells and smears from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
  • RESULTS: The mean AgNOR areas from atypical metaplastic cells (4.55, 6.66, 4.68, 5.30, 4.97, 6.20, 6.28, and 7.35) were significantly greater those that of intermediate metaplastic cells and cells from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (0.77, 0.99, and 0.82, respectively).

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  • (PMID = 16786722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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52. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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53. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA: Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Jul 1;51(1):107-10
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  • [Title] Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus causes anal condylomata, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal squamous cell cancer.
  • We found high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell cancer in 75 (47%) of 159 HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) and in 42 (26%) of 160 HIV-seronegative MSM with anal condylomata meriting surgery (P<.001, determined by use of the chi(2) test).
  • Anal condylomata in MSM often harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell cancer.


54. Rosty C, Aubriot MH, Cappellen D, Bourdin J, Cartier I, Thiery JP, Sastre-Garau X, Radvanyi F: Clinical and biological characteristics of cervical neoplasias with FGFR3 mutation. Mol Cancer; 2005;4(1):15
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  • To further analyze the role of FGFR3 in cervical tumor progression, we extended our study to screen a total of 75 invasive tumors and 80 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (40 low-grade and 40 high-grade lesions).
  • RESULTS: Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) followed by DNA sequencing, we found FGFR3 mutation (S249C in all cases) in 5% of invasive cervical carcinomas and no mutation in intraepithelial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15869706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1131920
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55. Branca M, Giorgi C, Santini D, Di Bonito L, Ciotti M, Benedetto A, Paba P, Costa S, Bonifacio D, Di Bonito P, Accardi L, Favalli C, Syrjänen K, HPV-Pathogen ISS Study Group: Aberrant expression of VEGF-C is related to grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and high risk HPV, but does not predict virus clearance after treatment of CIN or prognosis of cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jan;59(1):40-7
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  • [Title] Aberrant expression of VEGF-C is related to grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and high risk HPV, but does not predict virus clearance after treatment of CIN or prognosis of cervical cancer.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Archival samples-150 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 152 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions-were examined immunohistochemically for anti-VEGF-C antibody and for HPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • After adjustment for HR-HPV, FIGO stage, age, and tumour grade, only FIGO stage and age remained independent prognostic predictors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-C is an early marker of cervical carcinogenesis, with linearly increasing expression starting from low grade CIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism


56. Qi M, Anderson AE, Chen DZ, Sun S, Auborn KJ: Indole-3-carbinol prevents PTEN loss in cervical cancer in vivo. Mol Med; 2005 Jan-Dec;11(1-12):59-63
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  • Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a phytochemical (derived from broccoli, cabbage, and other cruciferous vegetables) with proven anticancer efficacy including the reduction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its progression to cervical cancer.
  • We show diminished PTEN expression during the progression from low-grade to high-grade cervical dysplasia in humans and in a mouse model for cervical cancer, the K14HPV16 transgenic mice promoted with estrogen.


57. Rosenblatt R, Valdman A, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R, Ekman P, Egevad L: Endothelin-1 expression in prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Jun;31(3):137-42
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression in prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We separately arrayed benign prostatic tissue, atrophy, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and prostate cancer from 40 men.

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  • (PMID = 19634784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Endothelin-1
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58. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
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  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • Forty-seven patients of the 122 patients who underwent biopsy (39%) had biopsy-identified low-grade AIN, and 47 (39%) had high-grade AIN (HGAIN).
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.


59. Vajdic CM, Anderson JS, Hillman RJ, Medley G, Grulich AE: Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Oct;81(5):415-8
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  • [Title] Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anal cytology smears are either collected "blind" (swab inserted 4 cm into anal canal and rotated) or guided through an anoscope (transformation zone visualised and then sampled).
  • RESULTS: Regardless of smear order, guided smears were less likely to detect higher grade abnormalities than blind smears (15 v 27 cases, p = 0.001).
  • Regardless of smear technique, first performed smears were more likely to detect a higher grade abnormality than second performed smears (23 v eight cases, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blind cytology smears are superior to anoscope guided smears for screening for anal neoplasia in homosexual men.

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  • (PMID = 16199742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1745038
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60. Palefsky JM: Anal cancer prevention in HIV-positive men and women. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):433-8
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  • [Title] Anal cancer prevention in HIV-positive men and women.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancer is unacceptably high among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and possibly in HIV-positive women.
  • Unlike most other malignancies occurring in the HIV-positive population, anal cancer is potentially preventable, using methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer in women.
  • This review discusses the issues around screening to prevent anal cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that the incidence of anal cancer has increased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in this population and now exceeds the highest incidence of cervical cancer among women reported anywhere in the world.
  • SUMMARY: The high incidence of anal cancer among HIV-positive individuals must not be ignored, since it may be preventable.
  • Given the current evidence and analogy with the cervical cancer prevention model, many clinicians believe that identification and treatment of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia to prevent anal cancer are warranted.
  • When the expertise to do so exists, this is a reasonable approach, particularly if coupled with efforts to optimize further screening and treatment approaches, as well as efforts to document the efficacy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia treatment to reduce the incidence of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19587592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-04S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-04S2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202771; NLM/ PMC3415247
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61. Merritt MA, Cramer DW: Molecular pathogenesis of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Cancer Biomark; 2010;9(1-6):287-305
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  • The Type I precursor is Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia which displays PTEN defects.
  • The most frequent type of ovarian cancer is high grade serous that often displays p53 mutation and its precursor lesions may originate from normal-appearing fallopian tube epithelium that contains a p53 "signature".
  • Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PTEN are described in mucinous, endometrioid and low grade serous cancers and these may originate from ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.

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  • (PMID = 22112481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA086381; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA086381
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS516435; NLM/ PMC3822435
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62. Wilkin T, Lee JY, Lensing SY, Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Berry JM, Jay N, Aboulafia D, Cohn DL, Einstein MH, Saah A, Mitsuyasu RT, Palefsky JM: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected men. J Infect Dis; 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1246-53
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  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected men are at increased risk for anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may prevent anal cancer caused by vaccine types.
  • Men with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer by history or by screening cytology or histology were excluded.
  • The primary end points were seroconversion to vaccine types at week 28, in men who were seronegative and without anal infection with the relevant HPV type at entry, and grade 3 or higher adverse events related to vaccination.
  • RESULTS: There were no grade 3 or greater adverse events attributable to vaccination among the 109 men who received at least 1 vaccine dose.

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  • (PMID = 20812850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00513526
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865-26; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024996; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI 55038; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00865; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI055038-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS285476; NLM/ PMC3118428
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63. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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64. Bono AV, Mazzucchelli R, Ferrari I, Lopez-Beltran A, Galosi AB, Cheng L, Montironi R: Bicalutamide 50 mg monotherapy in patients with isolated high-grade PIN: findings in repeat biopsies at 6 months. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):443-6
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  • [Title] Bicalutamide 50 mg monotherapy in patients with isolated high-grade PIN: findings in repeat biopsies at 6 months.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate morphological findings in repeat biopsies in patients with isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) after a 6-month course of bicalutamide (Casodex) 50 mg/day.
  • The control group included 22 untreated consecutive patients with isolated high-grade PIN with repeat biopsies taken 6 months after the initial biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16822873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001123
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65. Cheng L, MacLennan GT, Abdul-Karim FW, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R: Eosinophilic metaplasia of the prostate: a newly described lesion distinct from other eosinophilic changes in prostatic epithelium. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Aug;30(4):226-30
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  • RESULTS: We found benign prostatic cells with bright eosinophilic granules in 13 of 84 (16%) negative prostate needle biopsies, 3 of 13 (23%) needle biopsies with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, 15 of 123 (12%) needle biopsies with adenocarcinoma and 21 of 104 (20%) radical prostatectomy specimens.

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  • (PMID = 18773741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. De Vuyst H, Clifford GM, Nascimento MC, Madeleine MM, Franceschi S: Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer; 2009 Apr 1;124(7):1626-36
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  • [Title] Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis.
  • This meta-analysis investigated human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in vulvar, vaginal and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, VAIN, AIN) grades 1-3 and carcinoma from 93 studies conducted in 4 continents and using PCR assays.
  • Overall HPV prevalence was 67.8%, 85.3% and 40.4% among 90 VIN1, 1,061 VIN2/3 and 1,873 vulvar carcinomas; 100%, 90.1% and 69.9% among 107 VAIN1, 191 VAIN2/3 and 136 vaginal carcinomas; and 91.5%, 93.9% and 84.3% among 671 AIN1, 609 AIN2/3 and 955 anal carcinomas, respectively.
  • HPV16 was found more frequently (>75%) and HPV18 less frequently (<10%) in HPV-positive vulvar, vaginal and anal carcinomas than in cervical carcinoma.
  • HPV prevalence in anal carcinoma was higher among women (90.8%) than men (74.9%), but no difference by gender emerged in North America.
  • In conclusion, approximately 40% of vulvar, 60% of vaginal and 80% of anal carcinoma may be avoided by prophylactic vaccines against HPV16/18.
  • This proportion would be similar for the corresponding high-grade lesions of the vagina and anus, but higher for VIN2/3 (75%) than for vulvar carcinoma.


67. Nahas CS, Lin O, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Stier EA: Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1581-6
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  • [Title] Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • All patients underwent anal canal and perianal high-resolution anoscopy in the office with biopsy of suspicious areas.
  • Patients with high-grade intraepithelial perianal lesions underwent multiple biopsies under general anesthesia in the operating room to rule out malignancy.
  • Office perianal biopsies diagnosed two patients with invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and nine with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Seven of the nine patients with perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on office biopsy were submitted to multiple biopsies under general anesthesia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal disease was common in this group of HIV-infected patients; 11 patients (21 percent of total) were diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Our data suggest that anal canal neoplasia often is accompanied by perianal disease and illustrates the need for biopsy of any suspicious perianal lesions.


68. Bean SM, Eltoum I, Horton DK, Whitlow L, Chhieng DC: Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):555-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a human papilloma virus related lesion.
  • The objective of this study is to correlate p16 expression and cellular proliferation measured by Ki-67 staining with the degree of dysplasia in the anal canal and to determine the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • Seventy-five anal specimens from 55 patients (37 men; 18 women; mean age: 48 y; median: 44 y; range 25 to 96 y) were studied including 35 normal/reactive lesions, 23 low-grade AIN (AIN I and condyloma), and 17 high-grade AIN (AIN II and III).
  • High-grade AIN often demonstrated p16 staining in more than one-third of the thickness of the epithelium in a diffuse/continuous fashion. p16 expression in low-grade AIN was often restricted to the lower 1/3 of the epithelium and/or was focal and discontinuous.
  • When positive p16 staining was defined as the presence of diffuse/continuous staining in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of p16 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 76%, 86%, and 84%, respectively.
  • When positive Ki-67 staining was defined as the presence of nuclear staining in more than 25% of the cells in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ki-67 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 71%, 84%, and 83% respectively.
  • Both p16 and Ki-67 are reliable markers for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Genes, p16. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17414102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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69. Hilfrich R, Hariri J: Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Apr;30(2):78-82
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  • Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions.


70. He YG, Han Y, Hua ZL, Lin MB, Zhang HB, Lv KZ, Yin L: [Analysis of 32 patients with rectal adenoma undergoing transanal endoscopic microsurgery]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Dec;13(12):910-2
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  • Postoperative pathology showed 12 simple adenomas, 10 adenomas with low grade intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 adenomas with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and 5 T1 focal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21186410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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71. Mazzucchelli R, Morichetti D, Santinelli A, Scarpelli M, Bono AV, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Montironi R: Immunohistochemical expression and localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in androgen ablated prostate cancer. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst); 2010;33(1):27-36
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  • MATERIAL: The five SSTRs were evaluated in the epithelial, smooth muscle and endothelial cells of normal-looking epithelium (Nep), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and PCa in 20 RPs with clinically detected PCa from patients under CAA.

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  • (PMID = 20966542.001).
  • [ISSN] 2210-7185
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4605569
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72. Edgren G, Sparén P: Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Apr;8(4):311-6
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  • [Title] Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study.
  • Associations between HPV and vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers are well established, but the full extent in terms of age and time since diagnosis of these associations is not well known.
  • The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of vaginal, vulvar, anal, and rectal cancer in women with a history of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN), grade 3, compared with women with no such history were estimated by use of multivariate Poisson regression.
  • FINDINGS: Women with a history of grade 3 CIN had increased risks of cancer of the vagina (6.74 [95% CI 5.24-8.56]), vulva (2.22 [1.79-2.73]), and anus (IRR 4.68 [3.87-5.62]).
  • For all four anatomical sites, the IRRs varied substantially with the amount of time that had elapsed since the date of first diagnosis of grade 3 CIN.
  • Analyses stratified by attained age during follow-up showed that the risk of cancer conferred by a history of diagnosis of grade 3 CIN was highly age dependent.
  • INTERPRETATION: This study confirms the known association between history of CIN, presumed HPV infection, and increased risk of cancers of the vagina, vulva, and anus by use of large and complete databases, but also shows that this risk varies both by the time from initial diagnosis of grade 3 CIN and by the age of the individual.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications


73. Etienney I, Vuong S, Daniel F, Mory B, Taouk M, Sultan S, Thomas C, Bourguignon J, de Parades V, Méary N, Balaton A, Atienza P, Bauer P: Prevalence of anal cytologic abnormalities in a French referral population: a prospective study with special emphasis on HIV, HPV, and smoking. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Prevalence of anal cytologic abnormalities in a French referral population: a prospective study with special emphasis on HIV, HPV, and smoking.
  • PURPOSE: Studying anal cytology to detect intraepithelial neoplasia has been demonstrated to be useful in highly selected populations.
  • METHODS: An anal smear was proposed during each consultation during a three-month period.
  • No case of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was found.
  • Four cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were found, all in HIV patients with a history of condylomatous lesions.
  • The prevalence in this population of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was 19 percent (4/21) in HIV seropositive males, and 15 percent (4/26) in the case of a past history of condyloma.
  • The factors associated with an abnormal smear (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) were a history of anal condylomatous lesions (odd ratio, 4.9; range, 2.1-11.5), HIV seropositivity (odd ratio, 4; range, 1.6-9.9), and smoking (odd ratio, 2.1; range, 1.1-11.5).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms that the frequency of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion is raised in HIV-seropositive males and also where there is a history of condyloma, which corroborates the necessity for regular monitoring and screening of these patients at risk.
  • This study also suggests that the use of tobacco is associated with anal cytologic abnormalities.

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  • (PMID = 18046607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polyethylene Terephthalates
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74. Kreuter A, Jesse M, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Bechara FG, Pfister H, Wieland U: Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):490-8
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  • [Title] Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, especially in men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of AIN might prevent development of anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression of 8 promising proliferative biomarkers in anal dysplasia and to compare the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM3, MCM4, MCM6, and MCM7), p21, Ki-67, p16, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed in a total of 49 specimens of normal anal mucosa and high- and low-grade anal dysplasia.
  • In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade dysplasia, we found significant differences in the expression of all biomarkers.
  • A cutoff of 25% or 50% lesional immunopositivity for the 4 MCMs, Ki-67, and p16 resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity to diagnose high-grade AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of PCNA and p21 for a high-grade AIN diagnosis were lower.
  • HPV-DNA was detectable in 100% of high-grade AIN and 87.5% of low-grade AIN lesions.
  • All MCMs, p16, Ki-67, and PCNA, but not p21 correlated with cumulative lesional high-grade HPV-DNA loads.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs, Ki67, and p16 are reliable immunohistochemical adjuncts for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biopsy, Needle. DNA, Viral / analysis. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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75. van der Snoek EM, van der Ende ME, Schouten WR, den Hollander JC, van der Meijden WI: [Anorectal malignancies and dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Sep 3;149(36):1989-93
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  • Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of anal (pre)malignancies.
  • Less is known about the natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Treatment options range from watchful waiting for asymptomatic grade-1 AIN to excision or radio(chemo)therapy for anorectal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16171110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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76. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Bouvet E, Duval X: [Anal condyloma prevalence among HIV infected patients]. Med Mal Infect; 2005 May;35(5):299-301
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  • [Title] [Anal condyloma prevalence among HIV infected patients].
  • BACKGROUND: In the general HIV-infected population, there are few data on the prevalence and risk factors for anal condyloma, precursor lesions for anal cancer.
  • Overall, 108 (23%) pts had histologically-confirmed anal condyloma (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) pts with only endoanal localisation.
  • Intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I was noted in 59 patients, of grade II in 10 and of grade III in 2 and an invasive endoanal cancer in 1.
  • In multivariate regression analysis, condyloma independent risk factor were history of gonococcia or syphilis (OR=0.54 (0.29-0.99)), and history of previous anal condyloma (OR=2.05 (1.07-3.92) in homosexual men, history of previous penis condyloma (OR=26.8 (2.3-309.6), and unprotected sexual intercourse (OR=7.5 (2.1-26.3)) in heterosexual men and CD4 cell count below 200/mm(3), (OR=8.9 (1.5-51.6)), receptive anal intercourse (OR=6.7 (1.7-25.8)) and history of previous anal condyloma (OR=25.4 (3.4-188.2)) in women.
  • INTERPRETATION: In the HAART era, systematic screening revealed a high rate of anal condyloma in all HIV positive pts (not only in homosexual men).
  • Anal examination should be proposed systematically to all HIV-infected patients.


77. Gohy L, Gorska I, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Pokomandy Ad, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Kornegay JR, Franco E, HIPVIRG Study Group, Coutlée F: Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Sep 1;49(1):32-9
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  • [Title] Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV-seropositive men.
  • The detection of HPV genotypes in anal biopsies and swabs was compared.
  • METHODS: HPV DNA was detected in anal swabs and biopsies obtained concurrently from 154 HIV-seropositive men [31 without AIN, 60 low-grade AIN (AIN-1), 62 high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3), and 1 indeterminate AIN] under or eligible to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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  • (PMID = 18667921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] OAllaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Cote S; Cote P; Coutlee F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco E; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpre D; Mcleod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trepanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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78. Richel O, Wieland U, de Vries HJ, Brockmeyer NH, van Noesel C, Potthoff A, Prins JM, Kreuter A: Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1301-7
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  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical treatment of AIN, especially at the intra-anal location.
  • METHODS: High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed and patients with AIN (grade 1-3) were treated with 5-FU twice weekly for a total of 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: A total of 46 patients with AIN were included in this open prospective pilot study; 76% had multifocal disease and 74% had high-grade lesions (AIN 2 or 3).
  • Seventeen patients (37%) did not respond (unchanged grade of AIN in 16 patients and progression from low- to high-grade AIN in one patient).

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20716208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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79. Garbar C, Mascaux C, Wespes E: Expression of MUC1 and sialyl-Tn in benign prostatic glands, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and malignant prostatic glands: a preliminary study. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Apr;30(2):71-7
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  • [Title] Expression of MUC1 and sialyl-Tn in benign prostatic glands, high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and malignant prostatic glands: a preliminary study.

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  • (PMID = 18561742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Sialomucins
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80. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.


81. Shepherd NA: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):969-87, ix
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region.
  • Anal cancer is rare and this helps to explain why anal pre-neoplastic conditions are poorly understood, especially with regard to their natural history and management.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is closely linked to human papillomavirus infection and is particularly common in homosexuals and in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS.
  • The high regression rates of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia may simply reflect inconsistent pathologic reporting.
  • Higher grades of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may remain static for long periods of time in immunocompetent patients, but those with HIV/AIDS show early and rapid malignant transformation.
  • In general, most anal pre-neoplastic conditions are best diagnosed by biopsy and treated by surgical excision, although local recurrence is a problem.
  • In anal Paget's disease, it is important to ascertain, at the time of diagnosis, whether it is due to a primary in-situ apocrine-type of neoplasia of the anus or if the disease is secondary to an invasive primary carcinoma of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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82. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1410-5; discussion 1415-6
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  • [Title] High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.
  • Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon.
  • We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years.
  • Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated.
  • HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient.

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  • (PMID = 17710507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Bono AV, Pannellini T, Liberatore M, Montironi R, Cunico SC, Cheng L, Sasso F, Musiani P, Iezzi M: Sorafenib's inhibition of prostate cancer growth in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice and its differential effects on endothelial and pericyte growth during tumor angiogenesis. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Jun;32(3):136-45
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Sorafenib's efficacy (60 mg/kg/d per os) in preventing the transformation of high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) into adenocarcinoma (ADC) and in inhibiting the onset and progression of poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

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  • (PMID = 20701066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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84. Czoski-Murray C, Karnon J, Jones R, Smith K, Kinghorn G: Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Nov;14(53):iii-iv, ix-x, 1-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is uncommon and predominantly a disease of the elderly.
  • Individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive are particularly vulnerable to HPV infections, and increasing numbers from this population present with anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer in the high-risk HIV-positive population [in particular, men who have sex with men (MSM), who have been identified as being at greater risk of the disease] by developing a model that incorporates the national screening guidelines criteria.
  • Papers that met the inclusion criteria contained the following: data on population incidence, effectiveness of screening, health outcomes or screening and/or treatment costs; defined suitable screening technologies; prospectively evaluated tests to detect anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: The reference case cost-effectiveness model for MSM found that screening for anal cancer is very unlikely to be cost-effective.
  • The negative aspects of screening included utility decrements associated with false-positive results and with treatment for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN).
  • However, combined with higher regression rates from low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-AIN), the lowest expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratio remained at over 44,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
  • LIMITATIONS: Limited knowledge is available about the epidemiology and natural history of anal cancer, along with a paucity of good-quality evidence concerning the effectiveness of screening.
  • Further studies could assess whether the screening model has underestimated the impact of anal cancer, the results of which may justify an evaluative study of the effects of treatment for HG-AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / economics. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Mass Screening / economics


85. Bean SM, Meara RS, Vollmer RT, Conner MG, Crowe DR, Novak L, Eltoum IA, Robboy SJ, Chhieng DC: p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jul;13(3):145-53
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  • [Title] p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is subjective.
  • Previous studies have shown p16 and Ki-67 expressions to correlate with AIN grade.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven anal specimens were retrieved.
  • Fair agreement was observed using H&E diagnosis alone (kappa = 0.38, S = 0.56).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement for diagnosis of AIN was fair when based solely on H&E preparation. p16 alone improved interobserver agreement and demonstrated superior agreement when compared with H&E, Ki-67, and H&E/p16/Ki-67 combined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biopsy. Clinical Competence. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19550211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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86. Pirog EC, Quint KD, Yantiss RK: P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1449-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction.
  • The classification of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in mucosal biopsies is subject to considerable interobserver variability.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunolabeling enhanced diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of anal mucosal biopsies from patients with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • The study consisted of 75 cases that were originally interpreted to represent normal anal transitional zone (n=15), fibroepithelial polyp (n=10), condyloma accuminatum (n=10), low-grade AIN (AIN1, n=20), and high-grade AIN (n=20), including 10 cases each of AIN2 and AIN3.
  • Thus, the final study group consisted of 17 samples of normal anal transition zone, 14 fibroepithelial polyps, 6 condylomata accuminata, and 38 cases of AIN (11 AIN1, 16 AIN2, and 11 AIN3).
  • None of the anal transition zone samples or fibroepithelial polyps showed Ki-67 or p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • All cases of high-grade AIN showed positive p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • We conclude that Ki-67 labeling detects anal HPV-related changes with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, whereas increased p16/CDKN2A staining is strongly associated with high-grade squamous neoplasia.
  • These results indicate that a combination of these markers may aid interpretation of anal mucosal biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Colonic Polyps / metabolism. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20871219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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87. Heselmeyer-Haddad K, Sommerfeld K, White NM, Chaudhri N, Morrison LE, Palanisamy N, Wang ZY, Auer G, Steinberg W, Ried T: Genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene (TERC) in pap smears predicts the development of cervical cancer. Am J Pathol; 2005 Apr;166(4):1229-38
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  • We previously used this probe set to show that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN3 lesions could be distinguished from normal samples, atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and CIN1, with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90%, independent of the cytomorphological assessment.
  • We conclude that the detection of 3q gain and amplification of TERC in routinely collected Pap smears can assist in identifying low-grade lesions with a high progression risk and in decreasing false-negative cytological screenings.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. RNA / genetics. Telomerase / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


88. Walts AE, Lechago J, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):795-801
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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HPV is also associated with anal squamous dysplasias and carcinomas.
  • Significant interobserver and intraobserver variation exists in the interpretation of biopsies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was undertaken to assess the potential role of p16 and Ki67 immunohistochemical expression in refining the diagnosis and grading of AIN.One-hundred and four anal biopsies from 74 patients were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of the department.
  • On the basis of these results, a band-like pattern of p16 staining and Ki67 positivity in >50% of the squamous cell nuclei were strongly associated with high-grade AIN.
  • 4 of 25 (16.0%) AIN II lesions comprising 9.8% of the 41 high-grade AINs (AIN II and III) showed spotty p16 positivity and <50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • We conclude that when used together and evaluated in conjunction with H&E stained sections, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.

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  • (PMID = 16819320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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89. Cranston RD, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Feb;19(2):118-20
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  • [Title] A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus-associated anal squamous cell cancer.
  • Similar to the management of cervical dysplasia, clinicians are treating high-grade anal dysplasia to prevent progression to cancer.
  • Infrared coagulation (IRC) is an outpatient treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • This retrospective clinical study reports on 68 HIV-positive MSM with 78 biopsy proven high-grade anal lesions.
  • Of the 74 evaluable lesions; 39 had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 1, 20 had AIN 2, seven had AIN 3, and eight had normal epithelium.
  • The IRC showed 64% efficacy per treated lesion and shows promise as a treatment modality for high-grade anal dysplasia in this population.


90. Lowy DR, Solomon D, Hildesheim A, Schiller JT, Schiffman M: Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. Cancer; 2008 Oct 1;113(7 Suppl):1980-93
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  • These HPV types also cause a proportion of other cancers, including vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers.
  • In women aged >30 years, HPV testing can identify high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia earlier than Pap smears with acceptable rates of specificity.


91. Park IU, Ogilvie JW Jr, Anderson KE, Li ZZ, Darrah L, Madoff R, Downs L Jr: Anal human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology in women with genital neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):399-403
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology in women with genital neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Describe the type-specific prevalence of anal HPV infection in women with lower genital tract intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.
  • Describe the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and identify risk factors for anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in this population.
  • METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending 2 university-based colposcopy clinics with high-grade lower genital tract intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer.
  • Participants received anal HPV testing/typing, anal cytology and completed a questionnaire detailing medical history and sexual behavior.
  • RESULTS: Of the 102 women enrolled, 92 (90%) had adequate beta-globin for analysis of HPV DNA status, and 47/92 women (51%) had detectable anal HPV.
  • Overall, 9 women (9%) had abnormal anal cytology, and 7 of those had corresponding anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (AIN I).
  • Women with vulvar disease had the highest proportion of abnormal anal cytology (21%) compared to women with cervical disease alone (7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.10).
  • Neither anal HPV infection nor abnormal cytology was significantly associated with anal sex practices, smoking or number of sexual partners.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal infection with high-risk HPV types is common in women with high-grade genital neoplasia, but was not associated with known risk factors for genital HPV infection.
  • Other unidentified risk factors may play a role in the anal HPV infection in this population.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was rare and larger studies are needed to identify risk factors associated with abnormal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19501896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Salit IE, Tinmouth J, Chong S, Raboud J, Diong C, Su D, Sano M, Lytwyn A, Chapman W, Mahony J: Screening for HIV-associated anal cancer: correlation of HPV genotypes, p16, and E6 transcripts with anal pathology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Jul;18(7):1986-92
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  • [Title] Screening for HIV-associated anal cancer: correlation of HPV genotypes, p16, and E6 transcripts with anal pathology.
  • BACKGROUND: HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse are at risk for anal cancer.
  • We determined whether human papilloma virus (HPV) biomarkers were correlated with anal pathology in these men.
  • HPV types 16, 18, 31, 52, 59, and 68 were associated with high-grade histology.
  • The number of HPV genotypes per anal swab was higher for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2/3 than for normal or AIN 1 histology [median, 5 types (interquartile range) (IQR), 3-7 versus 3.5 (IQR), 2-6; P = 0.0005].
  • In the multivariable logistic regression model, HPV genotypes 16 [odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.31-5.08; P = 0.006] and 31 (odds ratio, 4.74; 95% CI, 2.00-11.22; P = 0.0004), baseline CD4 count < 400 cells/mm(3) (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.46-5.99; P = 0.0025), and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82; P = 0.01) were associated with high-grade histology after adjusting for age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of high-grade anal pathology (AIN 2/3) in HIV-positive men was associated with multiple HPV genotypes, HPV genotypes 16 and 31, and HPV 16 viral load.

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  • (PMID = 19567510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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93. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control