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1. Walts AE, Lechago J, Hu B, Shwayder M, Sandweiss L, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN). Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:7-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN).
  • BACKGROUND: Significant variation is reported in the diagnosis of HPV-associated AIN.
  • We previously observed that band-like positivity for p16 in >90% of contiguous cells coupled with Ki67 positivity in >50% of lesional cells is strongly associated with high grade AIN.
  • This study was undertaken to determine if addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostaining would reduce inter- and intraobserver variability in diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • DESIGN: H&E stained slides of 60 anal biopsies were reviewed by three pathologists and consensus diagnoses were achieved: 25 negative, 12 low (condyloma and/or AIN I) and 23 high (9 AIN II and 14 AIN III) grade lesions.
  • RESULTS: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains reduced intra- and interobserver variability, improved concurrence with consensus diagnoses and reduced two-step differences in diagnosis.
  • Negative and high grade AIN diagnoses showed the most improvement in concurrence levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains is helpful in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.

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  • (PMID = 21876646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3159996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki67 / P16 / anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) / condyloma / human papilloma virus (HPV) / interobserver variability / intraobserver variability
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2. Scarpini C, White V, Muralidhar B, Patterson A, Hickey N, Singh N, Mullerat J, Winslet M, Davies RJ, Phillips ML, Stacey P, Laskey RA, Miller R, Nathan M, Coleman N: Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2855-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome.
  • Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab.
  • By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, immunopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18843031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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3. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


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4. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Sep;128(9):2316-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia.
  • These patients have a strongly increased risk of HPV-induced anal cancer and its precursor lesion, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and a moderately increased risk for penile cancer.
  • Only limited data exist on penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in HIV+MSM.
  • We determined the prevalence and evaluated the virologic characteristics of PIN and AIN in 263 HIV+MSM.
  • In case of histologically confirmed PIN (and AIN), HPV-typing, HPV-DNA load determination, and immunohistochemical staining for p16(INK4a) were performed.
  • PIN was detected in 11 (4.2%) and AIN in 156 (59.3%) patients.
  • Ten PIN patients also had AIN within the observation period.
  • Cutaneous beta-HPVs were found in PIN and AIN, but beta-HPV-DNA loads were very low, irrespective of the histological grade. p16(INK4a) Expression was detectable in all PIN lesions and correlated both with the histological grade and with high-risk HPV-DNA loads.
  • In view of the PIN prevalence found in our study, all HIV+MSM should be screened for PIN in addition to AIN screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. HIV Infections. Homosexuality, Male. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18385760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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5. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):364-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis.
  • Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide.
  • Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18.
  • Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding.
  • According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage.
  • Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease.
  • Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 20464850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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6. Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M: Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1447-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men.
  • Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures.
  • Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested.
  • The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening.
  • METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy.
  • Reliability for the Bethesda classification system was at least moderate, except for the cytologic category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (kappa = 0.12).
  • Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by > or = 3 pathologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Observer Variation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Wong AK, Chan RC, Aggarwal N, Singh MK, Nichols WS, Bose S: Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):144-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection strongly correlates with the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas; however, few studies have characterized the distribution of the specific subtypes of the virus in the varying grades of dysplasia.
  • This report characterizes the distribution of HPV 16/18 in surgical specimens with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I-III and histological variants of anal carcinoma.
  • A total of 111 anal surgical specimens with no dysplasia (10), AIN I-III (53), and anal carcinomas (48) were evaluated for the presence of high-risk HPV infection and subtyped by nested PCR or the Invader Assay.
  • High-risk virus types were detected in progressively greater number of anal intraepithelial lesions from 56% in low grade to 88% in high grade.
  • Most (89%) squamous carcinomas were associated with high-risk viruses, 68% with type 16, a prevalence similar to that noted in high-grade dysplasia.
  • Non-16/18 subtypes were encountered more frequently in squamous carcinomas from immunodeficient individuals (57% cases) as compared with immunocompetent individuals (18% cases).
  • The similarity in the prevalence of type 16 in high-grade dysplasia and squamous carcinomas suggests that anal intraepithelial lesion III is the true precursor of squamous carcinoma and warrants aggressive management.
  • Anal intraepithelial lesions II showed a virus distribution that was similar to low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 19838162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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8. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • This paper looks at the current definition, diagnostic methods and management of AIN.
  • The incidence of AIN has increased significantly in the last decades.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In cases of more severe and localized lesions (AIN II and AIN III), surgical resection should be considered if the predictive postoperative morbidity is low.
  • Screening programs for AIN are not currently in place and there might be much effort to study the management of HPV in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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9. Bean SM, Meara RS, Vollmer RT, Conner MG, Crowe DR, Novak L, Eltoum IA, Robboy SJ, Chhieng DC: p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jul;13(3):145-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is subjective.
  • Previous studies have shown p16 and Ki-67 expressions to correlate with AIN grade.
  • The objectives were (1) to determine the extent of interobserver agreement in evaluating AIN on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections and (2) to test whether p16 and/or Ki-67 staining improve interobserver diagnostic agreement.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven anal specimens were retrieved.
  • Diagnoses were normal/reactive, AIN I/HPV, AIN II, and AIN III.
  • Fair agreement was observed using H&E diagnosis alone (kappa = 0.38, S = 0.56).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement for diagnosis of AIN was fair when based solely on H&E preparation. p16 alone improved interobserver agreement and demonstrated superior agreement when compared with H&E, Ki-67, and H&E/p16/Ki-67 combined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biopsy. Clinical Competence. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19550211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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10. Wahl RU, Blazek C, Megahed M: [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)]. Hautarzt; 2009 May;60(5):371-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)].
  • [Transliterated title] HPV-Typ-16-assoziierte anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie (AIN).
  • A 25-year-old woman had suffered from a perianal ulcer for approximately 1 year.
  • Employing virologic and histologic techniques, we confirmed the diagnosis of an intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is induced by carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.
  • Because of its frequency, AIN is a crucial differential diagnosis for lesions of the anogenital area region failing to respond to standard therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2008 Sep;110(3 Suppl 1):S18-25 [18653221.001]
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  • (PMID = 19430747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The natural history of AIN is unclear and management strategies are lacking.
  • METHODS: This review is based on a literature search (Medline and PubMed) with manual cross-referencing of all articles related to AIN.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of AIN is intricately linked with human papilloma viruses.
  • The pathological processes involved in the progression of AIN are becoming clearer but the natural history, particularly the rate of progression to invasive cancer, remains unknown.
  • There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • Long-term follow-up of these patients is essential until the natural history of AIN becomes clearer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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12. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • In 29 of the 33 cases of AIN, HPV DNA was detected (87.9%), most of these in AIN III (15/16=93.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In contrast, AIN had been detected clinically in none of the cases.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Oct;22(10):1289 [16703315.001]
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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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13. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), anal HPV prevalence is more than 90% and infections with multiple HPV types are common.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a potential precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Like its cervical counterpart, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), AIN is causally linked to persistent infections with high-risk HPV types such as HPV16 or HPV18.
  • As AIN and CIN share distinct biological similar-ities, AIN screenings analogous to Pap smear programs for CIN have been recommended in high-risk populations to reduce the incidence of anal carcinoma.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • Treatment guidelines for AIN are not yet available.
  • However, controlled studies on AIN treatment have not been performed.
  • The impact of HPV vaccination on AIN development will also need to be assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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14. Scholefield JH, Castle MT, Watson NF: Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Sep;92(9):1133-6
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: The natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is uncertain.
  • METHODS: All patients were diagnosed with high-grade AIN (AIN III) between 1994 and 2003.
  • Diagnosis was by full-thickness biopsy and histopathological examination.
  • Excision of localized high-grade AIN was carried out in 28 patients with minimal morbidity.
  • Six patients were systemically immunosuppressed at diagnosis, all of whom had multifocal perianal lesions.
  • Three immunosuppressed patients developed invasive anal squamous carcinoma during follow-up.
  • By contrast, no invasive carcinomas were identified among immunocompetent patients with either localized or multifocal perianal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: AIN III appears to have a relatively low potential for malignant transformation in the immunocompetent patient.
  • However, immunosuppressed patients are more likely to have extensive AIN III and a greater risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16044425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Bean SM, Eltoum I, Horton DK, Whitlow L, Chhieng DC: Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):555-61
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a human papilloma virus related lesion.
  • The objective of this study is to correlate p16 expression and cellular proliferation measured by Ki-67 staining with the degree of dysplasia in the anal canal and to determine the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • Seventy-five anal specimens from 55 patients (37 men; 18 women; mean age: 48 y; median: 44 y; range 25 to 96 y) were studied including 35 normal/reactive lesions, 23 low-grade AIN (AIN I and condyloma), and 17 high-grade AIN (AIN II and III).
  • Expression of p16 in AIN correlated with that of Ki-67 (P<0.001).
  • High-grade AIN often demonstrated p16 staining in more than one-third of the thickness of the epithelium in a diffuse/continuous fashion. p16 expression in low-grade AIN was often restricted to the lower 1/3 of the epithelium and/or was focal and discontinuous.
  • The expression of both p16 and Ki-67 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P<0.01).
  • When positive p16 staining was defined as the presence of diffuse/continuous staining in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of p16 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 76%, 86%, and 84%, respectively.
  • When positive Ki-67 staining was defined as the presence of nuclear staining in more than 25% of the cells in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ki-67 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 71%, 84%, and 83% respectively.
  • Both p16 and Ki-67 are reliable markers for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Genes, p16. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17414102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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16. Kreuter A, Jesse M, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Bechara FG, Pfister H, Wieland U: Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):490-8
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  • [Title] Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, especially in men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of AIN might prevent development of anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression of 8 promising proliferative biomarkers in anal dysplasia and to compare the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM3, MCM4, MCM6, and MCM7), p21, Ki-67, p16, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed in a total of 49 specimens of normal anal mucosa and high- and low-grade anal dysplasia.
  • In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade dysplasia, we found significant differences in the expression of all biomarkers.
  • A cutoff of 25% or 50% lesional immunopositivity for the 4 MCMs, Ki-67, and p16 resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity to diagnose high-grade AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of PCNA and p21 for a high-grade AIN diagnosis were lower.
  • HPV-DNA was detectable in 100% of high-grade AIN and 87.5% of low-grade AIN lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs, Ki67, and p16 are reliable immunohistochemical adjuncts for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biopsy, Needle. DNA, Viral / analysis. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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17. Bernard JE, Butler MO, Sandweiss L, Weidner N: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):215-20
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization.
  • Accurate diagnosis and grading of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) can be problematic, especially in separating AIN from anal transitional-zone epithelium.
  • To investigate if p16 would help in more accurately diagnosing and grading AIN, particularly when attempting to distinguish benign transitional-zone epithelium from high-grade AIN, we separately assessed these stains in a blinded manner on a large number of consecutive anal biopsies and anal tissues and correlated the findings with the diagnosis and grade of AIN.
  • One hundred thirty-three consecutive anal tissue specimens, from 128 patients were studied.
  • One hundred and eight were anal biopsies and 25 were hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • The comparisons included AIN grade (negative, 1, 2, 3) with nuclear intensity of p16 IHC (0 to 3+), AIN grade with IHC nuclear staining patterns (contiguous, patchy/rare), AIN grade with HPV-ISH [negative, low-risk (LR), high-risk (HR)] and, nuclear intensity of p16 IHC with HPV-ISH.
  • Yet, 33% of AIN negative cases were positive for nuclear p16, although with less nuclear intensity than for AIN2 or 3.
  • The kappa value for AIN/nuclear p16 intensity agreement was 0.61 (ie, substantial agreement).
  • Yet, 12.5% of AIN negative cases were positive for HPV for both LR and HR types.
  • The kappa value for AIN/HPV agreement was 0.62 (ie, substantial agreement).
  • Of interest, 30 cases were negative for AIN and p16 staining and of these, 2 (7%) were positive for HPV (both LR subtype).
  • Three cases positive for HR HPV were negative for AIN with only patchy nuclear p16 positivity.
  • We conclude that the correlation between AIN and p16 and HPV is strong enough to be quite useful in distinguishing true AIN from benign mimics, such as benign transitional-zone epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 18301250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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18. Pirog EC, Quint KD, Yantiss RK: P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1449-55
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  • [Title] P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction.
  • The classification of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in mucosal biopsies is subject to considerable interobserver variability.
  • Previous studies have shown that Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunostains aid detection of dysplasia in biopsy samples from the uterine cervix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunolabeling enhanced diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of anal mucosal biopsies from patients with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • The study consisted of 75 cases that were originally interpreted to represent normal anal transitional zone (n=15), fibroepithelial polyp (n=10), condyloma accuminatum (n=10), low-grade AIN (AIN1, n=20), and high-grade AIN (n=20), including 10 cases each of AIN2 and AIN3.
  • Thus, the final study group consisted of 17 samples of normal anal transition zone, 14 fibroepithelial polyps, 6 condylomata accuminata, and 38 cases of AIN (11 AIN1, 16 AIN2, and 11 AIN3).
  • A positive Ki-67 result was defined as the presence of a cluster of at least 2 strongly stained epithelial nuclei in the upper two-thirds of the epithelial thickness.
  • None of the anal transition zone samples or fibroepithelial polyps showed Ki-67 or p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • All condylomata and samples of AIN contained HPV DNA and showed positive Ki-67 labeling.
  • All cases of high-grade AIN showed positive p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • We conclude that Ki-67 labeling detects anal HPV-related changes with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, whereas increased p16/CDKN2A staining is strongly associated with high-grade squamous neoplasia.
  • These results indicate that a combination of these markers may aid interpretation of anal mucosal biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Colonic Polyps / metabolism. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20871219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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19. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with histologically proven anogenital warts or AIN were enrolled.
  • The perianal area was the main lesion location.
  • Eighteen patients had a histopathological diagnosis of AIN-1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The assumption that visible perianal warts are benign lesions in HIV-positive patients has to be reevaluated since an important number of such lesions could correspond to low-grade anal disease, which in turn could progress to high-grade anal disease or cancer.
  • In addition, our results in this preliminary study indicate that imiquimod appears to be effective in treating AIN in HIV-positive patients.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Male / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy


20. Walts AE, Lechago J, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):795-801
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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HPV is also associated with anal squamous dysplasias and carcinomas.
  • Significant interobserver and intraobserver variation exists in the interpretation of biopsies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was undertaken to assess the potential role of p16 and Ki67 immunohistochemical expression in refining the diagnosis and grading of AIN.One-hundred and four anal biopsies from 74 patients were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of the department.
  • After discrepancies were resolved and concurrence was achieved by at least 2 of 3 reviewing pathologists, the diagnoses were as follows: 37 negative, 12 condylomas without overt dysplasia, 14 AIN I, 25 AIN II, and 16 AIN III. p16 and Ki67 expression was evaluated by ABC immunoperoxidase staining whereas the presence of the high-risk subtypes of HPV virus was determined by in situ hybridization on a subset of the biopsies.
  • Nuclear and/or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was considered as positive for p16 when present in >10% of squamous cells.
  • A band-like pattern of p16 immunoreactivity was seen in 21.4% AIN I, 80% AIN II, and 87.5% AIN III cases.
  • Spotty p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 8.1% negative, 8.3% condyloma, 14.3% AIN I, 12.0% AIN II, and 12.5% AIN III cases.
  • More than 50% of nuclei stained positive for Ki67 in 28.6% AIN I, 48.0% AIN II, and 75.0% AIN III cases but in none of the negative or condyloma cases.
  • On the basis of these results, a band-like pattern of p16 staining and Ki67 positivity in >50% of the squamous cell nuclei were strongly associated with high-grade AIN.
  • Most AIN I lesions stained similar to the nondysplastic cases.
  • A small subset of biopsies studied did not conform to the pattern described above: 4 of 14 (28.6%) AIN I lesions showed a band-like pattern of p16 staining and/or >50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • 4 of 25 (16.0%) AIN II lesions comprising 9.8% of the 41 high-grade AINs (AIN II and III) showed spotty p16 positivity and <50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • We conclude that when used together and evaluated in conjunction with H&E stained sections, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16819320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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26. Kruijt B, van der Snoek EM, Sterenborg HJ, Amelink A, Robinson DJ: A dedicated applicator for light delivery and monitoring of PDT of intra-anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Mar;7(1):3-9
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  • [Title] A dedicated applicator for light delivery and monitoring of PDT of intra-anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • The objective of this study was to develop an applicator for delivery of light and monitoring of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the anal cavity for treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (AIN III), which can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Lighting / instrumentation. Photochemotherapy / instrumentation. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20230986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
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27. Shepherd NA: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):969-87, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region.
  • Anal cancer is rare and this helps to explain why anal pre-neoplastic conditions are poorly understood, especially with regard to their natural history and management.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is closely linked to human papillomavirus infection and is particularly common in homosexuals and in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS.
  • The high regression rates of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia may simply reflect inconsistent pathologic reporting.
  • Higher grades of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may remain static for long periods of time in immunocompetent patients, but those with HIV/AIDS show early and rapid malignant transformation.
  • In general, most anal pre-neoplastic conditions are best diagnosed by biopsy and treated by surgical excision, although local recurrence is a problem.
  • In anal Paget's disease, it is important to ascertain, at the time of diagnosis, whether it is due to a primary in-situ apocrine-type of neoplasia of the anus or if the disease is secondary to an invasive primary carcinoma of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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28. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. von Knebel Doeberitz M, Reuschenbach M: [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):13-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus].
  • [Transliterated title] Humane Papillomviren in der Pathogenese der intraepithelialen Neoplasien (AIN) und Karzinome des Anus.
  • HPV infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007 Sep;131(9):1343-9 [17824788.001]
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  • (PMID = 20033115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Walts AE, Thomas P, Bose S: Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing? Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):152-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing?
  • There is an increased incidence of anal squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia [AIN]) among persons who engage in anal-receptive sex.
  • Analogous to cervical cancer screening, anal Papanicplaou (Pap) smears currently are used to screen these high-risk populations.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in anal carcinoma pathogenesis and this study was performed to assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to anal cytology.
  • We correlated cytological diagnoses and HPV DNA (Digene Hybrid Capture [HC II] assay) in anal specimens collected in SurePath liquid medium from 118 patients; 54.8% of cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 87.8% diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or above tested positive for high- risk HPV DNA (B+).
  • Although a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US or above was a reliable indicator for AIN, cytology frequently did not accurately predict the grade of SIL in subsequent biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078257.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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31. Bean SM, Chhieng DC, Roberson J, Raper JL, Broker TR, Hoesley CJ, Eltoum IA, Jin G: Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):90-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We describe the cytological distribution of disease, correlate cytological diagnoses with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status and surgical biopsy diagnoses, determine if CD4 counts correlate with lesion severity, and compare anal-rectal data of HIV-infected patients (primarily men) with cervical data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the computerized database identified 118 HIV-positive patients who had anal-rectal cytology.
  • Cytology results were compared with available follow-up data including repeat anal-rectal cytology tests, surgical biopsy, CD4 counts, and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping.
  • RESULTS: Cytological diagnoses included 3% unsatisfactory for diagnosis, 41% negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 23% atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US), 31% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 2% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-US/squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.7:1).
  • Two anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) II, 10 AIN III, and 1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma were histologically detected (11%).
  • The majority of AIN II was preceded by LSIL, 54%; ASC-US, 15%; and HSIL, 8%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal-rectal cytology is a useful screening test.
  • A high percentage of AIN II lesions were detected in this at-risk population, and the majority was detected following cytological abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20354415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83679
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. de Góis NM, Costa RR, Kesselring F, de Freitas VG, Ribalta JC, Kobata MP, Taha NS: Grade 3 vulvar and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in a HIV seropositive child--therapeutic result: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2005;32(2):138-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Grade 3 vulvar and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in a HIV seropositive child--therapeutic result: case report.
  • A case report of a HIV seropositive 8-year-old child with vulvar and anal border neoplasia, both grade 3, and the adopted therapeutic management are presented.
  • On physical examination a pigmented and elevated lesion was observed in the whole vulvar region extending to the anal region and intergluteal sulcus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy


33. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • The p63 protein has been previously shown to be involved in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and is known to be related to squamous carcinomas in many sites.
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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34. Charúa-Guindic L, Esquivel-Ocampo EA, Villanueva-Herrero JA, Jiménez-Bobadilla B, Muñoz-Cortés SB, Leal-Tamez M, Avendaño-Espinosa O: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(3):195-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients].
  • [Transliterated title] La neoplasia intraepitelial anal y la infección por virus del papiloma humano en pacientes anorreceptivos.
  • BACKGROUND: An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and progression to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and epidermoid cancer has been established.
  • OBJECTIVE: To know the prevalence of low and high grade AIN, as well as HPV infection in an anoreceptive patients group, infected or not, by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Patients who accepted anal citology and high definition anoscopy and biopsies with a follow-up not minor of 3 months were included.
  • Anal cytology showed inflammatory alterations in 21 patients (28%), low grade intraepithelial lesion in 23 (52%); there were not patients with high grade epithelial lesion.
  • According to the high definition anoscopy, there were low grade intraepithelial lesion in 42 patients (95%) and high grade in 2 (5%).
  • Biopsy showed low grade intraepithelial in 26 patients (59%), high grade in 4 (9%) and inflammatory alterations in 14 (32%).
  • The prevalence of AIN and HPV infection was 68% in both diseases.
  • The HIV infection was associated with the presence of high grade AIN (p=0.002, OR 47.7) CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of AIN and HPV infection between patients with anoreceptive sexual relations.
  • The HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of high grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19858007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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35. Chen LW, Yu BM, Zhang M, Fu J, Fei CS, Shen Y: [Diagnostic significance and management principles of colorectal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jul 1;47(13):992-4
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic significance and management principles of colorectal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the significance of pathological diagnosis of colorectal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment principles.
  • METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight cases with colorectal tumors were treated between January 2004 and June 2008, among them 73 cases of tumors were diagnosed as low grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 89 tumors as high grade intraepithelial neoplasia on biopsy.
  • RESULTS: With postoperative pathological examination, 109 cases (67.3%) were identified as infiltrative adenocarcinoma, among them 80 cases (89.9%) had been diagnosed as high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and the other 29 cases (39.7%) had been diagnosed as low grade intraepithelial neoplasia before the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We should pay more attention to tumors with a diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasia due to its high potential of malignancy.
  • When the lesion was highly suspected to be malignant, and the resection of the tumor would save the anal sphincter, the tumor should be treated with segmental resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19957809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Zawislak AA, Price JH, Dobbs SP, McClelland HR, McCluggage WG: the management of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia in Northern Ireland. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):780-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] the management of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia in Northern Ireland.
  • In this study, we present the findings of a regional retrospective audit of all cases of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) diagnosed in Northern Ireland (NI) over an 11-year period (1989-1999).
  • The most common histopathologic diagnosis was VIN III (73%).
  • In 52% of the cases, there was multifocal VIN, and in 43%, there was involvement of other sites such as the cervix, vagina, or anal region.
  • During the study period, 18 of 90 patients (20%) for whom follow-up was available developed invasive vulval squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16681760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Sarzo G, Del Mistro A, Finco C, Frayle-Salamanca H, Marino F, Franzetti M, Ferrara R, Mistrangelo M, Savastano S, Vecchiato M, Merigliano S: Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7 Online):e128-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extensive anal condylomatosis: prognosis in relation to viral and host factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical course of extensive anal condylomatosis in relation to treatment modalities, patient comorbidity and immune function, and associated papillomavirus (HPV) sequences.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients [14 males, median age 41.8 years (range 19-66)] affected by extensive anal condylomatosis [10 Buschke-Lowenstein Tumors (BLT) and 6 condylomatosis] treated in three different Italian institutions were included.
  • There was associated preoperative anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (AIN3) in one and invasive carcinoma in three patients.
  • Typing of HPV sequences in the management of patients affected by extensive anal condylomatosis may be useful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Colorectal Dis. 2010 Oct;12(10):1072. Mistro, A [corrected to Del Mistro, A]
  • (PMID = 19508521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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38. Lin GL, Qiu HZ, Xiao Y, Wu B, Meng WC: [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;11(1):39-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) and early rectal carcinoma.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis by biopsy and endoanal ultrasonography (EUS): rectal low-grade IN in 8 cases, high-grade IN in 4 and early rectal carcinoma in 3.
  • The average distance of tumors from the anal verge was 7.2(4-15) cm.
  • The post-operative pathological diagnosis: rectal low-grade IN in 5 cases, high-grade IN in 6, early submucous invasive carcinoma (pT(1)) in 2, advanced carcinoma (pT(2)) in 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18197492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Abramowitz L, Rémy V, Vainchtock A: Economic burden of anal cancer management in France. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique; 2010 Oct;58(5):331-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Economic burden of anal cancer management in France.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased over the last 25 years.
  • No organized screening exists for the precursors of anal cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma in situ) and diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Like cancers of the cervix, most cases of anal cancer are associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • With increases in the incidence of anal cancer, and in light of the availability of prevention strategies such as screening and HPV vaccination, it is important, from a public health perspective, to assess the economic burden of anal cancer in France.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis based on data extracted from a French hospital database - the Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information (PMSI) - to assess the number and management of patients hospitalized for anal cancer in 2006.
  • Data on radiotherapy sessions performed in private hospitals were obtained from the Statistiques annuelles des établissements de santé (SAE) database.
  • Costs of hospitalization, from the healthcare-payer perspective, were obtained from official diagnosis-related group tariffs for public and private hospitals.
  • RESULTS: In 2006, 3,711 patients with anal cancer were treated in hospitals in France.
  • The annual cost of hospital treatment for anal cancer was estimated at € 20,326,868.
  • CONCLUSION: This study, the first to investigate the economic burden of anal cancer in France, shows that the management costs of anal cancer are high and comparable to cervical cancer management costs (€ 44 million).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / economics. Health Care Costs

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0398-7620
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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40. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


41. Proca DM, Williams JD, Rofagha S, Tranovich VL, Keyhani-Rofagha S: Improved rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia detection in human papillomavirus DNA hybrid capture testing. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Aug;29(4):264-70
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  • [Title] Improved rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia detection in human papillomavirus DNA hybrid capture testing.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have established a link between human papillomavirus (HPV), squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and carcinoma of the cervix.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of DNA hybrid capture HPV testing for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were 86%, 44%, 26% and 93%, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 17879635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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42. Oon SF, Winter DC: Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature. J Med Screen; 2010;17(1):44-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are the precursors to anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus infection has a direct link to ASIL formation and is responsible for up to 80% of anal cancers.
  • But while much importance has been focused on targeting cancer precursors in the cervix, relatively little concern has been afforded to the anal canal.
  • However, marked similarities in the biological and pathological profiles of cervical cancer and anal cancer mean that anal cancer should be preventable in the same way - by curbing the progression of ASIL to cancer.
  • This article explores the literature on ASILs and the growing problem of anal cancer in the community, along with the literature surrounding the current progress towards implementing a screening programme for ASIL in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20356945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical screening
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Screen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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43. Edgren G, Sparén P: Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Apr;8(4):311-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of anogenital cancer after diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective population-based study.
  • Associations between HPV and vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers are well established, but the full extent in terms of age and time since diagnosis of these associations is not well known.
  • The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of vaginal, vulvar, anal, and rectal cancer in women with a history of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN), grade 3, compared with women with no such history were estimated by use of multivariate Poisson regression.
  • FINDINGS: Women with a history of grade 3 CIN had increased risks of cancer of the vagina (6.74 [95% CI 5.24-8.56]), vulva (2.22 [1.79-2.73]), and anus (IRR 4.68 [3.87-5.62]).
  • For all four anatomical sites, the IRRs varied substantially with the amount of time that had elapsed since the date of first diagnosis of grade 3 CIN.
  • Analyses stratified by attained age during follow-up showed that the risk of cancer conferred by a history of diagnosis of grade 3 CIN was highly age dependent.
  • INTERPRETATION: This study confirms the known association between history of CIN, presumed HPV infection, and increased risk of cancers of the vagina, vulva, and anus by use of large and complete databases, but also shows that this risk varies both by the time from initial diagnosis of grade 3 CIN and by the age of the individual.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications


44. Dey P, Sharma N, Samanta S: Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Dec;32(6):320-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractal dimension of cervical intraepithelial lesions on cytology smear.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of fractal dimension (FD) in distinguishing normal and different grades of cervical intraepithelial lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We selected 15 cases each of normal samples and low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 14 cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
  • The LSIL diagnosis was verified by two cytopathologists.

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  • (PMID = 21456343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • Forty-seven patients of the 122 patients who underwent biopsy (39%) had biopsy-identified low-grade AIN, and 47 (39%) had high-grade AIN (HGAIN).
  • Patient tolerance and acceptance of AIN screening was good, and the majority of those who underwent screening have been adherent to recommended follow-up examinations and treatment.
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):182-3 [19554737.001]
  • (PMID = 19554736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Czoski-Murray C, Karnon J, Jones R, Smith K, Kinghorn G: Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Nov;14(53):iii-iv, ix-x, 1-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is uncommon and predominantly a disease of the elderly.
  • Individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive are particularly vulnerable to HPV infections, and increasing numbers from this population present with anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer in the high-risk HIV-positive population [in particular, men who have sex with men (MSM), who have been identified as being at greater risk of the disease] by developing a model that incorporates the national screening guidelines criteria.
  • Papers that met the inclusion criteria contained the following: data on population incidence, effectiveness of screening, health outcomes or screening and/or treatment costs; defined suitable screening technologies; prospectively evaluated tests to detect anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: The reference case cost-effectiveness model for MSM found that screening for anal cancer is very unlikely to be cost-effective.
  • The negative aspects of screening included utility decrements associated with false-positive results and with treatment for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN).
  • However, combined with higher regression rates from low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-AIN), the lowest expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratio remained at over 44,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
  • LIMITATIONS: Limited knowledge is available about the epidemiology and natural history of anal cancer, along with a paucity of good-quality evidence concerning the effectiveness of screening.
  • Further studies could assess whether the screening model has underestimated the impact of anal cancer, the results of which may justify an evaluative study of the effects of treatment for HG-AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / economics. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Mass Screening / economics


47. Wieland U, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Hochdorfer B, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Kreuter A: Imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Nov;142(11):1438-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) with the local immune response modifier imiquimod in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Patients Twenty-eight consecutive HIV-positive MSM with histologically confirmed perianal (n = 23) or intra-anal (n = 5) AIN.
  • Intervention Overnight treatment with self-applied imiquimod cream (perianal AIN) or suppositories (intra-anal AIN) 3 times a week for 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen (61%) of all 28 patients included in the study and 17 (77%) of the 22 patients with AIN, who applied imiquimod as instructed, showed clinical and histologic clearance at the end of therapy.
  • Four patients had residual AIN and 1 patient did not improve.
  • In the follow-up period, AIN cleared in 3 patients with residual AIN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for AIN in HIV-positive MSM.
  • These results should encourage controlled randomized studies of imiquimod treatment of AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. HIV Infections


48. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • Microarray-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) was performed on DNA from AIN specimens to determine the host genomic alterations and their correlation with HPV DNA integration or rearrangement.
  • Of 27 high-grade AIN specimens tested by CGH, 8 (30%) showed regional DNA copy number abnormalities (CNAs).
  • Our data suggest that there may be several oncogenes in this region that are coactivated to contribute to progression to high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The groups at risk of this lesion are patients with anogenital condylomata, cervical dysplasia, human immunodeficiency virus infection and, in general, patients with HPV infection.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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50. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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51. Voss JS, Kipp BR, Campion MB, Sokolova IA, Henry MR, Halling KC, Clayton AC: Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Jun;32(3):121-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization and hybrid capture 2 analyses of cervical cytology specimens diagnosed as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN 2+) in patients with a cytologic diagnosis of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).
  • A cervical biopsy diagnosis of CIN 2+ was considered as evidence of high grade disease.


52. Murphy N, Ring M, Heffron CC, King B, Killalea AG, Hughes C, Martin CM, McGuinness E, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ: p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;58(5):525-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer.
  • AIM: To analyse and compare expression patterns of three potential biomarkers-p16(INK4A), CDC6, and MCM5-and evaluate their use as predictive biomarkers in squamous and glandular cervical preinvasive neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Immunocytochemical analysis of p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was performed on 20 normal, 38 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 33 CIN2, 46 CIN3, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 19 cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (cGIN), and 10 adenocarcinoma samples.
  • RESULTS: All three markers showed a linear correlation between expression and grade of dysplasia. p16(INK4A) and MCM5 protein expression was upregulated in all grades of squamous and glandular dysplasia.
  • CDC6 protein was preferentially expressed in high grade lesions and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: p16(INK4A) expression was closely associated with high risk HPV infection-all grades of squamous and glandular cervical lesions were immunohistochemically positive.
  • MCM5 staining intensity was independent of high risk HPV infection, highlighting its potential as a biomarker in both HPV dependent and independent cervical dysplasia.
  • CDC6 may be a biomarker of high grade and invasive lesions of the cervix, with limited use in low grade dysplasia. p16(INK4A) was the most reliable marker of cervical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Blotting, Western / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15858126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC6 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins; 0 / mcm5 protein, S pombe
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770660
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53. Gohy L, Gorska I, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Pokomandy Ad, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Kornegay JR, Franco E, HIPVIRG Study Group, Coutlée F: Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Sep 1;49(1):32-9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV-seropositive men.
  • The detection of HPV genotypes in anal biopsies and swabs was compared.
  • METHODS: HPV DNA was detected in anal swabs and biopsies obtained concurrently from 154 HIV-seropositive men [31 without AIN, 60 low-grade AIN (AIN-1), 62 high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3), and 1 indeterminate AIN] under or eligible to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 24.2% of normal biopsies compared with 93.5% with AIN-2,3 (P < 0.001) and 88.3% with AIN-1 (P < 0.001).
  • The proportion of biopsies containing multiple genotypes was greater in AIN-1 (n = 21, 35.0%; P = 0.002) and AIN-2,3 (n = 38, 58%; P < 0.001) than in normal biopsies (n = 2, 6.5%).
  • The most frequent genotypes in order of frequency were in AIN-2,3 biopsies HPV-16, 18, 58, and 45 and were in AIN-1 biopsies HPV-6, 11, 16, and 39.
  • Controlling for age, CD4 count, and smoking, the presence of high-risk HPV DNA in biopsies [odds ratio (OR) = 50.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.0 to 199.5] but not in swabs (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.6 to 7.0) was associated with AIN-2,3.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIN-2,3 was associated with high-risk HPV infection detected in biopsies but not in swabs in men under or starting highly active antiretroviral therapy, possibly due to the presence of HPV foci outside of the neoplastic lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Diseases / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. DNA, Viral. HIV Seropositivity / virology

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  • (PMID = 18667921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] OAllaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Cote S; Cote P; Coutlee F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco E; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpre D; Mcleod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trepanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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54. Santoso JT, Long M, Crigger M, Wan JY, Haefner HK: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Sep;116(3):578-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, and to compare anal cytology with colposcopy for their effectiveness in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening.
  • METHODS: Women with confirmed intraepithelial neoplasia on the cervix, vagina, or vulva were referred for gynecologic oncology care.
  • All patients underwent anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy.
  • RESULTS: Women with average age of 39.6 years (range 14 to 83 years) underwent anal cytology and anoscopy (N=205).
  • Of the 205 patients with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, 25 patients (12.2%) had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Twelve patients (5.9%) had abnormal anal cytology (nine with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], three with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL]).
  • None of the nine patients with anal ASC-US had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Of the three patients with anal LSIL, two had anal intraepithelial neoplasia II and one had condyloma on biopsy.
  • However, 78 patients (38%) had abnormal anoscopy findings that resulted in 25 biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasias (8 anal intraepithelial neoplasia I, 5 anal intraepithelial neoplasia II, 12 anal intraepithelial neoplasia III)), condylomas (n=11), and hyperkeratosis (n=8).
  • Anoscopy identified 32% (25 patients) with anal intraepithelial neoplasia out of 78 abnormal anoscopic examinations.
  • In diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia, anoscopy has 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity; anal cytology has 8% sensitivity and 94% specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia have 12.2% prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and should be screened with high-resolution anoscopy.
  • In anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening, anoscopy is more sensitive but less specific than anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep;116(3):566-7 [20733435.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov;116(5):1224
  • (PMID = 20733438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Mullerat J, Perrett CW, Deroide F, Winslet MC, Bofill M, Poulters LW: The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):693-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While macrophages (CD68+) have been associated with angiogenesis in some inflammatory and neoplastic processes by increasing the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their role in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma has not been established.
  • This study records macrophage infiltration in anal pre-invasive and invasive lesions in HIV+ and HIV- populations, and determines their relationship with angiogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (31 HIV+) with AIN and anal SCC were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / pathology. Macrophages / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / blood supply. Anal Canal / pathology. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / virology. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / blood supply. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 15868898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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56. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • We characterized the prevalence of AIN among HIV-positive MSM and examined the association between AIN and various factors including use of HAART.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A baseline point-prevalence analyses in a prospective cohort study of AIN was performed at a university-based research clinic.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • In multivariate analysis, detection of > or = 6 HPV types [odds ratio (OR), 36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4-171) and use of HAART (OR, 10; 95% CI, 2.6-38) were associated with AIN after adjustment for length of time participants were HIV-positive, CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AIN has remained high among HIV-positive MSM after the introduction of HAART.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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57. Chin-Hong PV, Berry JM, Cheng SC, Catania JA, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Fishman F, Jay N, Pollack LM, Palefsky JM: Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med; 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in prevalence and is more common among men who have sex with men and HIV-positive individuals than cervical cancer is among women in the United States.
  • Cytology screening can detect the anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Little is known about self-collected samples for AIN screening, and few community-based AIN estimates exist.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of self-collected versus clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to detect biopsy-confirmed AIN and the prevalence estimate of AIN in a community sample.
  • Participants were mailed anal cytology self-collection kits with instructions.
  • Clinicians repeated anal cytology and performed high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies as the diagnostic reference standard.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of anal HPV and AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of self-collected and clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to diagnose AIN were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy-proven AIN was diagnosed in 57% of HIV-positive and 35% of HIV-negative participants (P = 0.04), and 80% provided adequate self-collected specimens for interpretation.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 75% (95% CI, 51% to 93%) when self-collected and 90% (CI, 68% to 99%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 48% (CI, 26% to 70%) and 62% (CI, 38% to 82%).
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 50% (CI, 22% to 78%) when self-collected and 64% (CI, 36% to 86%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 86% (CI, 71% to 94%) and 85% (CI, 72% to 93%).
  • CONCLUSION: In a community-based sample, a high proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men have AIN.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN is higher for clinician-collected versus self-collected specimens and for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative men.
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN is higher in HIV-negative versus HIV-positive men.
  • However, the probability of AIN in a patient with a negative cytology result may not be low enough (23% for HIV-negative men and 45% for HIV-positive men with a patient-collected specimen) for clinicians to be comfortable recommending no anoscopy for those with a negative cytology result if done as a one-time test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Homosexuality. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. San Francisco / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5 [19221387.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):I38 [18765696.001]
  • (PMID = 18765699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH54320
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Fox PA, Seet JE, Stebbing J, Francis N, Barton SE, Strauss S, Allen-Mersh TG, Gazzard BG, Bower M: The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Apr;81(2):142-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the utility of anal cytology as a screening tool for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Comparison was made between results of anal cytology using the sampling method of Palefsky, and histological findings of biopsies taken from abnormal areas seen on high resolution anoscopic examination of the anal canal.
  • At screening of 34 asymptomatic men, 83% had anal cytological dysplasia and 78% had AIN.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology by the Palefsky method is simple to undertake, has a sensitivity and specificity comparable with cervical cytology, and can therefore be used as the basis of a pilot screening project in centres with large cohorts of HIV positive homosexual men who have a high risk of developing anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Bisexuality. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15800092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1764665
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59. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • This prospective follow-up study evaluated the long-term results of imiquimod treatment of AIN in 19 HIV-infected MSM.
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • A total of 74% (14/19) of the patients remained free of AIN at the previously treated site.
  • Five patients (26%) had recurrent high-grade AIN after a mean time of 24.6 months.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • 55% of these new AIN lesions were high-grade lesions and most of them were located intra-anally and associated with high-risk HPV types not detectable before therapy.
  • These results demonstrate that imiquimod leads to a high rate of long-term clearance of AIN in HIV-positive men together with a prolonged decrease of high-risk HPV-DNA load.
  • However, new AIN lesions associated with previously undetected HPV types frequently occur in untreated areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. DNA, Viral / drug effects. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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60. Cranston RD, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Feb;19(2):118-20
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  • [Title] A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus-associated anal squamous cell cancer.
  • Similar to the management of cervical dysplasia, clinicians are treating high-grade anal dysplasia to prevent progression to cancer.
  • Infrared coagulation (IRC) is an outpatient treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • This retrospective clinical study reports on 68 HIV-positive MSM with 78 biopsy proven high-grade anal lesions.
  • Of the 74 evaluable lesions; 39 had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 1, 20 had AIN 2, seven had AIN 3, and eight had normal epithelium.
  • The IRC showed 64% efficacy per treated lesion and shows promise as a treatment modality for high-grade anal dysplasia in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18334066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Graziottin A, Serafini A: HPV infection in women: psychosexual impact of genital warts and intraepithelial lesions. J Sex Med; 2009 Mar;6(3):633-45
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  • [Title] HPV infection in women: psychosexual impact of genital warts and intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal, or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias, and/or malignant cancers in different organs.
  • (ii) HPV-related genital, oral, and anal precancerous lesions on women's sexual function.
  • Search terms were HPV, GWs, intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anal cancer, oral cancer, epidemiology, HPV risk factors, sexual dysfunctions, desire disorders, arousal disorders, dyspareunia, vulvar vestibulitis, vulvodynia, orgasmic difficulties, sexual repertoire, couple sexual problems, depression, anxiety, pap smear, screening program, therapy, and vaccines.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual consequences of HPV infection in women, specifically GWs and intraepithelial HPV-related neoplasia.
  • However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of a specific correlation between HPV infection and a specific female sexual disorder.
  • CONCLUSION: The evidence of psychosexual consequences of HPV-related GWs and intraepithelial lesions is limited.
  • Specific research on the sexual impact of GWs and intraepithelial HPV-related lesion in women is urgently needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / psychology. Epithelium / pathology. Epithelium / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / diagnosis. Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology. Anxiety Disorders / psychology. Depressive Disorder / epidemiology. Depressive Disorder / psychology. Dyspareunia / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19170869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of sexual medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sex Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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62. Kreuter A, Wieland U, Gambichler T, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, German Network of Competence HIV/AIDS: p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;157(3):523-30
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  • [Title] p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load.
  • In this context, a drastically increased relative risk for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) exists in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • In a pilot study, imiquimod, a topical immune response modifier, has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of AIN.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of several biomarkers as potential adjuncts in the course of imiquimod treatment for AIN, and to determine whether these markers correlate with the course of high-risk HPV DNA load during imiquimod therapy.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed for p16(ink4a), minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM), Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p21(waf1) expression before and after 16 weeks of imiquimod treatment for AIN.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological and virological analyses were performed in 21 HIV-infected MSM with histologically confirmed AIN.
  • Eighteen (86%) patients had a complete histological clearance of AIN after imiquimod therapy.
  • A significant correlation between the course of high-risk HPV DNA load and p16(ink4a) expression was observed during imiquimod treatment of AIN, whereas the decline of high-risk HPV DNA load did not significantly correlate with MCM, Ki67, PCNA or p21(waf1) expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17573882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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63. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Hochdorfer B, Weissenborn SJ, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr;52(4):603-8
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  • [Title] Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) represents a precursor lesion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a clear association to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HIV infection is strongly associated with a higher prevalence of genital HPV infection, a higher incidence of AIN, and, consecutively, an increased risk for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of AIN and lesional HPV colonization in a cohort of homosexual men who were HIV positive and had a history of receptive anal intercourse.
  • RESULTS: Of all patients, 86% had anal HPV infection at their first visit.
  • AIN was diagnosed in 20 of the 103 patients (19.4%).
  • High-risk HPV types were present in all AIN cases with up to 7 different high-risk and up to 5 different low-risk types per lesion.
  • Histologically, 7 (35%), 7 (35%), and 6 (30%) of the patients had AIN grade I, II, or III, respectively.
  • Four different types of clinical presentation could be distinguished in the 20 patients with AIN: bowenoid (1 case, 5%); erythroplakic (2 cases, 10%); verrucous (6 cases, 30%); and leukoplakic (11 cases, 55%).
  • All verrucous lesions were graded as high-grade intraepithelial lesions in cytology, whereas 6 of the 11 leukoplakic lesions (55%) were low grade.
  • All verrucous AIN carried at least 4 different HPV types, always including HPV-16, and the mean number of HPV types was higher in verrucous lesions than in leukoplakic lesions (5.5 vs 3.8, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: These data confirm the high incidence and prevalence of AIN in patients who are HPV positive with HIV infection.
  • Four different clinical types of AIN can be distinguished that might have prognostic implications.
  • Standardized screening programs for anal cancer prevention and treatment protocols for AIN in patients infected with HIV must be implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 15793509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Alvarez J, de Pokomandy A, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Vézina S, Coté P, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Franco EL, Coutlée F, HIPVIRG Study Group: Episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-seropositive men. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2355-63
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  • [Title] Episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-seropositive men.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of episomal and integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) loads in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) in anal infection and to study the association between episomal and integrated HPV-16 loads and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Overall, 135 (54.7%) men provided 665 HPV-16-positive anal samples.
  • RESULTS: The HPV-16 DNA forms in anal samples were characterized as episomal only in 627 samples (94.3%), mixed in 22 samples (3.3%) and integrated only in nine samples (1.4%).
  • HPV-16 episomal load [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1], number of HPV types (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and current smoking (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.3-18.6) were associated with high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3) after adjusting for age and CD4 cell counts.
  • Integrated HPV-16 load was not associated with AIN-2,3 (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1).
  • Considering men with AIN-1 at baseline, four (16.7%) of the 24 men who progressed to AIN-2,3 had at least one sample with integrated HPV-16 DNA compared with three (23.1%) of 13 men who did not progress (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.2-3.8; P = 0.64).
  • Integration was detected in similar proportions in samples from men without AIN, with AIN-1 or AIN-2,3.
  • CONCLUSION: High episomal HPV-16 load but not HPV-16 integration load measured by real-time PCR was associated with AIN-2,3.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. HIV Seropositivity / immunology. Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / immunology. Plasmids / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20706109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] Allaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Coté S; Coté P; Coutlée F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco EL; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpré D; McLeod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trépanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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65. Kreuter A, Skrygan M, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer NH, Stücker M, Herzler C, Potthoff A, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jun;160(6):1197-205
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to analyse expression of AMPs in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal skin lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), a special high-risk group for persistent HPV infections and anal dysplasia.
  • RESULTS: Skin biopsies of 45 HIV-positive MSM with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), anal condylomata acuminata or unaffected anal mucosa, as well as condylomata acuminata of eight HIV-negative MSM, were analysed for AMP mRNA expression.
  • Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis for hBD-2 and hBD-3 was performed in a total of 45 samples. hBD-2 and hBD-3 gene and protein expression was significantly increased in both AIN and condyloma, whereas LL-37, RNase 7 and hBD-1 gene expression did not differ significantly from unaffected anal mucosa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: hBD-2 and hBD-3 expression was shown to be significantly upregulated in HPV-associated anal skin lesions of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. beta-Defensins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19298269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DEFB1 protein, human; 0 / DEFB4A protein, human; 0 / beta-Defensins; 0 / beta-defensin 3, human
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66. Giraldo P, Jacyntho C, Costa C, Iglesias M, Gondim C, Carvalho F, Giraldo H, Gonçalves AK: Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Jan;142(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Prevalence of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesion in women presenting genital squamous intra-epithelial lesion.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of anal squamous intra-epithelial lesions (ASIL) in women with genital squamous intra-epithelial lesions (GSIL).
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, 184 patients with histopathological diagnosis of GSIL and 76 controls without GSIL, were submitted to anuscopy in order to determine the presence of ASIL.
  • All the women were HIV-negative with anal aceto-white lesions were biopsed for histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Muscular Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19019529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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67. Richel O, Wieland U, de Vries HJ, Brockmeyer NH, van Noesel C, Potthoff A, Prins JM, Kreuter A: Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1301-7
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  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical treatment of AIN, especially at the intra-anal location.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment of AIN in HIV-positive MSM.
  • METHODS: High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed and patients with AIN (grade 1-3) were treated with 5-FU twice weekly for a total of 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: A total of 46 patients with AIN were included in this open prospective pilot study; 76% had multifocal disease and 74% had high-grade lesions (AIN 2 or 3).
  • Eighteen patients (39%) had a complete clearance of AIN and eight patients (17%) had a partial response.
  • Seventeen patients (37%) did not respond (unchanged grade of AIN in 16 patients and progression from low- to high-grade AIN in one patient).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of HIV-positive MSM with AIN completely cleared their lesions with topical 5-FU treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20716208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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68. Mirasoli M, Guardigli M, Simoni P, Venturoli S, Ambretti S, Musiani M, Roda A: Multiplex chemiluminescence microscope imaging of P16(INK4A) and HPV DNA as biomarker of cervical neoplasia. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2009 Jun;394(4):981-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiplex chemiluminescence microscope imaging of P16(INK4A) and HPV DNA as biomarker of cervical neoplasia.
  • Classification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in low-grade (CIN1) or high-grade (CIN2-3) ones is crucial for optimal patient management, but current histological diagnosis on bioptic samples is often hampered by inter-observer variability.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Luminescent Measurements / methods. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 19263042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2650
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
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69. Li Y, Yang Z, Chen Z, Zhou Z: Computational investigation on structural and physical properties of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons. J Nanosci Nanotechnol; 2010 Nov;10(11):7200-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computational investigation on structural and physical properties of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons.
  • Through first-principles computations, we investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional AIN single layer and one-dimensional AIN nanoribbons.
  • AIN single layer and nanoribbons quit the Wurtzite configuration and adopt a graphitic-like structure after geometry optimization.
  • Both hydrogen-terminated zigzag and armchair AIN nanoribbons have a direct band gap, which increases monotonically with increasing ribbon width.
  • Bare zigzag AIN nanoribbons have a spin-polarized ground state and are magnetic semiconductors.
  • The results may promote the experimental preparation of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons and their applications to nanotechnology.

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  • (PMID = 21137897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4880
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nanosci Nanotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • Most cases of AIN are intraanal, but few treatments for intraanal AIN are currently available.
  • Topical 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is an inexpensive method used to treat perianal condyloma, a form of AIN 1, but its efficacy to treat intraanal AIN as first-line therapy is unknown.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.
  • Clearance was defined as the absence of AIN confirmed by high-resolution anoscopy and cytology after up to 4 TCA treatments.
  • 32% of patients with AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesions.
  • On a per lesion basis, 73% of AIN 1 and 71% AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesion or AIN 1 or less, respectively.
  • A high proportion of AIN 2/3 lesions responded to TCA treatment.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jul 1;60(3):e105-6
  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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71. Patel HS, Silver AR, Northover JM: Anal cancer in renal transplant patients. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jan;22(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Anal cancer in renal transplant patients.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive literature review was performed to examine the prevalence of anal cancer, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in renal transplant recipients who are at risk of anal cancer due to iatrogenic immunosuppression.
  • METHODS: Pertinent articles were identified from searches performed on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database using the following keywords: anal cancer, AIN, screening, renal transplant (or kidney transplant), organ transplant recipients and post-transplant malignancies.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of AIN is 20% in renal transplant patients.
  • The prevalence of anal HPV infection in established transplant patients is 47%, and the prevalence of anal HPV infection in new transplant patients is 23%.
  • The relative risk for anal cancer in renal transplant patients is 10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As compared to HIV-positive male patients who practise anal intercourse, renal transplant patients showed a modest rise in relative risk for anal cancer.
  • Screening programmes to detect AIN in HIV-positive patients who practise anal intercourse have been introduced on a preliminary basis in sexual health clinics in the US and may become standard practise in this population.
  • The case for screening in renal transplant patients is unclear and would merit further investigation, especially with reference to the prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population.
  • It may transpire that renal transplant patients would benefit more from HPV prophylaxis rather than screening for AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16133005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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72. Fox PA: Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):62-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A review of recent developments in the understanding of the natural history of anal squamous carcinoma arising from areas of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a consequence of chronic human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal and appears to be driven by high viral loads of human papillomavirus.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is equally prevalent in different age groups of men who have sex with men, but in other respects what is known of its natural history resembles that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HIV-positives who practise receptive anal intercourse are at highest risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Screening is easy to perform using cytology; the limitations of anal cytology being similar to those of cervical cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 16374220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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73. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / surgery. Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections. Recurrence. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
  • [Cites] JAMA. 1999 May 19;281(19):1822-9 [10340370.001]
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  • [Cites] Br J Cancer. 2007 Nov 5;97(9):1322-8 [17923869.001]
  • [Cites] Top HIV Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;11(2):45-9 [12717041.001]
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  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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74. Bouzidi A, Souahi F, Hanini S: Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions. J Hazard Mater; 2010 Dec 15;184(1-3):640-6
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  • [Title] Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions.
  • In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Soil Pollutants; 1KSV9V4Y4I / Cesium
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75. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • A 54-year-old HIV-positive homosexual man presented with erythematous and pigmented plaques on background erythema in the perianal region, histologically consistent with Bowen's disease.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


76. Ogilvie JW Jr, Park IU, Downs LS, Anderson KE, Hansberger J, Madoff RD: Anal dysplasia in kidney transplant recipients. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Dec;207(6):914-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal dysplasia in kidney transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the risk of anal cancer in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly higher than in the general population, methods for detecting precancerous anal dysplasia have not been well studied in solid-organ transplant recipients.
  • We sought to identify the incidence of anal dysplasia in kidney transplant recipients and associated factors that increase the likelihood of dysplasia.
  • We interviewed willing participants and performed anal cytology sampling and high-resolution anoscopy; if we found microscopic abnormalities, we performed biopsies.
  • We used univariate analysis to measure the association between variables and anal dysplasia.
  • Their median duration of immunosuppression was 5.6 years; 23 (59%) had fewer than 5 lifetime sexual partners, and 2 (5%) reported ever practicing anal intercourse.
  • Of all cytology specimens, 35 (88%) had sufficient cells for interpretation and 2 (6%) demonstrated dysplasia.
  • We performed biopsies in 11 patients; 6 had dysplasia (4 low-grade, 2 high-grade).
  • Of these patients, five had normal anal cytology.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to predict histologic evidence of dysplasia was 17%.
  • Overall, seven (18%) had dysplasia according to either cytology or histology specimens; two (5%) had high-grade dysplasia.
  • We found no significant associations between the tested variables and the presence of dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of kidney transplant recipients harbor anal dysplasia.
  • One time anal cytology sampling was not predictive of histologic findings.
  • Although these findings confirm their high risk for dysplasia, a larger sample is required to more accurately quantify risk factors for dysplasia and progression to cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / immunology. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Precancerous Conditions / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / immunology. Anus Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19183539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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77. Lima CP, Davis SR, Mackey AD, Scheer JB, Williamson J, Gregory JF 3rd: Vitamin B-6 deficiency suppresses the hepatic transsulfuration pathway but increases glutathione concentration in rats fed AIN-76A or AIN-93G diets. J Nutr; 2006 Aug;136(8):2141-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Vitamin B-6 deficiency suppresses the hepatic transsulfuration pathway but increases glutathione concentration in rats fed AIN-76A or AIN-93G diets.
  • Growing rats were fed AIN-93G- or AIN-76A-based diets that ranged from adequate to deficient in vitamin B-6 (2, 1, 0.5, 0.1, or 0 mg of PN/kg diet, n = 5).
  • This design allowed assessment of the effects of supplemental methionine (AIN-76A) vs. cysteine (AIN-93G) in common research diets over a range of vitamin B-6 levels.
  • Hepatic cystathionine increased from 20 to 30 nmol/g for the 1-2 mg PN/kg diets to approximately 85 nmol/g for the 0 mg PN/kg diet; however, cysteine was reduced only in B-6-deficient rats consuming the AIN-93G diet (means of 30-40 nmol/g for adequate to 11.6 nmol/g for 0 mg PN/kg AIN-76A diet).

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  • (PMID = 16857832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3166
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK072398; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK37481; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK56274; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK07667
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; EC 4.2.1.22 / Cystathionine beta-Synthase; EC 4.4.1.1 / Cystathionine gamma-Lyase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine; KV2JZ1BI6Z / Pyridoxine
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78. Baynouna LM, Revel AD, Nagelkerke NJ, Jaber TM, Omar AO, Ahmed NM, Nazirudeen MK, Al Sayed MF, Nour FA, Abdouni S: Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Cardiovasc Diabetol; 2009;8:21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHOD: A community based survey, of conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted among 817 national residents of Al Ain city, UAE.

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  • (PMID = 19371412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular diabetology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Diabetol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2673216
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79. Torab FC, Amer M, Abu-Zidan FM, Branicki FJ: Perforated peptic ulcer: different ethnic, climatic and fasting risk factors for morbidity in Al-ain medical district, United Arab Emirates. Asian J Surg; 2009 Apr;32(2):95-101

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perforated peptic ulcer: different ethnic, climatic and fasting risk factors for morbidity in Al-ain medical district, United Arab Emirates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and nineteen patients admitted to Al-Ain Hospital with PPU between January 2000 and March 2004 was studied retrospectively; two with deficient data were excluded from the analysis.

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  • (PMID = 19423456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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80. Qazaq HS, Aladeeb NZ, Al-Masri J: Is vitamin A deficiency a problem among pregnant Emirati women in Al-Ain City? East Mediterr Health J; 2005 Jul;11(4):648-56
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Health Problems in Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] Is vitamin A deficiency a problem among pregnant Emirati women in Al-Ain City?
  • Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can have a negative impact on pregnancy but there have been no studies in Al-Ain on the vitamin A status of pregnant women.
  • We studied 198 pregnant Emirati women aged 15-49 years attending antenatal clinics in Al-Ain Medical District (1999-2000) to assess the prevalence of VAD.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diet Surveys. Erythrocyte Indices. Female. Ferritins / blood. Health Surveys. Hematocrit. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Nutrition Assessment. Nutritional Status. Population Surveillance. Pregnancy. Prevalence. Socioeconomic Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires. United Arab Emirates / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16700380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1020-3397
  • [Journal-full-title] Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East. Mediterr. Health J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins; 9007-73-2 / Ferritins
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81. Rozmus-Warcholińska W, Loch T, Czuba B, Mazurek U, Mucha J, Dworak D, Sodowski K: [Genital warts associated with HPV infection during II and III trimester of pregnancy--a case report and analysis of treatment options]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Nov;78(11):888-91
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  • A visible genital form of HPV infection are genital warts, which are commonly caused by HPV types 6 and 11, and appear on the vulva, cervix, vagina, urethra and anus.
  • Oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are also found in genital warts and are associated with vulval (VII), cervical (CIN) and anal (AIN) intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Human papillomavirus 6 / isolation & purification. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18306923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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82. Adley BP, Yang XJ: Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):1-13
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  • [Title] Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review.
  • Since its discovery, AMACR has gained wide acceptance for use in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemical staining for basal cell markers.
  • This review focuses on AMACR expression in prostate cancer and its morphologic variants, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenosis and benign conditions of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 16566275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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83. Wiley DJ, Huh J, Rao JY, Chang C, Goetz M, Poulter M, Masongsong E, Chang CI, Bernard HU: Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jun 1;39(2):143-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men.
  • Intra-anal malignancies disproportionately affect individuals who engage in anal intercourse because of infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), with an increased risk attributed to infection with HIV because of a declining immunity against HPvs. Long-term persistence of HPVs suggests yet other mechanisms that determine the clinical outcome, however.
  • Because methylation of HPV DNA represses oncogene expression in cervical samples, we investigated whether this mechanism also occurs in HIV-positive men and studied the methylation of CpG dinucleotides overlapping with the HPV-16 enhancer and promoter in 16 anal samples.
  • In low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), methylation was high in CpGs overlapping the viral enhancer but rare in promoter positions, whereas methylation was high in promoter regions in high-grade AIN, especially in samples with a high load of viral genomes.
  • We also detected de novo methylation at methylated (me) CpA, meCpT, and meCpC dinucleotides.
  • Our study expands the observation and mapping of HPV DNA methylation to anal infections and the HIV-positive patient population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / virology. Base Sequence. Biopsy. DNA Primers. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Dinucleoside Phosphates / analysis. Enhancer Elements, Genetic. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Virus Latency. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 15905729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-91964; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-91964
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Dinucleoside Phosphates; 2382-65-2 / cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
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84. Duffy PH, Lewis SM, Mayhugh MA, Trotter RW, Hass BS, Thorn BT, Feuers RJ: Nonneoplastic pathology in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the American Institute of Nutrition-93M purified diet at ad libitum and dietary-restricted intakes. Nutr Res; 2008 Mar;28(3):179-89
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  • [Title] Nonneoplastic pathology in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed the American Institute of Nutrition-93M purified diet at ad libitum and dietary-restricted intakes.
  • This study evaluates the effects of age and chronic dietary restriction (DR) on nonneoplastic diseases in rats that were fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M purified diet.
  • Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into an ad libitum (AL) group and a DR group that was fed the AIN-93M diet with intake reduced by 31%.
  • Nonneoplastic disease profiles were developed to clarify whether the AIN-93M diet fulfills long-term nutritional requirements of rats.
  • Although the AIN-93M diet supported chronic rat growth, alterations in some dietary component concentrations may be required to lower body weight in chronic rodent and human studies.

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  • (PMID = 19083406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0739
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Health Quality Ontario: Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2007;7(4):1-43
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  • [Title] Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC.
  • CLINICAL NEED: TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection.
  • Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
  • Anal cancer is rare.
  • Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
  • Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men.
  • The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s.
  • HEALTH TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination.
  • Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology.
  • It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions.
  • Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia.
  • The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups.
  • That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
  • FINDINGS: No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality.
  • In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia.
  • The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
  • Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia.
  • Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity.
  • Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer.
  • Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
  • The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test.
  • In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications.
  • A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.

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  • (PMID = 23074504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377578
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86. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • The endpoint was histologically confirmed AIN 2+ obtained by high-resolution anoscopy.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Biopsies were abnormal in 68% of patients: AIN 2+, 25% and AIN 1, 43%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 20442633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Al-Naeem AA: Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Pak J Biol Sci; 2008 Jan 15;11(2):244-9
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  • [Title] Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
  • A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin.
  • The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops.

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  • (PMID = 18817197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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88. Fiedler JL, Villalobos CA, De Mattos AC: An activity-based cost analysis of the Honduras community-based, integrated child care (AIN-C) programme. Health Policy Plan; 2008 Nov;23(6):408-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An activity-based cost analysis of the Honduras community-based, integrated child care (AIN-C) programme.
  • The Honduras AIN-C programme is a preventive health and nutrition programme of the Honduras Ministry of Health (MOH) that relies on volunteers to help mothers monitor and maintain the adequate growth of young children.
  • This study was undertaken to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the cost of the AIN-C programme, with the goal of providing a programme and financial planning tool for Honduras.
  • An additional comparison of study findings was also undertaken to determine the cost of the AIN-C programme's community-based services relative to a similar facility-based service.
  • (3) the cost of an AIN-C monthly growth monitoring and counselling session per child is 11% of the cost of a traditional MOH, facility-based growth and development consultation per child; and (4) the effect of mothers substituting AIN-C monitor care for MOH facility-based care 'saves' 203 000 outpatient visits a year, with a potential cost saving of $1.66 million, the equivalent of 60% of the recurrent cost of the programme and roughly equal to the annual incremental budget requirements of the programme.

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  • (PMID = 18755734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1080
  • [Journal-full-title] Health policy and planning
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Policy Plan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Al-Muhairi SS, Zoubeidi TA, Ellis ME, Safa WF, Joseph J: Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Saudi Med J; 2006 Jul;27(7):1044-8
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  • [Title] Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyze the data collected from all inpatients over the age of 16 years with a diagnosis of pneumonia in Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates between the years 1997 and 2002.
  • [MeSH-major] Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16830028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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90. El-Lamie IK, El Sayed HM, Badawie AG, Bayomi WA, El-Ghazaly HA, Khalaf-Allah AE, El-Mahallawy MN, El-Lamie KI: Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):866-74
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  • [Title] Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience.
  • The aim of the current study is to evaluate the different treatment modalities used in the management of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) between June 1992 and December 2004 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University.

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  • (PMID = 16681775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol; MDC protocol; PEA-M regimen
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91. Dash N, Ameen AS, Sheek-Hussein MM, Smego RA Jr: Epidemiology of meningitis in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 2000-2005. Int J Infect Dis; 2007 Jul;11(4):309-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidemiology of meningitis in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates, 2000-2005.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiologic features of meningitis in Al-Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates from January 2000 through June 2005.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical records and notification forms for cases of meningitis reported to the Department of Preventive Medicine, Al-Ain.
  • The incidence rate of meningitis in Al-Ain ranged between 2.2/100,000 population in 2000 and 1/100,000 in 2005, with an overall downward trend by year.

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  • (PMID = 16950640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-9712
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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92. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Walts AE, Bose S: BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):246-51
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  • The differential diagnosis of perineal biopsies can include squamous intraepithelial lesions, extramammary Paget's disease, and melanoma.
  • Immunostaining for ProEx C has been validated in cervical cytology and positive staining has also been shown to be strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Perineum / pathology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Mucous Membrane / enzymology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18931649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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94. Bakr IM, Ismail NA: Domestic violence among women attending out-patient clinics in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc; 2005;80(5-6):629-50
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  • [Title] Domestic violence among women attending out-patient clinics in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.
  • A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of domestic violence among ever married females presenting to out patient clinics in Ain Shams university hospitals and to identify factors affecting it.
  • This proposes the importance of effective screening, diagnosis and management of domestic violence victims.

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  • (PMID = 17187746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-2446
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Public Health Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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95. Chang VT, Cartwright PS, Bean SM, Palmer GM, Bentley RC, Ramanujam N: Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo through optical spectroscopy. Neoplasia; 2009 Apr;11(4):325-32
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  • The ability to quantify physiological and morphological changes in the cervix is not only useful in the diagnosis of cervical precancers but also important in aiding the design of cost-effective detection systems for use in developing countries that lack well-established screening and diagnostic programs.
  • We assessed the capability of a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique to identify contrasts in optical biomarkers that vary with different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal cervical tissues.
  • Among 38 patients and 89 sites examined, 46 squamous normal sites, 18 CIN 1, and 15 CIN 2(+) sites were included in the analysis.

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  • (PMID = 19308287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108490; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21-CA108490-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2657880
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96. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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97. Hilfrich R, Hariri J: Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Apr;30(2):78-82
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  • Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18561743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / P16 protein, human
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98. Zhang L, Ding L, Cheung TH, Dong MQ, Chen J, Sewell AK, Liu X, Yates JR 3rd, Han M: Systematic identification of C. elegans miRISC proteins, miRNAs, and mRNA targets by their interactions with GW182 proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2. Mol Cell; 2007 Nov 30;28(4):598-613
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Systematic identification of C. elegans miRISC proteins, miRNAs, and mRNA targets by their interactions with GW182 proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2.
  • We show that GW182 family proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2 act redundantly to regulate the expression of miRNA targets, but not miRNA biogenesis.
  • Immunoprecipitation (IP) and mass spectrometry indicate that AIN-1 and AIN-2 interact only with miRNA-specific Argonaute proteins ALG-1 and ALG-2 and with components of the core translational initiation complex.
  • Known miRNA targets are enriched in AIN-2 complexes, correlating with the expression of corresponding miRNAs.
  • Combining IP with pyrosequencing and microarray analysis of RNAs associated with AIN-1/AIN-2, we identified 106 previously annotated miRNAs plus nine new candidate miRNAs, but nearly no siRNAs, and more than 3500 potential miRNA targets, including nearly all known ones.

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  • (PMID = 18042455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AAC24251; GEO/ GSE9073
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM047869; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM047869-15; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR011823; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR11823; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM47869; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM047869-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / AIN-1 protein, C elegans; 0 / AIN-2 protein, C elegans; 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA Caps; 0 / RNA, Helminth; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / RNA-Induced Silencing Complex; EC 3.1.- / Endoribonucleases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS35169; NLM/ PMC2186060
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99. Palefsky JM, Berry JM, Jay N, Krogstad M, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Lee JY: A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1151-5
SciCrunch. DrugBank: Data: Chemical .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test a therapeutic vaccine consisting of a fusion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein and the Mycobacterium bovis heat shock protein 65 (SGN-00101) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN) in HIV-positive individuals.
  • Anal disease was assessed at baseline, 8, 12, 24 and 48 weeks and was classified as the more severe of anal cytology and anal biopsy.
  • Anal HPV DNA was detected using L1 consensus primer-based PCR followed by type-specific probing and dot-blot hybridization (DBH).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen HIV-positive men and two HIV-positive women with HG-AIN.
  • At 48 weeks, two of five participants in both the 100 and 500 microg cohorts regressed to AIN 1 and one of five participants in the 1000 microg cohort regressed to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US).
  • Three of five (60%) participants who regressed to AIN 1 or ASC-US became HPV-negative using DBH and real-time PCR, compared with none of 10 participants with no clinical response (P = 0.02).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - HIV.
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  • (PMID = 16691066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70047
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / heat-shock protein 65, Mycobacterium; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
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100. Al-Hammadi S, Al-Maskari F, Bernsen R: Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 2010;151(4):336-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Food Allergy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates.
  • This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of FA among school children aged 6-9 years in Al-Ain city, UAE.
  • METHODS: We used multistage random sampling in order to get a sample of 397 school children whose parents completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the presence or absence of physician diagnosis of FA and other allergic diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FA in Al-Ain city was 8%.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19851075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of allergy and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens
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