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4. Kim SH, Park IJ, Joh YG, Hahn KY: Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer: a prospective analysis of thirty-month follow-up outcomes in 312 patients. Surg Endosc; 2006 Aug;20(8):1197-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer: a prospective analysis of thirty-month follow-up outcomes in 312 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: This study aimed to prospectively evaluate operative safety and mid-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection performed by a single surgeon.
  • 257 patients (82.4%) had tumors located below 12 cm from the anal verge.
  • Distribution of TNM stages was 0:I:II:III:IV = 4.2%:17.9%:32.4%:37.2%:8.3%.
  • With a mean follow-up of 30 months in the stage I-III patients, the local recurrence rate was 2.9%.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer provided safe operative parameters and adequate mid-term oncologic outcomes.

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  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Das S, Kar Mahapatra S, Gautam N, Das A, Roy S: Oxidative stress in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and serum of oral cavity cancer patients: modulatory array of L-glutamine. Support Care Cancer; 2007 Dec;15(12):1399-405
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  • [Title] Oxidative stress in lymphocytes, neutrophils, and serum of oral cavity cancer patients: modulatory array of L-glutamine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the oxidative stress and ameliorative effect of L-glutamine in serum, neutrophils, and lymphocytes of oral cancer patients by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study has been conducted on serum and specific blood cells in adult, male oral cancer patients (stage III-6, stage IV-42) and normal subjects of an equal number of age and sex-matched disease-free healthy subjects.
  • RESULTS: MDA levels were elevated, and antioxidant enzyme status was decreased significantly in all groups of cancer patients simultaneously, but after supplementation of "glutammune" (66.66% L-glutamine), oxidative stress has been alleviated to some extent; especially, it has repaired the glutathione cascade system.

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  • (PMID = 17593404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine
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6. Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C, Parker LP: Patient-derived tumor-reactive antibodies as diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Oct;115(1):112-20
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  • [Title] Patient-derived tumor-reactive antibodies as diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stage (67%) and prospects for significant improvement in survival reside in early diagnosis.
  • Our objective was to validate our array assay for the identification of ovarian cancer based on quantitation of tumor-reactive IgG.
  • Sera were obtained from age-matched female volunteers, women with benign ovarian disease and with ovarian cancer.
  • RESULTS: Sera from ovarian cancer patients exhibited significantly greater immunoreactivities than either normal controls or women with benign disease (both considered negative to all antigens tested).
  • Reactivities with nucleophosmin, cathepsin D, p53, and SSX common antigen for patients with all stages of ovarian cancer were significantly higher than for controls and women with benign ovarian disease.
  • Reactivity with placental type alkaline phosphatase, TAG 72, survivin, NY-ESO-1, GRP78, and Muc16 (CA125) allowed the differentiation between Stage III/IV and early stage ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The quantitation of circulating tumor-reactive IgG can be used to identify the presence of ovarian cancer.
  • The analyses of IgG recognition of specific exosomal antigens allows for the differentiation of women with benign ovarian masses from ovarian cancer, as well as distinguishing early and late stage ovarian cancers.
  • Thus, the quantitative assessment of IgG reactive with specific tumor-derived exosomal proteins can be used as diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19647308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098166-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098166-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS129188; NLM/ PMC2760307
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7. Williams DK, Muddiman DC: Absolute quantification of C-reactive protein in human plasma derived from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer utilizing protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res; 2009 Feb;8(2):1085-90
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  • [Title] Absolute quantification of C-reactive protein in human plasma derived from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer utilizing protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
  • A method employing protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS) was developed for quantification of C-reactive protein (CRP) in human plasma.
  • The comparison of these results generated an R(2) = 0.9708 which indicates successful quantification of CRP from human plasma utilizing the methodology described herein.
  • In addition, data is shown that illustrates that, as epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progresses from stage I to stage IV, mean levels of CRP increase.

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  • (PMID = 19196186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105295-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA105295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA105295-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS86745; NLM/ PMC2637469
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8. Zou YP, Li WM, Zheng F, Li FC, Huang H, Du JD, Liu HR: Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation combined with 125 iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct 28;16(40):5104-10
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  • [Title] Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation combined with 125 iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer.
  • AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of intraoperative radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with (125)iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients (21 males and 11 females) at the age of 68 years (range 48-90 years) with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer admitted to our hospital from January 2006 to May 2008 were enrolled in this study.
  • Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was made through intraoperative biopsy.
  • The median survival time of patients at stage III was longer than that of those at stage IV (19 mo vs 10 mo, P = 0.0026).
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative RFA combined with (125)iodine seed implantation is a feasible and safe procedure for unresectable pancreatic cancer with acceptable minor complications, and can prolong the survival time of patients, especially those at stage III.

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  • (PMID = 20976848.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965288
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9. Lee SE, Jeon EJ, Oh JH, Shim KH, Lee J, Kim EH, Choi SW, Min KO: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;51(1):40-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis].
  • The most common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are liver, lung, bone and adrenal gland.
  • However, skin metastases from gastric cancer are relatively rare.
  • We herein report a case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis in a 70-year-old male.
  • Endoscopy and abdominal CT scan demonstrated the stage IV gastric cancer.
  • We suspected that the perianal lesion was originated from gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18349561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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10. Chen Y, Lim BK, Hashim OH: Different altered stage correlative expression of high abundance acute-phase proteins in sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. J Hematol Oncol; 2009;2:37
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  • [Title] Different altered stage correlative expression of high abundance acute-phase proteins in sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The general enhanced expression of alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), clusterin (CLU), alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin beta-chain (HAP), and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG) in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa) was recently reported.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs) in the patients according to their stages of cancer.
  • RESULTS: Different altered stage correlative expression of the high abundance serum APPs was demonstrated in sera of the patients studied.
  • While the expression of ACT, HAP and AAT appeared to demonstrate positive correlation with the three initial stages of the cancer, inverse correlation was apparently detected in the expression of LRG and CLU.
  • For patients who were diagnosed with stage IV of the cancer, expression of the serum APPs did not conform to the altered progression changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood


11. Biasco G, Nobili E, Calabrese C, Sassatelli R, Camellini L, Pantaleo MA, Bertoni G, De Vivo A, Ponz De Leon M, Poggioli G, Bedogni G, Venesio T, Varesco L, Risio M, Di Febo G, Brandi G: Impact of surgery on the development of duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Dec;49(12):1860-6
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  • [Title] Impact of surgery on the development of duodenal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • PURPOSE: Precancerous duodenal lesions in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis can be detected with duodenoscopy and treatment may prevent the development of cancer.
  • No duodenal cancer could be detected.
  • Eleven patients had or developed severe precancerous duodenal lesions (Stage IV) treated with endoscopic or surgical resection.
  • The distribution of patients with Stage IV according to the surgery of the colon was: 2 of 25 treated with ileoanal anastomosis and 8 of 15 with ileorectal anastomosis (P=0.0024, Fisher's exact test).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical. Duodenoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Ileum / surgery. Male. Proctocolectomy, Restorative. Prospective Studies. Rectum / surgery


12. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality


40. Yuan J, Ku GY, Gallardo HF, Orlandi F, Manukian G, Rasalan TS, Xu Y, Li H, Vyas S, Mu Z, Chapman PB, Krown SE, Panageas K, Terzulli SL, Old LJ, Houghton AN, Wolchok JD: Safety and immunogenicity of a human and mouse gp100 DNA vaccine in a phase I trial of patients with melanoma. Cancer Immun; 2009 Jun 05;9:5
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  • All patients had no evidence of disease; 10 (53%) had stage III disease, 3 each (16%) had stage IIB and IV disease, 2 (11%) had choroidal and 1 (5%) had anal mucosal involvement.

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  • (PMID = 19496531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA033049-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA033049-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA33049; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA033049; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA056821; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50AT002779
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PMEL protein, human; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Si protein, mouse; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 0 / gp100 Melanoma Antigen; 0 / gp100(280-288) melanoma antigen peptide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS201057; NLM/ PMC2888533
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41. Tamura Y, Igarashi M, Kawai H, Suda T, Satomura S, Aoyagi Y: Clinical advantage of highly sensitive on-chip immunoassay for fucosylated fraction of alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Dec;55(12):3576-83
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  • [Title] Clinical advantage of highly sensitive on-chip immunoassay for fucosylated fraction of alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been widely used as a diagnostic master for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the fucosylated fraction of AFP (AFP-L3) has been reported to be a specific marker for HCC.
  • The positivity rates for μ-TAS AFP-L3 were higher at each tumor stage than those of LiBASys AFP-L3 (μ-TAS/LiBASys: stage I, 44.2%/16.3%; stage II, 52.9%/37.5%; stage III, 66.4%/44.5%; stage IV, 82.8%/65.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: μ-TAS AFP-L3 is more sensitive for discriminating HCC than the conventional LiBASys AFP-L3, particularly in subgroups with lower AFP concentrations and early-stage HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Immunoassay / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20407827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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42. Gilligan MA, Neuner J, Zhang X, Sparapani R, Laud PW, Nattinger AB: Relationship between number of breast cancer operations performed and 5-year survival after treatment for early-stage breast cancer. Am J Public Health; 2007 Mar;97(3):539-44
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  • [Title] Relationship between number of breast cancer operations performed and 5-year survival after treatment for early-stage breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between number of breast cancer operations performed in a hospital (hospital volume) and all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using a national database and statistical methods appropriate for clustering and reducing confounding.
  • The cohort included 11225 Medicare patients who had undergone surgery for early-stage breast cancer from 1994 to 1996 in 457 different hospitals.
  • Primary outcomes were all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival rates at a mean follow-up time of 62.5 months.
  • RESULTS: In comparison with treatment in a low-volume hospital, treatment in a high-volume hospital was associated with hazard ratios of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.75, 0.92) for all-cause mortality and 0.80 (CI=0.66, 0.97) for breast cancer-specific mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An association between the volume of breast cancer operations performed in a hospital and 5-year survival rates was observed for both all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality.

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  • (PMID = 17267725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA081379; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA81379
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1805003
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43. Skrzydlewska E, Sulkowski S, Koda M, Zalewski B, Kanczuga-Koda L, Sulkowska M: Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan 21;11(3):403-6
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  • [Title] Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in colorectal cancer.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of final lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in primary colorectal cancer.
  • As a control, the same amount of sample was collected from macroscopically unchanged colon regions of the most distant location to the cancer.
  • HPLC revealed levels of vitamins C and E and served as a method to detect terminal products of lipid peroxidation in colorectal cancer.
  • -2.65+/-0.48 nmol/g, Adc.G3-2.15+/-0.44 nmol/g, clinical IV stage 4.04+/-0.47 nmol/g, P<0.001 and 4-HNE-Adc.muc.
  • -0.44+/-0.07 nmol/g, Adc.G3-0.44+/-0.10 nmol/g, clinical IV stage 0.52+/-0.11 nmol/g, P<0.001) as well as increase of Cu,Zn-SOD (Adc.muc.
  • -363+/-72 U/g, Adc.G3-318+/-48 U/g, clinical IV stage 421+/-58 U/g, P<0.001), GSH-Px (Adc.muc.
  • -2143+/-623 U/g, Adc.G3-2005+/-591 U/g, clinical IV stage 2467+/-368 U/g, P<0.001) and GSSG-R (Adc.muc.
  • -880+/-194 U/g, Adc.G3-795+/-228 U/g, clinical IV stage 951+/-243 U/g, P<0.001) in primary tumour comparison with normal colon (MDA-1.39+/-0.15 nmol/g, HNE-0.29+/-0.03 nmol/g, Cu, Zn-SOD-117+/-25 U/g, GSH-Px-1723+/-189 U/g, GSSG-R-625+/-112 U/g) especially in mucinous and G3-grade adenocarcinomas as well as clinical IV stage of colorectal cancer.
  • -40+/-14 U/g, clinical IV stage 33+/-18 U/g vs 84+/-17 U/g, P<0.001) as well as a decreased level of reduced glutathione (clinical IV stage 150+/-48 nmol/g vs 167+/-15 nmol/g, P<0.05) and vitamins C and E (vit.
  • C-clinical IV stage 325+/-92 nmol/g vs 513+/-64 nmol/g, P<0.001; vit.
  • E-clinical IV stage 13.3+/-10.3 nmol/g vs 37.5+/-5.2 nmol/g).
  • CONCLUSION: Colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with serious oxidative stress and confirms that gradual advancement of oxidative-antioxidative disorders is followed by progression of colorectal cancer.


44. El Badry AA, El-Fadle AA, El-Balshy AL: Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MedGenMed; 2007;9(3):3
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  • [Title] Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • The present study was designed to clarify the role of TIMP-2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients and to evaluate its importance relative to clinicopathologic parameters.
  • Clinically, in accordance with TNM classification (T: tumor size, N: lymph node involvement, M: distant metastasis), 8 cases were diagnosed as stage II, 12 as stage III, and 10 cases as stage IV; however, pathologic typing with use of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification revealed the presence of 9 specimens of squamous cell carcinoma (WHO type 1), 6 cases of nonkeratinizing carcinoma (WHO type 2), and 15 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma (WHO type 3).
  • In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between TIMP-2 protein positivity and either the clinical staging or the histopathologic typing (P < .01) using Chi-square test (x(2)), suggesting that TIMP-2 can be used as a marker of the severity of NPC.Accordingly, we can assume that TIMP-2 may play a role in regional lymph node and/or distant metastasis and in progression of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / enzymology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / chemistry. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / enzymology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18092010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100075
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45. O'Neil BH, Tepper JE: Current options for the management of rectal cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2007 Oct;8(5):331-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current options for the management of rectal cancer.
  • Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer should undergo locoregional staging with transrectal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or surface coil array MRI of the pelvis if that technique is available.
  • Patients thought to have more than very early stage (T1 or T2) disease should undergo abdominal imaging as well by CT or MRI, and chest imaging with either CXR or preferably CT.
  • The care of rectal cancer patients should be coordinated amongst an experienced multidisciplinary team to maximize the chance of cure and to minimize both local recurrence and complications of therapy.
  • For patients with very early stage disease (T1N0 or T2N0), local resection with or without chemoradiation may be adequate therapy, but these patients must be selected carefully and should be without any poor prognostic factors.
  • For the majority of patients with T3N0 or greater rectal cancer, standard therapy consists of neoadjuvant continuous 5-FU and radiation followed by surgery and further chemotherapy (either with 5-FU, capecitabine, or FOLFOX).
  • Select patients with high (>10 cm from the anal verge) uT3N0 tumors may be at sufficiently low risk of local recurrence to justify omission of radiotherapy.
  • Patients with stage IV rectal cancer may still require local therapy with radiation, surgery, or both; however, care should be taken in these patients that chemotherapy is not excessively delayed as this is the one modality in this case that can result in improved survival.

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  • (PMID = 18181024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 K23 CA 118431-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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46. Zhang L, Chen J, Ke Y, Mansel RE, Jiang WG: Expression of Placenta growth factor (PlGF) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the clinical and prognostic significance. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Oct 13;3:68
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  • [Title] Expression of Placenta growth factor (PlGF) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the clinical and prognostic significance.
  • This study examined PlGF expression at protein and message levels in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in which no reports on the significance of PlGF expression is available to date.
  • RESULTS: PlGF was positively stained mainly in cytoplasm of lung cancer cells.
  • Real time PCR analysis revealed that PlGF mRNA was higher in the cancer tissue than normal tissue (0.95 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.24; p < 0.005) and that PlGF mRNA was significant higher in III-IV stage patients than in I-II stage patients (1.03 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.17; p = 0.011).

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  • (PMID = 16223445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1276823
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47. Retèl VP, Hummel MJ, van Harten WH: Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology. Mol Oncol; 2009 Dec;3(5-6):394-401
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  • Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments.
  • Here we present an overview of the literature on the technology assessments that have already been undertaken on early stage nanotechnology in cancer care, with particular emphasis placed on clinical efficacy, efficiency, logistics, patient-related features and technology dynamics.
  • Owing to the current stage of development of most nanotechnologies, we found only a limited number of publications describing the application of either Health Technology Assessment (HTA) or Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA).

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  • (PMID = 19540817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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48. Liang B, Wang S, Zhu XG, Yu YX, Cui ZR, Yu YZ: Increased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase and its upstream regulating signal in human gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Feb 7;11(5):623-8
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  • [Title] Increased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase and its upstream regulating signal in human gastric cancer.
  • AIM: To investigate the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and its upstream protein kinase in human gastric cancer and to evaluate the relationship between protein levels and clinicopathological parameters.
  • METHODS: Western blot was used to measure the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1, ERK-2, ERK-3, p38 and mitogen or ERK activated protein kinaseMEK-1 proteins in surgically resected gastric carcinoma, adjacent normal mucosa and metastatic lymph nodes from 42 patients.
  • RESULTS: Compared with normal tissues, the protein levels of ERK-1 (integral optical density value 159 526+/-65 760 vs 122 807+/-65 515, P = 0.001), ERK-2 (168 471+/-95 051 vs 120 469+/-72 874, P<0.001), ERK-3 (118 651+/-71 513 vs 70 934+/-68 058, P<0.001), P38 (104 776+/-51 650 vs 82 930+/-40 392, P = 0.048) and MEK-1 (116 486+/-45 725 vs 101 434+/-49 387, P = 0.027) were increased in gastric cancer tissues.
  • Overexpression of ERK-3 was correlated to TNM staging (average ratio of integral optic density (IOD)(tumor): IOD(normal) in TNM I, II, III, IV tumors was 1.43+/-0.34, 5.08+/-3.74, 4.99+/-1.08, 1.44+/-1.02, n = 42, P = 0.023) and serosa invasion (4.31+/-4.34 vs 2.00+/-2.03, P = 0.037).
  • In poorly differentiated cancers (n = 33), the protein levels of ERK-1 and ERK-2 in stage III and IV tumors were higher than those in stage I and II tumors (2.64+/-3.01 vs 1.01+/-0.33, P = 0.022; 2.05+/-1.54 vs 1.24+/-0.40, P = 0.030).
  • Gastric cancer tissues with either lymph node involvement (2.49+/-2.91 vs 1.03+/-0.36, P = 0.023; 1.98+/-1.49 vs 1.24+/-0.44, P = 0.036) or serosa invasion (2.39+/-2.82 vs 1.01+/-0.35, P = 0.022; 1.95+/-1.44 vs 1.14+/-0.36, P = 0.015) expressed higher protein levels of ERK-1 and ERK-2.
  • Borrmann IV tumors expressed higher p38 protein levels.
  • The expression of MEK-1 in gastric cancer cells metastasized to lymph nodes was higher than that of the primary site.
  • MEK-1 is also overexpressed in gastric cancer, particularly in metastatic lymph nodes.
  • Upregulation of MAPK signal transduction pathways may play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastatic potential of gastric cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15655810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250727
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49. Chang GJ, Gonzalez RJ, Skibber JM, Eng C, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Aug;52(8):1375-80
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  • [Title] A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy with limited data regarding treatment and outcomes.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate disease control and survival outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective consecutive cohort study of all patients in whom adenocarcinoma of the anal canal was diagnosed between 1983 and 2004 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were identified; six underwent palliative treatment (Stage IV, n = 4; poor performance, n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined modality treatment with radical surgical resection improves survival among patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal, but a high risk for distant failure emphasizes the need for effective adjuvant therapeutic regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19617747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Tanaka K, Noura S, Ohue M, Seki Y, Gotou K, Motoori M, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Murata K, Kameyama M: [A case of refractory inguinal lymphorrhea cured by lipiodol lymphangiography]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2162-4
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  • The patient was a 80-year-old female who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection and inguinal lymph node extraction for anal canal cancer.
  • Histologically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and considered to be stage IV (a2, n3 (+), P0, H3, M (-), cur C) in the Japanese classification of colorectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18219932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil
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51. Taweevisit M, Wisadeopas N, Phumsuk U, Thorner PS: Increased mast cell density in haemorrhoid venous blood vessels suggests a role in pathogenesis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Dec;49(12):977-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: Haemorrhoids are an abnormal, tortuous dilatation of the arteriovenous plexus of the anus.
  • METHODS: 48 cases of haemorrhoids were retrospectively collected at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, with normal anorectal tissue from surgically-removed colorectal cancer serving as controls.
  • Similar values were found for haemorrhoids showing chronic changes and those in a more acute stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / blood supply. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Hemorrhoids / physiopathology. Mast Cells / pathology. Veins / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19122946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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52. Balakrishnan K, Verma D, O'Brien S, Kilpatrick JM, Chen Y, Tyler BF, Bickel S, Bantia S, Keating MJ, Kantarjian H, Gandhi V, Ravandi F: Phase 2 and pharmacodynamic study of oral forodesine in patients with advanced, fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Aug 12;116(6):886-92
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  • Six had Rai stage III to IV and were previously heavily treated (median prior therapy = 5).

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  • (PMID = 20427701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00289549
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81534; United States / PHS HHS / / P30-16672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924226
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53. Piperkova E, Raphael B, Altinyay M, Castellon I, Libes R, Sandella N, Abdel-Dayem H: Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):523-7
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  • [Title] Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review.
  • Distant extrapelvic metastases appear in approximately in 10% of the patients with squamous cell anal cancer (SCAC) and survival depends on the treatment strategy.
  • We present a patient with SCAC in whom, according to PET/CT findings, the initial stage was changed from II (T2N0M0) to III A (T2N2M0).
  • Radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy achieved a good therapeutic response but early follow up revealed new paraaortic lymph node (LN) metastases, as well as an uncommon left supraclavicular LN metastasis from the same primary carcinoma.
  • The disease was restaged as stage IV (T2N2M1) and radiation therapy was substituted by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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54. Andersen JD, Boylan KL, Jemmerson R, Geller MA, Misemer B, Harrington KM, Weivoda S, Witthuhn BA, Argenta P, Vogel RI, Skubitz AP: Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 is upregulated in sera and tumors of ovarian cancer patients. J Ovarian Res; 2010 Sep 10;3:21
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  • [Title] Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 is upregulated in sera and tumors of ovarian cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: New biomarkers that replace or are used in conjunction with the current ovarian cancer diagnostic antigen, CA125, are needed for detection of ovarian cancer in the presurgical setting, as well as for detection of disease recurrence.
  • We previously demonstrated the upregulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) in the sera of ovarian cancer patients compared to healthy women using quantitative mass spectrometry.
  • METHODS: LRG1 was quantified by ELISA in serum from two relatively large cohorts of women with ovarian cancer and benign gynecological disease.
  • The expression of LRG1 in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines was examined by gene microarray, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, immunocytochemistry and mass spectrometry.
  • RESULTS: Mean serum LRG1 was higher in 58 ovarian cancer patients than in 56 healthy women (89.33 ± 77.90 vs. 42.99 ± 9.88 ug/ml; p = 0.0008) and was highest among stage III/IV patients.
  • In a separate set of 193 pre-surgical samples, LRG1 was higher in patients with serous or clear cell ovarian cancer (145.82 ± 65.99 ug/ml) compared to patients with benign gynecological diseases (82.53 ± 76.67 ug/ml, p < 0.0001).
  • LRG1 mRNA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts when analyzed by gene microarray and RT-PCR.
  • LRG1 protein was detected in ovarian cancer tissue samples and cell lines by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting.
  • LRG1 protein was also detected in the conditioned media of ovarian cancer cell culture by ELISA, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum LRG1 was significantly elevated in women with ovarian cancer compared to healthy women and women with benign gynecological disease, and was only moderately correlated with CA125.
  • Ovarian cancer cells secrete LRG1 and may contribute directly to the elevated levels of LRG1 observed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 20831812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-2215
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ovarian research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ovarian Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106878-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106878-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949730
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55. Akasu T, Takawa M, Yamamoto S, Ishiguro S, Yamaguchi T, Fujita S, Moriya Y, Nakanishi Y: Intersphincteric resection for very low rectal adenocarcinoma: univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for recurrence. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2668-76
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  • METHODS: One hundred twenty consecutive patients with T1-T3 rectal cancers located 1-5 (median 3) cm from the anal verge underwent ISR.
  • RESULTS: Fifty patients had disease categorized as stage I, 21 as stage II, 46 as stage III, and 3 as stage IV on the basis of International Union Against Cancer tumor, node, metastasis staging system.
  • Univariate analysis of the risk factors for local recurrence revealed pathologic T, pathologic stage, focal dedifferentiation, microscopic resection margins, and preoperative serum CA 19-9 level to be statistically significant.
  • Univariate analysis of the risk factors for distant recurrence indicated tumor location, combined resection, tumor annularity, pathologic N, lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis, pathologic stage, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy to be significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18618181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen
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56. Ferrigno R, Novaes PE, Silva ML, Nishimoto IN, Nakagawa WT, Rossi BM, Ferreira Fde O, Lopes A: Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in the treatment of fixed and semi-fixed rectal tumors. Analysis of results and prognostic factors. Radiat Oncol; 2006;1:5
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  • PURPOSE: To report the retrospective analysis of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neodjuvant radiochemotherapy.
  • In 71 patients (70.3%) the primary tumor was located up to 6 cm from the anal verge and in 30 (29.7%) from 6.5 cm to 10 cm.
  • Age, gender, tumor fixation, tumor distance from the anal verge, clinical response, surgical technique, and postoperative TNM stage were the prognostic factors analyzed for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local control (LC) at five years.
  • Patients with tumors more than 6 cm above the anal verge had better LC (93% Vs 69%; p = 0.04).
  • The postoperative TNM stage was a significant factor for DFS (I:64.1%, II:69.6%, III:35.2%, IV:11.1%; p < 0.001) and for LC (I:75.7%, II: 92.9%, III:54.1%, IV:100%; p = 0.005).

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  • (PMID = 16722598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1459184
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20060619
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57. Yeh JJ, Weiser MR, Shia J, Hwu WJ: Response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma to chemotherapy. Lancet Oncol; 2005 Jun;6(6):438-9
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  • [Title] Response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15925823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Loredo-Pozos G, Chiquete E, Oceguera-Villanueva A, Panduro A, Siller-López F, Ramos-Márquez ME: Expression profile of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in premenopausal Mexican women with breast cancer: clinical and immunohistochemical correlates. Med Oncol; 2009;26(3):269-75
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  • [Title] Expression profile of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in premenopausal Mexican women with breast cancer: clinical and immunohistochemical correlates.
  • Low BRCA1 gene expression is associated with increased invasiveness and influences the response of breast carcinoma (BC) to chemotherapeutics.
  • Disease stages I-IV occurred in 2, 40, 55, and 3%, respectively (73% implicating lymph nodes).
  • Women aged < or = 35 years (24%) had more family history of cervical cancer, stage III/IV disease, HER-2 positivity, and lower BRCA1 expression than older women (P < 0.05).
  • After multivariate analysis, only disease stage explained BRCA1 mRNA levels in the lowest quartile.
  • Low BRCA1 mRNA expression is associated mainly with younger ages and advanced clinical stage of premenopausal BC.


59. Abramowitz L, Mathieu N, Roudot-Thoraval F, Lemarchand N, Bauer P, Hennequin C, Mitry E, Romelaer C, Aparicio T, Sobhani I: Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Aug 15;30(4):414-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a poor prognosis of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ patients.
  • AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ and HIV- patients in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era.
  • METHODS: We included all patients with epidermoid anal cancer referred to six hospitals from 1998 to 2004.
  • No significant differences were observed in the tumour stage, pelvic radiotherapy dose or concomitant chemotherapy, according to the HIV status.
  • After chemoradiotherapy, similar numbers of HIV+ and HIV- patients had grade III-IV toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcome of HIV+ patients with epidermoid anal cancer is similar to that of HIV- patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications






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