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1. Scarpini C, White V, Muralidhar B, Patterson A, Hickey N, Singh N, Mullerat J, Winslet M, Davies RJ, Phillips ML, Stacey P, Laskey RA, Miller R, Nathan M, Coleman N: Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2855-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome.
  • Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value.
  • We tested the suitability in this context of minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, accurate markers of the deregulated cell cycle entry that characterizes malignancy and premalignancy.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab.
  • MCM LIs in the superficial layers were significantly greater than LIs for Ki67, an alternative marker of cell cycle entry (P<0.0001).
  • By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, immunopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18843031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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2. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ, Petersson F, Höög A, Blegen H, Chetty R: The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(4):376-80
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  • [Title] The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • A recent report indicates that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 18787615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480546
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Squamous cell carcinoma / anal canal / intratumoral lymphocytes
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3. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • T categories (International Union against Cancer) were T1 (15), T2 (36), T3 (34), and T4 (16).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Goto H, Ikenaga M, Yasui M, Miyazaki M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of salvage treatment for local recurrence of squamous cell anal carcinoma after chemoradiation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2659-61
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  • [Title] [A case of salvage treatment for local recurrence of squamous cell anal carcinoma after chemoradiation].
  • A 76-year-old woman consulted her local physician because she experienced anal pain during defecation.
  • She was diagnosed with squamous cell anal carcinoma and underwent chemoradiation (59.4 Gy + UFT 500 mg/5 days/week).
  • She was followed up and 8 months later, she experienced anal erosion and pain.
  • Functional preservation employing concomitant chemoradiation has become the standard treatment for most case of squamous cell anal carcinoma, with APR backup being a salvage procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 21224671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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5. Abramowitz L, Mathieu N, Roudot-Thoraval F, Lemarchand N, Bauer P, Hennequin C, Mitry E, Romelaer C, Aparicio T, Sobhani I: Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Aug 15;30(4):414-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a poor prognosis of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ patients.
  • AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ and HIV- patients in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era.
  • METHODS: We included all patients with epidermoid anal cancer referred to six hospitals from 1998 to 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcome of HIV+ patients with epidermoid anal cancer is similar to that of HIV- patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


6. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


7. Franceschi S, De Vuyst H: Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):57-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the possible role of current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • A meta-analysis of 955 SCCA showed that HPV prevalence was 85%, i.e., similar to that in cervical carcinoma, with an even stronger predominance of HPV16.
  • In addition, more than 90% prevalence of HPV was found in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Answers to some still open questions, notably vaccine efficacy in men and HIV-infected individuals and willingness to expand vaccination programmes to both sexes, are essential to predict the ultimate impact of HPV vaccines on the prevention of cancerous and precancerous anal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19339940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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8. Buchs NC, Allal AS, Morel P, Gervaz P: Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Apr;9(4):483-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.
  • Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s.
  • By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA.
  • By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Alphapapillomavirus / pathogenicity. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Salvage Therapy. Surgical Flaps. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / etiology. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / prevention & control. Vaccination


9. Grabenbauer GG, Lahmer G, Distel L, Niedobitek G: Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3355-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We have evaluated the effect of T-cell subsets on survival in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma following radiochemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 38 patients with anal carcinomas were evaluated using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry for the presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells using CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TILs were identified as negative prognostic indicators in anal squamous cell carcinomas with granzyme B+ cytotoxic cells showing highest effect on outcome.
  • This is possibly explained by the selection of therapy-resistant tumor cell clones.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16740757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Mullerat J, Perrett CW, Deroide F, Winslet MC, Bofill M, Poulters LW: The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):693-9
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  • [Title] The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While macrophages (CD68+) have been associated with angiogenesis in some inflammatory and neoplastic processes by increasing the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their role in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma has not been established.
  • This study records macrophage infiltration in anal pre-invasive and invasive lesions in HIV+ and HIV- populations, and determines their relationship with angiogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (31 HIV+) with AIN and anal SCC were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / pathology. Macrophages / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / blood supply. Anal Canal / pathology. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / virology. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / blood supply. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 15868898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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11. Mullen JT, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Barcenas CH, Crane CH, Skibber JM, Feig BW: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):478-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal consists of combined radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival following salvage surgery for persistent or locally recurrent epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal can be achieved in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17103253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Jongen J: Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006). Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Oct;22(10):1289
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006).
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology

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  • [CommentOn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42 [15864603.001]
  • (PMID = 16703315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Glynne-Jones R, Meadows H, Wan S, Gollins S, Leslie M, Levine E, McDonald AC, Myint S, Samuel L, Sebag-Montefiore D, National Cancer Research Institute Anal Sub Group and Colorectal Clinical Oncology Group: EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Sep 1;72(1):119-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with epidermoid anal carcinoma.
  • This phase II trial aimed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of capecitabine, MMC and radiotherapy (RT) in anal cancer patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT) II trial (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine with MMC and RT in with patients anal carcinoma is well tolerated, with minimal toxicity and acceptable compliance.
  • We recommend testing this schedule in future national Phase III studies in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18472366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Forcier M, Musacchio N: An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):458-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention.
  • Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common, usually transient, dermatologic infection transmitted by genital contact that can cause a variety of anogenital diseases, including warts (condyloma), dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal), and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Both are indicated to prevent cervical cancer, while the quadrivalent vaccine is also approved to prevent vaginal/vulvar cancers as well as genital warts in males and females.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20868401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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15. Patel HS, Silver AR, Levine T, Williams G, Northover JM: Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients. Br J Surg; 2010 Nov;97(11):1716-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression is a known risk factor for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) disease, including anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The demographics of anal HPV and associated risk factors were investigated in this population.
  • METHODS: Anal cytology and polymerase chain reaction were used to assess anal HPV disease in a cohort of transplant recipients at the Royal London Hospital.
  • Risk factors associated with increased immunosuppression and HPV exposure were collated to determine any association with anal disease.
  • RESULTS: Anal dysplasia was associated with anal oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001), duration of immunosuppression (P = 0.050), previous genital warts (P = 0.018) and receptive anal intercourse (P = 0.013).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal dysplasia was related to immunosuppression and patient factors in this cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20730855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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16. Konstantinopoulos PA, Pantanowitz L, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Images in HIV/AIDS. HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. AIDS Read; 2006 Jun;16(6):301-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Images in HIV/AIDS. HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / complications


17. Iagaru A, Kundu R, Jadvar H, Nagle D: Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):26-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, representing less than 5% of the digestive malignancies.
  • The cytological and/or histological confirmation of a suspected lesion should be followed by a complete imaging evaluation to determine the extent of disease.
  • Our results showed that PET demonstrated the primary lesion at initial evaluation in 7 of 8 anal cancers and showed FDG- avid lymph nodes in 4 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19330178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Charúa-Guindic L, Esquivel-Ocampo EA, Villanueva-Herrero JA, Jiménez-Bobadilla B, Muñoz-Cortés SB, Leal-Tamez M, Avendaño-Espinosa O: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(3):195-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients].
  • [Transliterated title] La neoplasia intraepitelial anal y la infección por virus del papiloma humano en pacientes anorreceptivos.
  • BACKGROUND: An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and progression to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and epidermoid cancer has been established.
  • Patients who accepted anal citology and high definition anoscopy and biopsies with a follow-up not minor of 3 months were included.
  • Anal cytology showed inflammatory alterations in 21 patients (28%), low grade intraepithelial lesion in 23 (52%); there were not patients with high grade epithelial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19858007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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19. Nigriny JF, Wu P, Butler CE: Perineal reconstruction with an extrapelvic vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Dec;20(9):1609-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A 54-year-old woman with a prior history of anal squamous cell carcinoma underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by abdominoperineal resection, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • Three years later, she developed vulvar squamous cell carcinoma with vascular and lymphatic invasion and underwent radical vulvectomy and distal urethrectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a rectus abdominis flap to the perineum through an extrapelvic route is preferred if laparotomy is not used for the resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Pelvis / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Muscles. Skin. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21119371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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21. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Nilsson PJ, Olding LB, Nilsson BR: Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):125-31
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  • [Title] Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze 251 patients (101 males and 150 females) diagnosed with ano-rectal malignant melanoma (ARMM) reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1960-1999.
  • 54% of the tumours were primary in the anal canal, 24% engaged the whole ano-rectal unit and 10% were located at the anal verge (11% unknown primary site).
  • The majority of ARMM emerged primary in the anal canal and a primary location exclusively in the colonic mucosa of the rectum is questionable.
  • The concentration of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma to population-dense urban areas, as previously reported, was not found in cases of ARMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18607861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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22. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Patel H, Polanco-Echeverry G, Segditsas S, Volikos E, McCart A, Lai C, Guenther T, Zaitoun A, Sieber O, Ilyas M, Northover J, Silver A: Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2668-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered as an important aetiological factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) but is not sufficient for tumour progression.
  • This carcinoma is poorly understood at the molecular level.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Mutation. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17721920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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24. Allal AS, Bründler MA, Gervaz P: Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4
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  • [Title] Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA).
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers.
  • The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15688099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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25. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) is established as the primary treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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26. Lukan N, Ströbel P, Willer A, Kripp M, Dinter D, Mai S, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status. Oncology; 2009;77(5):293-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status.
  • BACKGROUND: No standard chemotherapy regimen can be defined for patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus due to the low incidence of this disease and the high cure rate of localized tumors.
  • Anal cancers universally express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have not been reported in anal cancer thus far.
  • METHODS: We report on 7 patients with metastatic anal cancer treated with cetuximab - a chimeric antibody against EGFR - on a compassionate use basis along with the results of KRAS mutational analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Cetuximab-based treatment appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with metastatic KRAS wild-type anal cancer after failure of or as an alternative to cisplatin/5-fluorouracil-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19923868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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27. Haboubi NY, Edilbe MW, Hill J: Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Mar;9(3):238-44
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  • [Title] Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline.
  • The currently accepted first line treatment for epidermoid anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • (PMID = 17298622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Nilsson PJ, Lenander C, Rubio C, Auer G, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer. Oncol Rep; 2006 Sep;16(3):443-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • Ultimately aiming at a more individualized therapeutic approach in epidermoid anal cancer, this study explored the prognostic and predictive impact of a set of tumour markers.
  • From a population-based cohort of 276 patients with epidermoid anal cancer, treated according to prospective protocols, 215 pre-treatment biopsies were investigated using immunohistochemistry.
  • Cyclin A may be an indicator of radiosensitivity and a valuable prognostic marker in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16865241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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29. Sato H, Maeda K, Koide Y, Matsuoka H, Noro T, Honda K, Shiota M, Endo T, Ozeki S, Fukuda M: [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2647-9
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  • [Title] [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy].
  • We reviewed clinical records of 4 cases with squamous cell carcinoma in anus to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the chemoradiotherapy.
  • On the first day of radiation therapy, 750 mg/m2 of 5-FU in the form of a continuous 24-hour infusion for 5 days was given.
  • All patients had complete response in the anal lesion after chemoradiotherapy.
  • No patients had any sign of recurrence in anal lesion.
  • Chemoradiotherapy was expected to be a safe and effective treatment to improve prognosis for anal squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21224667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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30. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, Baert F, Van Laethem JL, Speleman F, Pauwels P, Peeters M: Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:189
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used.
  • For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas.
  • EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21.
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases.
  • EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas.
  • In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified.
  • This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Base Sequence. Belgium. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20459770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887399
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31. Nordenvall C, Nyrén O, Ye W: Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions. Gut; 2006 May;55(5):703-7
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  • [Title] Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between benign anal lesions and anal cancer is still unclear.
  • METHODS: We conducted a register based retrospective cohort study including 45,186 patients hospitalised for inflammatory anal lesions (anal fissures, fistulas, and perianal abscesses) as well as 79,808 haemorrhoid patients, from 1965 to 2002.
  • Multiple record linkages identified all incident anal (squamous cell carcinoma only) and colorectal cancers through to 2002.
  • Among inflammatory lesion and haemorrhoid patients, a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed only in the first year after hospitalisation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory benign anal lesions are associated with a significantly increased long term risk of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Diseases / immunology. Female. Fissure in Ano / complications. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhoids / complications. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Fistula / complications. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16299038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856114
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32. Tachezy R, Jirasek T, Salakova M, Ludvikova V, Kubecova M, Horak L, Mandys V, Hamsikova E: Human papillomavirus infection and tumours of the anal canal: correlation of histology, PCR detection in paraffin sections and serology. APMIS; 2007 Mar;115(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus infection and tumours of the anal canal: correlation of histology, PCR detection in paraffin sections and serology.
  • Human papillomavirus infection is an important etiological factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Different histological variants of anal carcinomas displaying squamous differentiation, previously classified as separate tumours, were recently reclassified as SCCA by the WHO.
  • In our recent study the presence of HPV was detected by PCR in biopsy specimens of 42 different anal tumours, including SCCA and its histological variants (n=22), adenocarcinomas (n=5), tubulovillous adenomas (n=5) and anal condylomas (n=10).
  • All histological variants, i.e. tumours with basaloid, squamous and mixed histological patterns, were represented among the HPV-positive cancers.
  • Seven anal condylomas (70%) were LR HPV 6 and/or 11 positive, while three were HPV negative.
  • The presence of HR HPV types was not observed in anal condylomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17367464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9004-22-2 / Globins
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33. Ramamoorthy S, Liu YT, Luo L, Miyai K, Lu Q, Carethers JM: Detection of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in anal carcinoma. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:17
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  • [Title] Detection of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in anal carcinoma.
  • Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for development of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Despite over 100 genotypes of the virus, HPV 16 and 18 are considered pathogenic as they are seen in the majority of cervical and anal cancers.
  • We aimed to determine the accuracy of our microarray in anal cancer DNA for HPV genotypes compared to the DNA sequencing gold standard.
  • METHODS: We utilized a sensitive microarray platform to classify 37 types of mucosal HPVs including 14 known high-risk and 23 low-risk types based on cervical cancer data.
  • We utilized DNA from pathologically confirmed cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: HPV was detected in 18/20 (90%) anal cancers.
  • Eighty percent of anal cancers had at least two HPV types.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Microarray technology is an accurate way to screen for various genotypes of HPV in anal cancer, with 100% correlation with genomic DNA detection of HPV.
  • The majority of anal cancers in our study associated with pathogenic HPV 16 and/or 18.

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  • (PMID = 20939896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA137346; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964599
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34. Nahas CS, Shia J, Joseph R, Schrag D, Minsky BD, Weiser MR, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Klimstra DS, Tang LH, Wong WD, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Sep;50(9):1393-400
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate one institution's experience with treatment outcomes for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using our prospective Colorectal Database, we identified patients diagnosed with rectal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution between 1983 and 2005.
  • Pathology was rereviewed, tumor immunophenotype was compared to control cases of anal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, treatment modalities and outcomes were analyzed.
  • Median distal extent of tumors was 7 (range, 5-8) cm from the anal verge.
  • Immunophenotypical analysis showed similar keratin expression profile between rectal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 5) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 5), which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 10).
  • Immunohistochemistry suggests a common cellular origin for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colectomy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17661147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • In multivariate analysis, a pre-radiotherapy resection (p=0.084) had an inverse impact on the tumour control reaching the level of statistical significance and the use of a belly board was of marginal influence (p=0.13).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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36. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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37. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Oct;22(10):1289 [16703315.001]
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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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38. Jeffreys M, Rachet B, McDowell S, Habib AG, Lepage C, Coleman MP: Survival from rectal and anal cancers in England and Wales, 1986-2001. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Jul;42(10):1434-40
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  • [Title] Survival from rectal and anal cancers in England and Wales, 1986-2001.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumour and patient characteristics on trends in the survival of patients with cancer of the anus or rectum in England and Wales.
  • Relative survival up to 5 years after diagnosis was estimated, using deprivation-specific life tables.
  • The results showed that 5-year relative survival was higher in women, younger patients and more affluent patients, and higher for anal cancer than rectal cancer.
  • The trend was more marked in younger and more affluent patients, and for adenocarcinoma and epidermoid carcinoma than for tumours with other morphology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. England / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16600590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. De Dosso S, Martin V, Zanellato E, Frattini M, Saletti P: Molecular characterization and response to cetuximab in a patient with refractory squamous cell anal carcinoma. Tumori; 2010 Jul-Aug;96(4):627-8
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization and response to cetuximab in a patient with refractory squamous cell anal carcinoma.
  • There are no standard chemotherapeutic options for patients with squamous cell anal carcinoma, relapsing and progressing on palliative cisplatin-based regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20968146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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40. Kang J, Min BS, Lee KY, Jang SJ, Kim WH, Kim NK: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in a patient with perianal Crohn's disease. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Mar;25(3):411-3
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in a patient with perianal Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Crohn Disease / complications


41. Page BR, McDonald T, Gagnon P, Lu K, Thomas CR: A unique case of Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Jun;11(5):535-6
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  • [Title] A unique case of Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • There have been several reports associating polycystic kidneys with HCS and several other connective tissue disorders, suggesting a possibility of a hyperproliferative component to the syndrome.
  • No articles exist in the current literature describing a case of HCS with concurrent carcinoma.
  • Here, we present a case of a 54-year-old nonimmune compromised woman with multiple stigmata of HCS and recently diagnosed anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHOD: This is a case report of HCS and stage T3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • RESULTS: This is the first report of a patient with HCS with malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient with HCS who developed anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The mechanism of HCS, which is still unknown, may either make patients more susceptible to carcinoma or may just be a reflection of the normal incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma given attributable risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome / complications


42. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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43. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Jethwa P, Lake SP: Using topical negative pressure therapy to resolve wound failure following perineal resection. J Wound Care; 2005 Apr;14(4):166-7
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  • Elective resection of the rectum and perineum in a patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the anus resulted in significant wound failure.
  • Full healing was achieved with topical negative pressure, with no recurrence of the cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Suction / methods. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15835227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Matzinger O, Roelofsen F, Mineur L, Koswig S, Van Der Steen-Banasik EM, Van Houtte P, Haustermans K, Radosevic-Jelic L, Mueller RP, Maingon P, Collette L, Bosset JF, EORTC Radiation Oncology and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Groups: Mitomycin C with continuous fluorouracil or with cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II study 22011-40014). Eur J Cancer; 2009 Nov;45(16):2782-91
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  • [Title] Mitomycin C with continuous fluorouracil or with cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II study 22011-40014).
  • PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and activity of radio-chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin (CDDP) in locally advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma with reference to radiotherapy (RT) combined with MMC and fluorouracil (5-FU).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19643599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00068744
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2U10 CA11488-31
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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46. Kovar JL, Volcheck WM, Chen J, Simpson MA: Purification method directly influences effectiveness of an epidermal growth factor-coupled targeting agent for noninvasive tumor detection in mice. Anal Biochem; 2007 Feb 1;361(1):47-54
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  • Binding of IRDye 800CW EGF to intact A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells was quantified in a microplate assay.
  • This is the first study to directly correlate targeting agent signal strength in whole cell binding, In-Cell Western, and in vivo near-infrared imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromatography, Gel. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Coloring Agents. Humans. Indicators and Reagents. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 17188228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2697
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106584
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS16673; NLM/ PMC1866276
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47. Nadal SR, Horta SH, Calore EE, Manzione CR: [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Jul-Aug;53(4):365-9
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  • [Title] [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos.
  • OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients.
  • The objective was to evaluate the follow-up of such patients to verify recurrences and evolution from HAIN to cancer.
  • This is a report of cases treated at the "Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas", Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • Thirty patients had high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN), treated with local resection, and 15 with anal canal invasive squamous cell carcinoma were first submitted to chemo radiation, while biopsies were obtained during follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Patients with HAIN had recurrences in 16.7% of cases and remained cancer free for up to five years.
  • Chemoradiation was not possible in five patients with invasive carcinoma (40%) because three had advanced AIDS and two refused treatment.
  • Eight (88.8%) out of nine patients had complete response to chemoradiation and remained cancer free for a period from three to six years.
  • CONCLUSION: We concluded that HAIN can recur after local resection in HIV-positive patients but does not evolve to invasive carcinoma.
  • Invasive cancer can be treated in the same way as in HIV seronegative persons, when clinical conditions permit.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


48. Goéré D, Bonnet S, Pocard M, Deutsch E, Lasser P, Elias D: Oncologic and functional results after abdominoperineal resection plus pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):958-63
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  • [Title] Oncologic and functional results after abdominoperineal resection plus pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is reserved for patients after failure of primary chemoradiotherapy and consists of abdominoperineal resection with permanent iliac colostomy.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the oncologic and the functional outcomes after abdominoperineal resection and pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus after external radiation at maximal doses (60 Gy).
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 95 patients underwent abdominoperineal resection for an epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.
  • Eighteen (19 percent) underwent construction of a pseudocontinent perineal colostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colostomy / methods. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19502862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Badin S, Iqbal A, Sikder M, Chang VT: Persistent pain in anal cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv; 2008 Jun;2(2):79-83
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  • [Title] Persistent pain in anal cancer survivors.
  • RESULTS: Two patients presented with painful anal lesions that were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Despite successful treatment with chemotherapy and radiation, their pain syndromes worsened after treatment with development of a lumbosacral plexopathy that required regular followup, imaging, and pain medications.
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Treatment related lumbosacral plexopathy may be an unrecognized consequence of the successful treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Pain / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 18648976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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51. Marin-Muller C, Li M, Chen C, Yao Q: Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). World J Surg; 2009 Apr;33(4):653-60
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  • [Title] Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease in the average population but is an increasing concern among immunocompromised individuals, such as the HIV-seropositive.
  • The recent approval of a prophylactic HPV vaccine for cervical cancer has sparked an interest in a search for improved immunotherapeutic multimodality therapies to combat anogenital tumors associated with the virus.

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  • (PMID = 19052810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132572-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIDS Vaccines; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS227649; NLM/ PMC2924142
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52. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics


53. Heitland W: [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2008 Feb;79(2):183-91; quiz 192
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostik und Therapie des Analkarzinoms.
  • Of all carcinomas in the anal canal, 75-80% are squamous cell carcinomas-the remaining 25% being adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of the anal margin are to be differentiated from basal cell carcinomas and Paget's and Bowen's diseases.
  • More than 80% of anal carcinomas show high-risk HP viruses.
  • Every suspicious lesion in the anal canal and margins must be examined histologically.
  • Primary radiochemotherapy is the first treatment option for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal and anal margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18227955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Kagawa R, Yamaguchi T, Furuta R: Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Surg Today; 2006;36(10):885-91
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  • [Title] Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the development of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the expression patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The expression patterns of HPV in the cancer cell nuclei was investigated by in situ hybridization (ISH) using HPV probes.
  • RESULTS: Amplification of DMD genes was confirmed in 8 of 20 patients with anal SCC, suggesting that tumor DNA was preserved in these patients.
  • In two patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS), the cancer cells showed only a diffuse pattern (DP), and in two patients with invasive cancer, the cancer cell showed only an oligo-dot pattern (OP).
  • In one patient with lesions ranging from CIS to invasive cancer, the histologic features varied in each area, from DP to OP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that HPV16 infection is closely involved in the development of anal SCC and suggest that the change in the genome occurs at the stage of microinvasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16998682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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55. Cho BC, Ahn JB, Seong J, Roh JK, Kim JH, Chung HC, Sohn JH, Kim NK: Chemoradiotherapy with or without consolidation chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in anal squamous cell carcinoma: long-term results in 31 patients. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:8
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  • [Title] Chemoradiotherapy with or without consolidation chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in anal squamous cell carcinoma: long-term results in 31 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate long-term results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin and the potential benefit of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC).
  • CONCLUSION: our study shows that CRT with 5-FU and cisplatin, with or without consolidation chemotherapy, was well tolerated and proved highly encouraging in terms of long-term survival and the preservation of anal function in ASCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18194582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2245963
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56. Nilsson PJ, Svensson C, Goldman S, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jan 1;61(1):92-102
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  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols.
  • PURPOSE: The primary therapy in epidermoid anal cancer is radiotherapy, generally with chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1985 and 2000, 308 patients with invasive epidermoid anal cancer were diagnosed in the Stockholm Health Care Region.
  • The results further suggest a significant therapeutic gain from including neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15629599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Pineda CE, Welton ML: Controversies in the management of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Minerva Chir; 2008 Oct;63(5):389-99
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  • [Title] Controversies in the management of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Anal squamous dysplasia is recognized as a spectrum of disease that ranges from low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) to invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Recent reports have shown a significant increase in both the incidence and prevalence of both HSIL and anal SCC, particularly in immunocompromised patients and in men who have sex with men.
  • However, there is evidence that screening of high-risk patients with anal cytology is useful in identifying those that require further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality, Male


58. Renehan AG, Saunders MP, Schofield PF, O'Dwyer ST: Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 May;92(5):605-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Salvage surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for local disease failure, but issues relating to the prediction of local failure and surgical outcome are ill defined.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2000, 254 patients with non-metastatic anal epidermoid carcinoma were treated at a regional cancer centre with radiotherapy (n = 127) or chemoradiotherapy (n = 127).
  • CONCLUSION: In the management of anal cancer, local disease failure is a major clinical problem requiring early detection followed by radical surgery, often accompanied by plastic reconstruction.
  • By implication, these factors favour the centralization of treatment for this uncommon cancer to a multidisciplinary oncology team.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15739215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Teo M, Dhadda A, Gunn J: Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: first reported case. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Nov;20(9):718
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: first reported case.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hypercalcemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 18793830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • However, CT performed 2 years after the diagnosis showed a recurrence in the hilar and mediastinal lymph node.
  • The patient developed non-hematologic toxicity and died within 3 years of the diagnosis.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


61. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology


62. Lampejo T, Kavanagh D, Clark J, Goldin R, Osborn M, Ziprin P, Cleator S: Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review. Br J Cancer; 2010 Dec 07;103(12):1858-69
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  • [Title] Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: recent decades have seen combination chemoradiotherapy become the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • This systematic review examines current prognostic markers in SCC of the anus.
  • METHODS: an extensive literature search was performed to identify studies reporting on biomarkers in anal cancer in the context of clinical outcome following treatment primarily with chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: an array of biomarkers have been identified that correlate with survival following chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.
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  • (PMID = 21063399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3008609
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63. Myerson RJ, Outlaw ED, Chang A, Birnbaum EH, Fleshman JW, Grigsby PW, Kodner IJ, Malayapa RS, Mutch MG, Parikh P, Picus J, Tan BR: Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Oct 1;75(2):428-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy.
  • Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy


64. Chen KG, Valencia JC, Lai B, Zhang G, Paterson JK, Rouzaud F, Berens W, Wincovitch SM, Garfield SH, Leapman RD, Hearing VJ, Gottesman MM: Melanosomal sequestration of cytotoxic drugs contributes to the intractability of malignant melanomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jun 27;103(26):9903-7
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  • CDDP is initially sequestered in subcellular organelles such as melanosomes, which significantly reduces its nuclear localization when compared with nonmelanoma/KB-3-1 epidermoid carcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Transport. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Indoles / metabolism


65. Nilsson PJ, Rubio C, Lenander C, Auer G, Glimelius B: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jun;16(6):893-8
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  • [Title] Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Markers for guidance with regard to individual prognosis and treatment planning are sought in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody for the gamma2 chain of laminin-5 was used to detect tumour budding (defined as dissociated single cancer cells or clusters of up to five cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 immunohistochemistry may be of prognostic value in the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15821121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin
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66. Cresti S, Ouaïssi M, Sielezneff I, Chaix JB, Pirro N, Berthet B, Consentino B, Sastre B: Advantage of vacuum assisted closure on healing of wound associated with omentoplasty after abdominoperineal excision: a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:136
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary closure of the perineum with drainage after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum for carcinoma, is widely accepted.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In the present report, vacuum assisted drainage was used after abdominoperineal excision for carcinoma in the very first step due to intraoperative gross septic contamination during tumor resection.
  • The first case: A 57-years old man with a 30-years history of peri-anal Crohn's disease, the adenocarcinoma of the lowest part of the rectum and Crohn colitis with multiple area of severe dysplasia required panproctocolectomy with a perineal resection.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed for recurrence epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19102785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2621222
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67. Moore DH: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):379-83
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one?
  • The incorporation of radiation therapy and eventually chemotherapy in the primary treatment of vulva cancer also represents a slow evolution in clinical management.
  • The addition of chemotherapy concurrent to radiation therapy for the treatment of vulvar carcinoma was heavily influenced by advances in the treatment of cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • On the basis of many good phase II studies but no randomized controlled trials in the disease, chemoradiation therapy is now inherent to the clinical management of vulvar carcinoma.
  • The rarity of vulva cancer precludes prospective randomized clinical trials in the absence of international collaboration.
  • Nonetheless, patients with locally advanced vulva cancer have derived considerable benefit from chemoradiation studies in other related tumor sites, and will continue to do so in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19232700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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68. Nagle D: Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):102-6
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  • [Title] Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is uncommon.
  • Modern therapy of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the overall survival of HIV patients and allowed effective therapy for those who develop epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 20436834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780243
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus / HIV / anal cancer
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69. Tokar M, Bobilev D, Zalmanov S, Geffen DB, Walfisch S: Combined multimodal approach to the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Onkologie; 2006 Feb;29(1-2):30-2
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  • [Title] Combined multimodal approach to the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: We report on a patient with squamous cell anal carcinoma and liver metastases, who underwent multimodal treatment for cure, consisting of repeated partial hepatectomy in combination with chemoradiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 54-year-old woman presented with squamous cell anal carcinoma and liver metastases.
  • At present, 5 months after completing therapy and 71 months after the initial diagnosis, she is in good health with no evidence of disease.
  • RESULTS: Repeated partial hepatectomy led to prolonged survival in a patient with squamous cell anal carcinoma metastatic to the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of aggressive partial hepatectomy for recurrent liver metastases resulting from anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2006 Feb;29(1-2):5-6 [16514247.001]
  • (PMID = 16514253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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70. Watson AJ, Smith BB, Whitehead MR, Sykes PH, Frizelle FA: Malignant progression of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Aug;76(8):715-7
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  • [Title] Malignant progression of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • The risk of developing anal cancer in patients with AIN, although known to occur, has been thought to be relatively low.
  • The patients at risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma were the immunocompromised and those with genital intra-epithelial field change.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16916390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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71. Gatta G, Ciccolallo L, Kunkler I, Capocaccia R, Berrino F, Coleman MP, De Angelis R, Faivre J, Lutz JM, Martinez C, Möller T, Sankila R, EUROCARE Working Group: Survival from rare cancer in adults: a population-based study. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Feb;7(2):132-40
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  • [Title] Survival from rare cancer in adults: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Rare cancers are a challenge to clinical practice, and treatment experience, even in major cancer centres to which rare cancers are usually referred, is often limited.
  • We also estimated the adjusted relative excess risk of death for every rare cancer.
  • FINDINGS: Overall 5-year relative survival was good (ie, >65%) for placental choriocarcinoma (85.4% [95% CI 81.4-89.5]), thyroid medullary carcinoma (72.4% [69.2-75.5]), ovarian germ-cell cancer (73.0% [70.0-76.0]), lung carcinoid (70.1% [67.3-72.9]), and cervical adenocarcinoma (65.5% [64.3-66.6]); intermediate (ie, 35-65%) for testicular cancer at age 65 years or older (64.0% [59.3-68.7]), sarcoma of extremities (60.0% [58.9-61.2]), digestive-system endocrine cancers (55.6% [54.9-56.3]), anal squamous-cell carcinoma (53.1% [51.5-54.8]), and uterine sarcoma (43.5% [42.0-44.9]); low for carcinoma of adrenal-gland cortex (32.7% [28.3-37.2]) and bladder squamous-cell carcinoma (20.4% [18.8-22.0]); and poor for angiosarcoma of liver (6.4% [1.8-11.0]) and mesothelioma (4.7% [4.3-5.2]).
  • Survival significantly improved over time for ovarian germ-cell cancer, sarcomas of extremities, digestive-system endocrine tumours, anal squamous-cell carcinoma, and angiosarcoma of liver.

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  • (PMID = 16455477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


73. Gretschel S, Warnick P, Bembenek A, Dresel S, Koswig S, String A, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):890-4
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  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • AIM: Although 15-25% of patients with anal cancer present with superficial inguinal lymph node metastases but the routine application of groin irradiation is controversial because of serious side effects.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with anal cancer underwent 1 ml Tc(99m)-Nanocolloid injection in four sites around the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18178364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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74. Gorez E, Staumont G: [Epidermoid anal carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2008 Oct 31;58(16):1783-92
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome epidermoïde anal.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women.
  • Main predisposing factors are sexually transmitted diseases and particularly human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, variety of sexual partners, smoking, homosexuality, history of uterine cervix cancer, and immunodepression.
  • Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific.
  • The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography.
  • First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19143150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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75. Andersen H, Mejlvang J, Mahmood S, Gromova I, Gromov P, Lukanidin E, Kriajevska M, Mellon JK, Tulchinsky E: Immediate and delayed effects of E-cadherin inhibition on gene regulation and cell motility in human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol; 2005 Oct;25(20):9138-50
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  • [Title] Immediate and delayed effects of E-cadherin inhibition on gene regulation and cell motility in human epidermoid carcinoma cells.
  • The invasion suppressor protein, E-cadherin, plays a central role in epithelial cell-cell adhesion.
  • In this study, by expressing a dominant-negative mutant of E-cadherin (Ec1WVM) in A431 cells, we demonstrated that specific inhibition of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion led to the genetic reprogramming of tumor cells.
  • In particular, prolonged inhibition of cell-cell adhesion activated expression of vimentin and repressed cytokeratins, suggesting that the effects of Ec1WVM can be classified as epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
  • Both short-term and prolonged expression of Ec1WVM resulted in morphological transformation and increased cell migration though to different extents.
  • Using a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) and RNA interference-mediated silencing of c-Jun and Fra-1, we demonstrated that AP-1 was required for cell motility stimulated by the expression of Ec1WVM.
  • In contrast, Ec1WVM-mediated changes in cell morphology were AP-1-independent.
  • Activated AP-1 in turn contributes to Ec1WVM-mediated effects on gene expression and tumor cell motility.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / physiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / genetics. Cell Movement / physiology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Kinetics. Mutation. Phosphorylation. RNA Interference. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism. Transfection


76. Takashima A, Shimada Y, Hamaguchi T, Ito Y, Masaki T, Yamaguchi S, Kondo Y, Saito N, Kato T, Ohue M, Higashino M, Moriya Y, Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group: Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):416-20
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  • [Title] Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: In Western countries, chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is well established as the standard therapy for stages II/III anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC).
  • The Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG-CCSG) conducted a survey to determine the current therapeutic strategies for ASCC in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19856049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Investigator] Kondo Y; Ohtsuka K; Shiiba K; Sato T; Yoshimi F; Kotake K; Sawada T; Mochizuki H; Konishi F; Saito N; Moriya Y; Masaki T; Aoki T; Takahashi K; Hasegawa H; Kenichi S; Sumiyama Y; Sato T; Akaike M; Kudo S; Yamada T; Munakata Y; Shigeski Y; Kato T; Maeda K; Koizumi K; Monden M; Ohue M; Higashino M; Tanigawa M; Fukunaga M; Kato T; Okamura S; Kimura H; Okajima M; Takakura N; Tanada M; Shirouzu K; Kitano S
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77. Sudore RL, Villars P, Carey EC: Sitting with you in your suffering: lessons about intractable pain at the end of life. J Palliat Med; 2010 Jun;13(6):779-82
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  • This paper describes a case of a hospice patient that a hospice and palliative care team struggled to palliate.
  • We review a case of a 63-year-old man with anal squamous cell carcinoma who was transferred from an inpatient hospice unit to an intensive care setting in an ill-fated attempt to alleviate his pain and suffering.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Medical Futility / psychology. Middle Aged. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 20509794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7740
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of palliative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Palliat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 1K01HP00125-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Salama JK, Mell LK, Schomas DA, Miller RC, Devisetty K, Jani AB, Mundt AJ, Roeske JC, Liauw SL, Chmura SJ: Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4581-6
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience.
  • PURPOSE: To report a multicenter experience treating anal canal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2000 to June 2006, 53 patients were treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal squamous cell carcinoma at three tertiary-care academic medical centers.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary outcomes suggest that concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal canal cancers is effective and tolerated favorably compared with historical standards.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):688; author reply 688-9 [18235135.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):694
  • (PMID = 17925552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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79. Edelman S, Johnstone PA: Combined modality therapy for HIV-infected patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: outcomes and toxicities. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Sep 1;66(1):206-11
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  • [Title] Combined modality therapy for HIV-infected patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: outcomes and toxicities.
  • PURPOSE: We report toxicity and survival data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men with anal carcinoma treated with combined modality therapy (CMT) of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review was performed on the records of 17 HIV-positive patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma treated with CMT at our institution between 1991 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSION: For HIV patients with anal carcinoma, CMT yields reasonable local control with significant acute complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. HIV Infections / complications


80. Blumetti J, Bastawrous AL: Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is an uncommon disease, but has increased in incidence with the HIV epidemic.
  • This review provides an overview of the historical, current, and future treatments of epidermoid anal canal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20436831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780240
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal malignancy / Nigro protocol / chemoradiation / epidermoid carcinoma
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81. Sunesen KG, Nørgaard M, Thorlacius-Ussing O, Laurberg S: Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):675-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005.
  • Compromised immune function may increase the risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We examined the risk of anal SCC in patients with HIV infection and other chronic disorders associated with immunosuppression.
  • A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR).
  • We identified all patients with a first-time hospital contact or procedure for HIV infection, solid organ transplantation or autoimmune disease or a first-time record of haematologic malignancy in the DCR, 1978-2005, and followed these for a subsequent anal SCC, starting follow-up 1 year after diagnosis of the index disease.
  • Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of anal SCCs, based on national age-, sex- and period-specific rates.
  • Among 4,488 patients with HIV, we observed 21 anal SCCs with 0.3 expected (SIR: 81.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.6-121.9)).
  • Risk of anal SCC was markedly increased among 5,113 solid organ recipients (SIR: 14.4 (CI: 7.0-26.4)) and 30,165 patients with haematologic malignancies (SIR: 2.3 (CI: 1.1-4.2)) but only moderately increased among 242,114 patients with autoimmune diseases (SIR: 1.3 (CI: 1.0-1.6)).
  • In conclusion, we found HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, haematologic malignancies and a range of specific autoimmune diseases strongly associated with increased risk of anal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Immunocompromised Host


82. Kiran RP, Pokala N, Rottoli M, Fazio VW: Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades. Am Surg; 2009 Feb;75(2):163-8
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  • [Title] Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades.
  • Chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for anal cancer.
  • From a prospective population-based database on radiation and surgical therapy, we compare outcomes for patients with anal cancer undergoing rectal resection after radiation with patients undergoing radiation alone.
  • Patients undergoing surgical resection of the rectum after initial radiation (SRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, anal canal, cloacogenic zone, and overlapping lesions of the rectum and anal canal from 1983 to 2002 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19280811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Laytragoon-Lewin N, Nilsson PJ, Castro J, Gharizadeh B, Nyren P, Glimelius B, Elmberger G, Turesson I, Svensson C: Human papillomavirus (HPV), DNA aberrations and cell cycle progression in anal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6C):4473-9
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV), DNA aberrations and cell cycle progression in anal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
  • In this study, the role of HPV in 72 patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma was investigated.
  • Cell cycle and DNA content were analysed by cytometry.
  • RESULTS: Ninety percent of the carcinoma biopsies carried high-risk oncogenic HPV in their malignant cells.
  • The HPV genome in the tumour cell influenced significantly the host cell cycle progression, but not DNA aberrations.
  • CONCLUSION: High-risk oncogenic HPV may play an important role in the initiation of host cell proliferation in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Papillomaviridae. Tumor Virus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Cycle. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18214063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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84. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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85. Das P, Bhatia S, Eng C, Ajani JA, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Bhosale P, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 1;68(3):794-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of locoregional failure, and predictors of recurrence and survival in patients treated with chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 167 patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal carcinoma were treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • Among the patients who had locoregional failure, 18 (75%) had failure involving the anus or rectum, 5 (21%) had other pelvic recurrences, and 1 (4%) had inguinal recurrence.
  • The majority of locoregional failures involve the anus and rectum, whereas inguinal recurrences occur rarely.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17379452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Seo Y, Kinsella MT, Reynolds HL, Chipman G, Remick SC, Kinsella TJ: Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):143-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients.
  • PURPOSE: Information is limited as to how we should treat invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with chronic immunosuppression, since the majority of clinical studies to date have excluded such patients.
  • The objective of this study is to compare treatment outcomes in immunocompetent (IC) versus immunodeficient (ID) patients with invasive anal SCC treated similarly with combined modality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 19203845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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88. Mi Y, Lou L: ZD6474 reverses multidrug resistance by directly inhibiting the function of P-glycoprotein. Br J Cancer; 2007 Oct 8;97(7):934-40
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  • P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumps multiple types of drugs out of the cell, using energy generated from ATP, and confers multidrug resistance (MDR) on cancer cells.
  • This study was designed to examine whether ZD6474 reverses P-gp-mediated MDR in cancer cells.
  • Here, we show that clinically achievable levels of ZD6474 reverse P-gp-mediated MDR of the P-gp-overexpressing cell lines derived from breast cancer, MCF-7/adriamycin (ADR), and human oral epidermoid carcinoma, KBV200 to ADR, docetaxel, and vinorelbine.
  • Our results suggest that ZD6474 is capable of reversing MDR in cancer cells by directly inhibiting the function of P-gp, a finding that may have clinical implications for ZD6474.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Multiple / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. P-Glycoprotein / antagonists & inhibitors. Piperidines / pharmacology. Quinazolines / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17912240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 1N3CZ14C5O / Rhodamine 123; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360411
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89. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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90. Brewster DH, Bhatti LA: Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jul 3;95(1):87-90
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  • [Title] Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002.
  • In Scotland, since 1975-1979 (world) age-standardised incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus has more than doubled, reaching 0.37 per 100,000 in males and 0.55 in females during 1998-2002, being somewhat higher in socioeconomically deprived areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16721368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360500
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91. Rasheed S, Yap T, Zia A, McDonald PJ, Glynne-Jones R: Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Feb;11(2):191-7
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1943 [1], only 45 patients of squamous cancer of the rectum have been reported in the published reports and the largest series to date consists of 12 patients.
  • Reports suggest that the primary treatment is surgical resection but, in the light of nonsurgical advances in the treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we present a review of the literature and report six patients treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
  • METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using the keywords squamous cell, epidermoid, basaloid and cloacagenic and cancer of rectum and colon to provide evidence for this discussion from studies of surgery, radiation therapy and CRT in rectal SCC.
  • A prospective database of the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, UK was searched from 1995 to 2005 for patients diagnosed with pure SCC of the rectum.
  • RESULTS: Six patients with histologically confirmed primary SCC of the rectum were treated with primary combination chemo-radiotherapy according to protocols used for SCC of the anal canal over a 15-year period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary CRT, as currently utilized in anal cancer, can be extended to primary SCC of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18462236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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92. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), anal HPV prevalence is more than 90% and infections with multiple HPV types are common.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a potential precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • As AIN and CIN share distinct biological similar-ities, AIN screenings analogous to Pap smear programs for CIN have been recommended in high-risk populations to reduce the incidence of anal carcinoma.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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93. Northover J, Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, James R, Meadows H, Wan S, Jitlal M, Ledermann J: Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I). Br J Cancer; 2010 Mar 30;102(7):1123-8
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I).
  • BACKGROUND: The first UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (1996) demonstrated the benefit of chemoradiation over radiotherapy (RT) alone for treating epidermoid anal cancer, and it became the standard treatment.
  • RESULTS: Twelve years after treatment, for every 100 patients treated with chemoradiation, there are an expected 25.3 fewer patients with locoregional relapse (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5-32.0 fewer) and 12.5 fewer anal cancer deaths (95% CI: 4.3-19.7 fewer), compared with 100 patients given RT alone.
  • There was a 9.1% increase in non-anal cancer deaths in the first 5 years of chemoradiation (95% CI +3.6 to +14.6), which disappeared by 10 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clear benefit of chemoradiation outweighs an early excess risk of non-anal cancer deaths, and can still be seen 12 years after treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20354531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 9893; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2853094
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94. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Richardson P, El-Serag HB: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated squamous cell cancer of the anus: epidemiology and outcomes in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 20;26(3):474-9
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  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus-associated squamous cell cancer of the anus: epidemiology and outcomes in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate and determine predictors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) outcomes in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era for HIV-positive and -negative individuals using large national Veterans Affairs (VA) Administration databases.
  • In multivariate Cox analysis, significant predictors of survival were age, sex, metastasis at diagnosis, and comorbidity score.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


95. Wexler A, Berson AM, Goldstone SE, Waltzman R, Penzer J, Maisonet OG, McDermott B, Rescigno J: Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):73-81
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  • [Title] Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in patients with HIV is increasing.
  • We report the outcome after combined chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous-cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two HIV-positive patients treated at the St. Vincent's Cancer Care Center for anal squamous-cell carcinoma from 1997 through mid 2005 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Overall survival, anal cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and toxicity were assessed.
  • Five-year locoregional relapse, anal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 16 , 75, and 65 percent, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis, locoregional recurrence, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were all significantly associated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after chemoradiotherapy for HIV-related anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy is comparable to outcome in patients without HIV.
  • Earlier diagnosis and risk-adapted therapy could lead to improved survival and decreased treatment-related morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


96. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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97. Niiya D, Egawa N, Sakamoto T, Kikkawa Y, Shinkawa T, Isobe T, Koshikawa N, Seiki M: Identification and characterization of Lutheran blood group glycoprotein as a new substrate of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP): a systemic whole cell analysis of MT1-MMP-associating proteins in A431 cells. J Biol Chem; 2009 Oct 2;284(40):27360-9
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  • [Title] Identification and characterization of Lutheran blood group glycoprotein as a new substrate of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP): a systemic whole cell analysis of MT1-MMP-associating proteins in A431 cells.
  • To identify new substrates of MT1-MMP, we purified proteins associating with MT1-MMP in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and analyzed them by mass spectrometry.
  • Lu protein expressed in A431 cells bound to laminin-511, and knockdown of MT1-MMP in these cells increased both their binding to laminin-511 and the amount of Lu protein on the cell surface.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromatography, Affinity. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Substrate Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19667067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lutheran Blood-Group System; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.4.24.80 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 14
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785664
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98. Berrada S, Khaiz D, Alloubi I: [Pseudocontinent perineal colostomy]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jan;130(1):15-20
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  • AIM: This prospective study was designed to evaluate functional results of a pseudocontinent perineal colostomy (PCPC) using Schmidt's technique.
  • METHODS: Functional results in eight patients whose rectum were resected due to cancer or anal epidermoid carcinoma and reconstructed by PCPC between January 1995 and July 2002 in our institution were evaluated.
  • DISCUSSION: PCPC is a reliable technique, which can be proposed as an alternative to a left iliac colostomy following amputation of the rectum due to cancer, provided that certain requirements are met: careful selection of patients, informed consent, flawless surgical technique and lifetime daily colic irrigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Colostomy / methods. Perineum / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15664371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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99. Robb BW, Mutch MG: Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):54-60
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  • [Title] Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Anal cancers are rare tumors with only an expected 4000 new diagnoses in 2005.
  • The majority of these are epidermoid or squamous cell cancers.
  • Nigro's description in 1974 of the use of a nonoperative treatment strategy.

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  • (PMID = 20011311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780104
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid cancer / anal canal / squamous cancer
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100. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology






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