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1. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • This progression could be related to severity of the dysplasia and, albeit not yet confirmed, treatment of these lesions would prevent the evolution to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • T CD4+ lymphocyte counts were also evaluated to check if the immunologic status caused more advanced dysplasia.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Health Quality Ontario: Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2007;7(4):1-43
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  • [Title] Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC.
  • CLINICAL NEED: TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection.
  • Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
  • Anal cancer is rare.
  • Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
  • Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men.
  • The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s.
  • HEALTH TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: Anal Pap test screening involves the blind insertion of a swab into the anal canal and fixing cells either on a slide or in fluid for cytological examination.
  • Anal cytology classified by the standardized Bethesda System is the same classification used for cervical cytology.
  • It has 4 categories: normal, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or squamous intraepithelial lesions which are further classified into low- or high-grade lesions.
  • Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia.
  • The New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute has recently recommended (March 2007) annual anal pap testing in high-risk groups.
  • That is, there is no reimbursement for anal Pap testing in men or women, and HPV screening tests for cervical or anal cancer are also not reimbursed.
  • FINDINGS: No direct evidence was found for the existence of controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness of anal Pap test screening programs for impact on anal cancer morbidity or mortality.
  • In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia.
  • The reported prevalence of HPV infection in high-risk groups, particularly HIV-positive males, however, was sufficiently high to preclude any utility of HPV testing as an adjunct to anal Pap testing.
  • Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia.
  • Estimates of anal Pap test sensitivity and specificity were highly variable, and depended on the varying prevalence of cytology abnormality and differential thresholds for abnormality for both cytology and histopathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No direct evidence exists to support the effectiveness of an anal Pap test screening program to reduce anal cancer mortality or morbidity.
  • Sexually transmitted HPV viral infection is currently the acknowledged common causative agent for both anal and cervical cancer.
  • Anal cancer rates in high-risk populations are approaching those of cervical cancer before the implementation of Pap testing.
  • The anal Pap test, although it has been mainly evaluated only in HIV-positive males, has similar operating characteristics of sensitivity and specificity as the cervical Pap test.
  • In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications.
  • A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.

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  • (PMID = 23074504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377578
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3. Mullerat J, Perrett CW, Deroide F, Winslet MC, Bofill M, Poulters LW: The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):693-9
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  • [Title] The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While macrophages (CD68+) have been associated with angiogenesis in some inflammatory and neoplastic processes by increasing the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their role in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma has not been established.
  • This study records macrophage infiltration in anal pre-invasive and invasive lesions in HIV+ and HIV- populations, and determines their relationship with angiogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (31 HIV+) with AIN and anal SCC were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / pathology. Macrophages / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / blood supply. Anal Canal / pathology. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / virology. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / blood supply. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 15868898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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4. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a tubulovillus adenoma with no areas of high grade dysplasia or malignant transformation.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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5. Devaraj B, Cosman BC: Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):36-40
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  • [Title] Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV.
  • PURPOSE: Anal squamous dysplasia is commonly found in patients with HIV infection.
  • This study reviews a series of patients with HIV and an abnormal anal examination who had squamous dysplasia and who have been followed with physical examination alone and with repeat biopsies as necessary for new or suspicious lesions.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 40 HIV-positive men who had squamous dysplasia of the anal canal and anal margin, focusing on history, physical findings, histologic diagnosis, and the occurrence of invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Forty HIV-positive men (mean age, 39 years) were followed for anal squamous dysplasia.
  • Biopsies revealed dysplasia, which was usually multifocal.
  • The grade of dysplasia varied, but 28 of 40 patients had at least one area of severe dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extensive excision for dysplasia in the context of HIV confers high morbidity and questionable benefit, and other treatments are of uncertain value.
  • Physical examination surveillance for invasive carcinoma may be acceptable for following patients with HIV and biopsy-proven squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Decision Making. HIV / immunology. HIV Antibodies / immunology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Oct;49(10):1648-9; author reply 1649-50 [16972138.001]
  • (PMID = 16283561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Antibodies
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6. Mathews WC, Cachay ER, Caperna J, Sitapati A, Cosman B, Abramson I: Estimating the accuracy of anal cytology in the presence of an imperfect reference standard. PLoS One; 2010 Aug 19;5(8):e12284
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  • [Title] Estimating the accuracy of anal cytology in the presence of an imperfect reference standard.
  • BACKGROUND: The study aim is to estimate sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology for histologic HSIL in analyses adjusted for the imperfect biopsy reference standard.
  • METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of an anal dysplasia screening program for HIV infected adults.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of a single dataset yields widely different estimates of anal cytology operating characteristics that depend on difficult to verify assumptions regarding the accuracy of the imperfect reference standard.

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  • (PMID = 20808869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI036214; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R24 AI067039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 36214; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924391
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7. Alaei P, Higgins P: Effect of multileaf collimator-defined segment size on Sc. Med Phys; 2010 Jun;37(6Part1):2731-2737

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  • CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of the change in the output factor due to MLCs may be important for better modeling of dose in IMRT deliveries and other applications such asin vivo dosimetry.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
  • (PMID = 28512946.001).
  • [ISSN] 2473-4209
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Biomedical modeling / Collimators / Dosimetry / Dosimetry/exposure assessment / Field size / Intensity modulated radiation therapy / Interpolation / Ionization chambers / Linear accelerators / Medical treatment planning / Multileaf collimators / aperture effect / collimators / dosimetry / multileaf collimators / radiation therapy
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8. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


9. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • Accompanying dysplasia of the overlying squamous mucosa was absent.
  • BSC of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern is an infrequently encountered and reported variant, although it is seen more often in the aerodigestive tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Patel HS, Silver AR, Levine T, Williams G, Northover JM: Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients. Br J Surg; 2010 Nov;97(11):1716-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression is a known risk factor for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) disease, including anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The demographics of anal HPV and associated risk factors were investigated in this population.
  • METHODS: Anal cytology and polymerase chain reaction were used to assess anal HPV disease in a cohort of transplant recipients at the Royal London Hospital.
  • Risk factors associated with increased immunosuppression and HPV exposure were collated to determine any association with anal disease.
  • RESULTS: Anal dysplasia was associated with anal oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001), duration of immunosuppression (P = 0.050), previous genital warts (P = 0.018) and receptive anal intercourse (P = 0.013).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal dysplasia was related to immunosuppression and patient factors in this cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20730855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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11. Papaconstantinou HT, Lee AJ, Simmang CL, Ashfaq R, Gokaslan ST, Sokol S, Huber PJ Jr, Gregorcyk SG: Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma. J Surg Res; 2005 Jul 1;127(1):8-13
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  • [Title] Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma.
  • HPV infection can cause anal condylomas and is a risk factor for dysplasia.
  • High-grade dysplasia may progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Currently, biopsy and histological examination are required to grade dysplasia.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether anal cytology, morphological characteristics, and/or the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV-types are effective noninvasive methods to detect high-risk anal condylomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 2003 to June 2004, all patients with anal condyloma were prospectively evaluated for anal cytology, high-risk oncogenic HPV-types, and tissue biopsies.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal condyloma were studied; 43 (91.5%) were men, and the mean age was 39 +/- 11 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology alone is not accurate for detecting HRL in patients with anal condylomas.
  • Combining oncogenic HPV-testing with cytology is more sensitive in detecting HRL in patients with anal condyloma, and therefore, a more effective screening tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15964301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
  • INTERVENTION: A systematic examination for macroscopic HPV-related lesions through anoscopy with histological confirmation, evaluation of dysplasia and HPV typing.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • CONCLUSION: The high rate of condyloma and histological dysplasia seen argues for a systematic screening for these lesions in HIV-infected individuals.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


14. Calore EE, Nadal SR, Manzione CR, Horta SC, Santos RR, Nadal LM: Anal cytology in patients with AIDS. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Apr;38(4):260-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cytology in patients with AIDS.
  • The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in patients with AIDS.
  • Anal smears, obtained with a cytobrush, of 102 HIV-positive patients of the Emilio Ribas Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil) were collected, and only after that, the patients were submitted to anoscopy.
  • Squamous intra-epithelial lesions were also observed in 38% of the patients without condyloma (18/47): in 9 of the 33 patients without history of condyloma (27%) and in 9 of the 14 patients who had previously treated condyloma (64%).
  • An invasive squamous cell carcinoma was observed in one patient without history of condyloma.
  • In all 13 patients with HSIL, biopsies guided by high resolution anoscopy confirmed high grade dysplasia.
  • Our findings suggest that anal cytology is mandatory in AIDS even in patients without macroscopic anal lesions or without previous history of anal condyloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19813269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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17. Lisi G, Illiceto MT, Rossi C, Broto JM, Jil-Vernet JM, Lelli Chiesa P: Anal canal duplication: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases from two European pediatric surgical departments. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Dec;22(12):967-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal canal duplication: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases from two European pediatric surgical departments.
  • Anal canal duplication (ACD) represents an extremely rare intestinal congenital anomaly of unknown origin.
  • The confirmative diagnosis is histopathological, with evidence of an anal mucosal lining (squamous +/- transitional epithelium), surrounded from a smooth muscle coat and anal glands.
  • According to clinical presentation, patients could be divided in three age groups: asymptomatic (mean age 4.8 months, six patients - one with an associated complex genitourinary malformation, one with a presacral mature teratoma, one with ACD evidenced hysthologically on a retroanal mass removed during the correction of an ARM), mildly symptomatic - constipation, mucous discharge (mean age 29.2 months, four patients - one with associated presacral ependymoma and intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B, one with presacral mass) and complicated - perineal abscess, recurrent fistula (mean age 34 months, two patients).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Anal Canal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17061104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Berry JM, Panther LA, Jay N, Krown SE, Lee J, Palefsky JM: Infrared coagulator treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia in HIV-infected individuals: an AIDS malignancy consortium pilot study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Jan 1;47(1):56-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infrared coagulator treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia in HIV-infected individuals: an AIDS malignancy consortium pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the safety of the infrared coagulator (IRC) as a treatment for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in HIV-infected individuals and to seek preliminary evidence for efficacy.
  • METHODS: HIV-infected patients with </=3 biopsy-proven internal anal HSILs received office-based treatment with the IRC at participating AIDS Malignancy Consortium sites.
  • Patients were evaluated every 3 months for a year with anal cytology and HRA with biopsy.
  • Twelve patients reported mild or moderate anal/rectal pain or bleeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The IRC is a well-tolerated method of treating discrete anal canal HSILs in HIV-infected patients.

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  • (PMID = 18156992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70054
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Goldstone SE, Enyinna CS, Davis TW: Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus and other predictors of anal high-grade dysplasia in men who have sex with men with abnormal cytology. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Jan;52(1):31-9
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  • [Title] Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus and other predictors of anal high-grade dysplasia in men who have sex with men with abnormal cytology.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal high-grade dysplasia in men who have sex with men is increasing.
  • Anal cytology that shows atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance is common, nonspecific, and rarely predicts high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • We want to know whether Hybrid-Capture II(R) testing for oncogenic human papillomavirus (human papillomavirus+) in men who have sex with men with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance is beneficial and whether other predictors of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion exist.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of men who have sex with men undergoing anal screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology, Hybrid-Capture(R) II testing, and biopsy.
  • RESULTS: A total of 597 men who have sex with men enrolled and had 1,015 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology results: 185 (18.2 percent) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and 156 (84 percent) were human papillomavirus+.
  • Of 390 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology results, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was found in 141 and 127 (90 percent) were human papillomavirus+.
  • Those with previous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or human immunodeficiency virus had increased risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (hazard ratio = 2.2 and hazard ratio = 1.95, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid-Capture II(R) testing is useful in men who have sex with men with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.
  • Referring only those with oncogenic human papillomavirus for biopsy reduces the number requiring this by almost half but some high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions are missed.
  • History of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and human immunodeficiency virus are predictors of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion while screening intervals might be lengthened absent oncogenic human papillomavirus or in those free of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion for long periods.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19273953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Bean SM, Eltoum I, Horton DK, Whitlow L, Chhieng DC: Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):555-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a human papilloma virus related lesion.
  • The objective of this study is to correlate p16 expression and cellular proliferation measured by Ki-67 staining with the degree of dysplasia in the anal canal and to determine the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • Seventy-five anal specimens from 55 patients (37 men; 18 women; mean age: 48 y; median: 44 y; range 25 to 96 y) were studied including 35 normal/reactive lesions, 23 low-grade AIN (AIN I and condyloma), and 17 high-grade AIN (AIN II and III).
  • The expression of both p16 and Ki-67 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17414102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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21. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 20442633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Bakotic WL, Willis D, Birdsong G, Tadros TS: Anal cytology in an HIV-positive population: a retrospective analysis. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):163-8
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  • [Title] Anal cytology in an HIV-positive population: a retrospective analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate cellularity and correlate the presence of columnar cells with specimen interpretation in conventionally prepared anal cytologic smears from an HIV-positive population.
  • The relationships between diagnosis and presence of columnar cells, visible anal lesions, concurrent HIV viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts were assessed.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic findings were as follows: 7, unsatisfactory (6%); 29, negative (25%); 25, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (22%); and 53, dysplasia (47%) (42 anal intraepithelial lesion 1 [37%] and 11 anal intraepithelial lesion 2/3 [10%]).
  • Nearly 50% of the smears, 51, showed the presence of columnar cells (45%); 37 of those specimens had some degree of dysplasia (74%).
  • Of the 63 specimens with no columnar cells, 16 (25%) showed dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: A highly significant association between the presence of columnar cells and anal intraepithelial lesion (p<0.001) and a significant association between the presence of columnar cells and atypical cytology when a visible lesion was absent (p=0.0019) were found.
  • No significant relationship was found between the presence/degree of dysplasia and CD4+ T-cell counts or HIV viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Seropositivity / complications


23. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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24. Goldstone SE, Moshier E: Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus impacts anal screening guidelines in men who have sex with men. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus impacts anal screening guidelines in men who have sex with men.
  • We endeavored to determine whether HPV testing could predict future high-grade dysplasia (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) and modify screening internals.
  • METHODS: This investigation was conducted via a retrospective chart review of subjects with atypical cells of undetermined significance anal cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and HPV testing.
  • Of 224 subjects monitored for >2 years, the hazard ratio for developing high-grade dysplasia was 77% less for men who have sex with men who never had oncogenic HPV (HPV-) vs those who stayed HPV+ (P < .013).
  • The hazard ratio for high-grade dysplasia in those who were HPV- vs those who became HPV- was not different.
  • Risk of high-grade dysplasia was 28% within 6 months of becoming HPV+.
  • The 3-year high-grade dysplasia risk was 15% and 54% for HPV- vs HPV+ subjects (P = .0006).
  • Frequency of high-grade dysplasia in subjects who remained HPV- with predominantly atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 1, 2, or 3 years was 2%, 0% and 0% and was 17%, 0%, and 0% in HIV+ subjects.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis for HIV- subjects with HPV- predominantly atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 1 year showed <5% incidence of high-grade dysplasia at 4 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Change in HPV status can predict the risk of high-grade dysplasia.
  • Subjects with predominantly HPV- atypical cells of undetermined significance cytology for 2 years have a decreased risk of high-grade dysplasia.
  • HPV testing when screening for anal dysplasia could alter screening parameters.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Colonoscopy. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Incidence. Male. Precancerous Conditions. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20628276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kreuter A, Hochdorfer B, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, Competence Network HIV/AIDS: A human papillomavirus-associated disease with disseminated warts, depressed cell-mediated immunity, primary lymphedema, and anogenital dysplasia: WILD syndrome. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Mar;144(3):366-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A human papillomavirus-associated disease with disseminated warts, depressed cell-mediated immunity, primary lymphedema, and anogenital dysplasia: WILD syndrome.
  • Although skin cancer frequently develops in the sun-exposed cutaneous lesions of patients with EV, the anogenital area is usually not affected by squamous cell carcinomas related to mucosal HPV types.
  • Histological and cytological evaluation revealed multifocal anogenital dysplasia and benign genital and cutaneous warts.
  • We suggest the acronym WILD (warts, immunodeficiency, lymphedema, dysplasia) to characterize this syndrome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Humans. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 18347293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


27. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA: Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Jul 1;51(1):107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus causes anal condylomata, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal squamous cell cancer.
  • We found high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell cancer in 75 (47%) of 159 HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) and in 42 (26%) of 160 HIV-seronegative MSM with anal condylomata meriting surgery (P<.001, determined by use of the chi(2) test).
  • Anal condylomata in MSM often harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications


28. Franceschi S, De Vuyst H: Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):57-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the possible role of current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • In addition, more than 90% prevalence of HPV was found in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Answers to some still open questions, notably vaccine efficacy in men and HIV-infected individuals and willingness to expand vaccination programmes to both sexes, are essential to predict the ultimate impact of HPV vaccines on the prevention of cancerous and precancerous anal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19339940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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29. Schon EA, Dencher NA: Heavy breathing: energy conversion by mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes. Cell Metab; 2009 Jan 7;9(1):1-3
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  • A recent paper in Molecular Cell (Acin-Pérez et al., 2008) calls this model into question.

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  • (PMID = 19117538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-7420
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 2.7.4.- / ATP Synthetase Complexes
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30. Evans M: Temp industry merger mania. While a backlash from pinched hospitals has cut into revenue, temp firms see chances for growth with spiraling nurse shortage. Mod Healthc; 2005 Oct 17;35(42):6-7, 1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • "Big players are looking to get bigger," says analyst Barry Asin, left, a chief analyst at Staffing Industry Analysts.

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  • (PMID = 16274181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-7480
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether imiquimod was more effective than placebo for the treatment of high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-ACIN).
  • METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-positive patients were randomized to self-application of imiquimod cream or matched placebo into the anal canal three times a week for 4 months.
  • In the imiquimod group, four patients resolved and eight patients downgraded to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with a median follow-up of 33 months.
  • Five of these patients cleared their anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (ACIN) and four patients downgraded to LSIL.
  • During this extended follow-up period, 61% have exhibited sustained absence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of imiquimod for the treatment of ACIN, and the benefit of prolonged or repeated treatments.
  • This form of therapy is likely to be especially valuable for patients with widespread multifocal ACIN who are otherwise difficult to treat, and should be considered as an adjunct to ablative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects


32. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / surgery. Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections. Recurrence. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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33. Horsley AR, Macleod KA, Robson AG, Lenney J, Bell NJ, Cunningham S, Greening AP, Gustafsson PM, Innes JA: Effects of cystic fibrosis lung disease on gas mixing indices derived from alveolar slope analysis. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2008 Aug 31;162(3):197-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • S(cond) and S(acin) are derived from analysis of concentration-normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) of a multiple breath inert gas washout.
  • S(cond), S(acin) and lung clearance index (LCI, a measure of overall gas mixing efficiency) were measured in 22 adults and 18 children with CF and 17 adult and 29 child controls.
  • However, S(cond) did not correlate with other measurements and appeared to reach a maximum; further increase in ventilation heterogeneity being restricted to S(acin).


34. De Matteo R, Snibson K, Thompson B, Koumoundouros E, Harding R: Lung function in developing lambs: is it affected by preterm birth? J Appl Physiol (1985); 2009 Oct;107(4):1083-8
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  • Multiple breath N(2) washout (MBW) was used to assess ventilatory heterogeneity in conducting (S(cond)) and acinar (S(acin)) airways.
  • There were no significant differences in ventilatory heterogeneity between preterm and term lambs; for all animals combined, mean S(acin) was 0.29 +/- 0.05 liter(-1) and S(cond) was 0.26 +/- 0.03 liter(-1).
  • Males had significantly higher S(cond) than females, indicating poorer gas mixing in small conducting airways; there was no sex difference in S(acin).

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  • (PMID = 19679748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol
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35. Gustafsson PM: Peripheral airway involvement in CF and asthma compared by inert gas washout. Pediatr Pulmonol; 2007 Feb;42(2):168-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Analysis of the progression of the concentration normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) over the washout was used to determine inhomogeneity in the conducting airways (S(cond)) and inhomogeneity close to or within the gas exchange zone (S(acin)).
  • Before bronchodilation all washout indexes were abnormal in the CF group, and all but S(acin) in the asthma group.
  • Two indexes were higher in CF than in asthma: LCI (11.5 (3.3) vs. 8.7 (1.3); P < 0.01), and S(acin) (0.307 (0.207) vs. 0.142 (0.071); P < 0.01), while gas trapping indexes and S(cond) (0.151 (0.071) vs. 0.127 (0.041)) did not differ significantly.
  • In CF, only a modest but statistically significant S(acin) improvement was seen and all indexes stayed abnormal.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17186546.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-6863
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric pulmonology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Pulmonol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 0 / Noble Gases
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36. Macleod KA, Horsley AR, Bell NJ, Greening AP, Innes JA, Cunningham S: Ventilation heterogeneity in children with well controlled asthma with normal spirometry indicates residual airways disease. Thorax; 2009 Jan;64(1):33-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An observational study was performed in which it was hypothesised that ventilation heterogeneity (lung clearance index (LCI) and phase III slope indices (S(cond) and S(acin))) were more sensitive than conventional measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and exhaled nitric oxide (Feno)) for detecting residual airways disease in children with well controlled asthma.
  • METHODS: In 31 children with asthma of mean age 10.6 years (range 5-15), FEV(1), LCI, S(cond) and S(acin) were measured at two separate visits, before and after blinded salbutamol or placebo, with Feno measured once.
  • Following salbutamol there was a small significant change in mean (SD) FEV(1) (from -1.26 (1.25) to -0.93 (0.23), p = 0.03) but not in LCI, S(cond) or S(acin).


37. Deguchi S, Ohashi T, Sato M: Evaluation of tension in actin bundle of endothelial cells based on preexisting strain and tensile properties measurements. Mol Cell Biomech; 2005 Sep;2(3):125-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cultured ECs expressing fluorescently-labeled actin were treated with detergents to extract acin bundles.
  • A tensile test of the dislodged single acin bundle was conducted with a pair of cantilevers to measure the force required for stretching it up to the original length, yielding an estimate of preexisting tension in the actin bundle.

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  • (PMID = 16708474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5297
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular biomechanics : MCB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Cell Biomech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins
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38. Simpson SH, Hanna S: Optical angular momentum transfer by Laguerre-Gaussian beams. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis; 2009 Mar;26(3):625-38

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For arbitrary, axially placed particles the induced torque for rotation angle zeta is shown to be Gammaz=Asin(2zeta+delta)+B, where A, B, and delta are constants that are determined by the mechanisms coupling optical and mechanical angular momentum.

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  • (PMID = 19252660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-7529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Van Muylem A, Verbanck S, Estenne M: Monitoring the lung periphery of transplanted lungs. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Aug 25;148(1-2):141-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In a preliminary study using nitrogen multiple-breath washouts, we showed that S(acin) and S(cond), which reflect structural changes in the acinar and conductive lung zones, were both markedly increased in patients with BO.

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  • (PMID = 15963771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Raica M, Cimpean AM, Ribatti D: Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(11):1924-34
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MVD was found to be significantly increased in a relatively large spectrum of pre-malignant squamous cell lesions, such as in the oral mucosa, skin, uterine cervix, vulva and anal canal.
  • Additional evidences came from pre-malignant lesions of glandular epithelia, in which the angiogenic switch was demonstrated by the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF in gastric metaplasia and dysplasia, in atypical adenoma of the colon, atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ of the breast and others.

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  • (PMID = 19406633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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41. Aryal RK, Lee BK, Karki R, Gurung A, Baral B, Byeon SH: Dynamics of PM2.5 concentrations in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. J Hazard Mater; 2009 Sep 15;168(2-3):732-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The increase in PM(2.5) peak fit the logistic equation y=[k/(1+exp (p-qx)]+asin(bx) where k, p, q, a, and b are constants.

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  • (PMID = 19297084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants
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42. Freitas LL, Soriano E, Muccioli C, Höfling-Lima AL, Belfort R Jr: Efficacy and tolerability of a combined moxifloxacin/dexamethasone formulation for topical prophylaxis and reduction of inflammation in phacoemulsification: a comparative, double masked clinical trial. Curr Med Res Opin; 2007 Dec;23(12):3123-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .

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  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with the combined moxiflox acin/dexamethasone eye drops was as effective as conventional treatment in preventing infection and controlling inflammation after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - After Surgery.
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  • (PMID = 17980093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-4877
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medical research and opinion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Res Opin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
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43. Amarra MS, Bongga DC, Peñano-Ho L, Cruz FB, Solis JS, Barrios EB: Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren. Food Nutr Bull; 2007 Mar;28(1):47-54
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IODINE, ELEMENTAL .
  • NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .
  • NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17718011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5721
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and nutrition bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Nutr Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 0 / Trace Elements; 0 / iodized salt; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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44. Pantanowitz L, Leiman G, Dezube BJ: Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page? AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):182-3
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page?
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Washington / epidemiology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS.
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  • [CommentOn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):178-86 [19554736.001]
  • (PMID = 19554737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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