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1. Dyson T, Draganov PV: Squamous cell cancer of the rectum. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 21;15(35):4380-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy.
  • The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion.
  • Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease.
  • Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19764088.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747057
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2. Nadal SR, Horta SH, Calore EE, Manzione CR: [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Jul-Aug;53(4):365-9
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  • [Title] [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos.
  • OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients.
  • Thirty patients had high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN), treated with local resection, and 15 with anal canal invasive squamous cell carcinoma were first submitted to chemo radiation, while biopsies were obtained during follow-up.
  • Chemoradiation was not possible in five patients with invasive carcinoma (40%) because three had advanced AIDS and two refused treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: We concluded that HAIN can recur after local resection in HIV-positive patients but does not evolve to invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17823743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Alvarez G, Perry A, Tan BR, Wang HL: Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):942-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification.
  • The EGFR status in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, an uncommon malignancy traditionally treated with chemoradiation, has not been well investigated.
  • In this study, 38 primary squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal were immunohistochemically examined for EGFR expression and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for EGFR gene copy numbers.
  • These results demonstrate that EGFR is overexpressed in more than one-half of the squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal through mechanisms other than gene amplification.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16648870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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4. Nguyen BD, Ram PC, Roarke MC: F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Mar;32(3):234-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Neoplasms / radiography. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17314608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ, Petersson F, Höög A, Blegen H, Chetty R: The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(4):376-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • A recent report indicates that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 18787615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480546
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Squamous cell carcinoma / anal canal / intratumoral lymphocytes
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6. Phan LK, Hoff PM: Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Because of the high cure rate of localized anal cancers from combined modality treatment, there is little that is known for the treatment of patients who progress to have metastatic disease.
  • We report a female patient with refractory anal cancer who achieved an excellent response to the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan after having failed single-agent irinotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17252287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 7673326042 / irinotecan; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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7. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. Takeda A, Maeda M, Iseki H, Hirooka E, Shinozuka N, Koyama I: Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis. Int J Mol Med; 2009 Oct;24(4):465-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis.
  • Human anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line has not yet been reported due to the rarity of this disease.
  • Since cell lines to study this malignancy were not available, we attempted to establish and characterize anal canal SCC cell line from primary culture of lymph node metastasis.
  • This is the first report of successful establishment and characterization of a human anal canal SCC cell line, which may provide beneficial resources for investigating the biological features of human anal canal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Cell Line, Tumor / cytology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology


9. Shiozawa M, Nishimura K, Nonaka T, Yoshii T, Nakayama N, Motohashi O, Takagi S, Nakayama Y, Akaike M: [Three cases of radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C for anal canal squamous cell carcinomas]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2941-3
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  • [Title] [Three cases of radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C for anal canal squamous cell carcinomas].
  • We report three cases of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C(MMC).
  • These results suggested that this treatment schedule was safe and effective for anal canal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Anal Canal. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 21160276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Deo SV, Shukla NK, Raina V, Mohanti BK, Sharan R, Kar M, Rath GK: Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep-Oct;24(5):201-4
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  • [Title] Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • AIM: To study the efficacy of an organ-preserving, sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this treatment fails.
  • METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and methotrexate, followed by 45 to 60 (median 50) Gy external beam radiotherapy.
  • Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the anal verge.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation is effective in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer and has acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16361764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Hwang HJ, Bestani C, Jiménez R, Masciángioli G, Gutiérrez A, Cartelli C, Rafailovici L, Barugel M, Rodríguez G, Méndez G: [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2005;35(2):94-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] El tratamiento de los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del canal anal en los últimos 20 años en nuestro hospital.
  • Anal cancers compromise only 1.5% of all digestive tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical data from the medical records of all consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated by the Oncology Section in 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16127985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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13. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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14. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Eng C, Chang GJ, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Skibber JM, Qiao W, Rosner GL, Ukegbu LT, Wolff RA, Crane CH: Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4116

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • : 4116 Background: Definitive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal consists of external beam radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C or cisplatin.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of XELOX-XRT as definitive treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven SCC of the anal canal, AJCC Stage II-IIIB (T<sub>2-4</sub> or N+M<sub>0</sub>), ECOG PS 0-1, HIV<sup>-</sup>, and no prior therapy were eligible for XELOX-based chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) is effective for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27961220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Hammad N, Philip PA, Shields AF, Heilbrun LK, Venkatramanamoorthy R, El-Rayes BF: A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15586

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.
  • : e15586 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients (pts) are at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and the incidence of SCCAC has increased in the era of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy).
  • We collected data regarding HIV status, demographics (age, gender, race), stage at diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, toxicity, and survival.

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  • (PMID = 27962344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Subramonia Iyer S, Akl A: A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15131

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004.
  • : e15131 Background: This paper describes the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry.
  • The Hurley cancer registry was searched using diagnosis codes for anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Over a period of 18 years (1987 - 2004), there were 36 patients enrolled in the registry, with a diagnosis of anal cancer.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 59.3 (SD 17.6) years for males, and 64.6 (SD 13.8) years for females.
  • Squamous cell cancers were the most common: 27 / 36 (75%).
  • Cumulative survival functions for the cohort were derived for the time points of 3-yrs and 5-yrs after diagnosis.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest (75%) anal cancer.
  • 2. The risk of recurrence of anal cancer was 14% over 6-years, and 80% of recurrence was localised to the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27960904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Conroy T, Ducreux M, Lemanski C, Francois E, Giovannini M, Cvitkovic F, Mirabel X, Bouché O, Montoto-Grillot C, Peiffert D: Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4033

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial.

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  • (PMID = 27961547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yap JC, Yang GY, Fakih M, Mashtare T, Bullard Dunn K, Kuvshinoff BW, Smith J, Khushalani NI, Gibbs JF: Primary adenocarcinoma of the anus: a 22-year SEER population database analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15072

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e15072 Background: Most anal canal cancers consist of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA).
  • Adenocarcinoma (AdenoCa) is rare and accounts for approximately 10% of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: The search of the SEER database revealed 1,008 pts who had pathologically confirmed anal cancers with either SCCA or AdenoCa.
  • All pts had single diagnosis of anal cancer with localized disease without nodal involvement.
  • On the other hand, among the AdenoCa subset, pts who had APR had better 10-yr OS than RT pts (53.8% vs. 0%, p=0.03) Conclusions: For localized anal SCCA, RT yielded equivalent overall survival as compared to APR.
  • On the other hand, pts with localized anal adenoCa appeared to do worse when APR was omitted.
  • Omission of APR in pts with anal canal adenoCa should be cautiously weighed.

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  • (PMID = 27964572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Swampillai A, Williams M, Osborne M, Mawdsley S, Hughes R, Harrison M, Glynne-Jones R: A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4117

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT).
  • Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal cancer Trial (ACT II).
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis- Tx (6) T1 (28), T2 (80), T3 (65), T4 (16), N0 (126), N+ (66) Nx (3).

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  • (PMID = 27961219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Zaleski L, Turiansky GW: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cutis; 2010 Mar;85(3):143-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is an increasing concern in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • A discussion of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of SCCAC is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2010 Mar;85(3):119 [20408506.001]
  • (PMID = 20408513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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22. Rabbani AN, Zlotecki RA, Kirwan J, George TJ Jr, Morris CG, Rout WR, Mendenhall WM: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;33(1):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of definitive radiotherapy (RT) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19704368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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23. Eng C, Pathak P: Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(4-6):400-7
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  • [Title] Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that is often cured with the combined modality therapy of chemoradiation.
  • Here, we present a summary of the existing literature in the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma in the hopes of providing insight and potential treatment alternatives for the practicing physician.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19479383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Rousseau DL Jr, Thomas CR Jr, Petrelli NJ, Kahlenberg MS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;14(3):121-32
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is a rare condition with increasing incidence rates in the United States population in the past several decades.
  • This review article provides a complete overview of the etiology, anatomy and the approach to the multidisciplinary management of the patient with anal SCC.
  • Chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of SCC of the anal canal provides excellent disease control and survival while preserving anal sphincter function in the majority of patients.
  • The surgeon plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery


25. Martin FT, Kavanagh D, Waldron R: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surgeon; 2009 Aug;7(4):232-7
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract.
  • Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19736891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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26. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Tajima Y, Ishibashi K, Gonda T, Miyazaki T, Nakada H, Takahashi T, Ishida H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2050-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II).
  • This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19404066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Gorez E, Staumont G: [Epidermoid anal carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2008 Oct 31;58(16):1783-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome epidermoïde anal.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women.
  • Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific.
  • The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography.
  • First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19143150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Amano K, Ishibashi K, Nakada H, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Gonda T, Ishida H, Takahashi T: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2025-8
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report].
  • We reported an elderly case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following radiotherapy alone.
  • An 86-year-old man complaining of anal bleeding and pain was admitted.
  • Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Wright JL, Patil SM, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Saltz LB, Goodman KA: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1064-72
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) is increasingly used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Arikawa S, Uchida M, Ogoh E, Uozumi J, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Kaida H, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K, Hayabuchi N: [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):727-30
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  • [Title] [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal].
  • We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response.
  • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20414036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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36. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • [Cites] Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002 Jul;43(1):77-92 [12098609.001]
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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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37. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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39. Engineer R, Mallik S, Mahantshetty U, Shrivastava S: Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):283-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To perform a systematic analysis of clinical data of presentation, treatment, outcome, toxicity, survival and other associated prognostic factors of the patients of anal canal who received treatment at our hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20452695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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40. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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41. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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42. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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43. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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44. Chiao EY, Krown SE, Stier EA, Schrag D: A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Dec 1;40(4):451-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is etiologically linked to human papillomavirus, and its incidence is increased among the immunosuppressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology


45. Oehler-Jänne C, Huguet F, Provencher S, Seifert B, Negretti L, Riener MO, Bonet M, Allal AS, Ciernik IF: HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7
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  • [Title] HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To define clinical outcome after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • RESULTS: HIV-positive patients were younger (mean age, 48 v 62 years; P < .0005), predominantly male (93% v 25%; P < .0005), and with early-stage (P = .06) and large-cell histology (90% v 67%; P = .005) disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term LC and acute toxicity represent major clinical challenges in HIV-positive patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy


46. Bruna A, Gastelblum P, Thomas L, Chapet O, Bollet MA, Ardiet JM, Gérard JP, Peiffert D: Treatment of squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (SCACC) with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy: a retrospective study. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Apr;79(1):75-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (SCACC) with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy: a retrospective study.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16631268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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47. Kuga Y, Tanaka T, Arita M, Usui Y, Okanobu H, Numata Y, Miwata T, Yoshimi S, Murakami E, Moriya T, Ohya T, Nishida T: [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(11):1923-5
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  • [Title] [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma].
  • We report a case of left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma, treated effectively with chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP combined with radiotherapy.
  • In February 2006, a 76-year-old woman underwent resection of a tumor diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Biopsy was performed, and specimens were shown to include squamous cell carcinoma cells.
  • Chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy maybe effective for treating metastatic lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Injections, Intravenous. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19920402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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48. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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49. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


50. Klenova A, Balabanova A: [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):25-31
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  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases].
  • PURPOSE: The conservative treatment for carcinoma of the anal canal has become the standard care for this malignancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and December 2003 six female patients with UICC T2-3, No, Mo, G1-G2 squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated.
  • The therapy was well tolerated, with good anal continence and moderate late side effects, including soft chronic diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20063470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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51. Jiang Y, Mackley H, Cheng H, Ajani JA: Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy? J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):135-44
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy?
  • Use of definitive chemoradiation as primary therapy for locoregional squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has been the standard approach in the United States since the 1980s.
  • Further improvement is likely depending on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of anal carcinoma and the addition of relevant biologic agents to chemoradiation to overcome chemoradiation resistance.

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  • (PMID = 20064295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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52. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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53. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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54. Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women. AIDS Alert; 2006 Mar;21(3):22-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women.
  • Investigators compared United States surveillance data for cancer in the pre-HIV era, HIV era, and antiretroviral treatment era and found that squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal incidence rates increased significantly in the latter era.


55. Zhang J, Martins CR, Fansler ZB, Roemer KL, Kincaid EA, Gustafson KS, Heitjan DF, Clark DP: DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6544-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with human papillomavirus infection and may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is increasing in immunocompromised patients.
  • We hypothesize that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and that detection of these events may be used to improve screening programs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-six patients were identified who underwent anal cytology screening and subsequent biopsy at our institution between 1999 and 2004.
  • The specimens from these patients included 184 anal biopsies [normal, n = 57; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), n = 74; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), n = 41; and invasive SCC, n = 12] and 37 residual liquid-based anal cytology specimens (normal, n = 11; LSIL, n = 12; HSIL, n = 14).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent event in anal HSIL and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adult. Biopsy. Carrier Proteins. Cell Adhesion Molecules. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16166431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CADM1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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56. Hogg ME, Popowich DA, Wang EC, Kiel KD, Stryker SJ, Halverson AL: HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):891-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of HIV status on outcome of treatment for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated at a single academic institution between January 1996 and December 2006.
  • RESULTS: Our search identified 87 (21 HIV-positive) patients who had invasive squamous-cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality


57. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • Accompanying dysplasia of the overlying squamous mucosa was absent.
  • This appearance together with microcystic spaces simulated that of an adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • BSC of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern is an infrequently encountered and reported variant, although it is seen more often in the aerodigestive tract.
  • The histologic differential diagnosis is true salivary gland-type adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and awareness of this unusual pattern of BSC will facilitate the correct diagnosis being reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy. Time Factors. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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58. Meyer J, Willett C, Czito B: Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2010 May;12(3):168-74
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  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer.
  • Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C) is established as a sphincter-preserving treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This review discusses the evolution of therapy for anal cancer, from early clinical trials establishing the current standard to more recent studies evaluating cisplatin, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab.

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  • [Cites] Lancet. 1996 Oct 19;348(9034):1049-54 [8874455.001]
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  • (PMID = 20425076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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59. Moore DH: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):379-83
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one?
  • The addition of chemotherapy concurrent to radiation therapy for the treatment of vulvar carcinoma was heavily influenced by advances in the treatment of cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • On the basis of many good phase II studies but no randomized controlled trials in the disease, chemoradiation therapy is now inherent to the clinical management of vulvar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19232700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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60. Chatelain D, Mokrani N, Fléjou JF: [Anal and anal margin tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Dec;27(6):459-75
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  • [Title] [Anal and anal margin tumors].
  • Tumors of the anal canal and anal margin are rare.
  • Cancers are infrequent and consisted of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, or poorly differentiated basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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61. Shia J: An update on tumors of the anal canal. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1601-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update on tumors of the anal canal.
  • CONTEXT: The anal canal possesses complex anatomy and histology and gives rise to a variety of tumor types.
  • Challenging issues remain with regard to both the pathologic diagnosis and the clinical management of these tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated overview of the histogenesis, clinical and pathologic characteristics, diagnostic terminology, and relevant clinical management of the various types of anal canal tumors.
  • DATA SOURCES: Recent literature on clinical and pathologic characteristics of anal canal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although most anal canal tumors are of squamous lineage, a complex variety of other tumors also occurs.
  • Recognition of such diverse tumor entities will allow accurate pathologic diagnosis and most optimal clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Ilias EJ: [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2008 Sep-Oct;54(5):380-1
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  • [Title] [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Como estadiar e tratar o carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18989550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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63. Val-Bernal JF, Mayorga M, Diego C, González-Vela MC: Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal. Pathol Int; 2008 Jul;58(7):442-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal.
  • To the authors' knowledge a lymphangioma of the anal canal has not been reported.
  • Described herein is a case of pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the right lateral wall on the transitional zone of the anal canal measuring 1.7 x 1.3 x 1 cm in a 40-year-old woman.
  • A pedicle does not exclude the endoscopic diagnosis of lymphangioma.
  • Lymphangioma must be included in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Rectal Fistula / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18577114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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64. Hauerstock D, Ennis RD, Grossbard M, Evans A: Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2010 Oct;9(4):238-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the results and the toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive patients treated at a single institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: HIV-positive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the canal treated at Continuum Cancer Centers-affiliated hospitals were identified from tumor registries.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Radiotherapy, Conformal


65. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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66. Robb BW, Mutch MG: Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):54-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Anal cancers are rare tumors with only an expected 4000 new diagnoses in 2005.
  • The majority of these are epidermoid or squamous cell cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20011311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780104
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid cancer / anal canal / squamous cancer
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67. Oblak I, Petric P, Anderluh F, Velenik V, Hudej R, Fras AP: Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience. Neoplasma; 2009;56(2):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience.
  • Results of radiochemotherapy in 50 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, treated with radical radiochemotherapy between January 2003 and September 2007, at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana are presented.
  • Late anal stenosis, chronic ulceration and grade 2-3 incontinence developed in 3 (6 %), 2 (4 %) and 5 (10 %) of colostomy-free survivors, respectively.
  • </p> KEYWORDS: anal cancer, radiochemotherapy, survival, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19239330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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68. Milano MT, Jani AB, Farrey KJ, Rash C, Heimann R, Chmura SJ: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):354-61
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome.
  • PURPOSE: To assess survival, local control, and toxicity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating analysis, the acute toxicity and clinical outcome with IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer is encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16168830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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69. Mullen JT, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Barcenas CH, Crane CH, Skibber JM, Feig BW: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):478-83
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  • [Title] Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal consists of combined radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival following salvage surgery for persistent or locally recurrent epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal can be achieved in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17103253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Lê LH, Chetty R, Moore MJ: Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in anal canal carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jul;124(1):20-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in anal canal carcinoma.
  • Most anal canal carcinomas (ACCs) are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • Therefore, we obtained archived pathology samples from ACC biopsies and examined the frequency and level of expression of EGFR and other cell surface and cell cycle markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15923158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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71. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • Because the first diagnostic specimen received in the pathology laboratory is usually a small, sometimes suboptimal biopsy, the distinction of these types of carcinoma can be difficult.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • The p63 protein has been previously shown to be involved in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and is known to be related to squamous carcinomas in many sites.
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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72. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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73. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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75. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Mornex F, Goncalves-Tavan S, Ardiet JM, D'hombres A, Favrel V, Romestaing P: Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Feb;22(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience.
  • BACKGROUND: To report our patient experience with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2001, 26 patients with anal margin squamous cell carcinoma were treated in Lyon-Sud: 7 T1, 14 T2, 4 T3, and 1 T4 with 20 N0, 3 N1, and 3 N2.
  • The anal canal was invaded in five patients.
  • Three factors correlated with specific survival: cell differentiation (P=0.038) and T (P=0.001) and N category (P=0.0005).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the dominating place of definitive irradiation and radiochemotherapy in the treatment of anal margin squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma is correlated to T and N staging and cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16799791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19727729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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78. Devaraj B, Cosman BC: Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):36-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV.
  • PURPOSE: Anal squamous dysplasia is commonly found in patients with HIV infection.
  • This study reviews a series of patients with HIV and an abnormal anal examination who had squamous dysplasia and who have been followed with physical examination alone and with repeat biopsies as necessary for new or suspicious lesions.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 40 HIV-positive men who had squamous dysplasia of the anal canal and anal margin, focusing on history, physical findings, histologic diagnosis, and the occurrence of invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Forty HIV-positive men (mean age, 39 years) were followed for anal squamous dysplasia.
  • Three patients developed invasive carcinoma while under surveillance, and these were completely excised or cured with chemoradiation.
  • Physical examination surveillance for invasive carcinoma may be acceptable for following patients with HIV and biopsy-proven squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Decision Making. HIV / immunology. HIV Antibodies / immunology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Oct;49(10):1648-9; author reply 1649-50 [16972138.001]
  • (PMID = 16283561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Antibodies
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79. Nagle D: Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):102-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is uncommon.
  • Modern therapy of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the overall survival of HIV patients and allowed effective therapy for those who develop epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 20436834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780243
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus / HIV / anal cancer
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80. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


81. Crowley C, Winship AZ, Hawkins MA, Morris SL, Leslie MD: Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Jun;21(5):376-9
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  • [Title] Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation?
  • AIMS: Chemoradiation is the standard of care for the treatment of anal canal cancer, with surgery reserved for salvage.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1998 and August 2004, 30 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell anal canal cancer were treated with chemoradiation using one phase of treatment throughout.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range 41-84).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This single-centre retrospective study supports the treatment for selected cases of anal canal cancer with smaller than standard radiation fields, avoiding prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Pelvis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19282157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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83. Lee WS, Chun HK, Lee WY, Yun SH, Yun H, Cho YB, Kang WK, Park YS, Huh SJ, Ahn YC, Park W: Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Oct 31;48(5):827-32
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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution.
  • PURPOSE: The clinical features, treatment modality approaches in clinical practice, and prognostic factors for anal canal carcinoma patients were retrospectively analyzed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1994 and December 2005, 50 patients with anal canal cancer were treated at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow up of 37.8 months (range, 6.6-136.1 months), the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the 38 patients with early and locally advanced squamous and cloacogenic carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma and cloacogenic carcinoma) were 74.8% and 66.5%, respectively.
  • Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (p=0.04) and inguinal node status (p=0.04) significantly influenced patient survival in patients with squamous cell and cloacogenic carcinomas.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that inguinal node metastasis is a single independent prognostic variable for survival (p=0.04) in patients with squamous cell and cloacogenic carcinomas.
  • Due to the rarity and complexity of anal canal carcinoma, interdepartmental cooperation is required for disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17963341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628150
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84. Ajani JA, Wang X, Izzo JG, Crane CH, Eng C, Skibber JM, Das P, Rashid A: Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Apr;55(4):1098-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation.
  • Large primary tumor and clinical nodal involvement in patients with anal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation are associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS).
  • We analyzed clinical and biomarker data in 30 patients with anal carcinoma who had chemoradiation.
  • Upon further expansion and validation, these results may provide a biomarker-based understanding of heterogeneous clinical biology of patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hedgehog Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. NF-kappa B / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Zinc Finger Protein GLI1

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  • (PMID = 19399614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zinc Finger Protein GLI1; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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85. Jain SK, Tanwar R, Kaza RC, Ghuliani D: Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site. J Wound Care; 2010 Dec;19(12):532-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site.
  • The only current method for confirming diagnosis is biopsy, which if positive will be followed by wide local excision and skin coverage.
  • Its presentation mimicked that of an anal canal carcinoma, although detailed workup, which included computed tomography (CT) scan revealed this growth to be separate from the anal canal, albeit in close association.
  • This is an extremely rare site and the study illustrates that squamous cell carcinoma can mimic anal carcinoma unless carefully examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burns / complications. Buttocks / injuries. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21160444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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87. Scott H, Khoury J, Moore BA, Weissman S: Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic. Sex Transm Dis; 2008 Feb;35(2):197-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with routine anal cancer screening using anal cytology, determine risk factors for abnormal anal cytology, and determine if an association exists between cytology and histology in patients with HIV infection.
  • METHODS: Demographics, CD4+ T-cell count, STD history, and cytology and histology data were extracted from medical charts of patients seen between November 1, 2002, and November 30, 2004.
  • Multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression controlling for age, race, sex, CD4+ T-cell nadir, and HIV exposure category.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 276 of 560 of the clinic patients received a screening anal cytology during the study period.
  • Of these patients, 11 were excluded from the analysis and 74 of 265 (27.9%) patients screened had an abnormal anal cytology.
  • They were also more likely to have a lower CD4+ nadir (142 cells/mm3 vs. 223 cells/mm3, P = 0.005) and CD4+ at time of anal cytology (353 cells/mm3 vs. 497 cells/mm3, P <0.001).
  • Those with an abnormal anal cytology also had higher occurrence of anal disease on perianal visual inspection (30% vs. 9%, P <0.001) and were more likely to have a history of genital warts (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.02) or herpes (35% vs. 22%, P = 0.02).
  • Two patients had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I, 2 AIN II, 3 AIN III, and 2 squamous cell carcinoma in situ on histology.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine anal cytology screening is a feasible tool to incorporate into HIV care for patients regardless of gender and HIV risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Urban Health Services / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18216727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Heitland W: [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2008 Feb;79(2):183-91; quiz 192
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma].
  • Of all carcinomas in the anal canal, 75-80% are squamous cell carcinomas-the remaining 25% being adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of the anal margin are to be differentiated from basal cell carcinomas and Paget's and Bowen's diseases.
  • More than 80% of anal carcinomas show high-risk HP viruses.
  • Every suspicious lesion in the anal canal and margins must be examined histologically.
  • Primary radiochemotherapy is the first treatment option for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal and anal margin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18227955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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90. Fox PA: Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):62-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A review of recent developments in the understanding of the natural history of anal squamous carcinoma arising from areas of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a consequence of chronic human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal and appears to be driven by high viral loads of human papillomavirus.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is equally prevalent in different age groups of men who have sex with men, but in other respects what is known of its natural history resembles that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HIV-positives who practise receptive anal intercourse are at highest risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Screening is easy to perform using cytology; the limitations of anal cytology being similar to those of cervical cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 16374220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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91. Jindal S, Vij V, Singhal D, Chaudhary A: Squamous cell carcinoma of stomach. Trop Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr-Jun;27(2):91-2
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of stomach.
  • Squamous cell carcinomas in the gastrointestinal tract are known to occur in oro-pharynx, esophagus and anal canal.
  • Gastric squamous cell carcinoma is a rare epithelial tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17089621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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92. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. HIV Infections / virology. Sexual Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


93. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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94. Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bago-Horvath Z, Schellenbacher C, Bankier A, Salat A, Stingl G, Kirnbauer R: Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Aug;85(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Buschke-Löwenstein tumour (BLT) of the anogenitalia is a locally invasive, destructively growing verrucous carcinoma that does not metastasise.
  • Nevertheless, the tumour grows relentlessly and may rarely progress into squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • RESULTS: A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected immunosuppressed patient developed (peri)anal warts accompanied by recurrent abscesses and fistulae.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. HIV Infections / complications. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Cachexia / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Groin. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


95. de Jong JS, Beukema JC, van Dam GM, Slart R, Lemstra C, Wiggers T: Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2656-62
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  • [Title] Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Selection of patients with anal cancer for groin irradiation is based on tumor size, palpation, ultrasound, and fine needle cytology.
  • Current staging of anal cancer may result in undertreatment in small tumors and overtreatment of large tumors.
  • This study reports the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with anal cancer and whether this improves the selection for inguinal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 50 patients with squamous anal cancer were evaluated prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SLNB in anal cancer is technically feasible.
  • However, because of the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastases after a tumor-negative SLNB, introduction of this procedure as standard of care in all patients with anal carcinoma should be done with caution to avoid undertreatment of patient who otherwise would benefit from inguinal radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20865825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941712
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96. Miyamoto S, Maeda Y, Hishima T, Sasaki T: [Case of higher efficacy by chemoradiotherapy for anal canal cancer from left cervix metastases to lymph nodes]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Feb;36(2):329-32
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  • [Title] [Case of higher efficacy by chemoradiotherapy for anal canal cancer from left cervix metastases to lymph nodes].
  • Biopsy showed a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • She was searched from head to foot, but the primary carcinoma could not be identified.
  • It was referred to our hospital as a primary unidentified carcinoma.
  • In examination, the anal region had phyma in a rectal examination, and biopsy revealed it to be a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • For anal canal cancer cStage IV, we performed chemotherapies of S-1+CDDP and local radiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy including S-1 was effective for this case of anal canal cancer distant metastasis for which no apparent cause has been established thus far.

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  • (PMID = 19223758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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97. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Ortholan C, Ramaioli A, Peiffert D, Lusinchi A, Romestaing P, Chauveinc L, Touboul E, Peignaux K, Bruna A, de La Roche G, Lagrange JL, Alzieu C, Gerard JP: Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors &lt; or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jun 1;62(2):479-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors < or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical history, management, and pattern of recurrence of very early-stage anal canal cancer in a French retrospective survey.
  • METHODS: The study group consisted of 69 patients with Stage Tis and T1 anal canal carcinoma < or =1 cm treated between 1990 and 2000 (12 were in situ, 57 invasive, 66 Stage N0, and 3 Stage N1).
  • These small anal cancers could be treated by RT using a small volume and moderate dose (40-50 Gy for subclinical lesions and 50-60 Gy for T1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15890590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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100. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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