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1. Zhang J, Martins CR, Fansler ZB, Roemer KL, Kincaid EA, Gustafson KS, Heitjan DF, Clark DP: DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6544-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with human papillomavirus infection and may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is increasing in immunocompromised patients.
  • We hypothesize that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and that detection of these events may be used to improve screening programs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-six patients were identified who underwent anal cytology screening and subsequent biopsy at our institution between 1999 and 2004.
  • The specimens from these patients included 184 anal biopsies [normal, n = 57; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), n = 74; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), n = 41; and invasive SCC, n = 12] and 37 residual liquid-based anal cytology specimens (normal, n = 11; LSIL, n = 12; HSIL, n = 14).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent event in anal HSIL and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation

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  • (PMID = 16166431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CADM1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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2. Vajdic CM, Anderson JS, Hillman RJ, Medley G, Grulich AE: Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Oct;81(5):415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anal cytology smears are either collected "blind" (swab inserted 4 cm into anal canal and rotated) or guided through an anoscope (transformation zone visualised and then sampled).
  • The outcome measures were cytological specimen adequacy, cytological classification, presence of rectal columnar, squamous and metaplastic cells, contamination, patient comfort and acceptability, and volume of fluid that remained after the ThinPrep procedure.
  • Controlling for smear order, guided smears were more likely to be assessed as "unsatisfactory" for cytological assessment (OR 6.93, 95% CI 1.92 to 24.94), and contain fewer squamous (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.94) and metaplastic cells (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.54) than blind smears; there were no other statistically significant differences between techniques.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blind cytology smears are superior to anoscope guided smears for screening for anal neoplasia in homosexual men.

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  • (PMID = 16199742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1745038
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3. Fox PA, Seet JE, Stebbing J, Francis N, Barton SE, Strauss S, Allen-Mersh TG, Gazzard BG, Bower M: The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Apr;81(2):142-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the utility of anal cytology as a screening tool for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Comparison was made between results of anal cytology using the sampling method of Palefsky, and histological findings of biopsies taken from abnormal areas seen on high resolution anoscopic examination of the anal canal.
  • At screening of 34 asymptomatic men, 83% had anal cytological dysplasia and 78% had AIN.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology by the Palefsky method is simple to undertake, has a sensitivity and specificity comparable with cervical cytology, and can therefore be used as the basis of a pilot screening project in centres with large cohorts of HIV positive homosexual men who have a high risk of developing anal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15800092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1764665
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4. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


5. Mullerat J, Perrett CW, Deroide F, Winslet MC, Bofill M, Poulters LW: The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):693-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While macrophages (CD68+) have been associated with angiogenesis in some inflammatory and neoplastic processes by increasing the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their role in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma has not been established.
  • This study records macrophage infiltration in anal pre-invasive and invasive lesions in HIV+ and HIV- populations, and determines their relationship with angiogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (31 HIV+) with AIN and anal SCC were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / pathology. Macrophages / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / blood supply. Anal Canal / pathology. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / virology. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / blood supply. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 15868898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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6. Dianzani C, Pierangeli A, Avola A, Borzomati D, Persichetti P, Degener AM: Intra-anal condyloma: surgical or topical treatment? Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(12):8
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  • [Title] Intra-anal condyloma: surgical or topical treatment?
  • Although the viral types associated with condylomata usually do not cause carcinoma, in women with a history of these lesions there is an increased risk of intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.
  • We report a case of a male patient with external and intra-anal condyloma resistant to laser therapy.
  • Initially, surgical intervention appeared required because of florid and intra-anal growth.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Anal Canal. Humans. Male. Ointments. Retreatment. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Online J. 2009;15(1):14 [19281719.001]
  • (PMID = 19265621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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7. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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8. Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether imiquimod was more effective than placebo for the treatment of high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-ACIN).
  • METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-positive patients were randomized to self-application of imiquimod cream or matched placebo into the anal canal three times a week for 4 months.
  • In the imiquimod group, four patients resolved and eight patients downgraded to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with a median follow-up of 33 months.
  • Five of these patients cleared their anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (ACIN) and four patients downgraded to LSIL.
  • During this extended follow-up period, 61% have exhibited sustained absence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of imiquimod for the treatment of ACIN, and the benefit of prolonged or repeated treatments.
  • This form of therapy is likely to be especially valuable for patients with widespread multifocal ACIN who are otherwise difficult to treat, and should be considered as an adjunct to ablative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects


9. Alaei P, Higgins P: Effect of multileaf collimator-defined segment size on Sc. Med Phys; 2010 Jun;37(6Part1):2731-2737

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of the change in the output factor due to MLCs may be important for better modeling of dose in IMRT deliveries and other applications such asin vivo dosimetry.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
  • (PMID = 28512946.001).
  • [ISSN] 2473-4209
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Biomedical modeling / Collimators / Dosimetry / Dosimetry/exposure assessment / Field size / Intensity modulated radiation therapy / Interpolation / Ionization chambers / Linear accelerators / Medical treatment planning / Multileaf collimators / aperture effect / collimators / dosimetry / multileaf collimators / radiation therapy
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10. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Charúa-Guindic L, Esquivel-Ocampo EA, Villanueva-Herrero JA, Jiménez-Bobadilla B, Muñoz-Cortés SB, Leal-Tamez M, Avendaño-Espinosa O: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(3):195-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients].
  • [Transliterated title] La neoplasia intraepitelial anal y la infección por virus del papiloma humano en pacientes anorreceptivos.
  • BACKGROUND: An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and progression to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and epidermoid cancer has been established.
  • Patients who accepted anal citology and high definition anoscopy and biopsies with a follow-up not minor of 3 months were included.
  • Anal cytology showed inflammatory alterations in 21 patients (28%), low grade intraepithelial lesion in 23 (52%); there were not patients with high grade epithelial lesion.
  • According to the high definition anoscopy, there were low grade intraepithelial lesion in 42 patients (95%) and high grade in 2 (5%).
  • Biopsy showed low grade intraepithelial in 26 patients (59%), high grade in 4 (9%) and inflammatory alterations in 14 (32%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19858007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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12. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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13. Fox PA: Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):62-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A review of recent developments in the understanding of the natural history of anal squamous carcinoma arising from areas of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a consequence of chronic human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal and appears to be driven by high viral loads of human papillomavirus.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is equally prevalent in different age groups of men who have sex with men, but in other respects what is known of its natural history resembles that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HIV-positives who practise receptive anal intercourse are at highest risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Screening is easy to perform using cytology; the limitations of anal cytology being similar to those of cervical cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 16374220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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14. Véo CA, Saad SS, Nicolau SM, Melani AG, Denadai MV: Study on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):103-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the anal canal of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade III.
  • The women in group I who presented high-grade neoplasia in colpocytological tests underwent collection of material from the uterine cervix and anal canal for investigating HPV DNA using the Hybrid Capture II technique.
  • RESULTS: In group I, 39 women (97.5%) were positive for HPV in the uterine cervix and 14 women (35%) in the anal canal.
  • In group II, only four women (10%) had a positive HPV test, for both the uterine cervix and the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV in the anal canal of the women with CIN III was greater than in the women without CIN III.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anal Canal / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18472205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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15. Bean SM, Eltoum I, Horton DK, Whitlow L, Chhieng DC: Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):555-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a human papilloma virus related lesion.
  • The objective of this study is to correlate p16 expression and cellular proliferation measured by Ki-67 staining with the degree of dysplasia in the anal canal and to determine the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • Seventy-five anal specimens from 55 patients (37 men; 18 women; mean age: 48 y; median: 44 y; range 25 to 96 y) were studied including 35 normal/reactive lesions, 23 low-grade AIN (AIN I and condyloma), and 17 high-grade AIN (AIN II and III).
  • The expression of both p16 and Ki-67 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17414102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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16. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Shepherd NA: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):969-87, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region.
  • Anal cancer is rare and this helps to explain why anal pre-neoplastic conditions are poorly understood, especially with regard to their natural history and management.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is closely linked to human papillomavirus infection and is particularly common in homosexuals and in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS.
  • The high regression rates of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia may simply reflect inconsistent pathologic reporting.
  • Higher grades of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may remain static for long periods of time in immunocompetent patients, but those with HIV/AIDS show early and rapid malignant transformation.
  • In general, most anal pre-neoplastic conditions are best diagnosed by biopsy and treated by surgical excision, although local recurrence is a problem.
  • In anal Paget's disease, it is important to ascertain, at the time of diagnosis, whether it is due to a primary in-situ apocrine-type of neoplasia of the anus or if the disease is secondary to an invasive primary carcinoma of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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18. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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19. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Chin-Hong PV, Berry JM, Cheng SC, Catania JA, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Fishman F, Jay N, Pollack LM, Palefsky JM: Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med; 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in prevalence and is more common among men who have sex with men and HIV-positive individuals than cervical cancer is among women in the United States.
  • Cytology screening can detect the anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of self-collected versus clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to detect biopsy-confirmed AIN and the prevalence estimate of AIN in a community sample.
  • Participants were mailed anal cytology self-collection kits with instructions.
  • Clinicians repeated anal cytology and performed high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies as the diagnostic reference standard.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of anal HPV and AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of self-collected and clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to diagnose AIN were calculated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. San Francisco / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5 [19221387.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):I38 [18765696.001]
  • (PMID = 18765699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH54320
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Lin GL, Qiu HZ, Xiao Y, Wu B, Meng WC: [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jan;11(1):39-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia and early rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) and early rectal carcinoma.
  • The average distance of tumors from the anal verge was 7.2(4-15) cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18197492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Scott H, Khoury J, Moore BA, Weissman S: Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic. Sex Transm Dis; 2008 Feb;35(2):197-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with routine anal cancer screening using anal cytology, determine risk factors for abnormal anal cytology, and determine if an association exists between cytology and histology in patients with HIV infection.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 276 of 560 of the clinic patients received a screening anal cytology during the study period.
  • Of these patients, 11 were excluded from the analysis and 74 of 265 (27.9%) patients screened had an abnormal anal cytology.
  • They were also more likely to have a lower CD4+ nadir (142 cells/mm3 vs. 223 cells/mm3, P = 0.005) and CD4+ at time of anal cytology (353 cells/mm3 vs. 497 cells/mm3, P <0.001).
  • Those with an abnormal anal cytology also had higher occurrence of anal disease on perianal visual inspection (30% vs. 9%, P <0.001) and were more likely to have a history of genital warts (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.02) or herpes (35% vs. 22%, P = 0.02).
  • Two patients had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I, 2 AIN II, 3 AIN III, and 2 squamous cell carcinoma in situ on histology.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine anal cytology screening is a feasible tool to incorporate into HIV care for patients regardless of gender and HIV risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Urban Health Services / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18216727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Nahas CS, Lin O, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Stier EA: Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1581-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • All patients underwent anal canal and perianal high-resolution anoscopy in the office with biopsy of suspicious areas.
  • Patients with high-grade intraepithelial perianal lesions underwent multiple biopsies under general anesthesia in the operating room to rule out malignancy.
  • Office perianal biopsies diagnosed two patients with invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and nine with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Seven of the nine patients with perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on office biopsy were submitted to multiple biopsies under general anesthesia.
  • One of these seven had an occult perianal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal disease was common in this group of HIV-infected patients; 11 patients (21 percent of total) were diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Our data suggest that anal canal neoplasia often is accompanied by perianal disease and illustrates the need for biopsy of any suspicious perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Proctoscopy / methods


24. Oon SF, Winter DC: Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature. J Med Screen; 2010;17(1):44-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are the precursors to anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus infection has a direct link to ASIL formation and is responsible for up to 80% of anal cancers.
  • But while much importance has been focused on targeting cancer precursors in the cervix, relatively little concern has been afforded to the anal canal.
  • However, marked similarities in the biological and pathological profiles of cervical cancer and anal cancer mean that anal cancer should be preventable in the same way - by curbing the progression of ASIL to cancer.
  • This article explores the literature on ASILs and the growing problem of anal cancer in the community, along with the literature surrounding the current progress towards implementing a screening programme for ASIL in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20356945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical screening
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Screen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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25. Aynaud O, Buffet M, Roman P, Plantier F, Dupin N: Study of persistence and recurrence rates in 106 patients with condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia after CO2 laser treatment. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Mar-Apr;18(2):153-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study of persistence and recurrence rates in 106 patients with condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia after CO2 laser treatment.
  • Twenty-seven (25.5%) patients presented with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms (IEN III).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Immunocompetence. Laser Therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Penis / pathology. Perineum / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Scrotum / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / pathology. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18424374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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27. Orlando G, Beretta R, Fasolo MM, Amendola A, Bianchi S, Mazza F, Rizzardini G, Tanzi E: Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males. Vaccine; 2009 May 29;27 Suppl 1:A24-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer are closely related to infection from high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes.
  • Anal cytology, Digene Hybrid Capture Assay (HC2) and HPV genotyping were evaluated in 226 Italian (IT) and 63 foreign born (FB) subjects, recruited between January 2003 and December 2006.
  • FB people were younger (median 32y-IQR 27-35 vs 36y-IQR 31-43, respectively; Mann-Whitney test p<0.0001) and had a higher rate of abnormal results (>or=atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)) on anal cytology (95.0% vs 84.04%) (p=0.032; OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.04-1.23).
  • HPV-16 is by far the most common genotype found in anal cytological samples independently from nationality while differences in distribution of other HPV genotypes were observed.
  • The relative contribution of each HPV genotype in the development of pre-neoplastic disease to an early age in the FB group cannot be argued by this study and more extensive epidemiological evaluations are needed to define the influence of each genotype and the association with the most prevalent high-risk HPVs on cytological intraepithelial lesions development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. DNA, Viral / genetics. Genotype. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19480957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2518
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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28. Wiley DJ, Huh J, Rao JY, Chang C, Goetz M, Poulter M, Masongsong E, Chang CI, Bernard HU: Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jun 1;39(2):143-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methylation of human papillomavirus genomes in cells of anal epithelia of HIV-infected men.
  • Intra-anal malignancies disproportionately affect individuals who engage in anal intercourse because of infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), with an increased risk attributed to infection with HIV because of a declining immunity against HPvs. Long-term persistence of HPVs suggests yet other mechanisms that determine the clinical outcome, however.
  • Because methylation of HPV DNA represses oncogene expression in cervical samples, we investigated whether this mechanism also occurs in HIV-positive men and studied the methylation of CpG dinucleotides overlapping with the HPV-16 enhancer and promoter in 16 anal samples.
  • In low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), methylation was high in CpGs overlapping the viral enhancer but rare in promoter positions, whereas methylation was high in promoter regions in high-grade AIN, especially in samples with a high load of viral genomes.
  • Our study expands the observation and mapping of HPV DNA methylation to anal infections and the HIV-positive patient population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / virology. Base Sequence. Biopsy. DNA Primers. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Dinucleoside Phosphates / analysis. Enhancer Elements, Genetic. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Virus Latency. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 15905729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-91964; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-91964
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Dinucleoside Phosphates; 2382-65-2 / cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
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29. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • The p63 protein has been previously shown to be involved in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and is known to be related to squamous carcinomas in many sites.
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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30. Piketty C, Kazatchkine MD: Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):140-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV-infected men who have sex with men remain at high risk of developing anal cancer despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • So far, epidemiologic data provided by cancer registries have shown no reduction in the incidence of cervical and anal cancer in patients with HIV infection since the initiation of HAART in 1996.
  • Recent data suggest that HPV infection occurs in the anal canal of immunocompromised patients, as an opportunistic infection, in the absence of receptive anal intercourse.
  • Taken together, these lines of evidence support the need for developing anal and cervical cancer screening programs for patients with HIV, whether untreated or on HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology


31. Walts AE, Thomas P, Bose S: Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing? Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):152-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cytology: is there a role for reflex HPV DNA testing?
  • There is an increased incidence of anal squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia [AIN]) among persons who engage in anal-receptive sex.
  • Analogous to cervical cancer screening, anal Papanicplaou (Pap) smears currently are used to screen these high-risk populations.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in anal carcinoma pathogenesis and this study was performed to assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing as an adjunct to anal cytology.
  • We correlated cytological diagnoses and HPV DNA (Digene Hybrid Capture [HC II] assay) in anal specimens collected in SurePath liquid medium from 118 patients; 54.8% of cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and 87.8% diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or above tested positive for high- risk HPV DNA (B+).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078257.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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32. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 20442633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Bean SM, Chhieng DC, Roberson J, Raper JL, Broker TR, Hoesley CJ, Eltoum IA, Jin G: Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):90-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: correlation with human papillomavirus status and biopsy diagnoses in a population of HIV-positive patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We describe the cytological distribution of disease, correlate cytological diagnoses with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status and surgical biopsy diagnoses, determine if CD4 counts correlate with lesion severity, and compare anal-rectal data of HIV-infected patients (primarily men) with cervical data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the computerized database identified 118 HIV-positive patients who had anal-rectal cytology.
  • Cytology results were compared with available follow-up data including repeat anal-rectal cytology tests, surgical biopsy, CD4 counts, and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping.
  • RESULTS: Cytological diagnoses included 3% unsatisfactory for diagnosis, 41% negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 23% atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US), 31% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 2% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-US/squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.7:1).
  • Two anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) II, 10 AIN III, and 1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma were histologically detected (11%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal-rectal cytology is a useful screening test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20354415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83679
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Nathan M, Hickey N, Mayuranathan L, Vowler SL, Singh N: Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jul;19(7):445-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study.
  • Treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal canal disease has been unsatisfactory.
  • The objective of our study was to determine the treatment outcome in our cohort with anal HPV disease.
  • Eighty-eight patients (48.6%) with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 82 patients (45.3%) with low-grade AIN underwent treatment.
  • Contrary to the current view that treatment of HPV-related anal disease is difficult, unrewarding due to recurrences and may lead to substantial morbidity, we demonstrate that effective treatment is possible for both low- and high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Laser Therapy / utilization. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Warts / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18574114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Poizot-Martin I, Henry M, Benhaim S, Obry-Roguet V, Figarella D, Tamalet C: High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients. J Clin Virol; 2009 Apr;44(4):314-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite HAART, the prevalence and incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals have increased.
  • Recently, the relationship between the severity of cervical lesions and oncogenic HPV load was demonstrated; however, few studies have assessed the level and the significance of oncogenic HPV load in patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess HPV genotypes and HPV 16/18 DNA load in HIV-1 infected patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study from male and female HIV-1 infected individuals at risk for anal neoplasia in an outpatient HIV Clinical Unit of Marseilles university Hospitals.
  • RESULTS: Anal HPV was found in 79% of the patients whereas high-risk (HR) HPV types and infection with multiple HPV types were found in 83% and 61% of the patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the link between high anal HPV DNA load and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. HIV Infections / complications. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19269245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5967
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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36. Nathan M, Singh N, Garrett N, Hickey N, Prevost T, Sheaff M: Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings. AIDS; 2010 Jan 28;24(3):373-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings.
  • OBJECTIVES: The success of cervical cytology in screening for cervical neoplasia has led to the concept of anal cytology screening for anal neoplasia.
  • Our objective is to study the performance of anal cytology as a screening tool.
  • DESIGN: We assessed anal cytology against histology and high-resolution anoscopy in a clinical setting.
  • METHODS: Anal pap test was obtained prior to high-resolution anoscopy examinations and biopsies.
  • RESULTS: From 395 individuals (93% men), 584 anal pap tests were obtained.
  • On the basis of 288 histology results, the sensitivity of anal cytology to detect disease was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 64-75], whereas the specificity was 67% (95% CI 38-88).
  • For high-grade disease (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3), sensitivity of anal cytology was 81% (95% CI 70-90), and the negative predictive value was 85% (95% CI 76-92).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology performs similar to cervical cytology in a clinical setting.
  • Sensitivity of anal smear is dependent on the area (quadrants) of disease present.
  • Sensitivity of anal cytology is enhanced when CD4 cell count is less than 400 cells/microl in HIV-positive men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / pathology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS. 2010 Jan 28;24(3):463-5 [19926960.001]
  • (PMID = 20057313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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38. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / surgery. Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections. Recurrence. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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39. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


40. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA: Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Jul 1;51(1):107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus causes anal condylomata, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal squamous cell cancer.
  • We found high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell cancer in 75 (47%) of 159 HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) and in 42 (26%) of 160 HIV-seronegative MSM with anal condylomata meriting surgery (P<.001, determined by use of the chi(2) test).
  • Anal condylomata in MSM often harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications


41. Chung AP, Rosenfeld DB: Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting. Am Surg; 2007 Dec;73(12):1279-83
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  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia III (AIN III) is a risk factor for anal cancer with poor curative results and high morbidity.
  • From January 2002 through November 2005, 76 patients with AIN III diagnosed by anal Pap smear, colposcopy, or biopsy underwent HRA for diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Community Health Services. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Private Practice. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18186390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Steenbergen RD, de Wilde J, Wilting SM, Brink AA, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ: HPV-mediated transformation of the anogenital tract. J Clin Virol; 2005 Mar;32 Suppl 1:S25-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been associated with intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinomas at various sites of the anogenital tract, including the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis and anus.
  • Although HR-HPV is a necessary cause for cervical cancer, the majority of anal cancers and a subset of cancers at other genital sites, additional (epi)genetic events are required for malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / virology. Cell Cycle / genetics. Female. Genitalia / virology. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15753009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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43. Wilkin T, Lee JY, Lensing SY, Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Berry JM, Jay N, Aboulafia D, Cohn DL, Einstein MH, Saah A, Mitsuyasu RT, Palefsky JM: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected men. J Infect Dis; 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1246-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected men are at increased risk for anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may prevent anal cancer caused by vaccine types.
  • Men with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer by history or by screening cytology or histology were excluded.
  • The primary end points were seroconversion to vaccine types at week 28, in men who were seronegative and without anal infection with the relevant HPV type at entry, and grade 3 or higher adverse events related to vaccination.

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  • (PMID = 20812850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00513526
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865-26; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024996; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI 55038; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00865; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI055038-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS285476; NLM/ PMC3118428
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44. Franceschi S, De Vuyst H: Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):57-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the possible role of current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • In addition, more than 90% prevalence of HPV was found in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Answers to some still open questions, notably vaccine efficacy in men and HIV-infected individuals and willingness to expand vaccination programmes to both sexes, are essential to predict the ultimate impact of HPV vaccines on the prevention of cancerous and precancerous anal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19339940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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45. Schon EA, Dencher NA: Heavy breathing: energy conversion by mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes. Cell Metab; 2009 Jan 7;9(1):1-3
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  • A recent paper in Molecular Cell (Acin-Pérez et al., 2008) calls this model into question.

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  • (PMID = 19117538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-7420
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 2.7.4.- / ATP Synthetase Complexes
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46. Evans M: Temp industry merger mania. While a backlash from pinched hospitals has cut into revenue, temp firms see chances for growth with spiraling nurse shortage. Mod Healthc; 2005 Oct 17;35(42):6-7, 1

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  • "Big players are looking to get bigger," says analyst Barry Asin, left, a chief analyst at Staffing Industry Analysts.

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  • (PMID = 16274181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-7480
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern healthcare
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Healthc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Devaraj B, Cosman BC: Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):36-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expectant management of anal squamous dysplasia in patients with HIV.
  • PURPOSE: Anal squamous dysplasia is commonly found in patients with HIV infection.
  • This study reviews a series of patients with HIV and an abnormal anal examination who had squamous dysplasia and who have been followed with physical examination alone and with repeat biopsies as necessary for new or suspicious lesions.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 40 HIV-positive men who had squamous dysplasia of the anal canal and anal margin, focusing on history, physical findings, histologic diagnosis, and the occurrence of invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Forty HIV-positive men (mean age, 39 years) were followed for anal squamous dysplasia.
  • Biopsies revealed dysplasia, which was usually multifocal.
  • The grade of dysplasia varied, but 28 of 40 patients had at least one area of severe dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extensive excision for dysplasia in the context of HIV confers high morbidity and questionable benefit, and other treatments are of uncertain value.
  • Physical examination surveillance for invasive carcinoma may be acceptable for following patients with HIV and biopsy-proven squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Decision Making. HIV / immunology. HIV Antibodies / immunology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Oct;49(10):1648-9; author reply 1649-50 [16972138.001]
  • (PMID = 16283561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Antibodies
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48. Bushby SA, Chauhan M: Management of internal genital warts: do we all agree? A postal survey. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jun;19(6):367-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Proctoscopy or anoscopy was performed in 60% of clinics for patients with perianal warts to determine the presence of warts within the anal canal or rectum.
  • Only 24% of patients with intra-anal warts are referred directly to surgery for biopsy, increasing to 61% if the patient has HIV infection.
  • Our findings suggest there is no consensus and we recommend that all HIV-positive patients with anal or cervical condyloma should be investigated for evidence of intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 18595872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. He YG, Han Y, Hua ZL, Lin MB, Zhang HB, Lv KZ, Yin L: [Analysis of 32 patients with rectal adenoma undergoing transanal endoscopic microsurgery]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Dec;13(12):910-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Postoperative pathology showed 12 simple adenomas, 10 adenomas with low grade intraepithelial neoplasia, 5 adenomas with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and 5 T1 focal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21186410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Moraes Rda S, Malafaia O, Telles JE, Trippia MA, Buess GF, Coelho JC: [Transanal endoscopic microsurgery in the treatment of rectal tumors: a prospective study in 50 patients]. Arq Gastroenterol; 2008 Oct-Dec;45(4):268-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The inclusion criteria were: sessile adenomas larger than 3 cm and smaller than 8 cm, not circumferentially distributed; intra epithelial neoplasia of high degree; and rectal carcinoma pT1, and special cases of pT2.
  • RESULTS: The final histopathological results reveal 9 adenoma, 26 intra-epithelial neoplasia of high degree, 13 carcinoma (9 pT1-4 pT2) and 2 carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: Today transanal endoscopic microsurgery is chosen as the ideal technique for the treatment of sessile adenomas, intraepithelial neoplasia of high degree and rectal carcinoma pT1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19148353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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51. Horsley AR, Macleod KA, Robson AG, Lenney J, Bell NJ, Cunningham S, Greening AP, Gustafsson PM, Innes JA: Effects of cystic fibrosis lung disease on gas mixing indices derived from alveolar slope analysis. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2008 Aug 31;162(3):197-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • S(cond) and S(acin) are derived from analysis of concentration-normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) of a multiple breath inert gas washout.
  • S(cond), S(acin) and lung clearance index (LCI, a measure of overall gas mixing efficiency) were measured in 22 adults and 18 children with CF and 17 adult and 29 child controls.
  • However, S(cond) did not correlate with other measurements and appeared to reach a maximum; further increase in ventilation heterogeneity being restricted to S(acin).


52. De Matteo R, Snibson K, Thompson B, Koumoundouros E, Harding R: Lung function in developing lambs: is it affected by preterm birth? J Appl Physiol (1985); 2009 Oct;107(4):1083-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple breath N(2) washout (MBW) was used to assess ventilatory heterogeneity in conducting (S(cond)) and acinar (S(acin)) airways.
  • There were no significant differences in ventilatory heterogeneity between preterm and term lambs; for all animals combined, mean S(acin) was 0.29 +/- 0.05 liter(-1) and S(cond) was 0.26 +/- 0.03 liter(-1).
  • Males had significantly higher S(cond) than females, indicating poorer gas mixing in small conducting airways; there was no sex difference in S(acin).

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  • (PMID = 19679748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol
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53. Gustafsson PM: Peripheral airway involvement in CF and asthma compared by inert gas washout. Pediatr Pulmonol; 2007 Feb;42(2):168-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Analysis of the progression of the concentration normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) over the washout was used to determine inhomogeneity in the conducting airways (S(cond)) and inhomogeneity close to or within the gas exchange zone (S(acin)).
  • Before bronchodilation all washout indexes were abnormal in the CF group, and all but S(acin) in the asthma group.
  • Two indexes were higher in CF than in asthma: LCI (11.5 (3.3) vs. 8.7 (1.3); P < 0.01), and S(acin) (0.307 (0.207) vs. 0.142 (0.071); P < 0.01), while gas trapping indexes and S(cond) (0.151 (0.071) vs. 0.127 (0.041)) did not differ significantly.
  • In CF, only a modest but statistically significant S(acin) improvement was seen and all indexes stayed abnormal.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17186546.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-6863
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric pulmonology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Pulmonol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 0 / Noble Gases
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54. Macleod KA, Horsley AR, Bell NJ, Greening AP, Innes JA, Cunningham S: Ventilation heterogeneity in children with well controlled asthma with normal spirometry indicates residual airways disease. Thorax; 2009 Jan;64(1):33-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An observational study was performed in which it was hypothesised that ventilation heterogeneity (lung clearance index (LCI) and phase III slope indices (S(cond) and S(acin))) were more sensitive than conventional measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and exhaled nitric oxide (Feno)) for detecting residual airways disease in children with well controlled asthma.
  • METHODS: In 31 children with asthma of mean age 10.6 years (range 5-15), FEV(1), LCI, S(cond) and S(acin) were measured at two separate visits, before and after blinded salbutamol or placebo, with Feno measured once.
  • Following salbutamol there was a small significant change in mean (SD) FEV(1) (from -1.26 (1.25) to -0.93 (0.23), p = 0.03) but not in LCI, S(cond) or S(acin).


55. Deguchi S, Ohashi T, Sato M: Evaluation of tension in actin bundle of endothelial cells based on preexisting strain and tensile properties measurements. Mol Cell Biomech; 2005 Sep;2(3):125-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cultured ECs expressing fluorescently-labeled actin were treated with detergents to extract acin bundles.
  • A tensile test of the dislodged single acin bundle was conducted with a pair of cantilevers to measure the force required for stretching it up to the original length, yielding an estimate of preexisting tension in the actin bundle.

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  • (PMID = 16708474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5297
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular biomechanics : MCB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Cell Biomech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins
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56. Simpson SH, Hanna S: Optical angular momentum transfer by Laguerre-Gaussian beams. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis; 2009 Mar;26(3):625-38

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For arbitrary, axially placed particles the induced torque for rotation angle zeta is shown to be Gammaz=Asin(2zeta+delta)+B, where A, B, and delta are constants that are determined by the mechanisms coupling optical and mechanical angular momentum.

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  • (PMID = 19252660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-7529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Van Muylem A, Verbanck S, Estenne M: Monitoring the lung periphery of transplanted lungs. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 2005 Aug 25;148(1-2):141-51
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  • In a preliminary study using nitrogen multiple-breath washouts, we showed that S(acin) and S(cond), which reflect structural changes in the acinar and conductive lung zones, were both markedly increased in patients with BO.

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  • (PMID = 15963771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9048
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Physiol Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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58. Aryal RK, Lee BK, Karki R, Gurung A, Baral B, Byeon SH: Dynamics of PM2.5 concentrations in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. J Hazard Mater; 2009 Sep 15;168(2-3):732-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The increase in PM(2.5) peak fit the logistic equation y=[k/(1+exp (p-qx)]+asin(bx) where k, p, q, a, and b are constants.

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  • (PMID = 19297084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants
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59. Freitas LL, Soriano E, Muccioli C, Höfling-Lima AL, Belfort R Jr: Efficacy and tolerability of a combined moxifloxacin/dexamethasone formulation for topical prophylaxis and reduction of inflammation in phacoemulsification: a comparative, double masked clinical trial. Curr Med Res Opin; 2007 Dec;23(12):3123-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with the combined moxiflox acin/dexamethasone eye drops was as effective as conventional treatment in preventing infection and controlling inflammation after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - After Surgery.
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  • (PMID = 17980093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-4877
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medical research and opinion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Res Opin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
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60. Amarra MS, Bongga DC, Peñano-Ho L, Cruz FB, Solis JS, Barrios EB: Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren. Food Nutr Bull; 2007 Mar;28(1):47-54
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IODINE, ELEMENTAL .
  • NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .
  • NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17718011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5721
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and nutrition bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Nutr Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 0 / Trace Elements; 0 / iodized salt; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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61. Ferraris A, Narasimhan K, Rahman I, Jorge I: Anal pap smear in high-risk patients: a poor screening tool. South Med J; 2008 Nov;101(11):1185-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Genital Warts.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal pap smear in high-risk patients: a poor screening tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer Screening.
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  • (PMID = 19088542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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