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1. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Speake D, Lees N, McMahon RF, Hill J: Who should be followed up after transanal endoscopic resection of rectal tumours? Colorectal Dis; 2008 May;10(4):330-5
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  • Of the 35 who went on to long-term follow-up post-TEM (0.6-8.1 years, median 4) four developed recurrent cancer (two local with submucosal disease and two liver metastases).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoma. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18190616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Damianov N: [Pathologic and anatomic preconditions for radical sphincter preserving operations in carcinoma of the medial and distal rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2005;(3):43-8
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  • [Title] [Pathologic and anatomic preconditions for radical sphincter preserving operations in carcinoma of the medial and distal rectum].
  • The contemporary knowledge of the intramural and the extraluminal spreading of the rectal carcinoma in distal direction is taken into account.
  • After processing the available scientific data, a conclusion is made, that by localization of differentiated carcinoma at 1.5-2 cm above dentate line, a sphincter preserving operation should be done.
  • This type of surgical procedures is attractive because of the possibility to preserve the anal sphincter apparatus, which extremely benefits the life quality of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Rectal Neoplasms. Rectum

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  • (PMID = 18693533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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4. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Nilsson PJ, Olding LB, Nilsson BR: Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):125-31
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  • PURPOSE: To analyze 251 patients (101 males and 150 females) diagnosed with ano-rectal malignant melanoma (ARMM) reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1960-1999.
  • 54% of the tumours were primary in the anal canal, 24% engaged the whole ano-rectal unit and 10% were located at the anal verge (11% unknown primary site).
  • The majority of ARMM emerged primary in the anal canal and a primary location exclusively in the colonic mucosa of the rectum is questionable.
  • The concentration of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma to population-dense urban areas, as previously reported, was not found in cases of ARMM.

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  • (PMID = 18607861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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5. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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6. Menkarios C, Azria D, Laliberté B, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Lemanski C, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. Radiat Oncol; 2007;2:41
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  • [Title] Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow.
  • METHODS: Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected.
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors).
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing.

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  • (PMID = 18005443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204019
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7. Lu B, Fu CG, Liu LJ, Liu YX, Xing JJ, Meng RG, Jin GX, Yu DH: [Bowel control of anus-preserving operation for low rectal cancer in elderly patients over 75 years]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;8(6):496-9
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  • [Title] [Bowel control of anus-preserving operation for low rectal cancer in elderly patients over 75 years].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bowel control of the anus-preserving operation for elderly patients over 75 years with low rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine elderly patients over 75 years with low rectal carcinoma (4-7 cm from anal verge) were treated during the study period.
  • The time of recovering normal defecation frequency in colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis group was (7.7+/- 1.7) months, shorter than (10.6+/- 2.8) months in direct anastomosis group (P< 0.01).
  • The anorectal manometric findings were better in J-pouch-anal anastomosis group than those in direct anastomosis group (P< 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis for lower rectal carcinoma can significantly improve the bowel control in a short term without increasing the complication rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Defecation. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Rectal Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16299649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Szynglarewicz B, Matkowski R, Kasprzak P, Sydor D, Forgacz J, Pudelko M, Kornafel J: Sphincter-preserving R0 total mesorectal excision with resection of internal genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiation for T4 rectal cancer in females. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Apr 28;13(16):2339-43
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  • [Title] Sphincter-preserving R0 total mesorectal excision with resection of internal genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiation for T4 rectal cancer in females.
  • AIM: To evaluate the impact of chemoradiation admi-nistered pre- or postoperatively on prognosis in females following R0 extended resection with sphincter-preserving total mesorectal excision (TME) for locally advanced rectal cancer and to assess the association between chemoradiation and intra- and postoperative variables.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one females were treated for locally advanced but preoperatively assessed as primarily resectable rectal cancer involving reproductive organs.
  • RESULTS: Survival rate decreased in anaemic females (51.5% vs 57.4%), in patients older than 60 years (41.8% vs 66.7%) with poorly differentiated cancers (50.0% vs 55.6%) and tumors located<or=7 cm from the anal verge (42.9% vs 68.1%) but with the lack of importance.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite involving internal genitalia, long-term disease-free survival and sphincter preservation may be achieved with combined-modality therapy for females with T4 locally advanced rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17511034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4147144
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9. Shirouzu K, Ogata Y: Histopathologic tumor spread in very low rectal cancer treated with abdominoperineal resection. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Nov;52(11):1887-94
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  • [Title] Histopathologic tumor spread in very low rectal cancer treated with abdominoperineal resection.
  • PURPOSE: We have pathologically evaluated the tumor spread in low rectal cancer treated with abdominoperineal resection to clarify the potential indication of intersphincteric resection and other anus-preserving operations with external sphincter muscle resection.
  • We determined histopathologically any invasion or metastasis into the anal canal structures.
  • When the lowest edge was located at or below the dentate line (Pb-cancer), invasion tended to extend into the external sphincter muscle and into the intermuscular groove.
  • A logistic regression analysis showed that the Pb-cancer, any distant metastasis, and the tumor histology of mucinous carcinoma were each an independent significant risk factor to invasion beyond the internal sphincter muscle, whereas the Pb-cancer, the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and the mucinous carcinoma were each an independent significant risk factor to invasion into the intermuscular groove.
  • CONCLUSION: The anus-preserving operation with sphincter muscle resection was theoretically possible for low rectal cancer in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection.
  • However, the procedure cannot be indicated for a tumor where the lowest edge is below the dentate line and where a preoperative biopsy shows a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or mucinous carcinoma, even if the intermuscular groove is macroscopically unaffected by the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19966638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Smeenk RJ, van Lin EN, van Kollenburg P, Kunze-Busch M, Kaanders JH: Anal wall sparing effect of an endorectal balloon in 3D conformal and intensity-modulated prostate radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Oct;93(1):131-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal wall sparing effect of an endorectal balloon in 3D conformal and intensity-modulated prostate radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the anal wall (Awall) sparing effect of an endorectal balloon (ERB) in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 patients with localized prostate carcinoma, two planning CT-scans were performed: with and without ERB.
  • This may lead to reduced late anal toxicity in prostate radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Anal Canal / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • (PMID = 19523704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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11. Schäfer HH, Vivaldi C, Hölscher AH: [Local excision with transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) after endoscopic R1/R2-polypectomy of pT1 "low-risk" carcinomas of the rectum]. Z Gastroenterol; 2006 Aug;44(8):647-50
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  • 16 patients with pT1 "low-risk" rectal carcinoma and macroscopic (R2) or microscopic (R1) incomplete endoscopic polypectomy were locally resected by TEM.
  • One patient with a pT1 "low-risk" carcinoma developed a local recurrence and a single hepatic metastasis in the left liver lobe after TEM.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16902894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Procacciante F, Caciolo F, Diamantini G, Flati D, Pitasi F, Abilaliaj V, Covotta A, Banelli E, Di Seri M, Citone G: [Integrated multidisciplinary treatment of colorectal neoplasms]. Chir Ital; 2009 Jan-Feb;61(1):1-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Over the period 2004-2008, 63 patients underwent multidisciplinary treatment for colorectal cancer.
  • Exeresis was supplemented by adjuvant chemotherapy in those cases beyond IIA stage; all cases of extraperitoneal rectal and anal canal neoplasms plus one case of carcinoma of the transverse colon, initially inoperable, underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy plus chemotherapy.
  • The treatment was initiated approximately 3 weeks after the diagnosis.
  • Exeresis was performed in those patients with extraperitoneal rectal and anal canal neoplasms (12.7%) about 6-8 weeks after they had completed neoadjuvant therapy.
  • The remaining 24% suffered recurrences about 13 months after the treatment for colonic and upper rectal neoplasm, and 8 1/2 months after treatment for extraperitoneal rectal/anal canal neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19391334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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14. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Wu QJ, Yoo S, Clough RW, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1413-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption.
  • IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Male. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Sarcoma / radiotherapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. HIV Infections / virology. Sexual Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


17. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1993 Aug;11(8):1559-65 [8336195.001]
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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Winter L, Bruhn H, Langrehr J, Neuhaus P, Felix R, Hänninen LE: Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution. Acta Radiol; 2007 May;48(4):379-87
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging in suspected rectal cancer: determining tumor localization, stage, and sphincter-saving resectability at 3-Tesla-sustained high resolution.
  • PURPOSE: To assess image quality and overall accuracy of 3-Tesla (3T)-sustained high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for diagnostic preoperative workup in suspected rectal carcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with suspected rectal cancer underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed pelvic high-resolution MR imaging using a four-channel phased-array pelvic coil at 3T.
  • Transverse T2-weighted fast spin-echo images compared superiorly to all other sequences for the diagnosis of mesorectal infiltration and lymph node involvement.
  • Thus, this noninvasive diagnostic approach appeared highly suitable for the assessment of patients with suspected rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenomatous Polyps / diagnosis. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / surgery. Aged. Contrast Media. Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Fascia / pathology. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Proctitis / diagnosis. Proctitis / virology. Prospective Studies. Rectum / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17453515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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20. Lekoubou Looti AZ, Kengne AP, Djientcheu Vde P, Kuate CT, Njamnshi AK: Patterns of non-traumatic myelopathies in Yaounde (Cameroon): a hospital based study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2010 Jul;81(7):768-70
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  • Aetiologies were dominated by primary and secondary spinal tumours (mainly prostate carcinoma, lymphoma and liver carcinoma) that each accounted for 24.5% of cases.
  • Metastasis is a leading cause of spinal cord compression with liver carcinoma being more frequent than reported elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Cameroon / epidemiology. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Infection / complications. Infection / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paraplegia / etiology. Paraplegia / pathology. Quadriplegia / etiology. Quadriplegia / pathology. Sensation. Sex Factors. Spinal Cord Compression / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20581141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Andres AH, Walk CB, Meywirth E, Milkereit E: [Awareness under remifentanil-propofol anaesthesia]. Anaesthesist; 2005 Oct;54(10):1000-4
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  • We report on a 49-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent carcinoma of the rectum, who underwent a palliative Hartmann operation for an anus praeter reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Hemodynamics / physiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / psychology. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15999266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2417
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Anaesthesist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesthesist
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Piperidines; P10582JYYK / remifentanil; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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22. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


23. O'Connor MB: The potential of the male anal Pap smear. Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Jun;179(2):319
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  • [Title] The potential of the male anal Pap smear.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test

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  • [CommentOn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62 [19763675.001]
  • [Cites] JAMA. 1999 May 19;281(19):1822-9 [10340370.001]
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  • (PMID = 19921312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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24. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5
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  • [Title] A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether imiquimod was more effective than placebo for the treatment of high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-ACIN).
  • METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-positive patients were randomized to self-application of imiquimod cream or matched placebo into the anal canal three times a week for 4 months.
  • Five of these patients cleared their anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (ACIN) and four patients downgraded to LSIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects


26. Williams VM, Metcalf C, French MA, McCloskey JC: Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic. Sex Health; 2010 Sep;7(3):346-51
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  • [Title] Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: The level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting.
  • METHODS: The results of paired anal cytology and histopathology specimens received between 2002 and 2008 from patients who were referred within the sexual health clinic were retrieved from the anatomical pathology database.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology is highly sensitive for the detection of abnormal squamous cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Medical Audit. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Referral and Consultation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests


27. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


28. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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29. Yeoh EK, Bartholomeusz DL, Holloway RH, Fraser RJ, Botten R, Di Matteo A, Moore JW, Schoeman MN: Disturbed colonic motility contributes to anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):773-80
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  • [Title] Disturbed colonic motility contributes to anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT.
  • Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure.
  • Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters.
  • CONCLUSION: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Colon / radiation effects. Gastrointestinal Motility / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectum / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20153122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Rödel C: [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 4:24-5
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  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer].
  • Standard treatment for anal canal cancer is definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C.
  • Because anal cancer overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a KRAS wild type is usually present, treatment with the EGFR antibody cetuximab is potentially interesting.

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  • (PMID = 20431309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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31. Chou YP, Saito Y, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Mashimo Y, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy; 2009;41 Suppl 2:E283-5
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  • [Title] Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Dissection / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery


32. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • T categories (International Union against Cancer) were T1 (15), T2 (36), T3 (34), and T4 (16).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • However, patients with larger lesions of the perianal skin are at high risk for locoregional recurrence and possible treatment intensification in this subgroup seems desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Takeda A, Maeda M, Iseki H, Hirooka E, Shinozuka N, Koyama I: Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis. Int J Mol Med; 2009 Oct;24(4):465-72
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis.
  • Human anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line has not yet been reported due to the rarity of this disease.
  • Since cell lines to study this malignancy were not available, we attempted to establish and characterize anal canal SCC cell line from primary culture of lymph node metastasis.
  • This is the first report of successful establishment and characterization of a human anal canal SCC cell line, which may provide beneficial resources for investigating the biological features of human anal canal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Cell Line, Tumor / cytology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology


34. Nahas CS, Lin O, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Stier EA: Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1581-6
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  • [Title] Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to describe perianal disease in a cohort of HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy.
  • All patients underwent anal canal and perianal high-resolution anoscopy in the office with biopsy of suspicious areas.
  • Patients with high-grade intraepithelial perianal lesions underwent multiple biopsies under general anesthesia in the operating room to rule out malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 52 patients, 19 (37 percent) had perianal abnormalities noted on high-resolution anoscopy and underwent punch biopsy.
  • Office perianal biopsies diagnosed two patients with invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and nine with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Seven of the nine patients with perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on office biopsy were submitted to multiple biopsies under general anesthesia.
  • One of these seven had an occult perianal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal disease was common in this group of HIV-infected patients; 11 patients (21 percent of total) were diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Because only 19 patients had clinically suspicious perianal lesions biopsied, this may be an underestimate.
  • Our data suggest that anal canal neoplasia often is accompanied by perianal disease and illustrates the need for biopsy of any suspicious perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Proctoscopy / methods


35. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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36. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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37. Jindal S, Vij V, Singhal D, Chaudhary A: Squamous cell carcinoma of stomach. Trop Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr-Jun;27(2):91-2
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of stomach.
  • Squamous cell carcinomas in the gastrointestinal tract are known to occur in oro-pharynx, esophagus and anal canal.
  • Gastric squamous cell carcinoma is a rare epithelial tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17089621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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38. Saranovic D, Barisic G, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric-Stefanovic A: Endoanal ultrasound evaluation of anorectal diseases and disorders: technique, indications, results and limitations. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Mar;61(3):480-9
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  • CT and conventional barium studies offer limited information in local staging of rectal and perirectal neoplasms, anal carcinomas and extension perianal fistulas in patients with inflamamatory bowel disease, or in evaluating patients with fecal incontinence.
  • During past decade, sonography and MR imaging have resulted in significant improvement in the imaging of rectal and perirectal and anal and perianal disease.
  • The aim of this article is to review possibility of the EAUS in the evaluation both normal anal anatomy and anorectal disease and disorders (anal carcinoma, sphincter defects, anal fistulas, perianal abscesses and other pathological conditions).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Rectal Diseases / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17188828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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39. Cotter SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Malyapa RS, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Wang X, Abbey E, Tan B, Kodner IJ, Hunt SR, Lowney JK, Mutch MG, Dietz DW, Myerson RJ: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):720-5
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy.
  • In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. HIV Seropositivity / radiography. HIV Seropositivity / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16626889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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40. Zhuang CP, Cai GY, Li TH, Wang YQ, Chen WR: [Efficacy evaluation of intersphincteric resection during anus-preserving operation for ultralow rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;12(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Efficacy evaluation of intersphincteric resection during anus-preserving operation for ultralow rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anorectal dynamics, function and efficacy of ultralow rectal carcinoma patients undergone intersphincteric resection(ISR).
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to August 2007, 30 patients with ultralow rectal carcinoma(2.5-4.0 cm distance from anal edge) underwent ISR.
  • The postoperative anal function was evaluated by Williams continence standard and the treatment outcome was followed up.
  • RESULTS: After ISR operation, anal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure and maximum tolerance volume of the rectum decreased significantly (all P<0.01) and restored gradually, but not to normal.
  • The rectal anal inhibitory reflex disappeared in 27 patients(90.0%) and was not improved.
  • According to Williams continence standard, 86.7%, 93.3% and 96.7% of patients obtained acceptable anal function in 3, 6, and 12 months after operation respectively.
  • Fecal eczema of anus occurred in 10 patients, colonic mucosa prolapse in 2 patients and stenosis of anal canal in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: ISR for ultralow rectal carcinoma can not only attain radical treatment outcome, but also preserve anal sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19598020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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41. Das P, Crane CH, Eng C, Ajani JA: Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;2(1):10-4
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal cancer.
  • However, some heterogeneity exists among anal cancer patients in their outcomes.
  • This article reviews some of the clinical factors, treatment-related factors, and biologic factors that affect outcomes in patients with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • A better understanding of molecular biology is required to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of anal cancer and thereby develop optimal therapies.

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  • (PMID = 19259318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630809
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42. Capdevila J, Ramos FJ, Macarulla T, Elez E, Ruiz-Echarri M, Perez-Garcia J, Tabernero J: Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jul;21(4):374-80
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  • [Title] Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers.
  • The increasing development of new targeted therapies in human cancer has also impacted in these rare gastrointestinal malignancies providing a wide range of possibilities in the design of future clinical trials.
  • The results of the biggest phase III trial in locally advanced anal carcinoma have been recently published.
  • Finally, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor has also showed promising activity in anal carcinomas.
  • Although the major advances in targeted therapy have been introduced in the treatment of colorectal cancer, new interesting approaches have been reported in less frequent gastrointestinal tumors such as esophageal, biliary tract, and anal canal carcinoma opening a new hope in the treatment of these rare tumors in the molecular targeted therapy era.

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  • (PMID = 19412097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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43. Fernandez-Figueras MT, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Mammary-type tubulolobular carcinoma of anogenital mammary-like glands with prominent stromal elastosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1224-6
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  • [Title] Mammary-type tubulolobular carcinoma of anogenital mammary-like glands with prominent stromal elastosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20505503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Sana S, Khan AU: Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer.
  • Our understandings of anal canal cancer pathogenesis and treatment have undergone significant changes due to continuing research into its pathogenesis and the results of major clinical trials conducted over the past 20 years.
  • Anal canal cancer can be cured by combined modality chemoradiation therapy, a treatment that preserves continence and reserves abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and anal canal in patients with recurrent or residual disease after primary chemoradiotherapy.
  • Future challenges include an increasing incidence of human papillomavirus infection, the AIDS epidemic, diagnosis of early disease, and optimization of chemotherapy and radiation regimens.
  • This article aims to provide a summary of recently completed and ongoing clinical trials in the management of anal canal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20436836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780239
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal cancer / chemotherapy / radiation therapy
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45. Ouaïssi M, Panis Y, Sielezneff I, Alves A, Pirrò N, Robitail S, Heyries L, Valleur P, Sastre B: Long-term outcome after ampullectomy for ampullary lesions associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2192-6
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  • Besides pancreaticoduodenectomy, which remains indicated in duodenal and ampullary cancer, less aggressive surgical procedure (such as ampullectomy) must be evaluated in selected patients with familial adenomatous polyposis patients presenting low-risk benign duodenal adenomas.
  • Six patients had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed 2 to 27 years before ampullectomy.
  • The remaining two patients had ampullectomy during the same operation than ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.
  • Our low morbidity and the absence of recurrence after almost five years of follow-up suggests that such conservative treatment could be proposed before pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with high-risk ampullary adenomas without invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / prevention & control. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical. Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ileum / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Pancreatic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


46. Esclapez-Valero JP, García-Botello S: [Current utility of endoanal ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign proctological disease]. Cir Esp; 2005 Dec;78 Suppl 3:8-14
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  • [Title] [Current utility of endoanal ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign proctological disease].
  • The main indications for endoanal ultrasound are evaluation of the morphology of the sphincteric apparatus in patients with fecal incontinence, the localization of perianal abscesses and fistulas, the staging of anal cancer and follow-up of squamous cell carcinoma after conservative treatment, and the study and morphological confirmation of lateral internal sphincterotomy in patients with fissure-in-ano, amongst others.
  • In this article we review the main indications and use of endoanal ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign proctological disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Fecal Incontinence / ultrasonography. Humans. Rectal Fistula / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16478610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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47. Shia J, Tang LH, Weiser MR, Brenner B, Adsay NV, Stelow EB, Saltz LB, Qin J, Landmann R, Leonard GD, Dhall D, Temple L, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Kelsen D, Wong WD, Klimstra DS: Is nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tubular gastrointestinal tract a distinct disease entity? Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):719-31
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  • [Title] Is nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tubular gastrointestinal tract a distinct disease entity?
  • Although small cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is well-recognized, nonsmall cell type high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNEC) of this site remains undefined.
  • At the current time, neither the World Health Organization nor American Joint Committee on Cancer includes this condition in the histologic classifications, and consequently it is being diagnosed and treated inconsistently.
  • Guided primarily by the World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer criteria for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, we were able to classify 87 high-grade GI tract tumors that initially carried a diagnosis of either poorly differentiated carcinoma with or without any neuroendocrine characteristics, small cell carcinoma, or combined adenocarcinoma-neuroendocrine carcinoma into the following 4 categories.
  • The first was small cell carcinoma (n=23), which had features typical of pulmonary small cell carcinoma, although the cells tended to have a more round nuclear contour.
  • The second was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=31), which had a morphology similar to its pulmonary counterpart and showed positive immunoreactivity for either chromogranin (71%) or synaptophysin (94%) or both.
  • The third was mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=11), which had intermediate histologic features (eg, cells with an increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio but with apparent nucleoli), and positive immunoreactivity for at least 1 neuroendocrine marker.
  • Further analysis showed that most HGNECs arising in the squamous lined parts (esophagus and anal canal) were small cell type (78%), whereas most involving the glandular mucosa were large cell (53%) or mixed (82%) type; associated adenocarcinomas were more frequent in large cell (61%) or mixed (36%) type than in small cell type (26%); and focal intracytoplasmic mucin was seen only in large cell or mixed type.
  • Given the current uncertainty as to whether large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is as chemosensitive as small cell carcinoma even in the lung, our data provide further evidence in favor of a dichotomous classification scheme (small cell vs. nonsmall cell) for HGNEC of the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. New York / epidemiology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18360283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Allal AS, Bründler MA, Gervaz P: Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4
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  • [Title] Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA).
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers.
  • The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15688099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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49. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Dyson T, Draganov PV: Squamous cell cancer of the rectum. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 21;15(35):4380-6
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  • [Title] Squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy.
  • The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion.
  • Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins.
  • Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease.
  • Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19764088.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747057
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51. Rasheed S, Yap T, Zia A, McDonald PJ, Glynne-Jones R: Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Feb;11(2):191-7
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1943 [1], only 45 patients of squamous cancer of the rectum have been reported in the published reports and the largest series to date consists of 12 patients.
  • Reports suggest that the primary treatment is surgical resection but, in the light of nonsurgical advances in the treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we present a review of the literature and report six patients treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
  • METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using the keywords squamous cell, epidermoid, basaloid and cloacagenic and cancer of rectum and colon to provide evidence for this discussion from studies of surgery, radiation therapy and CRT in rectal SCC.
  • A prospective database of the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, UK was searched from 1995 to 2005 for patients diagnosed with pure SCC of the rectum.
  • RESULTS: Six patients with histologically confirmed primary SCC of the rectum were treated with primary combination chemo-radiotherapy according to protocols used for SCC of the anal canal over a 15-year period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary CRT, as currently utilized in anal cancer, can be extended to primary SCC of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18462236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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52. Rullier E, Laurent C, Bretagnol F, Rullier A, Vendrely V, Zerbib F: Sphincter-saving resection for all rectal carcinomas: the end of the 2-cm distal rule. Ann Surg; 2005 Mar;241(3):465-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess oncologic outcome of patients treated by conservative radical surgery for tumors below 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Standard surgical treatment of low rectal cancer below 5 cm from the anal verge is abdominoperineal resection.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 2003, patients with a nonfixed rectal carcinoma at 4.5 cm or less from the anal verge and without external sphincter infiltration underwent conservative surgery.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with a tumor at 3 (range 1.5-4.5) cm from the anal verge underwent conservative surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The technique of intersphincteric resection permits us to achieve conservative surgery in patients with a tumor close to or in the anal canal without compromising local control and survival.
  • Tumor distance from the anal verge is no longer a limit for sphincter-saving resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15729069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1356985
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53. Oehler-Jänne C, Huguet F, Provencher S, Seifert B, Negretti L, Riener MO, Bonet M, Allal AS, Ciernik IF: HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7
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  • [Title] HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To define clinical outcome after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Local disease control (LC), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), toxicity, and prognostic factors were investigated.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term LC and acute toxicity represent major clinical challenges in HIV-positive patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy


54. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality


55. Meyer A, Bruns F, Richter K, Grünwald V, Karstens JH: Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1047-50
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  • [Title] Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: We report on a rare case of small cell cancer located at the anal canal.
  • CASE REPORT: A 41-year old woman presented with locally advanced small cell anal cancer and simultaneous hepatic and pulmonal deposits.
  • The patient died 10 months after initial diagnosis due to rapid tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic small cell anal cancer chemotherapy remains the mainstay of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17465242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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56. Ilias EJ: [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2008 Sep-Oct;54(5):380-1
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  • [Title] [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Como estadiar e tratar o carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18989550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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57. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Mourad N, Lasser P, Sabourin JC: [A tumor of the anal canal]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):407-8
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  • [Title] [A tumor of the anal canal].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur du canal anal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16498298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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59. Orsenigo E, Di Palo S, Vignali A, Staudacher C: Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;16 Suppl 1:S117-20
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.
  • The goal of this review is to outline some of the important surgical issues surrounding the management of patients with low rectal cancer submitted to laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR).
  • Surgery for rectal cancer continues to develop towards the ultimate goals of improved local control and overall survival, maintaining quality of life, and preserving sphincter, genitourinary, and sexual function.
  • Nevertheless, all progress in the development of oncologic therapy (i.e., radiation and chemotherapy), radical surgical removal of the tumour is the only chance for permanent cure of rectal cancer.
  • Information concerning the depth of tumour penetration through the rectal wall, lymph node involvement, and presence of distant metastatic disease is of crucial importance when planning a curative rectal cancer resection.
  • Preoperative staging is used to determine the indication for neoadjuvant therapy as well as the indication for local excision versus radical cancer resection.
  • Laparoscope-assisted anal sphincter-preserving operation preceded by transanal procedure.
  • Technical and oncological feasibility of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision with pouch coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer.
  • Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection with coloplasty and coloanal anastomosis for mid and low rectal cancer.
  • Laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection combined with per anum intersphincteric rectal dissection for lower rectal cancer.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for early rectal carcinoma.
  • These studies concluded that a laparoscopic approach can be considered in most patients with low rectal cancer in which laparoscopic ISR represents a feasible alternative to conventional open surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Laparoscopy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18023571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Nakagoe T, Ishikawa H, Sawai T, Tsuji T, Takeshita H, Nanashima A, Akamine S, Yamaguchi H, Yasutake T: Oncological outcome of ultra-low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for carcinoma of the lower third of the rectum: Comparison of intrapelvic double-stapled anastomosis and transanal coloanal anastomosis. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1692-7
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  • [Title] Oncological outcome of ultra-low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for carcinoma of the lower third of the rectum: Comparison of intrapelvic double-stapled anastomosis and transanal coloanal anastomosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The type of ultra-low anterior resection (DST or CAA) did not affect survival and recurrence after curative resection for carcinoma of the lower third of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Colon / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16334759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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61. Simo AC, Jarjous N, Boddaert A, Etienney I, Jam P, Pauwels A: [Perianal basal cell carcinoma extending into the anal canal]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2008 Mar;32(3):337-8
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  • [Title] [Perianal basal cell carcinoma extending into the anal canal].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome basocellulaire périanal étendu au canal anal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18355997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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62. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling


63. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Oon SF, Winter DC: Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature. J Med Screen; 2010;17(1):44-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are the precursors to anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus infection has a direct link to ASIL formation and is responsible for up to 80% of anal cancers.
  • But while much importance has been focused on targeting cancer precursors in the cervix, relatively little concern has been afforded to the anal canal.
  • With the advent of cervical Pap smear screening in various regions, the incidence of cervical cancer has declined.
  • However, marked similarities in the biological and pathological profiles of cervical cancer and anal cancer mean that anal cancer should be preventable in the same way - by curbing the progression of ASIL to cancer.
  • This article explores the literature on ASILs and the growing problem of anal cancer in the community, along with the literature surrounding the current progress towards implementing a screening programme for ASIL in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


65. Roldán GB, Chan AK, Buckner M, Magliocco AM, Doll CM: The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1127-34
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hemoglobin level on clinical outcome (local response, progression-free survival, and overall survival) in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with anal cancer treated between 1992 and 2005 with definitive chemoradiotherapy at Tom Baker Cancer Centre.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin status was correlated with progression-free and overall survival, and distant relapse, but not clinical response, in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20628275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
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66. Chan E, Kachnic LA, Thomas CR Jr: Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation. Curr Probl Cancer; 2009 Sep-Oct;33(5):302-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy / trends. Proctoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20082844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6345
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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67. Schiedeck T: [Principles and quality control of surgical therapy of rectal carcinoma]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2007 Jun 7;149(23):29-32
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  • [Title] [Principles and quality control of surgical therapy of rectal carcinoma].
  • During the past years, it has been possible to achieve impressive success in the treatment of rectal carcinoma through standardized therapeutic concepts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Colonic Pouches. Colostomy / methods. Colostomy / psychology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Quality Control. Quality of Life. Risk. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18062574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Amano K, Ishibashi K, Nakada H, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Gonda T, Ishida H, Takahashi T: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2025-8
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report].
  • We reported an elderly case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following radiotherapy alone.
  • An 86-year-old man complaining of anal bleeding and pain was admitted.
  • Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Liu BS, Xu L, Yan J, Liu C, Zheng YC: [Experience of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer: 508 cases analysis]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov 15;46(22):1712-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experience of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer: 508 cases analysis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operative techniques and postoperative effects of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: From October 1996 to October 2006, 508 cases with rectal carcinoma at or below the peritoneal reflection with potential to preserve the anal function were divided into two groups.
  • Of the patients, 365 cases underwent ultralow anterior excision and instrumental anastomosis, and 143 cases underwent manual colon-anal anastomosis (Parks operation).
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19094730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Konski A, Kachnic LA: Jury still out on whether advanced technology can improve the outcomes of patients with anal canal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1092, 1094, 1096
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Jury still out on whether advanced technology can improve the outcomes of patients with anal canal cancer.

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1082-9 [20017291.001]
  • (PMID = 20017292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Eng C, Crane CH, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal?

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21 [18430910.001]
  • (PMID = 19047998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4386
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Danova NA, Robles-Emanuelli JC, Bjorling DE: Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs. Vet Surg; 2006 Jun;35(4):337-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an anal approach for excision of primary rectal tumors in dogs and to report outcome.
  • METHODS: Review of medical records (1990-2000) of dogs with primary rectal neoplasia excised surgically using an anal approach with rectal prolapse.
  • RESULTS: Each dog had only 1 tumor type (adenocarcinoma [8], solitary polyp [5], carcinoma [4], plasmacytoma [2], adenoma [1], leiomyoma [1], mucinous carcinoma [1], and papilloma [1]).
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An anal approach facilitated by rectal prolapse should be considered as a viable option for the surgical treatment of selected cases of tumors of the caudal aspect of the rectum in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Dog Diseases / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16756613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-3499
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Shiozawa M, Nishimura K, Nonaka T, Yoshii T, Nakayama N, Motohashi O, Takagi S, Nakayama Y, Akaike M: [Three cases of radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C for anal canal squamous cell carcinomas]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2941-3
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  • [Title] [Three cases of radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C for anal canal squamous cell carcinomas].
  • We report three cases of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy combined with S-1 and mitomycin C(MMC).
  • These results suggested that this treatment schedule was safe and effective for anal canal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Anal Canal. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 21160276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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75. Han JG, Wei GH, Gao ZG, Zheng Y, Wang ZJ: Intersphincteric resection with direct coloanal anastomosis for ultralow rectal cancer: the experience of People's Republic of China. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):950-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intersphincteric resection with direct coloanal anastomosis for ultralow rectal cancer: the experience of People's Republic of China.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of intersphincteric resection in ultralow rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: From 2000 to 2007, intersphincteric resection with total mesorectal excision was performed in 40 patients with very low rectal cancer (total intersphincteric resection in 5 patients, partial intersphincteric resection in 23 patients, and partial intersphincteric resection with partial dentate line preservation [modified partial intersphincteric resection] in 12 patients).
  • A temporary diverting stoma may be beneficial to improve anal function.
  • Modified partial intersphincteric resection under the precondition of radical resection yielded better anal function and a lower rate of incontinence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Colon / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Defecation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Stomas. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19502861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bago-Horvath Z, Schellenbacher C, Bankier A, Salat A, Stingl G, Kirnbauer R: Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Aug;85(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Buschke-Löwenstein tumour (BLT) of the anogenitalia is a locally invasive, destructively growing verrucous carcinoma that does not metastasise.
  • Nevertheless, the tumour grows relentlessly and may rarely progress into squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • RESULTS: A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected immunosuppressed patient developed (peri)anal warts accompanied by recurrent abscesses and fistulae.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. HIV Infections / complications. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Cachexia / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Groin. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


77. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
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  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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78. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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79. Tomimaru Y, Ohue M, Noura S, Tanida T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1776-8
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  • [Title] [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer].
  • A 63-year-old man with a history of anal fistula was admitted to our hospital because the anal pain didn't disappear after the operation.
  • On digital examination, a hard mass measuring 3.0 cm in diameter was found at the anal canal.
  • Colonoscopy revealed another rectal cancer at 15 cm from anal verge.
  • Biopsy of the tumor also showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, resembling the anal canal tumor.
  • Because the histological findings of both tumors were nearly identical, we considered that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal fistula.
  • The patient underwent anterior resection for the rectal cancer, and a local resection for the anal canal cancer.
  • We may suggest from these results that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal canal.


80. Hwang HJ, Bestani C, Jiménez R, Masciángioli G, Gutiérrez A, Cartelli C, Rafailovici L, Barugel M, Rodríguez G, Méndez G: [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2005;35(2):94-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] El tratamiento de los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del canal anal en los últimos 20 años en nuestro hospital.
  • Anal cancers compromise only 1.5% of all digestive tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical data from the medical records of all consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated by the Oncology Section in 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16127985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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81. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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82. de Jong JS, Beukema JC, van Dam GM, Slart R, Lemstra C, Wiggers T: Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2656-62
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  • [Title] Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Selection of patients with anal cancer for groin irradiation is based on tumor size, palpation, ultrasound, and fine needle cytology.
  • Current staging of anal cancer may result in undertreatment in small tumors and overtreatment of large tumors.
  • This study reports the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with anal cancer and whether this improves the selection for inguinal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 50 patients with squamous anal cancer were evaluated prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SLNB in anal cancer is technically feasible.
  • However, because of the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastases after a tumor-negative SLNB, introduction of this procedure as standard of care in all patients with anal carcinoma should be done with caution to avoid undertreatment of patient who otherwise would benefit from inguinal radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20865825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941712
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83. Yamauchi M, Okamoto Y, Doi M, Shinozaki K: [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2209-11
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  • [Title] [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report].
  • There was a hard anal mass on rectal examination.
  • Colonoscopy and computed tomography showed anal adenocarcinoma, multiple metastases to lymph nodes and bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21084829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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84. Rosset L, Allal AS, Morel P, Roche B, Roth AD: Complete closure of cancer-related anovaginal and anoperineal fistulas in locally advanced anal canal carcinomas by upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by combined radiochemotherapy: report of two cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Dec;49(12):1927-30
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  • [Title] Complete closure of cancer-related anovaginal and anoperineal fistulas in locally advanced anal canal carcinomas by upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by combined radiochemotherapy: report of two cases.
  • PURPOSE: Cancer-related fistulas are a major problem in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma, because conservative radiochemotherapy may not be recommended in this setting.
  • METHODS: Because chemotherapy can lead to closure of cancer-related fistulas and local intra-arterial chemotherapy is effective in locally advanced anal canal cancer, we treated two anal canal carcinoma patients presenting with cancer-related fistulas with upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiochemotherapy, leading to complete closure of fistulas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This conservative approach combining local intra-arterial chemotherapy and standard radiochemotherapy is feasible and should be considered in the management of such locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Rectal Fistula / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17096179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Zaleski L, Turiansky GW: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cutis; 2010 Mar;85(3):143-5
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is an increasing concern in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • A discussion of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of SCCAC is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2010 Mar;85(3):119 [20408506.001]
  • (PMID = 20408513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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86. Papaconstantinou HT, Bullard KM, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failed Nigro protocol: modest success, major morbidity. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Feb;8(2):124-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy and radiation (C-XRT) is the first-line therapy for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal (ECAC).
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16412072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Sweetser S, Odunsi-Shiyanbade ST, Larson MV: A lesion on rectal retroflexion. Gastroenterology; 2010 Dec;139(6):e9-e10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20977877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Nguyen BD, Ram PC, Roarke MC: F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Mar;32(3):234-6
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  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Neoplasms / radiography. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17314608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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89. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • This progression could be related to severity of the dysplasia and, albeit not yet confirmed, treatment of these lesions would prevent the evolution to cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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90. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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91. Vieillot S, Azria D, Lemanski C, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:92
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  • [Title] Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans in anal canal cancers.
  • METHODS: Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study.
  • CONCLUSION: For patients suffering from anal canal cancer, RapidArc with 2 arcs was able to deliver equivalent treatment plan to IMRT in terms of PTV coverage.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Organs at Risk / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 20942958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965153
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92. Arikawa S, Uchida M, Ogoh E, Uozumi J, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Kaida H, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K, Hayabuchi N: [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):727-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal].
  • We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response.
  • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20414036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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93. Shaikh FM, Healy VC, Kavanagh EG: A common tumor, an uncommon location. Gastroenterology; 2010 Nov;139(5):e5-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Proctoscopy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20875780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, Munoz F, Racca P, Contu V, Beltramo G, Morino M, Mussa A: Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):73-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19632066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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95. Zagar TM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes.
  • The treatment of cancer of the anal canal has changed significantly over the past several decades.
  • Although the abdominoperineal resection (APR) was the historical standard of care, a therapeutic paradigm shift occurred with the seminal work of Nigro, who reported that anal canal cancer could be treated with definitive chemoradiation, with APR reserved for salvage therapy only.
  • With the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), many oncologists are beginning to utilize this technology in the treatment of anal cancer in order to decrease these toxicities while maintaining similar treatment efficacy.
  • This article reviews the relevant literature leading up to the modern treatment of anal canal cancer, and discusses IMRT-related toxicity and disease-related outcomes in the context of outcomes of conventionally treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1 [20923036.001]
  • (PMID = 20923035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ho KS, Seow-Choen F: Dynamic graciloplasty for total anorectal reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection for rectal tumour. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jan;20(1):38-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: To review the results of dynamic graciloplasty for total anorectal reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection (APR) for rectal cancer.
  • Fifty percent of rectal carcinoma patients had developed a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Electric Stimulation Therapy. Postoperative Complications. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15293066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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97. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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98. Chen LS, Li TY, Cao YF, Liang JL, Zhang S, Tang WZ, Tang ZJ, Gao F: [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;9(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the expressions of P33ING1, P53 and their relationships with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma (ACC).
  • METHODS: The expressions of P33ING1, P53 proteins were measured by immunohistochemistry method (SP method), and apoptosis was detected in 42 cases with ACC, 36 cases with anal canal adenoma (ACA) or anal canal papilloma (ACP), and 40 cases with paraanal inflammatory mass(PAIM).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16886119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ING1 protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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99. Buchs NC, Schneider D, Roche B: [Anal canal cancer]. Rev Med Suisse; 2008 Apr 2;4(151):859-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18488750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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100. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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