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1. de Parades V, Zeitoun JD, Atienza P: Cryptoglandular anal fistula. J Visc Surg; 2010 Aug;147(4):e203-15
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  • [Title] Cryptoglandular anal fistula.
  • Fistula arising from the glands of the anal crypts is the most common form of anoperineal sepsis.
  • It is characterized by a primary internal orifice in the anal canal, a fistulous tract, and an abscess and/or secondary perineal orifice with purulent discharge.
  • The primary aim is to control infection without sacrificing anal continence.
  • Overall results of fistulotomy are excellent but there is some risk of anal incontinence.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20822966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7886
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of visceral surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Visc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
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2. Phan LK, Hoff PM: Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):395-8
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  • [Title] Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Because of the high cure rate of localized anal cancers from combined modality treatment, there is little that is known for the treatment of patients who progress to have metastatic disease.
  • We report a female patient with refractory anal cancer who achieved an excellent response to the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan after having failed single-agent irinotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17252287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 7673326042 / irinotecan; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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3. Procacciante F, Caciolo F, Diamantini G, Flati D, Pitasi F, Abilaliaj V, Covotta A, Banelli E, Di Seri M, Citone G: [Integrated multidisciplinary treatment of colorectal neoplasms]. Chir Ital; 2009 Jan-Feb;61(1):1-10
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  • [Title] [Integrated multidisciplinary treatment of colorectal neoplasms].
  • In this retrospective study, the modality and advantages of the multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up and therapy regarding colorectal neoplasm were analysed.
  • Over the period 2004-2008, 63 patients underwent multidisciplinary treatment for colorectal cancer.
  • Exeresis was supplemented by adjuvant chemotherapy in those cases beyond IIA stage; all cases of extraperitoneal rectal and anal canal neoplasms plus one case of carcinoma of the transverse colon, initially inoperable, underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy plus chemotherapy.
  • The treatment was initiated approximately 3 weeks after the diagnosis.
  • Fifty-four percent of patients with colonic and upper rectal neoplasms were given adjuvant chemotherapy, starting around 4 weeks after surgery.
  • Exeresis was performed in those patients with extraperitoneal rectal and anal canal neoplasms (12.7%) about 6-8 weeks after they had completed neoadjuvant therapy.
  • The remaining 24% suffered recurrences about 13 months after the treatment for colonic and upper rectal neoplasm, and 8 1/2 months after treatment for extraperitoneal rectal/anal canal neoplasms.
  • The best therapeutic results were obtained by programmed integration of the various diagnostic-therapeutic steps according to an algorithm which we elaborated to evaluate all types of neoplasm at any stage of illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Laparotomy. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography. Postoperative Complications. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19391334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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4. Lim JH, Lee MH, Lee MJ, Kim CS, Lee JS, Choi SJ, Yi HG: Plasmablastic lymphoma in the anal canal. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Sep;41(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Plasmablastic lymphoma in the anal canal.
  • Here, we describe a very rare case of PBL in the anal canal of a 40-year-old woman with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • The malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus 8.

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  • (PMID = 19809569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2757665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epstein-Bar virus / HIV / Plasmablastic lymphoma
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5. Tiryaki T, Senel E, Atayurt H: Anal canal duplication in children: a new technique. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Jun;22(6):560-1
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  • [Title] Anal canal duplication in children: a new technique.
  • Anal canal duplication (ACD) is a very rare abnormality.
  • Because of the high rate of malignant changes in anal canal duplications complete removal of the ACD is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Abnormalities / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16538439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Siddique K, Bhandari S, Harinath G: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive anal B cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2010 Apr;92(3):W7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive anal B cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature.
  • This case report is on a very rare case of giant anal canal ulcer with rectal prolapse causing total faecal incontinence.
  • Examination revealed a large ulcer measuring 6 cm x 8 cm involving the entire anal canal with rectal prolapse.
  • Here, we discuss the management of this patient with a rare cause of giant anal canal ulceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology

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  • (PMID = 20412659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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7. Ohdaira T, Yasuda Y, Hashizume M: Requisites for the remote-controlled wide-view CCD camera unit for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery placed in the intraperitoneal cavity. Surg Technol Int; 2010 Apr;19:38-46
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  • The issue of lens fogging could be resolved by a water supply into the anal canal and a more than 12-hour ultraviolet irradiation.

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  • (PMID = 20437343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-3941
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical technology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Technol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Isik N, Elmaci I, Gokben B, Balak N, Tosyali N: Currarino triad: surgical management and follow-up results of four [correction of three] cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;46(2):110-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There was a narrow anal canal or narrow ventrally displaced anus in all patients.
  • Their anorectal malformations were characterized as anal stenoses (4 patients), associated with Hirschsprung's disease in 2 cases.
  • Anal stenosis was treated by anal dilatation.
  • We performed a posterior procedure via lumbar and sacral partial laminectomy-laminoplasty and transdural ligation of the neck of the meningocele for anterior sacral meningoceles, or alternatively, tumor excision for other types of presacral lesions.
  • If it is an anterior sacral meningocele or a solid tumor without severe anorectal malformation, it can be managed with posterior lumbar and sacral procedures.
  • Such approaches are performed easily by transdural ligation of the neck of the anterior sacral meningocele or through tumor excision.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Anal Canal / radiography. Anal Canal / surgery. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Rectum / abnormalities. Rectum / radiography. Rectum / surgery. Sacrum / abnormalities. Sacrum / radiography. Sacrum / surgery


9. Regadas FS, Regadas SM, Rodrigues LV, Misici R, Silva FR, Regadas Filho FS: Transanal repair of rectocele and full rectal mucosectomy with one circular stapler: a novel surgical technique. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Apr;9(1):63-6
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  • The stapled suture was positioned between normal anterior rectal wall and the anal canal, 0.5 cm above the pectinate line.

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  • (PMID = 15868504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Slattery E, Keegan D, O'Donoghue D: Anorectal stenosis after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies: a case series. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:226
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anorectal stenosis after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies: a case series.
  • INTRODUCTION: We identified three patients who developed anorectal stenosis after successful treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) agents.
  • No patients had evidence of active inflammation at time of representation or had previous anal canal surgery.

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  • (PMID = 20659338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2918630
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11. Bode M, Eder S, Schürmann G: [Perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease--biologicals and surgery: is it worthwhile?]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Dec;46(12):1376-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Perianales Fistelleiden bei Morbus Crohn - Biologika und Chirurgie: Ein lohnendes Konzept?
  • Often they are combined with CD of the anal canal and occur as a complex system of fistulas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / complications. Rectal Fistula / drug therapy. Rectal Fistula / surgery. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19053007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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12. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Heymen S, Scarlett Y, Jones K, Ringel Y, Drossman D, Whitehead WE: Randomized controlled trial shows biofeedback to be superior to pelvic floor exercises for fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Oct;52(10):1730-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biofeedback training increased anal canal squeeze pressure more than pelvic floor exercises did (P = 0.014) and with less abdominal tension during squeeze (P = 0.001).

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2009 Oct;52(10):1737 [19966606.001]
  • (PMID = 19966605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000046; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057048; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01DK57048; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK067674; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00046
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS513217; NLM/ PMC3855426
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14. Patti R, Almasio PL, Arcara M, Sammartano S, Romano P, Fede C, Di Vita G: Botulinum toxin vs. topical glyceryl trinitrate ointment for pain control in patients undergoing hemorrhoidectomy: a randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Nov;49(11):1741-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The maximum resting pressure in the anal canal is greatly raised after hemorrhoidectomy.

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2007 Jan;50(1):122. Luigi, Almasio Piero [corrected to Almasio, Piero Luigi]; Matteo, Arcara [corrected to Arcara, Matteo]; Sergio, Sammartano [corrected to Sammartano, Sergio]; Pietro, Romano [corrected to Romano, Pietro]; Calogero, Fede [corrected to Fede, Calogero]; Gaetano, Di Vita [corrected to Di Vita, Gaetano]
  • (PMID = 16990976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; 0 / Ointments; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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15. Koda K, Yasuda H, Hirano A, Kosugi C, Suzuki M, Yamazaki M, Tezuka T, Higuchi R, Tsuchiya H, Saito N: Evaluation of postoperative damage to anal sphincter/levator ani muscles with three-dimensional vector manometry after sphincter-preserving operation for rectal cancer. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Mar;208(3):362-7
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  • [Title] Evaluation of postoperative damage to anal sphincter/levator ani muscles with three-dimensional vector manometry after sphincter-preserving operation for rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine correlations between pressure profile of the anal canal and postoperative defecatory disorder after sphincter-preserving operation (SPO) for rectal cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Using three-dimensional vector manometry, pressure profile and length of the anal canal were evaluated more than 1 year after SPO according to operation method and degree of postoperative defecatory function in 53 patients with rectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Compared with high anterior resection as a control, the anal canal was shorter in operations with a pelvic floor maneuver, namely, low anterior resection, ultra-low anterior resection, and intersphincteric resection.
  • Patients with postoperative defecatory disorder showed significantly shorter anal canal length than patients with fair function.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Operative maneuvers at the pelvic floor during SPO for rectal cancer may damage anal sphincter or levator ani muscles.
  • The circular high-pressure zone can be measured only by three-dimensional manometry and may offer a useful indicator of sphincter damage after SPO for rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / injuries. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Fecal Incontinence / diagnosis. Manometry / methods. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Wounds, Penetrating / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19317997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Gaj F, Trecca A: [Scientific background and clinical implementation: three new proposals in coloproctology]. Clin Ter; 2006 May-Jun;157(3):213-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: The Authors underline three clinical problems in coloproctology: the surgical access to the anal canal, the lacking aspects of the actual classification of hemorrhoids, the difficult choice of the surgical treatment in case of coexisting III degrees and IV degrees degree of hemorrhoids.
  • They propose a new anal retractor which enables the surgeon to better calibrate all the surgical procedures inside the anal canal and to operate alone without the help of another operator.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The new anal retractor was used in fifthy consecutive patients operated on for proctological problems.

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  • (PMID = 16900846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Ramírez JM, Aguilella V, Martínez M, Gracia JA: The utility of endovaginal sonography in the evaluation of fecal incontinence. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2005 May;97(5):317-22
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  • Anal endosonography was performed in all of them in a single ambulatory session, pictures were taken from all along the anal and results were analyzed afterward.
  • In 3 patients a simple internal anal sphincter defect was found.
  • Vaginal endosonography shows a clear image of the anal canal in 23 out of 30 patients.
  • In two cases changed the results of anal endosonography.
  • CONCLUSION: In the study of faecal incontinence, despite of its technical limitations, endovaginal ultrasound could be of help when the anterior wall of the anal canal is not properly defined.

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  • (PMID = 16004523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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18. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Bortolotti M, Ugolini G, Grandis A, Montroni I, Mazzero G: A novel magnetic device to prevent fecal incontinence (preliminary study). Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 May;23(5):499-501
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this research we propose an original magnetic device to strengthen the hypo-atonic anal sphincter and prevent fecal incontinence.
  • METHODS: The device consists in a couple of small magnetic plaques to be surgically inserted in the wall of the anal canal between the external and internal anal sphincters with the opposite polarities face to face, so that, attracting themselves, close the anal lumen.
  • CONCLUSION: This research demonstrated that the implantation of a couple of magnets in the wall of the anal canal is able to create a high pressure zone of a value sufficient to prevent fecal incontinence and that the strength of this "dynamic closure" can be modulated by using magnets of various attraction force, so allowing a "tailored correction" of the anal sphincter hypotension.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiology. Fecal Incontinence / prevention & control. Magnetics / instrumentation

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  • [Cites] Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Dec;101(12):2679-81 [17227512.001]
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  • (PMID = 18231796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ferric Compounds; 1317-54-0 / ferrite; 2I87U3734A / Neodymium
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20. Miyazu M, Sobue K, Ito H, Azami T, Ito S, Takeuchi A, Sasano H, Tsuda T, Katsuya H: Anesthetic and airway management of general anesthesia in a patient with Meckel-Gruber syndrome. J Anesth; 2005;19(4):309-10
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  • Preoperative examination revealed obesity, microgenia, dysspondylism, proteinuria, hypoplastic kidneys, and stenosis of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 16261468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0913-8668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Anesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0 / Methyl Ethers; 38LVP0K73A / sevoflurane
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21. Jung SA, Pretorius DH, Weinstein M, Nager CW, Den-Boer D, Mittal RK: Closure mechanism of the anal canal in women: assessed by three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jun;51(6):932-9
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  • [Title] Closure mechanism of the anal canal in women: assessed by three-dimensional ultrasound imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the functional correlates of anal canal anatomy using 3 dimensional ultrasound imaging.
  • The bag was placed along the anal canal and inflated with 20 to 45 ml water, in 5-ml increments.
  • At each volume, a three-dimensional ultrasound volume of the anal canal was obtained while the subjects were at rest and squeeze.
  • The flared ends of the funnels correspond with the proximal and distal margins of the puborectalis muscle and external anal sphincter respectively.
  • With increasing bag volumes, the length of completely closed segment of anal canal decreased.
  • The last anal segment to open at rest was the one surrounded by all three structures.
  • Anal contraction resulted in reduction of the anal canal cross-sectional area; the least compliant part of the anal canal was the one surrounded by external anal sphincter.
  • CONCLUSION: The internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter, and puborectalis muscle are all involved in the anal canal closure function.
  • During contraction, the external anal sphincter is the strongest component of anal canal closure mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiology. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional

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  • (PMID = 18330648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R0-1 DK60733
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Regadas SM, Regadas FS, Rodrigues LV, Silva FR, Lima DM, Regadas-Filho FS: [Importance of the tridimensional ultrasound in the anorectal evaluation]. Arq Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct-Dec;42(4):226-32
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  • AIM: To show the three-dimensional endosonography importance in the anal canal anatomic evaluation and the anorectal diseases diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Seventy four anorectal ultrasound were performed, 23 normal individuals (13 women) and 51 patients (33 women) with benign and malignant diseases.
  • Normal individuals were evaluated in midline sagittal plane concerning to the length of the anal canal, the internal anal sphincter, the external anal sphincter and the anatomic defect in the anterior quadrant.
  • RESULTS: There were no differences in the anal canal and the internal anal sphincter length between men and women.
  • Otherwise, the external anal sphincter length is longer in men and the anatomic defect is longer in women.
  • In those with anorectal diseases, 11 sphincter injuries, 8 anal fistulas, 7 abscess, 1 perirectal endometriosis, 1 pre-sacral cyst, 3 anal canal and 10 rectal malignant neoplasias were diagnosed.
  • The surgical findings confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis in all the patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional endosonography demonstrated the anatomic differences between male and female anal canal, justifying the larger incidence of pelvic floor disorders in female patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / anatomy & histology. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rectum / anatomy & histology. Rectum / ultrasonography. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16444377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2803
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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23. Pinsk I, Seppala R, Friedlich MS: Anography: a technique for determining the location of the internal opening in perianal fistula. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Sep;12(9):896-900
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  • METHOD: A retrospective study of 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of fistula-in-ano of criptoglandular aetiology was performed.
  • During anography, the location of the internal opening was recorded with respect to the quadrant of anal canal and distance from the anal verge.
  • There was complete agreement between anography reports and findings at EUA regarding the quadrant of anal canal in which the internal opening was located.
  • CONCLUSION: Anography is an accurate test for predicting the exact quadrant of the anal canal in which the internal opening is located, as well as the distance of the internal opening from the anal verge.

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  • (PMID = 19614670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 24GP945V5T / Barium
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24. Elwakeel HA, Moneim HA, Farid M, Gohar AA: Clove oil cream: a new effective treatment for chronic anal fissure. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jul;9(6):549-52
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  • [Title] Clove oil cream: a new effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal and causes considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life.
  • This study discussed the results of clove oil 1% cream in healing of chronic anal fissure.
  • Patients in clove oil group showed significant reduction in resting anal pressure and almost all other anorectal manometric pressures compared with patients in control group.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical application of clove oil cream demonstrated a significant beneficial effect when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissure.

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  • (PMID = 17573751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Clove Oil
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25. Remzi FH, Fazio VW, Gorgun E, Zutshi M, Church JM, Lavery IC, Hull TL: Quality of life, functional outcome, and complications of coloplasty pouch after low anterior resection. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Apr;48(4):735-43
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  • However, a narrow pelvis, difficulties in reach, a long anal canal with prominent sphincters, or a fatty mesentery may turn this technique into a technically challenging procedure in certain patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / surgery. Colonic Pouches / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / adverse effects. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / anatomy & histology. Anastomosis, Surgical. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvis / anatomy & histology. Suture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 15785900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Murad-Regadas SM, Regadas FS, Barreto RG, Rodrigues LV, Fernandes GO, Lima DM: Is dynamic two-dimensional anal ultrasonography useful in the assessment of anismus? A comparison with manometry. Arq Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct-Dec;47(4):368-72
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  • [Title] Is dynamic two-dimensional anal ultrasonography useful in the assessment of anismus? A comparison with manometry.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of two dimensional anal ultrasonography to identify anismus patients with paradoxical contraction or normal relaxation, comparing findings with manometric measurements.
  • Following screening with anal manometry, the patients were assigned to one of two groups: G-I -with normal relaxation and G-II -patients with anismus.
  • RESULTS: In manometry, during straining the anal canal pressure decreased by 41.3% in G-I and increased by 168.6% in G-II, indicating a diagnosis of anismus for the second group.
  • The index of agreement between manometry and two dimensional anal ultrasonography was moderate: 77% (23/30) for G-I and 84% (16/19) for G-II.
  • CONCLUSION: Two-dimensional dynamic anal ultrasonography showed similar results previously suggested by anal manometry at identifying patients with normal relaxation or paradoxical contraction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Constipation / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Manometry / methods

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  • (PMID = 21225147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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27. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these neoplasms with the aid of short illustrative case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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28. Bui T, Harvey J, Brown E, Scott M, Haines T, Davidson K: Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Aug;53(4):396-404
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  • [Title] Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique.
  • To investigate and compare the dosimetric distribution of a conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique and a genital organ sparing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • Twenty-four patients with anal canal cancer treated between January 2002 and December 2006 were investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation Protection / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19695047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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29. Kohno M, Ikawa H, Konuma K, Masuyama H, Fukumoto H, Morimura E: Is high amplitude propagated contraction present after transanal endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease? Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Oct;23(10):981-6
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  • (1) the anal canal, (2) 5 cm proximal to the anal canal, and (3) 10 cm proximal to the anal canal, during defecation, and then we measured the appearance of high-amplitude contraction (HAC) (duration >/=10 s, amplitude >/=100 cmH(2)O).
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Colon / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Manometry. Recovery of Function

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Jan;42(1):41-7; discussion 47 [17208539.001]
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  • (PMID = 17657500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Vorob'ev GI, Zhuchenko AP, Achkasov SI, Kapuller LL, Biriukov OM: [Modification of Svenson's biopsy of rectal wall in diagnosis of malformations of intramural nervous system in adults]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(10):4-7
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  • [Title] [Modification of Svenson's biopsy of rectal wall in diagnosis of malformations of intramural nervous system in adults].
  • Thirty-five autopsied specimens of rectum's distal part and anal canal part were studied.
  • With regard to this wide range the modification of transanal Svenson's biopsy of rectal wall was proposed for diagnosis of malformations of intramural nervous system of the colon.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Megacolon / pathology. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16247399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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31. Tavora F, Gonzalez-Cuyar LF, Sun CC, Burke A, Zhao XF: Extra-oral plasmablastic lymphoma: report of a case and review of literature. Hum Pathol; 2006 Sep;37(9):1233-6
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  • We report a rare case of PBL in the anal canal of a 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / classification. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / classification. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / classification. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16938530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD79; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Syndecans; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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32. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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33. Gaj F, Sportelli G, Veltri S, Crispino P: [Proctological surgery: use of a salsobromoiodic gel solution in the post-operative period]. Clin Ter; 2009;160(2):111-3
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  • BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to demonstrate the advantages and the efficacy of a salsobromoiodic gel solution sponge to use in coloproctology after surgery for the most frequent pathologies of anal canal and of perineal region.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Authors have tested the salsobromoiodic gel solution (Fertomcidina U) in a consecutive series of patients referred to 5 coloproctological centers where they have been submitted to surgery for pathologies of anal canal and of perineal region.
  • A total of 30 patients, 15 with clinico-instrumental diagnosis of III-IV degree haemorrhoids and 15 with diagnosis of chronic anal fissure entered in a clinical follow-up after an out-patient setting or surgery for the respective pathologies.
  • RESULT: In 100% of the treated patients, the used gel has determined the prevention of infective complications, favouring a normal re-epithelization of tissue submitted to surgery or affected by previous anal mucosal lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of salsobromoiodic gel solution has been useful to prevent infections and to contribute to the cicatrisation, healing and re-epithelization of anal mucosal lesions after surgery on a normal outpatients setting.

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  • (PMID = 19452098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1972-6007
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Bromides; 0 / Gels; 0 / Iodides
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34. Antonietti M, Lecleire S, Ben Soussan E, Paillot B, Di Fiore F, Lerebours E, Ducrotté P: Lugol chromoendoscopy: might it be useful to improve detection of early dysplastic or neoplastic lesions of the anal canal in high-risk patients? Endoscopy; 2008 Sep;40 Suppl 2:E47
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  • [Title] Lugol chromoendoscopy: might it be useful to improve detection of early dysplastic or neoplastic lesions of the anal canal in high-risk patients?
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Iodides. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18300204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodides; T66M6Y3KSA / Lugol's solution
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35. Bellicini N, Molloy PJ, Caushaj P, Kozlowski P: Fecal incontinence: a review. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Jan;53(1):41-6
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  • Fecal incontinence (FI) is defined as the involuntary passage of fecal material through the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 17520366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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36. Oblak I, Petric P, Anderluh F, Velenik V, Hudej R, Fras AP: Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience. Neoplasma; 2009;56(2):150-5
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  • [Title] Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience.
  • Results of radiochemotherapy in 50 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, treated with radical radiochemotherapy between January 2003 and September 2007, at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana are presented.
  • The treatment schedule consisted of 3-D conformal external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions), with two cycles of concurrent chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5-FU) / Mitomycin C), followed by brachytherapy or external beam boost (15-30 Gy) to the primary tumor.
  • The impact of individual tumor- and therapy-related factors on treatment outcome was assessed.
  • Late anal stenosis, chronic ulceration and grade 2-3 incontinence developed in 3 (6 %), 2 (4 %) and 5 (10 %) of colostomy-free survivors, respectively.
  • </p> KEYWORDS: anal cancer, radiochemotherapy, survival, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19239330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Pinsk I, Brown J, Phang PT: Assessment of sonographic quality of anal sphincter muscles in patients with faecal incontinence. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):933-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of sonographic quality of anal sphincter muscles in patients with faecal incontinence.
  • The aim of our study was to determine whether qualitative changes in echogenicity and in uniformity of internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincter muscles detected on endoanal US correlate with other anal laboratory tests and modified Wexner faecal incontinence functional score.
  • METHOD: Records on 99 patients having complete information on anorectal manometry, faecal incontinence scoring and available endoanal US imaging of the anal sphincters were included in statistical analysis.
  • Anatomic appearance and changes in echogenicity of the anal sphincter muscles were recorded according to the proposed scoring system.
  • Endoanal US defect and quality component scores for IAS and EAS as well as the total score were correlated with anal laboratory tests and incontinence score using Spearman's correlations test.
  • Endoanal US total score was significantly correlated with incontinence score (P = 0.006), maximal resting (MRP) (P = 0.035) and MSP (P = 0.045) and high pressure anal canal zone length (P = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Sonographic morphology of anal sphincter muscles correlates with anal laboratory tests and functional incontinence score.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Fecal Incontinence / ultrasonography

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  • [CommentIn] Colorectal Dis. 2010 Jun;12(6):605 [20070331.001]
  • (PMID = 19175644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Ohana G, Myslovaty B, Ariche A, Dreznik Z, Koren R, Rath-Wolfson L: Mid-term results of stapled hemorrhoidopexy for third- and fourth-degree hemorrhoids--correlation with the histological features of the resected tissue. World J Surg; 2007 Jun;31(6):1336-42
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  • BACKGROUND: Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is used to remove a circumferential strip of mucosa and submucosa about 4 cm above the dentate line, in order to restore the correct anatomical relationships of the anal canal structures.
  • Data concerning postoperative bleeding, anal pain, incontinence, stenosis, and recurrence of hemorrhoids were collected from hospital and outpatient clinic records.
  • Internal sphincter fibers were present in 36% of the cases, yet there were no cases of anal incontinence.
  • Nerve endings were more frequent in patients with anal pain one week after surgery (p = 0.02).

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Apr;48(4):809-15 [15785901.001]
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  • (PMID = 17450437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Papaconstantinou HT, Bullard KM, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failed Nigro protocol: modest success, major morbidity. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Feb;8(2):124-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy and radiation (C-XRT) is the first-line therapy for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal (ECAC).
  • We evaluated patient demographics, treatment, tumour characteristics, survival and postoperative complications.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years.
  • Eight (42%) patients had persistent disease; 11 (58%) had tumour recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Failure of C-XRT for ECAC is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16412072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Flores R, Abalos AT, Nielson CM, Abrahamsen M, Harris RB, Giuliano AR: Reliability of sample collection and laboratory testing for HPV detection in men. J Virol Methods; 2008 Apr;149(1):136-43
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  • The highest agreement was observed for penile shaft with a kappa (kappa)=0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.86), followed by perianal area (kappa=0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.86); and lowest at the anal canal (kappa=0.55, 95% CI: 0.35-0.74) and scrotum (kappa=0.54, 95% CI: 0.40-0.69).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 18279976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-0934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U36/CCU319276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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41. Emblem R, Mørkrid L, Bjørnland K: Anal endosonography is useful for postoperative assessment of anorectal malformations. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Sep;42(9):1549-54
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  • [Title] Anal endosonography is useful for postoperative assessment of anorectal malformations.
  • AIM: This study aimed to develop and evaluate a scoring system for anal endosonography to assess anal canal structures after repair of anorectal malformations (ARM).
  • Anal function was assessed clinically and by anal canal manometry.
  • The anal canal structures were imaged by anal endosonography using a 7.5-MHz transducer.
  • A scoring system was developed to assess the anal sphincters as visualized on the endosonographic images.
  • RESULTS: Continence was significantly correlated to anal canal pressures.
  • The estimated extent of muscle defect (measured in quadrants) and the number of disruptions in the internal and external anal sphincters correlated significantly to the rest and squeeze pressures, respectively.
  • Thus, patients (>4 years) with squeeze pressure of less than 80 cm H2O were characterized by more than 1 disruption in the external anal sphincter ring and 2 or more quadrants with scar tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: The extent of scar tissue and the number of disruptions in the anal sphincters correlate with anal canal pressures and continence after ARM repair.
  • Anal endosonography may be used to study the results after different surgical techniques and for prognosis on continence in patients with ARM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 17848247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Hilman S, Brammer C: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease of the anal canal. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Feb;17(1):69
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  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology

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  • (PMID = 15714936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, Baert F, Van Laethem JL, Speleman F, Pauwels P, Peeters M: Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:189
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  • BACKGROUND: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas.
  • EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21.
  • EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas.
  • This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Base Sequence. Belgium. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20459770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887399
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44. Holzer B, Rosen HR, Novi G, Ausch C, Hölbling N, Schiessel R: Sacral nerve stimulation for neurogenic faecal incontinence. Br J Surg; 2007 Jun;94(6):749-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Evaluation consisted of a continence diary, anal manometry, saline retention testing and quality of life assessment.
  • Maximum resting and squeeze anal canal pressures increased compared with preoperative values.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17410558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Sheikh MS, Hilal RM, Misbha AM, Farooq AR: Colorectal lithobezoar: A rare case report. J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg; 2010 Apr;15(2):62-3
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  • We report an unusual case of a giant lithobezoar that was extending from the caecum to the anal canal, and the patient had no features of absolute constipation or peritonitis.

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  • (PMID = 20975785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3891
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2952779
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Colon / lithobezoar / pica / rectum
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46. Moore DH: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):379-83
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  • The incorporation of radiation therapy and eventually chemotherapy in the primary treatment of vulva cancer also represents a slow evolution in clinical management.
  • The addition of chemotherapy concurrent to radiation therapy for the treatment of vulvar carcinoma was heavily influenced by advances in the treatment of cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • The rarity of vulva cancer precludes prospective randomized clinical trials in the absence of international collaboration.
  • Nonetheless, patients with locally advanced vulva cancer have derived considerable benefit from chemoradiation studies in other related tumor sites, and will continue to do so in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19232700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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47. Padda BS, Jung SA, Pretorius D, Nager CW, Den-Boer D, Mittal RK: Effects of pelvic floor muscle contraction on anal canal pressure. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2007 Feb;292(2):G565-71
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  • [Title] Effects of pelvic floor muscle contraction on anal canal pressure.
  • The role of pelvic floor muscle contraction in the genesis of anal canal pressure is not clear.
  • We studied the effects of vaginal distension on anal canal pressure in 15 nullipara asymptomatic women.
  • Anal pressure, rest, and squeeze were measured using station pull-through manometry techniques with no vaginal probe, a 10-mm vaginal probe, and a 25-mm vaginal probe in place.
  • In the presence of the 25-mm vaginal probe, rest and squeeze anal pressures in the proximal part of the anal canal were significantly higher compared with no vaginal probe or the 10-mm vaginal probe.
  • On the other hand, distal anal pressures were not affected by any of the vaginal probes.
  • Atropine at 15 micro g/kg had no influence on the rest and squeeze anal pressures with or without vaginal distension.
  • Our data suggest that pelvic floor contractions increase pressures in the proximal part of the anal canal, which is anatomically surrounded by the puborectalis muscle.
  • We propose that pelvic floor contraction plays an important role in the fecal continence mechanism by increasing anal canal pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiology. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology. Pelvic Floor / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17023551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01-DK-60733
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parasympatholytics; 7C0697DR9I / Atropine
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48. Lee JH, Pretorius DH, Weinstein M, Guaderrama NM, Nager CW, Mittal RK: Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound in evaluating anal sphincter muscles. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Aug;30(2):201-9
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  • [Title] Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound in evaluating anal sphincter muscles.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether transperineal three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound can be used to depict normal anal sphincter anatomy and to measure the thickness of muscle layers and the anteroposterior length of the levator hiatus.
  • Transperineal 3D sonographic evaluation of the anal canal included assessment of sphincter shape, echogenicity, marginal definition and muscle thickness.
  • Measurements of the thickness of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and puborectalis muscle (PRM) were determined with the women at rest and during squeezing by two observers, and interobserver reliability was determined.
  • RESULTS: The proximal end of the anal canal (towards the rectum) consisted of overlapping IAS and PRM, and the distal end (towards the anus) consisted of overlapping IAS and external anal sphincter (EAS).
  • CONCLUSION: Transperineal 3D ultrasound may be useful in evaluating the anatomy of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Muscle, Skeletal / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17605148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK60733
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Gu J, Li J, Yao Y, Lu A, Wang H: Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma. Front Med China; 2007 Jul;1(3):333-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma.
  • It is difficult to distinguish a rectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.
  • The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.
  • Five months after resection, he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.
  • The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+ and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.
  • For this reason, we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.
  • It is very important to differentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available, especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 24573877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-7342
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of medicine in China
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Med China
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Brading AF, Ivancheva C, Radomirov R: Functional coordination of motor activity in colonic and recto-anal smooth muscles in rat experimental model. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;30(3):201-7
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  • [Title] Functional coordination of motor activity in colonic and recto-anal smooth muscles in rat experimental model.
  • Spontaneous or electrically elicited contraction and/or relaxation of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the colon and rectum and the anal canal in rat segment preparations were recorded simultaneously to display contractile potency and functional coordination of muscles in the large intestine.
  • The anal canal showed contractions following the activity of rectal muscles.
  • The local response of the internal anal sphincter was biphasic, comprising short contractions followed by relaxation, while the response of the anal canal was contraction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiology. Colon / physiology. Motor Activity / physiology. Muscle, Smooth / physiology. Rectum / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 18597004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-0355
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Galandiuk S, Kimberling J, Al-Mishlab TG, Stromberg AJ: Perianal Crohn disease: predictors of need for permanent diversion. Ann Surg; 2005 May;241(5):796-801; discussion 801-2
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  • OBJECTIVE: Fissures, fistulas, abscesses, and anal canal stenosis are manifestations of perianal Crohn disease (CD).
  • Forty-two patients (49%) ultimately required permanent diversion; among them were 21 of 32 patients (66%) with anal stricture and 12 of 20 women (60%) with rectovaginal fistula.
  • Significant univariate predictors were the presence of colonic CD (P = 0.0045, odds ratio [OR] 5.4), avoidance of ileocolic resection (P = 0.0147, OR 0.4), and the presence of an anal stricture (P = 0.0165, OR 3.0).
  • In multivariate logistic regression, the presence of colonic disease and anal canal stricture were predictors of permanent diversion.
  • The OR associated with the risk of permanent diversion in the presence of colonic disease and in the absence of anal stricture was 10 (P = 0.0345).
  • In the presence of both colonic disease and anal canal stenosis, the OR associated with permanent stoma was 33 (P = 0.0023).
  • Roughly half of patients required permanent fecal diversion, which was even more frequently true for patients with colonic CD and anal stenosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / etiology. Abscess / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Colectomy. Constriction, Pathologic. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Intestinal Fistula / etiology. Intestinal Fistula / surgery. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15849515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357134
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53. Madalinski M, Chodorowski Z: Why the most potent toxin may heal anal fissure. Adv Ther; 2006 Jul-Aug;23(4):627-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Why the most potent toxin may heal anal fissure.
  • An anal fissure is a painful linear ulcer in the lower part of the anal canal.
  • Increased activity of the internal anal sphincter may decrease the anodermal blood supply by compressing arterioles.
  • Surgical procedures and botulinum treatment for patients with chronic anal fissure produce a temporary reduction in anal pressure, reverse sphincter spasm, and promote fissure healing.
  • However, recent studies have shown that fissure healing does not appear to be dependent on reduction in mean resting anal pressure.
  • The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin on the internal anal sphincter is not yet fully understood.
  • This review focuses on problems associated with anal fissure treatment and presents them from the wider angle of science about botulinum toxin.

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  • (PMID = 17050505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-238X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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54. Vuong T, Kopek N, Ducruet T, Portelance L, Faria S, Bahoric B, Devic S: Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):1394-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with anal canal cancer, in terms of local control (LC), freedom from relapse (FFR), and overall survival (OS) rates, and to estimate long-term toxicity data.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of 3D-CRT allows patients with anal canal cancer to complete radiation and chemotherapy without interruption for toxicity, with significant improvements in LC, FFR, and OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 17276620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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55. Klenova A, Balabanova A: [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases].
  • PURPOSE: The conservative treatment for carcinoma of the anal canal has become the standard care for this malignancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and December 2003 six female patients with UICC T2-3, No, Mo, G1-G2 squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated.
  • The total tumor dose of 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/day, 5 fractions weekly, was delivered to the pelvis and the primary tumor; for the inguinal lymph nodes the total dose was 41.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/day, 5 fractions weekly.
  • After interruption of 14 days, a local boost irradiation to the primary tumor was given--16 Gy, 2 Gy/day, 5 fractions weekly.
  • Complete tumor regression was obtained in all treated cases.
  • The therapy was well tolerated, with good anal continence and moderate late side effects, including soft chronic diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20063470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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56. Yang J, Zhang W, Feng J, Guo X, Wang G, Weng Y, Sun X, Yu D: Comparison of clinical outcomes and anorectal manometry in patients with congenital anorectal malformations treated with posterior sagittal anorectoplasty and laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull through. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Dec;44(12):2380-3
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  • Anal canal resting pressure and high-pressure zone length were 29.4 +/- 7.2 vs 23.4 +/- 6.5 mm Hg (P = .0479) and 14.9 +/- 3.0 vs 13.9 +/- 3.1 mm (P = .4414), respectively.
  • Rectal anal inhibitory reflex was observed in 81.8% (9/11) and 83.3% (10/12) patients (P = 1.0000), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant difference can be noted in clinical scoring between both groups, the results of anorectal manometry indicate that LAARP can significantly improve anal canal resting pressure and reduce the length of stay.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Manometry / statistics & numerical data. Rectum / abnormalities. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20006031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Mohammad A, Makaju R: Retrospective histopathological analysis of various neoplasms of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract seen at the Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital (KUTH), Dhulikhel, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ); 2006 Oct-Dec;4(4):474-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective histopathological analysis of various neoplasms of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract seen at the Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital (KUTH), Dhulikhel, Nepal.
  • OBJECTIVE: To find out the spectrum of various histopathologic types of primary neoplasms of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colorectum, anal canal) seen at the Kathmandu University Teaching Hospital (KUTH), Dhulikhel as there exists a worldwide wide variation in the distribution of various neoplasms of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, which appears largely due to exogenous factors rather than due to inherent differences between populations.
  • All neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract seen at the KUTH during the period 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2004 were included in this study and examined by light microscope (LM).
  • RESULTS: A total number of 18 cases of neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract were seen.
  • Out of these, 3 (16.7%) were of the oesophagus (all squamous cell carcinoma), 10 (55.5%) were of the stomach (six intestinal type and four diffuse type), 2 (11.1%) were of the small intestine (one was lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue--MALTOMA and other was a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumour--GIST), 3 (16.7%) were of the colorectum (all adenocarcinoma), and none was of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Nepal / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18603957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-2078
  • [Journal-full-title] Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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58. De Nardi P, Corsetti M, Passaretti S, Squillante S, Castellaneta AG, Staudacher C, Testoni PA: Evaluation of rectal sensory and motor function by means of the electronic barostat after stapled hemorrhoidopexy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Aug;51(8):1255-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is designed to replace the hemorrhoids into the anal canal by excising the redundant rectal mucosa above the anorectal ring, thus resulting in an intrarectal suture.

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  • (PMID = 18470557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Patti R, Angileri M, Migliore G, Sammartano S, Termine S, Crivello F, Gioè FP, Di Vita G: [Effectiveness of contemporary injection of botulinum toxin and topical application of glyceryl trinitrate against postoperative pain after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 Nov-Dec;77(6):503-8
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  • PURPOSE: After haemorrhoidectomy the maximum resting pressure (MRP) of the anal canal is significantly increased.
  • At the end of surgery, in all patients, 0.4 ml of solution containing 20UI of Tox was injected and 100 mg of 0.2% of GT was applied in the anal canal and in the perianal wounds.
  • Anal incontinence was observed only in two patients, whereas headache only in one case.

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  • (PMID = 17343234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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60. Stefanski L, Lampe P, Aleksandrowicz R: The probability of finding nerve branches to the external anal sphincter. Surg Radiol Anat; 2008 Nov;30(8):675-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The probability of finding nerve branches to the external anal sphincter.
  • The issue of external anal sphincter innervation is of theoretical and clinical significance; however, literature on the subject is still scarce.
  • Most study reports discuss the course of the pudendal nerve with no close insight into inferior rectal nerves supply to the external anal sphincter.
  • We have not found any statistical "mapping" of the site of the nerve branches insertion into the external anal sphincter.
  • Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the least and most typical location of nerve branches to the external anal sphincter.
  • Following the dissection of the pudendal nerve and its branches, a beam compass was used to take linear measurements from the apex of the coccygeal bone to the point of nerve branch insertion to the external anal sphincter.
  • Computer programmes devised by the author of this paper within Turbo Pascal were then used to determine the probability of finding nerve branches to the external anal sphincter.
  • RESULTS: Based on the analysis of 110 preparations of the pudendal nerve and its branches, one might conclude that the former was the main although not necessarily the only source of external anal sphincter innervation.
  • While analysing the most and the least probable location of nerve branches to the external anal sphincter, the muscle length was expressed as percentage, i.e., 0% of sphincter length = the apex of the coccygeal bone; 100% of sphincter length = the central tendon of the perineum.
  • Within 30-85% of external anal sphincter length, the probability of finding nerve branches to the external anal sphincter is greater than 0.3 with peak probability of 0.68 in the interval between 55 and 65%.
  • DISCUSSION: Sphincter innervation and clinicoanatomical function of anal canal closure apparatus has been discussed with reference to external anal sphincter injury.
  • Transcutaneous electrostimulation of the pudendal nerve and the use of anal canal electrodes have also been mentioned.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most probable location of nerve branches to the external anal sphincter is half way of its length, i.e., at hour 3 or 9 of the knee-elbow position or lithotomy position.
  • The external anal sphincter can also be directly supplied by nerve branches originating from the sacral nerve root S4; the branches then go towards the posterior part of the sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / innervation

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  • [CommentIn] Surg Radiol Anat. 2010 Oct;32(8):805 [20596867.001]
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  • (PMID = 18668192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Lisi G, Illiceto MT, Rossi C, Broto JM, Jil-Vernet JM, Lelli Chiesa P: Anal canal duplication: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases from two European pediatric surgical departments. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Dec;22(12):967-73
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  • [Title] Anal canal duplication: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases from two European pediatric surgical departments.
  • Anal canal duplication (ACD) represents an extremely rare intestinal congenital anomaly of unknown origin.
  • The confirmative diagnosis is histopathological, with evidence of an anal mucosal lining (squamous +/- transitional epithelium), surrounded from a smooth muscle coat and anal glands.
  • From 1970 to 2005, 12 patients were observed, seven in Pescara, Italy (1997-2005), five in Barcelona, Spain (1970-2004) - mean age at diagnosis 17.8 months, range 0-60; M:F = 1:11.
  • Histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis in operated cases (11).
  • Surgical early removal (mucosectomy or perineal/posterior sagittal approach, depending on length of ACD and associated presacral mass) is warranted, also in asymptomatic patients, because of the risk of inflammatory complications and cancer (the latter reported in literature in adults).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Anal Canal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Constipation / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Rectal Fistula / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Spain. Surgery Department, Hospital

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  • (PMID = 17061104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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63. Birnbaum DJ, Berdah SV, Eyre-Brooke I, Moutardier V, Brunet C: Very low stapling of the anal canal in laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Jul;53(7):1093-6
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  • [Title] Very low stapling of the anal canal in laparoscopic ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.
  • Performing a double-stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis requires very low stapling of the anal canal.
  • The anal canal is then transected at the desired level relative to the dentate line.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Colonic Diseases / surgery. Colonic Pouches. Ileum / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Suture Techniques / instrumentation. Sutures

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  • (PMID = 20551765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Val-Bernal JF, Mayorga M, Diego C, González-Vela MC: Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal. Pathol Int; 2008 Jul;58(7):442-4
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  • [Title] Pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the anal canal.
  • To the authors' knowledge a lymphangioma of the anal canal has not been reported.
  • Described herein is a case of pedunculated polypoid lymphangioma of the right lateral wall on the transitional zone of the anal canal measuring 1.7 x 1.3 x 1 cm in a 40-year-old woman.
  • A pedicle does not exclude the endoscopic diagnosis of lymphangioma.
  • Lymphangioma must be included in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Rectal Fistula / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18577114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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65. Roldán GB, Chan AK, Buckner M, Magliocco AM, Doll CM: The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1127-34
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hemoglobin level on clinical outcome (local response, progression-free survival, and overall survival) in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with anal cancer treated between 1992 and 2005 with definitive chemoradiotherapy at Tom Baker Cancer Centre.
  • The median age was 56 years, the male-to-female ratio was 1:2, and the median tumor size was 3.5 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin status was correlated with progression-free and overall survival, and distant relapse, but not clinical response, in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / blood. Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20628275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
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66. Kajbafzadeh AM, Elmi A, Talab SS, Esfahani SA, Tourchi A: Functional external anal sphincter reconstruction for treatment of anal incontinence using muscle progenitor cell auto grafting. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Oct;53(10):1415-21
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  • [Title] Functional external anal sphincter reconstruction for treatment of anal incontinence using muscle progenitor cell auto grafting.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of autologous muscle progenitor cell transplantation for anal sphincter regeneration in a rabbit model of anal incontinence.
  • We examined the serial changes in structure, with particular emphasis on histology and functional properties of the anal sphincter.
  • METHODS: External anal sphincterotomy was performed in 21 rabbits; these rabbits were randomly assigned to 2 groups.
  • Manometry and electromyography showed a significant improvement in the mean resting anal canal pressure and sphincteric electrical activity 4 weeks after cell injection, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Transplanting muscle progenitor cells showed the potential for recapitulation of a myogenic program when injected into deficient rabbit anal sphincter.
  • Objective anal measures of resting and stimulated pressures and electromyographic profile improved.
  • Stem cell-mediated anal myoplasty warrants additional investigation as a new method to treat anal incontinence before attempting this modality in the clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Fecal Incontinence / surgery. Guided Tissue Regeneration / methods. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20847624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Gooneratne ML, Scott SM, Lunniss PJ: Unilateral pudendal neuropathy is common in patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Apr;50(4):449-58
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  • The pudendal nerve innervates the external anal sphincter muscle, anal canal skin, and coordinates reflex pathways.
  • Neuropathy, whether it was bilateral (bilateral vs. normal; 56 (range, 7-154) cm H2O) vs. 67 (range, 5-215) cm H2O; P < 0.01) or unilateral (unilateral vs. normal; 61 (range, 0-271) cm H2O vs. 67 (range, 5-215) cm H2O; P = 0.04) was associated with reduced anal resting tone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / innervation. Fecal Incontinence / complications. Mononeuropathies / complications

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  • (PMID = 17279299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Sermier A, Gervaz P, Egger JF, Dao M, Allal AS, Bonet M, Morel P: Lymph node retrieval in abdominoperineal surgical specimen is radiation time-dependent. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:29
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  • BACKGROUND: A low yield of lymph nodes (LN) in abdominoperineal resection (APR) specimen has been associated with preoperative radiation therapy (XRT) in population-based studies, which may preclude adequate staging of anorectal carcinomas.
  • We hypothesized that the number of LN retrieved in APR specimen was correlated with the dose and the timing of pelvic irradiation.
  • There were 12 patients operated for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) and 90 for rectal cancer.
  • 83% and 46% of patients with anal and rectal cancer respectively underwent radical/neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
  • The mean +/- SD number of LN in APR specimen was 9.2 +/- 5.9.
  • The mean number of LN in APR specimen was significantly lower in patients who underwent preoperative XRT (8 +/- 5.5 vs. 10.5 +/- 6.1, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.02).
  • The mean number of LN was not significantly different after XRT in patients with SCCA than in patients with rectal cancer (6.2 +/- 5.3 vs. 7.8 +/- 5.3, p = 0.33).
  • Finally, there was an inverse correlation between the yield of LN and the time elapsed between XRT and surgery (linear regression coefficient r = -0.32, p = 0.03).
  • 1) radiation therapy affects the yield of LN retrieval in APR specimen;.
  • These findings have important implications with regard to anatomic-pathological staging of anal and rectal cancers and subsequent decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16749931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
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69. Verhey JF, Wisser J, Warfield SK, Rexilius J, Kikinis R: Non-rigid registration of a 3D ultrasound and a MR image data set of the female pelvic floor using a biomechanical model. Biomed Eng Online; 2005 Mar 18;4:19
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  • BACKGROUND: The visual combination of different modalities is essential for many medical imaging applications in the field of Computer-Assisted medical Diagnosis (CAD) to enhance the clinical information content.
  • Clinically, incontinence is a diagnosis with high clinical prevalence and morbidity rate.
  • The conjunction of magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D ultrasound (US) image data sets could lead to a new clinical visual representation of the morphology as we show with corresponding data sets of the female anal canal with this paper.
  • METHODS: We present a feasibility study for a non-rigid registration technique based on a biomechanical model for MR and US image data sets of the female anal canal as a base for a new innovative clinical visual representation.
  • RESULTS: It is shown in this case study that the internal and external sphincter region could be registered elastically and the registration partially corrects the compression induced by the ultrasound transducer, so the MR data set showing the native anatomy is used as a frame for the US data set showing the same region with higher resolution but distorted by the transducer CONCLUSION: The morphology is of special interest in the assessment of anal incontinence and the non-rigid registration of normal clinical MR and US image data sets is a new field of the adaptation of this method incorporating the advantages of both technologies.

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  • [ISSN] 1475-925X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical engineering online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Eng Online
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA67165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P4 RR13218
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1079899
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70. Aflalo-Hazan V, Rousset P, Mourra N, Lewin M, Azizi L, Hoeffel C: Tailgut cysts: MRI findings. Eur Radiol; 2008 Nov;18(11):2586-93
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  • Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18566821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Tezuka K, Inaba Y, Hayashi K, Miura T, Moriya T, Takiguchi M, Isobe H, Watabe S, Yanagawa N: [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy].
  • We report a case on hemodialysis with liver metastases from anorectal malignant melanoma treated by dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • A 61-year-old man presented with anal bleeding.
  • An elastic soft mass was palpated in the anal canal, and a biopsy specimen was diagnosed as anorectal malignant melanoma histologically.
  • Subsequently, the patient died of respiratory failure 4 years after surgery, 1 year and 7 months after the diagnosis of multiple liver metastases.
  • We conclude that administration of DTIC undergoing hemodialysis for malignant melanoma with renal failure seems to be useful without severe adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 17940397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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72. Broens PM, Penninckx FM: Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):127-33
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  • [Title] Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation.
  • METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal manometry, including the rectal filling sensation test were performed in 19 control subjects; 10 were younger than 60 years and 9 were older than that.
  • RESULTS: Anal electrosensitivity did not differ between the two age groups.
  • Women had a significantly lower electrosensitivity 4 and 5 cm from the anal verge than men, as well as a significantly shorter anal high-pressure zone.
  • Anal electrosensitivity at different anal levels did not correlate with the rectal volume or pressure parameters of successive rectal filling sensations.
  • The pressure recorded in the proximal anal canal at the consecutive rectal filling sensations strongly correlated with the rectal balloon pressure needed to elicit them.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The zones of high anal electrosensitivity and high pressure seem to coincide.
  • Rectal sensation did not correlate with anal electrosensitivity, probably because the receptors are not stimulated by the type of anal stimulation used or because different receptors are involved.
  • Hence, the rectal filling sensation test cannot be replaced by the simpler anal electrosensitivity test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiology. Rectum / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15690669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Koch SM, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG: Determination of therapeutic threshold in sacral nerve modulation for faecal incontinence. Br J Surg; 2005 Jan;92(1):83-7
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  • At anorectal manometry the median resting and stimulation anal canal pressures were 57 and 85 mmHg respectively, and remained constant over time.

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  • (PMID = 15584063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Akhparov NN, Aipov RR, Ormantayev KS: The surgical treatment of H-fistula with normal anus in girls. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Nov;24(11):1207-10
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  • The third group consisted of 18 patients who were operated for an anterior anorectoplasty with fistula extirpation and pull-through of the anterior wall of the rectum outside the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectal Fistula / congenital. Rectal Fistula / surgery. Rectum / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 18762950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Lou SX, Wang LX, Shi HQ: [Extramammary Paget's disease due to underlying anal canal adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Nov;35(11):701
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  • [Title] [Extramammary Paget's disease due to underlying anal canal adenocarcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / secretion. Skin Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17374224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Mucin-1
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76. Blumetti J, Bastawrous AL: Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is an uncommon disease, but has increased in incidence with the HIV epidemic.
  • This review provides an overview of the historical, current, and future treatments of epidermoid anal canal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20436831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780240
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal malignancy / Nigro protocol / chemoradiation / epidermoid carcinoma
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77. Netinho JG, Ayrizono Mde L, Coy CS, Fagundes JJ, Góes JR: Amplitude and recovery velocity of relaxation induced by rectoanal inhibitory reflex and its importance for obstructive evacuation. Arq Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan-Mar;42(1):19-23
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  • Alterations in this reflex can be associated with compromised anal sphincteric function.
  • RESULTS: The mean value of resting anal pressure before rectoanal inhibitory reflex in the proximal and distal anal canals were 61.8 mm Hg and 81.7 mm Hg respectively, for the constipated patients, and 46.0 mm Hg and 64.5 mm Hg, respectively, for asymptomatic individuals.
  • The mean pressure at the point of maximal relaxation in constipated patients was 29.0 mm Hg in the proximal anal canal, and 52.1 mm Hg in the distal anal canal, whilst in the asymptomatic group they were 17.8 mm Hg and 36.3 mm Hg, respectively.
  • The mean percentage difference between the mean resting anal pressure and the mean point of maximal relaxation pressure in the proximal anal canal (amplitude of relaxation) was 54.1% in constipated patients and 54.3% in asymptomatic individuals.
  • In the distal anal canal it was, respectively, 35.6% in constipated patients, and 38.5% in the control group.
  • The average recovery velocity of relaxation in the proximal anal canal was 4.06 mm/second in constipated patients and 2.98 mm/second in asymptomatic individuals, giving a significant difference between the two groups, as well as in the distal anal canal (3.9 mm/second and 2.98 mm/second, respectively) CONCLUSION: The greater recovery velocity of the resting anal pressure in the proximal anal canal in constipated patients than in controls may be associated with obstructive evacuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Constipation / physiopathology. Defecation / physiology. Intestinal Obstruction / physiopathology. Reflex / physiology


78. de Pokomandy A, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Franco EL, Coutlée F, HIPVIRG Study Group: Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected men: the HIPVIRG cohort study. J Infect Dis; 2009 Apr 1;199(7):965-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of anal human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected men: the HIPVIRG cohort study.
  • METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among HIV-seropositive MSM in Montreal to investigate acquisition and loss of anal HPV infection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiple HPV types were common in the anal canals of HIV-seropositive MSM.

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  • (PMID = 19239366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Allaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Coté P; Coté S; Coutlée F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco E; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpré D; Macleod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trépanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vézina S
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79. De Toma G, Cavallaro G, Bitonti A, Polistena A, Onesti MG, Scuderi N: Surgical management of perianal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor). Report of three cases. Eur Surg Res; 2006;38(4):418-22
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  • [Title] Surgical management of perianal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor). Report of three cases.
  • Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA) is a slow-growing, large, cauliflower-like tumor located in the anogenital region.
  • This tumor has a locally destructive behavior, a high recurrence rate and occasional transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • There is no general agreement on the choice of treatment for this tumor.
  • Loop colostomy, considered mandatory by several authors in order to minimize wound contamination risk, does not appear to be necessary (except in cases of anal canal involvement beyond the dentate line) if a combination of bowel cleansing, non-fiber diet and loperamide can be administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16902304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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80. Khoo RE: Transanal excision of a rectal adenoma using single-access laparoscopic port. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Jul;53(7):1078-9
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  • I modified the transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique by using a single-incision laparoscopic port that was inserted into the anal canal.
  • This modification is inexpensive compared with traditional transanal endoscopic microsurgery and allows more surgeons to perform difficult transanal tumor excisions (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/DCR/A39).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopes. Laparoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20551763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Jiang Y, Mackley H, Cheng H, Ajani JA: Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy? J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):135-44
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy?
  • Use of definitive chemoradiation as primary therapy for locoregional squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has been the standard approach in the United States since the 1980s.
  • Further improvement is likely depending on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of anal carcinoma and the addition of relevant biologic agents to chemoradiation to overcome chemoradiation resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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82. Musio D, Codacci-Pisanelli G: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for anal canal carcinoma. JAMA; 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21 [18430910.001]
  • (PMID = 18812528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Amano K, Kumamoto K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Ishibashi K, Inokuma S, Nakada H, Yokoyama M, Haga N, Ishida H: [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2653-5
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  • Perianal Paget's disease is categorized as Paget's disease, which is epidermotropic neoplasm arising from the apocrine glands of perianal region, or Pagetoid spread invaded from rectal or anal canal cancer.
  • All cases presented the redness around perianal regions, and 2 cases were recognized a tumor at the anal canal.
  • We preoperatively diagnosed these cases as Pagetoid spread and others without tumor regions as Paget's disease.
  • It was compatible with the preoperative diagnosis.
  • Only one of 3 Paget's disease cases was positive for GCDFP15 and negative for CK20 resulting in the diagnosis of perianal Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Keratin-20 / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / PIP protein, human
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84. Ornö AK, Herbst A, Marsál K: Sonographic characteristics of rectal sensations in healthy females. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jan;50(1):64-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to characterize rectal sensations by visualizing the internal and external anal sphincter and intra-anal transport of bolus during elicited rectal sensations.
  • METHODS: The anal canal was visualized with real-time transperineal ultrasonography in 13 healthy female volunteers.
  • A relaxation in the internal anal sphincter (4 seconds after the injection of water), an antegrade transport of bolus (4 seconds) into the anal canal, and a contraction in the external anal sphincter (5 seconds) were observed before a sensation (6 seconds) was reported.
  • The antegrade flow continued until the distal internal anal sphincter contracted (18 seconds) and the bolus moved in a retrograde transport direction (17 seconds) thereafter the sensation disappeared (18 seconds) and the external anal sphincter relaxed (22 seconds).
  • A significant correlation in time between the end of the sensation, contraction in the internal anal sphincter, reversed flow of anal contents, and relaxation of the external anal sphincter was found (Pearson, P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results verified that the internal anal sphincter contributes to the perception of rectal sensations by a relaxation allowing intra-anal bolus to increase the pressure on the anoderm during rectal contraction.
  • A new observation is presented on the time relation between contraction in the distal internal anal sphincter, reversed flow in the anal canal, and the end of rectal sensations.

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  • (PMID = 17080280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Rizk DE, Hassan HA, Al-Marzouqi AH, Ramadan GA, Al-Kedrah SS, Daoud SA, Fahim MA: Combined estrogen and ghrelin administration restores number of blood vessels and collagen type I/III ratio in the urethral and anal canal submucosa of old ovariectomized rats. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2008 Apr;19(4):547-52
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  • [Title] Combined estrogen and ghrelin administration restores number of blood vessels and collagen type I/III ratio in the urethral and anal canal submucosa of old ovariectomized rats.
  • We compare the effects of estrogen and/or ghrelin on vascular counts and collagen I/III ratio of urethral and anal canal submucosa in old vs young-adult ovariectomized rats.
  • Estrogen significantly increased urethral and anal vascular counts and collagen I/III ratio in young-adult rats.
  • Ghrelin receptors were immunostained in urethral and anal submucosa of all samples.
  • Combined estrogen/ghrelin administration restored postovariectomy urethral and anal canal submucosal vessel number and collagen I/III ratio in old rats suggesting independent ageing effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / blood supply. Collagen Type I / metabolism. Collagen Type III / metabolism. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Ghrelin / administration & dosage. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Ovariectomy. Urethra / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17876488.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Collagen Type III; 0 / Ghrelin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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86. Chatelain D, Mokrani N, Fléjou JF: [Anal and anal margin tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Dec;27(6):459-75
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  • [Title] [Anal and anal margin tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Pathologie tumorale anale et péri-anale.
  • Tumors of the anal canal and anal margin are rare.
  • The other malignant tumors are very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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87. Boereboom CL, Watson NF, Sivakumar R, Hurst NG, Speake WJ: Biological tissue graft for pelvic floor reconstruction after cylindrical abdominoperineal excision of the rectum and anal canal. Tech Coloproctol; 2009 Sep;13(3):257-8
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  • [Title] Biological tissue graft for pelvic floor reconstruction after cylindrical abdominoperineal excision of the rectum and anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Pelvic Floor / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectum / surgery. Surgical Mesh
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Peritoneum / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Risk Assessment. Surgical Flaps. Suture Techniques. Treatment Outcome. Wound Healing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19618254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-045X
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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88. Tomimaru Y, Ohue M, Noura S, Tanida T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1776-8
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  • [Title] [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer].
  • A 63-year-old man with a history of anal fistula was admitted to our hospital because the anal pain didn't disappear after the operation.
  • On digital examination, a hard mass measuring 3.0 cm in diameter was found at the anal canal.
  • Colonoscopy revealed another rectal cancer at 15 cm from anal verge.
  • Biopsy of the tumor also showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, resembling the anal canal tumor.
  • Because the histological findings of both tumors were nearly identical, we considered that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal fistula.
  • The patient underwent anterior resection for the rectal cancer, and a local resection for the anal canal cancer.
  • We may suggest from these results that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Fistula / complications. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding


89. Enck P, Hinninghofen H, Merletti R, Azpiroz F: The external anal sphincter and the role of surface electromyography. Neurogastroenterol Motil; 2005 Jun;17 Suppl 1:60-7
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  • [Title] The external anal sphincter and the role of surface electromyography.
  • Assessment of the neuronal control of the external anal sphincter (EAS) has long been restricted to investigating patients with defecation disorders by invasive tools such as needle electromyography (EMG), while less invasive techniques have been regarded as non-suitable for diagnostic purposes.
  • Multichannel surface EMG by means of electrode arrays applied to anal sphincter muscle records and identifies individual motor unit action potentials, their place of origin along the circumference, their repetitive firing frequency, and their progression along the muscle fibres at different levels within the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / anatomy & histology. Anal Canal / physiology. Electromyography

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  • (PMID = 15836456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-1925
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurogastroenterol. Motil.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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90. Jackson AS, Reinsberg SA, Sohaib SA, Charles-Edwards EM, Mangar SA, South CP, Leach MO, Dearnaley DP: Distortion-corrected T2 weighted MRI: a novel approach to prostate radiotherapy planning. Br J Radiol; 2007 Nov;80(959):926-33
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate distortion-corrected MRI as a radiotherapy planning tool for prostate cancer and the resultant implications for dose sparing of organs at risk.
  • 11 men who were to be treated with radical conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer had an MRI scan under radiotherapy planning conditions, which was corrected for geometric distortion.
  • The rectal-sparing effect was confined to the lowermost 4 cm of the rectum (anal canal).
  • This leads to a lower predicted proportion of the rectum, in particular the lower rectum (anal canal), treated to a given dose than with CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17908816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Yamaguchi K, Kiyokawa J, Akita K: Developmental processes and ectodermal contribution to the anal canal in mice. Ann Anat; 2008;190(2):119-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developmental processes and ectodermal contribution to the anal canal in mice.
  • The anorectal canal has two origins; the upper part is derived from endoderm and the lower part is derived from ectoderm.
  • The process of ectodermal contribution to the canal remains unclear.
  • Thus, the whole canal was of endodermal origin.
  • After it straightened out and formed the canal, the secondary perineum appeared caudally.
  • During these processes, the external sphincter appeared in the underlying mesenchyme of the thick ectoderm and functioned as a drawstring to form the ectodermal anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / embryology. Ectoderm / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 18413265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-9602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Marques GM, Martins JL, Nobre VD: Comparison between perfusion and balloon techniques for performing anorectal manometry in children with intestinal constipation. Acta Cir Bras; 2008 Sep-Oct;23(5):405-11
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  • Resting pressure, pressure response to voluntary contraction, coughing and perianal stimulation, maximum pressure on the anal canal pressure curve, and presence of rectosphincteric reflex were registered and submitted to statistics.

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  • (PMID = 18797683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2674
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cirurgica brasileira
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cir Bras
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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93. Stojanović S, Radosević-Jelić I, Dabić-Stanković K, Popov I, Josifovski J: External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):33-8
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  • [Title] External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy has been the standard treatment of anal canal carcinoma for the last three decades.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, between March 1997 and May 2004, patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost as primary treatment modality.
  • Total tumor dose in combined radiotherapy treatment ranged from 55-70 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy

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  • (PMID = 17988027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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94. Zagar TM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes.
  • The treatment of cancer of the anal canal has changed significantly over the past several decades.
  • Although the abdominoperineal resection (APR) was the historical standard of care, a therapeutic paradigm shift occurred with the seminal work of Nigro, who reported that anal canal cancer could be treated with definitive chemoradiation, with APR reserved for salvage therapy only.
  • With the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), many oncologists are beginning to utilize this technology in the treatment of anal cancer in order to decrease these toxicities while maintaining similar treatment efficacy.
  • This article reviews the relevant literature leading up to the modern treatment of anal canal cancer, and discusses IMRT-related toxicity and disease-related outcomes in the context of outcomes of conventionally treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1 [20923036.001]
  • (PMID = 20923035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Vila S, García C, Piscoya A, De Los Ríos R, L Pinto J, Huerta Mercado J, Bussalleu A: [Use of glycerol trinitrate in an ointment for the management of chronic anal fissure at the National Hospital "Cayetano Heredia"]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2009 Jan-Mar;29(1):33-9
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  • [Title] [Use of glycerol trinitrate in an ointment for the management of chronic anal fissure at the National Hospital "Cayetano Heredia"].
  • [Transliterated title] Uso de Trinitrato de Glicerol en unguento para el manejo de fisura anal crónica en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia.
  • INTRODUCTION: The anal fissure is a linear tear in the anal canal mucosa.
  • If healing fails, it evolves into a chronic anal fissure (CAF).
  • As it is disabling disease, it causes a socioeconomic problem and, hence, it is important to make a proper diagnosis and apply a rapid and efficient treatment.At present, there are different therapeutic options, both medical and surgical.
  • Among the first, there are several options that relax the anal sphincter.
  • One of the options which are most used is the 0.2% Glycerol Trinitrate (GTN) ointment, there being some randomized and controlled studies reporting 48% and 69% healing rates and other studies with comparable results against surgery.The objective was to know the results of the GTN ointment, so as to avoid surgery, and the probable permanent section of the internal anal sphincter.
  • The most frequent symptoms found were the association of anal pain with rectal bleeding in 66.6% of the patients, followed by isolated rectal bleeding and anal pain in 23.3% and 10% of cases, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The following conclusion was drawn topical Glycerol Trinitrate 0.2% ointment, applied twice a day during two weeks, is effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure, with a 69.9% success rate after two months of follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 19424406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ointments; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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96. Noakes KF, Bissett IP, Pullan AJ, Cheng LK: Anatomically based computational models of the male and female pelvic floor and anal canal. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2006;1:3815-8
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  • [Title] Anatomically based computational models of the male and female pelvic floor and anal canal.
  • The understanding of the pelvic floor and anal canal, in the study of incontinence, has been limited by the inability to integrate both anatomy and physiology into a unified bioengineering model.
  • In this study we construct three-dimensional anatomically realistic models of both the male and female pelvic floor and anal canal regions using similar techniques to those used in cardiac modelling.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / anatomy & histology. Pelvic Bones / anatomy & histology. Pelvis / anatomy & histology. Urinary Incontinence / diagnosis. Visible Human Projects

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  • (PMID = 17945803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK64775
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Gaj F, Trecca A, Crispino P: [Design and use of a new disposable fenestrated anoscope in proctology]. Chir Ital; 2007 Nov-Dec;59(6):861-5
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  • Direct exploration of the anal mucosa always plays an essential role in the diagnosis and treatment of the main anal and perineal pathologies.
  • This study was conducted to demonstrate the advantages and efficacy of a disposable "fenestrated" anoscope for band ligation of haemorrhoids and for performing biopsies on suspect areas of anal mucosa.
  • The new disposable self-lit anoscope, made of inert, non-toxic plastic material tested by the authors, has been defined as "fenestrated" because it is characterised by the presence of a fenestration in the distal part of device, capable of improving visualisation of the anal canal and facilitating operative procedures.
  • A total of 30 consecutive patients (25 with a clinico-instrumental diagnosis of grade II-III haemorrhoids and 5 with evidence of suspect lesions of the anal mucosa) were submitted to anoscopy using the new fenestrated anoscope.
  • The new fenestrated anoscope proved to be a useful accessory both for diagnosis and for conservative treatment of haemorrhoids, permitting easy execution of ligation with no side effects.
  • The anoscope was simple to use during diagnostic examinations and biopsies of suspect lesions of the anal canal, permitting accurate histological characterisation of the lesions in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy / instrumentation. Hemorrhoids / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Proctoscopes. Proctoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18360993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Tanaka K, Noura S, Ohue M, Seki Y, Gotou K, Motoori M, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Murata K, Kameyama M: [A case of refractory inguinal lymphorrhea cured by lipiodol lymphangiography]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2162-4
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  • The patient was a 80-year-old female who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection and inguinal lymph node extraction for anal canal cancer.
  • Histologically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and considered to be stage IV (a2, n3 (+), P0, H3, M (-), cur C) in the Japanese classification of colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodized Oil. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18219932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil
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99. Regadas FS, Murad-Regadas SM, Wexner SD, Rodrigues LV, Souza MH, Silva FR, Lima DM, Regadas Filho FS: Anorectal three-dimensional endosonography and anal manometry in assessing anterior rectocele in women: a new pathogenesis concept and the basic surgical principle. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jan;9(1):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anorectal three-dimensional endosonography and anal manometry in assessing anterior rectocele in women: a new pathogenesis concept and the basic surgical principle.
  • OBJECTIVE: The anatomy of the anal canal, the anorectal junction and the lower rectum was studied with 3-D ultrasound.
  • The external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters were measured in both projections.
  • In group 1, the anterior upper anal canal wall in normal females was an extension of the rectal wall and the circular muscle was thicker in the mid-anal canal to form the IAS.
  • The differences were not statistically significant in the anal canal resting and squeeze pressures in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Obstetric trauma does not seem to play any role in rectocele pathogenesis because the anal sphincter muscles are anatomically and functionally normal and rectocele is also present in nuliparous and in women with caesarian sections.
  • It seems that it is associated with the absence of EAS and thinner IAS in the anterior upper anal canal.
  • Herniation starts at the upper anal canal extending to the lower rectum in high or large rectoceles and maybe produced by rectal intussusception because of excessive and prolonged straining during defecation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Rectocele / diagnosis. Rectocele / surgery

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pelvic Support Problems.
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  • (PMID = 17181850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Oono Y, Fu K, Nakamura H, Iriguchi Y, Yamamura A, Kishi D, Oda J, Ikematsu H, Mizutani M, Takayanagi S, Tomino Y: Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal. Endoscopy; 2010;42 Suppl 2:E183-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonoscopes. Diagnostic Imaging / instrumentation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness






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