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1. Lisovsky M, Patel K, Cymes K, Chase D, Bhuiya T, Morgenstern N: Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Aug;131(8):1304-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6.
  • Anal gland carcinoma (AGC) is a rare perianal invasive cancer composed of tubular glands lined by cuboidal epithelium.
  • The clinical features and histogenesis of AGC are not well understood and its origin from anal glands is often difficult to prove.
  • Little is known about immunophenotypic features of AGC that could be useful in establishing the diagnosis.
  • This study evaluated the immunohistochemical profile of 2 cases of AGC in comparison to anal glands from 11 hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • In biopsies from this case, the neoplastic anal glands had a tubular pattern, whereas most glands in the resection specimen exhibited mucinous features.
  • Normal anal glands showed immunoreactivity for myoepithelial and basal cell markers CK5/6 and p63 in basal and parabasal cell layers and for CK7 in superficial cell layers.
  • Anal gland carcinoma shares negativity for CDX2 and CK7+/CK20- profile with normal anal glands.
  • No evidence of myoepithelial cells was found in normal or malignant anal glands.
  • These data may be useful in establishing the diagnosis of AGC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anal Canal / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Hemorrhoids / surgery. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Oct;132(10):1547-8 [18834205.001]
  • (PMID = 17683193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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2. Stojanović S, Radosević-Jelić I, Dabić-Stanković K, Popov I, Josifovski J: External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy has been the standard treatment of anal canal carcinoma for the last three decades.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, between March 1997 and May 2004, patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost as primary treatment modality.

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  • (PMID = 17988027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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3. Tajima Y, Ishibashi K, Gonda T, Miyazaki T, Nakada H, Takahashi T, Ishida H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2050-2
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II).
  • This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Rousseau DL Jr, Thomas CR Jr, Petrelli NJ, Kahlenberg MS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;14(3):121-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is a rare condition with increasing incidence rates in the United States population in the past several decades.
  • This review article provides a complete overview of the etiology, anatomy and the approach to the multidisciplinary management of the patient with anal SCC.
  • Chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of SCC of the anal canal provides excellent disease control and survival while preserving anal sphincter function in the majority of patients.
  • The surgeon plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery


5. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.

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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Musio D, Codacci-Pisanelli G: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for anal canal carcinoma. JAMA; 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21 [18430910.001]
  • (PMID = 18812528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Oblak I, Petric P, Anderluh F, Velenik V, Hudej R, Fras AP: Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience. Neoplasma; 2009;56(2):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience.
  • Results of radiochemotherapy in 50 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, treated with radical radiochemotherapy between January 2003 and September 2007, at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana are presented.
  • Late anal stenosis, chronic ulceration and grade 2-3 incontinence developed in 3 (6 %), 2 (4 %) and 5 (10 %) of colostomy-free survivors, respectively.
  • </p> KEYWORDS: anal cancer, radiochemotherapy, survival, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19239330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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8. Irabor DO, Dongo AE: Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed? Trop Doct; 2009 Jan;39(1):7-9
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed?
  • The paper is a retrospective look at the clinicopathological presentation of carcinoma of the anal canal in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
  • Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with anal carcinoma over a five-year period (2002-2006) from a total of 394 patients who had malignancies of the colon, rectum and anus.
  • The male: female ratio was 1.2: 1 showing a slight male predominance; the average age was 48 years; tenesmus, bleeding per rectum and anal pain were the most common presenting features.
  • The most predominant histopathological subtype was adenocarcinoma - a departure from the hitherto squamous cell cancer dominance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors. Tropical Climate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19211411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Eng C, Pathak P: Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(4-6):400-7
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  • [Title] Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that is often cured with the combined modality therapy of chemoradiation.
  • Here, we present a summary of the existing literature in the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma in the hopes of providing insight and potential treatment alternatives for the practicing physician.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19479383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Corner C, Bryant L, Chapman C, Glynne-Jones R, Hoskin PJ: High-dose-rate afterloading intraluminal brachytherapy for advanced inoperable rectal carcinoma. Brachytherapy; 2010 Jan-Mar;9(1):66-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-dose-rate afterloading intraluminal brachytherapy for advanced inoperable rectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Between 1993 and 2007, 79 patients were treated with HDR afterloading brachytherapy for rectal cancer; 70 patients had adenocarcinoma of the rectum; and 9 patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19846349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1449
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Rödel C: [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 4:24-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer].
  • Standard treatment for anal canal cancer is definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C.
  • Because anal cancer overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a KRAS wild type is usually present, treatment with the EGFR antibody cetuximab is potentially interesting.

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  • (PMID = 20431309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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12. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C: Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA; 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21
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  • [Title] Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial.
  • CONTEXT: Chemoradiation as definitive therapy is the preferred primary therapy for patients with anal canal carcinoma; however, the 5-year disease-free survival rate from concurrent fluorouracil/mitomycin and radiation is only approximately 65%.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of cisplatin-based (experimental) therapy vs mitomycin-based (standard) therapy in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: US Gastrointestinal Intergroup trial RTOG 98-11, a multicenter, phase 3, randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with fluorouracil plus mitomycin and radiotherapy vs treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal carcinoma enrolled between October 31, 1998, and June 27, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with anal canal carcinoma, cisplatin-based therapy failed to improve disease-free-survival compared with mitomycin-based therapy, but cisplatin-based therapy resulted in a significantly worse colostomy rate.
  • These findings do not support the use of cisplatin in place of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7 [19047998.001]
  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411 [18812528.001]
  • (PMID = 18430910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003596
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Das P, Crane CH, Eng C, Ajani JA: Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;2(1):10-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal cancer.
  • However, some heterogeneity exists among anal cancer patients in their outcomes.
  • This article reviews some of the clinical factors, treatment-related factors, and biologic factors that affect outcomes in patients with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • A better understanding of molecular biology is required to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of anal cancer and thereby develop optimal therapies.

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Jul 1;68(3):794-800 [17379452.001]
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  • (PMID = 19259318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630809
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14. Lee WS, Chun HK, Lee WY, Yun SH, Yun H, Cho YB, Kang WK, Park YS, Huh SJ, Ahn YC, Park W: Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Oct 31;48(5):827-32
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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution.
  • PURPOSE: The clinical features, treatment modality approaches in clinical practice, and prognostic factors for anal canal carcinoma patients were retrospectively analyzed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1994 and December 2005, 50 patients with anal canal cancer were treated at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow up of 37.8 months (range, 6.6-136.1 months), the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the 38 patients with early and locally advanced squamous and cloacogenic carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma and cloacogenic carcinoma) were 74.8% and 66.5%, respectively.
  • Due to the rarity and complexity of anal canal carcinoma, interdepartmental cooperation is required for disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17963341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628150
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15. Sana S, Khan AU: Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer.
  • Our understandings of anal canal cancer pathogenesis and treatment have undergone significant changes due to continuing research into its pathogenesis and the results of major clinical trials conducted over the past 20 years.
  • Anal canal cancer can be cured by combined modality chemoradiation therapy, a treatment that preserves continence and reserves abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and anal canal in patients with recurrent or residual disease after primary chemoradiotherapy.
  • Future challenges include an increasing incidence of human papillomavirus infection, the AIDS epidemic, diagnosis of early disease, and optimization of chemotherapy and radiation regimens.
  • This article aims to provide a summary of recently completed and ongoing clinical trials in the management of anal canal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20436836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780239
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal cancer / chemotherapy / radiation therapy
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16. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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17. Oehler-Jänne C, Huguet F, Provencher S, Seifert B, Negretti L, Riener MO, Bonet M, Allal AS, Ciernik IF: HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7
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  • [Title] HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To define clinical outcome after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Local disease control (LC), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), toxicity, and prognostic factors were investigated.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term LC and acute toxicity represent major clinical challenges in HIV-positive patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy


18. Hwang HJ, Bestani C, Jiménez R, Masciángioli G, Gutiérrez A, Cartelli C, Rafailovici L, Barugel M, Rodríguez G, Méndez G: [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2005;35(2):94-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] El tratamiento de los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del canal anal en los últimos 20 años en nuestro hospital.
  • Anal cancers compromise only 1.5% of all digestive tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical data from the medical records of all consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated by the Oncology Section in 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16127985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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19. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Chen LS, Li TY, Cao YF, Liang JL, Zhang S, Tang WZ, Tang ZJ, Gao F: [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;9(4):338-41
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  • [Title] [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the expressions of P33ING1, P53 and their relationships with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma (ACC).
  • METHODS: The expressions of P33ING1, P53 proteins were measured by immunohistochemistry method (SP method), and apoptosis was detected in 42 cases with ACC, 36 cases with anal canal adenoma (ACA) or anal canal papilloma (ACP), and 40 cases with paraanal inflammatory mass(PAIM).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16886119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ING1 protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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21. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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22. Kuga Y, Tanaka T, Arita M, Usui Y, Okanobu H, Numata Y, Miwata T, Yoshimi S, Murakami E, Moriya T, Ohya T, Nishida T: [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(11):1923-5
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  • [Title] [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma].
  • We report a case of left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma, treated effectively with chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP combined with radiotherapy.
  • In February 2006, a 76-year-old woman underwent resection of a tumor diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Biopsy was performed, and specimens were shown to include squamous cell carcinoma cells.
  • Chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy maybe effective for treating metastatic lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Injections, Intravenous. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19920402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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23. Hauerstock D, Ennis RD, Grossbard M, Evans A: Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2010 Oct;9(4):238-42
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  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the results and the toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive patients treated at a single institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: HIV-positive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the canal treated at Continuum Cancer Centers-affiliated hospitals were identified from tumor registries.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Radiotherapy, Conformal


24. Arikawa S, Uchida M, Ogoh E, Uozumi J, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Kaida H, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K, Hayabuchi N: [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):727-30
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  • [Title] [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal].
  • We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response.
  • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20414036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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25. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Moore DH: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):379-83
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one?
  • The incorporation of radiation therapy and eventually chemotherapy in the primary treatment of vulva cancer also represents a slow evolution in clinical management.
  • The addition of chemotherapy concurrent to radiation therapy for the treatment of vulvar carcinoma was heavily influenced by advances in the treatment of cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • On the basis of many good phase II studies but no randomized controlled trials in the disease, chemoradiation therapy is now inherent to the clinical management of vulvar carcinoma.
  • The rarity of vulva cancer precludes prospective randomized clinical trials in the absence of international collaboration.
  • Nonetheless, patients with locally advanced vulva cancer have derived considerable benefit from chemoradiation studies in other related tumor sites, and will continue to do so in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19232700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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27. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Konski A, Kachnic LA: Jury still out on whether advanced technology can improve the outcomes of patients with anal canal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1092, 1094, 1096
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  • [Title] Jury still out on whether advanced technology can improve the outcomes of patients with anal canal cancer.

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1082-9 [20017291.001]
  • (PMID = 20017292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Gupta D, Jain R, Mishra S, Kumar S, Thulkar S, Bhatnagar S: Ultrasonography reinvents the originally described technique for ganglion impar neurolysis in perianal cancer pain. Anesth Analg; 2008 Oct;107(4):1390-2
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography reinvents the originally described technique for ganglion impar neurolysis in perianal cancer pain.
  • We present a patient diagnosed with carcinoma of the anal canal who was successfully given ultrasound-guided ganglion impar block using a Chiba needle inserted through the anococcygeal ligament.
  • In summary, ultrasound-guided ganglion impar neurolysis is a fast, safe, and cost-effective method, which can be used as a first-line pain relief intervention for good quality of life in patients with perianal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Autonomic Nerve Block / methods. Ganglia, Sympathetic / surgery. Pain, Intractable / therapy. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [CommentIn] Anesth Analg. 2009 Jun;108(6):1995; author reply 1995-6 [19448244.001]
  • [RetractionIn] Bhatnagar S. Anesth Analg. 2010 Dec;111(6):1560 [21106972.001]
  • (PMID = 18806057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-7598
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesia and analgesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesth. Analg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Retracted Publication
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Bui T, Harvey J, Brown E, Scott M, Haines T, Davidson K: Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Aug;53(4):396-404
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  • [Title] Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique.
  • To investigate and compare the dosimetric distribution of a conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique and a genital organ sparing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • Twenty-four patients with anal canal cancer treated between January 2002 and December 2006 were investigated.

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  • (PMID = 19695047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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31. Milano MT, Jani AB, Farrey KJ, Rash C, Heimann R, Chmura SJ: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):354-61
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome.
  • PURPOSE: To assess survival, local control, and toxicity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating analysis, the acute toxicity and clinical outcome with IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer is encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16168830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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32. Provencher S, Oehler C, Lavertu S, Jolicoeur M, Fortin B, Donath D: Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:41
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  • [Title] Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) and outcome of patients with anal carcinoma treated with short split-course chemoradiation (CRT).
  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 58 patients with anal cancer were curatively treated with CRT.
  • Significant anal pain or fecal incontinence was infrequently reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short split-course CRT for anal carcinoma seems to be associated with good local control, survival and long-term global QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Tomimaru Y, Ohue M, Noura S, Tanida T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1776-8
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  • [Title] [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer].
  • A 63-year-old man with a history of anal fistula was admitted to our hospital because the anal pain didn't disappear after the operation.
  • On digital examination, a hard mass measuring 3.0 cm in diameter was found at the anal canal.
  • Colonoscopy revealed another rectal cancer at 15 cm from anal verge.
  • Biopsy of the tumor also showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, resembling the anal canal tumor.
  • Because the histological findings of both tumors were nearly identical, we considered that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal fistula.
  • The patient underwent anterior resection for the rectal cancer, and a local resection for the anal canal cancer.
  • We may suggest from these results that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal canal.


34. Ajani JA, Wang X, Izzo JG, Crane CH, Eng C, Skibber JM, Das P, Rashid A: Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Apr;55(4):1098-105
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  • [Title] Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation.
  • Large primary tumor and clinical nodal involvement in patients with anal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation are associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS).
  • We analyzed clinical and biomarker data in 30 patients with anal carcinoma who had chemoradiation.
  • Patient selection was based on the availability of untreated cancer for biomarkers, completion of prescribed chemoradiation, and patient outcomes (~50% disease-free) nonrepresentative of published cohorts but conducive to biomarker discovery.
  • Upon further expansion and validation, these results may provide a biomarker-based understanding of heterogeneous clinical biology of patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hedgehog Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. NF-kappa B / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Zinc Finger Protein GLI1

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  • (PMID = 19399614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zinc Finger Protein GLI1; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Huang K, Haas-Kogan D, Weinberg V, Krieg R: Higher radiation dose with a shorter treatment duration improves outcome for locally advanced carcinoma of anal canal. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Feb 14;13(6):895-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Higher radiation dose with a shorter treatment duration improves outcome for locally advanced carcinoma of anal canal.
  • AIM: To assess whether radiation dose and duration of treatment influence local control and survival of patients with locally advanced anal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients who were treated with definitive radiation therapy for bulky anal cancers (> 5 cm in size) were reviewed.
  • CONCLUSION: Local failure is a significant problem in locally advanced carcinomas of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 17352019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4065925
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36. McHaffie DR, Kozak KR: Optimizing outcomes of chemoradiation in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 30;24(5):424-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimizing outcomes of chemoradiation in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 30;24(5):417-24 [20480740.001]
  • (PMID = 20480741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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37. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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38. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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39. Zagar TM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes.
  • The treatment of cancer of the anal canal has changed significantly over the past several decades.
  • Although the abdominoperineal resection (APR) was the historical standard of care, a therapeutic paradigm shift occurred with the seminal work of Nigro, who reported that anal canal cancer could be treated with definitive chemoradiation, with APR reserved for salvage therapy only.
  • With the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), many oncologists are beginning to utilize this technology in the treatment of anal cancer in order to decrease these toxicities while maintaining similar treatment efficacy.
  • This article reviews the relevant literature leading up to the modern treatment of anal canal cancer, and discusses IMRT-related toxicity and disease-related outcomes in the context of outcomes of conventionally treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1 [20923036.001]
  • (PMID = 20923035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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41. Buchs NC, Schneider D, Roche B: [Anal canal cancer]. Rev Med Suisse; 2008 Apr 2;4(151):859-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18488750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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42. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality


43. Crowley C, Winship AZ, Hawkins MA, Morris SL, Leslie MD: Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Jun;21(5):376-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation?
  • AIMS: Chemoradiation is the standard of care for the treatment of anal canal cancer, with surgery reserved for salvage.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1998 and August 2004, 30 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell anal canal cancer were treated with chemoradiation using one phase of treatment throughout.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range 41-84).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This single-centre retrospective study supports the treatment for selected cases of anal canal cancer with smaller than standard radiation fields, avoiding prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Pelvis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19282157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Yamauchi M, Okamoto Y, Doi M, Shinozaki K: [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2209-11
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  • [Title] [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report].
  • There was a hard anal mass on rectal examination.
  • Colonoscopy and computed tomography showed anal adenocarcinoma, multiple metastases to lymph nodes and bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21084829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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45. Mullen JT, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Barcenas CH, Crane CH, Skibber JM, Feig BW: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):478-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal consists of combined radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival following salvage surgery for persistent or locally recurrent epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal can be achieved in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17103253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Klenova A, Balabanova A: [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases].
  • PURPOSE: The conservative treatment for carcinoma of the anal canal has become the standard care for this malignancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and December 2003 six female patients with UICC T2-3, No, Mo, G1-G2 squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated.
  • The therapy was well tolerated, with good anal continence and moderate late side effects, including soft chronic diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20063470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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47. Vieillot S, Azria D, Lemanski C, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:92
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  • [Title] Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans in anal canal cancers.
  • METHODS: Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study.
  • CONCLUSION: For patients suffering from anal canal cancer, RapidArc with 2 arcs was able to deliver equivalent treatment plan to IMRT in terms of PTV coverage.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Organs at Risk / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 20942958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965153
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48. Hinojosa MW, Parikh DA, Menon R, Wirth GA, Stamos MJ, Mills S: Recent experience with abdominal perineal resection with vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction after preoperative pelvic radiation. Am Surg; 2009 Oct;75(10):995-9
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  • Indications for APR were rectal cancer (n = 14, 93%) and anal canal cancer (n = 1, 7%).

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  • (PMID = 19886152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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50. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Tournier-Rangeard L, Mercier M, Peiffert D, Gerard JP, Romestaing P, Lemanski C, Mirabel X, Pommier P, Denis B: Radiochemotherapy of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: prospective assessment of early impact on the quality of life (randomized trial ACCORD 03). Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):391-7
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: prospective assessment of early impact on the quality of life (randomized trial ACCORD 03).
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the quality of life (QOL) of patients treated by concomitant chemo radiation for locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.
  • QOL was assessed both before and 2 months after treatment using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire as well as a questionnaire relating to anal sphincter conservative treatment (AS-CT).
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective study comparing QOL of patients with advanced anal canal carcinoma, before and 2 months after conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18191265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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52. Nagle D: Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):102-6
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  • [Title] Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is uncommon.
  • Modern therapy of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the overall survival of HIV patients and allowed effective therapy for those who develop epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 20436834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780243
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus / HIV / anal cancer
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53. Dyson T, Draganov PV: Squamous cell cancer of the rectum. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 21;15(35):4380-6
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  • [Title] Squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy.
  • The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion.
  • Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins.
  • Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease.
  • Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19764088.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747057
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54. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC: Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15
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  • [Title] Management of anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer.
  • The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence.
  • METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed.
  • Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Randomized, prospective, Phase 3 trials in Europe and the United States showed that chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C was superior in local control, colostomy-free rate, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival compared with radiation alone.

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  • (PMID = 15793642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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55. Das P, Cantor SB, Parker CL, Zampieri JB, Baschnagel A, Eng C, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):822-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with localized squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 80 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, for anal cancer, with a minimum 2-year interval after the completion of radiotherapy.
  • The questionnaire included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sexual Problems Scale, and questions regarding demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with radiotherapy for anal cancer reported acceptable overall QoL scores, but poor sexual function scores.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 20041481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • T categories (International Union against Cancer) were T1 (15), T2 (36), T3 (34), and T4 (16).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • However, patients with larger lesions of the perianal skin are at high risk for locoregional recurrence and possible treatment intensification in this subgroup seems desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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57. Cotter SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Malyapa RS, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Wang X, Abbey E, Tan B, Kodner IJ, Hunt SR, Lowney JK, Mutch MG, Dietz DW, Myerson RJ: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):720-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy.
  • In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. HIV Seropositivity / radiography. HIV Seropositivity / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16626889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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58. Homsi J, Garrett C: Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):1004-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive cancer.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with anal melanoma treated at the H.
  • Lee Moffitt Cancer and Research Institute between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed.
  • Published anal melanoma studies, including more than ten patients with outcome data, also were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified (8 percent of all cancer of the anal canal).
  • Four patients had nodal involvement, and one had bone metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Five of the 11 patients without metastatic disease relapsed or died within the first year of diagnosis (4 had local excision and 1 had abdominoperineal resection).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17468984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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59. Wright JL, Patil SM, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Saltz LB, Goodman KA: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1064-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) is increasingly used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC).
  • Cumulative sites of LRF (patients may have one or more site of failure) were as follows: primary, 35; inguinal, 8; external perianal, 5; common iliac, 4; presacral, 3; distal rectum, 2; external iliac, 2; and internal iliac, 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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60. Suenaga M, Oya M, Ueno M, Yamamoto J, Yamaguchi T, Mizunuma N, Hatake K, Kato Y, Muto T: Anal canal carcinoma with Pagetoid spread: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):666-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma with Pagetoid spread: report of a case.
  • A 70-year-old man with a history of colon polyps was found to have a semipedunculated polyp in the anal canal.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • During transanal local excision of the tumor, an abnormality of the perianal skin was recognized.
  • Although intraoperative frozen section of the perianal skin did not show malignancy, permanent sections of the perineal skin revealed Paget's cells in the epidermis.
  • Pathological examination of the anal canal carcinoma revealed submucosally invasive well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a positive distal surgical margin.
  • Thus, we performed additional wide local excision of the perianal skin including the distal margin of the previous local excision.
  • Pathological examination revealed continuance within the epidermis between the anal canal adenocarcinoma and Paget's cells in the perianal skin lesion.
  • Thus, we concluded that the perianal skin lesion was Pagetoid spread of anal canal adenocarcinoma.
  • This report shows that the perianal skin should be examined carefully in patients with anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16794808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Engstrom PF, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Dilawari RA, Enke CA, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saif MW, Saltz L, Skibber JM, Venook AP, Yeatman TJ, National Comprehensive Cancer Network: Anal canal cancer clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2005 Jul;3(4):510-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal canal cancer clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

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  • (PMID = 16038641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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63. Raffetto N, Monaco A, Banelli E: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2B):1335-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of conformal radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy in patients with anal canal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 83 patients affected by anal canal carcinoma were treated at the Radiotherapy Department of "La Sapienza" University of Rome.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control.

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  • (PMID = 18505075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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64. Damin DC, Rosito MA, Schwartsmann G: Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):247-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review.
  • AIMS: To review the studies investigating the efficacy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in anal canal carcinoma and to evaluate its potential role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with the malignancy.
  • METHODS: A literature search in the PubMed database was preformed using the key words "sentinel lymph node" and "anal cancer".
  • All indexed original articles (except case reports) on the SLN procedure in cancer of the anal canal were analysed.
  • The detection of occult metastases in clinically unsuspicious nodes represents an important improvement in the process of staging these patients, which has not been possible with any other method of diagnosis.
  • Although SLN procedure is still in an early phase of investigation in this type of cancer, it emerges as an objective method to guide individual therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16289647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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65. Roldán GB, Chan AK, Buckner M, Magliocco AM, Doll CM: The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1127-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hemoglobin level on clinical outcome (local response, progression-free survival, and overall survival) in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with anal cancer treated between 1992 and 2005 with definitive chemoradiotherapy at Tom Baker Cancer Centre.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin status was correlated with progression-free and overall survival, and distant relapse, but not clinical response, in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20628275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
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66. Yoshitani S, Hosokawa K, Yokoi M, Kinami S, Omote K, Ueda N, Nakano Y, Kosaka T: [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2229-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy].
  • We describe our experience with a patient who had unresectable anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with extensive metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, and bones.
  • Signet-ring cell carcinoma was diagnosed by examination of a biopsy specimen from the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • A search for the primary tumor was performed, and anal canal carcinoma with pagetoid spread was detected in the perianal region.
  • In conclusion, Bev+mFOLFOX6 therapy achieved 6 months of CR in our patient who had anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with systemic metastases, which seemed likely to have a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20037379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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67. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


68. Vuong T, Kopek N, Ducruet T, Portelance L, Faria S, Bahoric B, Devic S: Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):1394-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with anal canal cancer, in terms of local control (LC), freedom from relapse (FFR), and overall survival (OS) rates, and to estimate long-term toxicity data.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of 3D-CRT allows patients with anal canal cancer to complete radiation and chemotherapy without interruption for toxicity, with significant improvements in LC, FFR, and OS.

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  • (PMID = 17276620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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69. Ortholan C, Ramaioli A, Peiffert D, Lusinchi A, Romestaing P, Chauveinc L, Touboul E, Peignaux K, Bruna A, de La Roche G, Lagrange JL, Alzieu C, Gerard JP: Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors &lt; or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jun 1;62(2):479-85
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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors < or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical history, management, and pattern of recurrence of very early-stage anal canal cancer in a French retrospective survey.
  • METHODS: The study group consisted of 69 patients with Stage Tis and T1 anal canal carcinoma < or =1 cm treated between 1990 and 2000 (12 were in situ, 57 invasive, 66 Stage N0, and 3 Stage N1).
  • These small anal cancers could be treated by RT using a small volume and moderate dose (40-50 Gy for subclinical lesions and 50-60 Gy for T1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15890590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kazama S, Hiramatsu T, Kobayashi R, Takabayashi N, Niwa H, Isono T, Suzuki H, Shimada S, Kimura M, Hara K, Kuriki K: Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;40(10):1000-1
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  • [Title] Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease.


71. Gretschel S, Warnick P, Bembenek A, Dresel S, Koswig S, String A, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):890-4
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  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • AIM: Although 15-25% of patients with anal cancer present with superficial inguinal lymph node metastases but the routine application of groin irradiation is controversial because of serious side effects.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with anal cancer underwent 1 ml Tc(99m)-Nanocolloid injection in four sites around the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18178364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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72. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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73. Wakatsuki K, Oeda Y, Isono T, Yoshioka S, Nukui Y, Yamazaki K, Nabeshima S, Miyazaki M: Adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon seeding into pre-existing anal fistula. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):952-5
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon seeding into pre-existing anal fistula.
  • This paper reports a rare case of rectosigmoid colon carcinoma metastasizing to anal fistula.
  • Colonoscopy revealed a rectosigmoid carcinoma.
  • Pathology revealed that the colon cancer and the perianal tumor were both moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Sixteen reports could be found of implantation metastasis of colorectal cancer into anal fistula.
  • In diagnosis, it is important to differentiate implantation of colorectal cancer in anal fistula from primary anal fistular adenocarcinoma.
  • The histology of the perianal tumor in this patient closely resembles the tumor of the colon.
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins 7 and 20 was performed on tissues to distinguish colorectal adenocarcinoma from anal gland carcinoma.
  • Both colorectal cancer and perianal tumor showed CK7-/CK20+.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Colon, Sigmoid / pathology. Colon, Sigmoid / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18705305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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74. Eng C, Crane CH, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7
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  • [Title] Should cisplatin be avoided in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal?

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21 [18430910.001]
  • (PMID = 19047998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4386
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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76. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • This appearance together with microcystic spaces simulated that of an adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • BSC of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern is an infrequently encountered and reported variant, although it is seen more often in the aerodigestive tract.
  • The histologic differential diagnosis is true salivary gland-type adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and awareness of this unusual pattern of BSC will facilitate the correct diagnosis being reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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77. Alvarez G, Perry A, Tan BR, Wang HL: Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):942-9
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  • [Title] Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification.
  • The EGFR status in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, an uncommon malignancy traditionally treated with chemoradiation, has not been well investigated.
  • In this study, 38 primary squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal were immunohistochemically examined for EGFR expression and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for EGFR gene copy numbers.
  • These results demonstrate that EGFR is overexpressed in more than one-half of the squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal through mechanisms other than gene amplification.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16648870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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78. Sermier A, Gervaz P, Egger JF, Dao M, Allal AS, Bonet M, Morel P: Lymph node retrieval in abdominoperineal surgical specimen is radiation time-dependent. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:29
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  • There were 12 patients operated for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) and 90 for rectal cancer.
  • 83% and 46% of patients with anal and rectal cancer respectively underwent radical/neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
  • The mean number of LN was not significantly different after XRT in patients with SCCA than in patients with rectal cancer (6.2 +/- 5.3 vs. 7.8 +/- 5.3, p = 0.33).
  • These findings have important implications with regard to anatomic-pathological staging of anal and rectal cancers and subsequent decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16749931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1524768
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79. Cummings BJ: Current management of anal canal cancer. Semin Oncol; 2005 Dec;32(6 Suppl 9):S123-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Combined-modality therapy consisting of radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin remains the standard treatment for localized anal canal cancer, permitting preservation of organ function and achieving high response and survival rates.

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  • (PMID = 16399449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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80. Zaleski L, Turiansky GW: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cutis; 2010 Mar;85(3):143-5
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is an increasing concern in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • A discussion of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of SCCAC is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2010 Mar;85(3):119 [20408506.001]
  • (PMID = 20408513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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81. Rabbani AN, Zlotecki RA, Kirwan J, George TJ Jr, Morris CG, Rout WR, Mendenhall WM: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;33(1):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of definitive radiotherapy (RT) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


82. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Rouquie D, Lasser P, Castaing M, Boige V, Goéré D, Pignon JP, Ducreux M, Elias D, Pocard M: [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jul-Aug;145(4):335-40
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  • [Title] [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)].
  • [Transliterated title] Résection R0, seul facteur pronostique dans les amputations abdominopérinéales de rattrapage des cancers du canal anal (série consécutive de 95 patients).
  • INTRODUCTION: When radiation therapy fails to control cancer of the anal canal, the only therapeutic alternative is salvage abdomino-perineal resection (APR).
  • CONCLUSION: When anal cancer recurs after radiation therapy, a salvage APR is indicated.

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  • (PMID = 18955923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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84. Ilias EJ: [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2008 Sep-Oct;54(5):380-1
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  • [Title] [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Como estadiar e tratar o carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18989550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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85. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Amano K, Kumamoto K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Ishibashi K, Inokuma S, Nakada H, Yokoyama M, Haga N, Ishida H: [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2653-5
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  • [Title] [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases].
  • Perianal Paget's disease is categorized as Paget's disease, which is epidermotropic neoplasm arising from the apocrine glands of perianal region, or Pagetoid spread invaded from rectal or anal canal cancer.
  • Five patients with perianal Paget's disease who underwent a surgical operation had been treated in our department between 1997 and 2006.
  • All cases presented the redness around perianal regions, and 2 cases were recognized a tumor at the anal canal.
  • It was compatible with the preoperative diagnosis.
  • Only one of 3 Paget's disease cases was positive for GCDFP15 and negative for CK20 resulting in the diagnosis of perianal Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Keratin-20 / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / PIP protein, human
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87. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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89. Stewart D, Yan Y, Kodner IJ, Birnbaum E, Fleshman J, Myerson R, Dietz D: Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors? J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Dec;11(12):1744-51
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors?
  • It is common belief that patients failing chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCCA) can be salvaged with subsequent surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy


90. Tanaka K, Noura S, Ohue M, Seki Y, Gotou K, Motoori M, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Murata K, Kameyama M: [A case of refractory inguinal lymphorrhea cured by lipiodol lymphangiography]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2162-4
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  • The patient was a 80-year-old female who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection and inguinal lymph node extraction for anal canal cancer.
  • Histologically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and considered to be stage IV (a2, n3 (+), P0, H3, M (-), cur C) in the Japanese classification of colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodized Oil. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18219932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil
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91. Khan GN, Siddiqui M, Ben-Josef E, Zalupski MM: An unusual case of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;32(5):543-4
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  • [Title] An unusual case of small cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23061097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


93. Joseph KJ, Syme A, Small C, Warkentin H, Quon H, Ghosh S, Field C, Pervez N, Tankel K, Patel S, Usmani N, Severin D, Nijjar T, Fallone G, Pedersen J: A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jan;94(1):60-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A planning study to compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) patients with anal cancer previously treated radically were identified.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
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  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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96. Bruna A, Gastelblum P, Thomas L, Chapet O, Bollet MA, Ardiet JM, Gérard JP, Peiffert D: Treatment of squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (SCACC) with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy: a retrospective study. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Apr;79(1):75-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (SCACC) with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy: a retrospective study.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16631268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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97. Bège T, Turrini O, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Apr;19(2):e41-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target.
  • BACKGROUND: Local recurrence of pelvic cancer is a therapeutic challenge.
  • CASE: A 53-year-old woman presented in 2006 with a small (20 mm) pelvic recurrence of an anal canal cancer initially treated by radiochemotherapy and amputation of the rectum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RFTA is a feasible therapeutic option for some selected small isolated pelvic cancer recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19390261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Jain SK, Tanwar R, Kaza RC, Ghuliani D: Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site. J Wound Care; 2010 Dec;19(12):532-4
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  • [Title] Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site.
  • The only current method for confirming diagnosis is biopsy, which if positive will be followed by wide local excision and skin coverage.
  • Its presentation mimicked that of an anal canal carcinoma, although detailed workup, which included computed tomography (CT) scan revealed this growth to be separate from the anal canal, albeit in close association.
  • This is an extremely rare site and the study illustrates that squamous cell carcinoma can mimic anal carcinoma unless carefully examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burns / complications. Buttocks / injuries. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21160444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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99. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ, Petersson F, Höög A, Blegen H, Chetty R: The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(4):376-80
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  • [Title] The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • A recent report indicates that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 18787615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480546
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Squamous cell carcinoma / anal canal / intratumoral lymphocytes
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100. Chou YP, Saito Y, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Mashimo Y, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy; 2009;41 Suppl 2:E283-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Dissection / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery






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