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1. Menkarios C, Azria D, Laliberté B, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Lemanski C, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. Radiat Oncol; 2007;2:41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow.
  • METHODS: Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected.
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors).
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing.

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  • (PMID = 18005443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204019
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2. Krengli M, Milia ME, Turri L, Mones E, Bassi MC, Cannillo B, Deantonio L, Sacchetti G, Brambilla M, Inglese E: FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:10
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach.
  • We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20137093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851594
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3. Ortholan C, François E, Gérard JP: [Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Dec;92(12):1039-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie des cancers du canal anal.
  • Local control and sphincter preservation are the two challenges of anal canal cancer treatment.
  • This article is a review of past randomised trials, phases II and retrospective study on radiochemotherapy of anal canal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16396750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrimidines; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Kazama S, Hiramatsu T, Kobayashi R, Takabayashi N, Niwa H, Isono T, Suzuki H, Shimada S, Kimura M, Hara K, Kuriki K: Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;40(10):1000-1
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Crohn's Disease.

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  • [Title] Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease.

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  • (PMID = 16261439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Lee WS, Chun HK, Lee WY, Yun SH, Yun H, Cho YB, Kang WK, Park YS, Huh SJ, Ahn YC, Park W: Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Oct 31;48(5):827-32
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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: experience from a single Korean institution.
  • PURPOSE: The clinical features, treatment modality approaches in clinical practice, and prognostic factors for anal canal carcinoma patients were retrospectively analyzed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1994 and December 2005, 50 patients with anal canal cancer were treated at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow up of 37.8 months (range, 6.6-136.1 months), the 5-year and 10-year survival rates for the 38 patients with early and locally advanced squamous and cloacogenic carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma and cloacogenic carcinoma) were 74.8% and 66.5%, respectively.
  • Due to the rarity and complexity of anal canal carcinoma, interdepartmental cooperation is required for disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628150
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6. Das P, Crane CH, Eng C, Ajani JA: Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;2(1):10-4
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal cancer.
  • However, some heterogeneity exists among anal cancer patients in their outcomes.
  • This article reviews some of the clinical factors, treatment-related factors, and biologic factors that affect outcomes in patients with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • A better understanding of molecular biology is required to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of anal cancer and thereby develop optimal therapies.

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  • (PMID = 19259318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630809
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7. Vieillot S, Azria D, Lemanski C, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:92
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  • [Title] Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans in anal canal cancers.
  • METHODS: Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study.
  • CONCLUSION: For patients suffering from anal canal cancer, RapidArc with 2 arcs was able to deliver equivalent treatment plan to IMRT in terms of PTV coverage.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Organs at Risk / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001 Nov 15;51(4):880-914 [11704310.001]
  • (PMID = 20942958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965153
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8. Deo SV, Shukla NK, Raina V, Mohanti BK, Sharan R, Kar M, Rath GK: Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep-Oct;24(5):201-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Organ-preserving multimodality management of squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • AIM: To study the efficacy of an organ-preserving, sequential chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, and of salvage surgery in those in whom this treatment fails.
  • METHODS: Forty biopsy-proven untreated patients (28 men) with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal received two cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and methotrexate, followed by 45 to 60 (median 50) Gy external beam radiotherapy.
  • Three patients had post-treatment anal stenosis requiring repeated dilatation and two had chronic non-healing ulcers at the anal verge.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation is effective in the treatment of squamous cell anal cancer and has acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16361764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • T categories (International Union against Cancer) were T1 (15), T2 (36), T3 (34), and T4 (16).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • However, patients with larger lesions of the perianal skin are at high risk for locoregional recurrence and possible treatment intensification in this subgroup seems desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Cummings BJ: Current management of anal canal cancer. Semin Oncol; 2005 Dec;32(6 Suppl 9):S123-8
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Combined-modality therapy consisting of radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin remains the standard treatment for localized anal canal cancer, permitting preservation of organ function and achieving high response and survival rates.

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  • (PMID = 16399449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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12. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC: Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer.
  • The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence.
  • METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed.
  • Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Randomized, prospective, Phase 3 trials in Europe and the United States showed that chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C was superior in local control, colostomy-free rate, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival compared with radiation alone.

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  • (PMID = 15793642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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13. Eng C, Chang GJ, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Skibber JM, Qiao W, Rosner GL, Ukegbu LT, Wolff RA, Crane CH: Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4116

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • : 4116 Background: Definitive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal consists of external beam radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C or cisplatin.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of XELOX-XRT as definitive treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven SCC of the anal canal, AJCC Stage II-IIIB (T<sub>2-4</sub> or N+M<sub>0</sub>), ECOG PS 0-1, HIV<sup>-</sup>, and no prior therapy were eligible for XELOX-based chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) is effective for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27961220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Hammad N, Philip PA, Shields AF, Heilbrun LK, Venkatramanamoorthy R, El-Rayes BF: A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15586

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  • [Title] A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.
  • : e15586 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients (pts) are at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and the incidence of SCCAC has increased in the era of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy).
  • The aim of this study is to describe the outcome, tolerability, and overall survival (OS) in pts with and without HIV infection treated at Karmanos Cancer Institute, at Wayne State University from 1991 to 2007.
  • We collected data regarding HIV status, demographics (age, gender, race), stage at diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, toxicity, and survival.

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  • (PMID = 27962344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Conroy T, Ducreux M, Lemanski C, Francois E, Giovannini M, Cvitkovic F, Mirabel X, Bouché O, Montoto-Grillot C, Peiffert D: Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4033

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial.

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  • (PMID = 27961547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Swampillai A, Williams M, Osborne M, Mawdsley S, Hughes R, Harrison M, Glynne-Jones R: A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4117

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT).
  • Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal cancer Trial (ACT II).
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis- Tx (6) T1 (28), T2 (80), T3 (65), T4 (16), N0 (126), N+ (66) Nx (3).

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  • (PMID = 27961219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Crowley C, Winship AZ, Hawkins MA, Morris SL, Leslie MD: Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Jun;21(5):376-9
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  • [Title] Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation?
  • AIMS: Chemoradiation is the standard of care for the treatment of anal canal cancer, with surgery reserved for salvage.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1998 and August 2004, 30 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell anal canal cancer were treated with chemoradiation using one phase of treatment throughout.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range 41-84).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This single-centre retrospective study supports the treatment for selected cases of anal canal cancer with smaller than standard radiation fields, avoiding prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Pelvis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19282157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
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19. Vuong T, Kopek N, Ducruet T, Portelance L, Faria S, Bahoric B, Devic S: Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):1394-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with anal canal cancer, in terms of local control (LC), freedom from relapse (FFR), and overall survival (OS) rates, and to estimate long-term toxicity data.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of 3D-CRT allows patients with anal canal cancer to complete radiation and chemotherapy without interruption for toxicity, with significant improvements in LC, FFR, and OS.

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  • (PMID = 17276620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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21. Miyamoto S, Maeda Y, Hishima T, Sasaki T: [Case of higher efficacy by chemoradiotherapy for anal canal cancer from left cervix metastases to lymph nodes]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Feb;36(2):329-32
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  • [Title] [Case of higher efficacy by chemoradiotherapy for anal canal cancer from left cervix metastases to lymph nodes].
  • Biopsy showed a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • She was searched from head to foot, but the primary carcinoma could not be identified.
  • It was referred to our hospital as a primary unidentified carcinoma.
  • In examination, the anal region had phyma in a rectal examination, and biopsy revealed it to be a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • For anal canal cancer cStage IV, we performed chemotherapies of S-1+CDDP and local radiotherapy.
  • There was a contraction of a lymph gland, and CT four months later lower endoscopy did not show the apparent phyma.
  • We have continued chemotherapies in an outpatient department sequentially, but the image shows no increase of lymph gland nor increase of the primary tumor for 20 months with no decrease in QOL of the patient.
  • Chemoradiotherapy including S-1 was effective for this case of anal canal cancer distant metastasis for which no apparent cause has been established thus far.

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  • (PMID = 19223758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Riche B, Alessio A, Mornex F, Romestaing P: Prognostic value of tumor regression evaluated after first course of radiotherapy for anal canal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Dec 1;63(5):1316-24
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of tumor regression evaluated after first course of radiotherapy for anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the tumor response after an initial course of irradiation predicts for colostomy-free survival and overall survival in patients with anal canal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16169674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes
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23. Damin DC, Rosito MA, Schwartsmann G: Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):247-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node in carcinoma of the anal canal: a review.
  • AIMS: To review the studies investigating the efficacy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in anal canal carcinoma and to evaluate its potential role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with the malignancy.
  • METHODS: A literature search in the PubMed database was preformed using the key words "sentinel lymph node" and "anal cancer".
  • All indexed original articles (except case reports) on the SLN procedure in cancer of the anal canal were analysed.
  • The detection of occult metastases in clinically unsuspicious nodes represents an important improvement in the process of staging these patients, which has not been possible with any other method of diagnosis.
  • Although SLN procedure is still in an early phase of investigation in this type of cancer, it emerges as an objective method to guide individual therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16289647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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24. Rouquie D, Lasser P, Castaing M, Boige V, Goéré D, Pignon JP, Ducreux M, Elias D, Pocard M: [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jul-Aug;145(4):335-40
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  • [Title] [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)].
  • [Transliterated title] Résection R0, seul facteur pronostique dans les amputations abdominopérinéales de rattrapage des cancers du canal anal (série consécutive de 95 patients).
  • INTRODUCTION: When radiation therapy fails to control cancer of the anal canal, the only therapeutic alternative is salvage abdomino-perineal resection (APR).
  • CONCLUSION: When anal cancer recurs after radiation therapy, a salvage APR is indicated.

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  • (PMID = 18955923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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25. Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshitatsu S, Tsujinaka T: [A case of total pelvic exenteration and reconstruction of perianal skin defect using a VY advancement of bilateral gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps for anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2650-2
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  • [Title] [A case of total pelvic exenteration and reconstruction of perianal skin defect using a VY advancement of bilateral gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps for anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula].
  • A 53-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having an anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula, was introduced to our hospital.
  • We reconstructed the perianal skin defect using a VY advancement of bilateral gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps.
  • This constructive technique was effective for anal defects.

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  • (PMID = 21224668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Stojanović S, Radosević-Jelić I, Dabić-Stanković K, Popov I, Josifovski J: External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):33-8
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  • [Title] External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy has been the standard treatment of anal canal carcinoma for the last three decades.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, between March 1997 and May 2004, patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost as primary treatment modality.

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  • (PMID = 17988027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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27. Salama JK, Mell LK, Schomas DA, Miller RC, Devisetty K, Jani AB, Mundt AJ, Roeske JC, Liauw SL, Chmura SJ: Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4581-6
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal canal cancer patients: a multicenter experience.
  • PURPOSE: To report a multicenter experience treating anal canal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2000 to June 2006, 53 patients were treated with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal squamous cell carcinoma at three tertiary-care academic medical centers.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary outcomes suggest that concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for anal canal cancers is effective and tolerated favorably compared with historical standards.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):688; author reply 688-9 [18235135.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 1;26(4):694
  • (PMID = 17925552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Bui T, Harvey J, Brown E, Scott M, Haines T, Davidson K: Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Aug;53(4):396-404
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  • [Title] Conformal external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma: a retrospective study of a genital organ sparing technique.
  • To investigate and compare the dosimetric distribution of a conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique and a genital organ sparing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • Twenty-four patients with anal canal cancer treated between January 2002 and December 2006 were investigated.

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  • (PMID = 19695047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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29. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.

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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Chiao EY, Krown SE, Stier EA, Schrag D: A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Dec 1;40(4):451-5
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  • [Title] A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is etiologically linked to human papillomavirus, and its incidence is increased among the immunosuppressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology


31. Kuga Y, Tanaka T, Arita M, Usui Y, Okanobu H, Numata Y, Miwata T, Yoshimi S, Murakami E, Moriya T, Ohya T, Nishida T: [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(11):1923-5
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  • [Title] [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma].
  • We report a case of left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma, treated effectively with chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP combined with radiotherapy.
  • In February 2006, a 76-year-old woman underwent resection of a tumor diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Biopsy was performed, and specimens were shown to include squamous cell carcinoma cells.
  • Chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy maybe effective for treating metastatic lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Injections, Intravenous. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19920402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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32. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C: Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA; 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21
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  • [Title] Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial.
  • CONTEXT: Chemoradiation as definitive therapy is the preferred primary therapy for patients with anal canal carcinoma; however, the 5-year disease-free survival rate from concurrent fluorouracil/mitomycin and radiation is only approximately 65%.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of cisplatin-based (experimental) therapy vs mitomycin-based (standard) therapy in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: US Gastrointestinal Intergroup trial RTOG 98-11, a multicenter, phase 3, randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with fluorouracil plus mitomycin and radiotherapy vs treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal carcinoma enrolled between October 31, 1998, and June 27, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with anal canal carcinoma, cisplatin-based therapy failed to improve disease-free-survival compared with mitomycin-based therapy, but cisplatin-based therapy resulted in a significantly worse colostomy rate.
  • These findings do not support the use of cisplatin in place of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7 [19047998.001]
  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411 [18812528.001]
  • (PMID = 18430910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003596
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Stewart D, Yan Y, Kodner IJ, Birnbaum E, Fleshman J, Myerson R, Dietz D: Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors? J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Dec;11(12):1744-51
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors?
  • It is common belief that patients failing chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCCA) can be salvaged with subsequent surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1992 Jun;35(6):574-7; discussion 577-8 [1587176.001]
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  • (PMID = 17846856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Rosset L, Allal AS, Morel P, Roche B, Roth AD: Complete closure of cancer-related anovaginal and anoperineal fistulas in locally advanced anal canal carcinomas by upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by combined radiochemotherapy: report of two cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Dec;49(12):1927-30
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Complete closure of cancer-related anovaginal and anoperineal fistulas in locally advanced anal canal carcinomas by upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by combined radiochemotherapy: report of two cases.
  • PURPOSE: Cancer-related fistulas are a major problem in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma, because conservative radiochemotherapy may not be recommended in this setting.
  • METHODS: Because chemotherapy can lead to closure of cancer-related fistulas and local intra-arterial chemotherapy is effective in locally advanced anal canal cancer, we treated two anal canal carcinoma patients presenting with cancer-related fistulas with upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiochemotherapy, leading to complete closure of fistulas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This conservative approach combining local intra-arterial chemotherapy and standard radiochemotherapy is feasible and should be considered in the management of such locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Rectal Fistula / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17096179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Meropol NJ, Niedzwiecki D, Shank B, Colacchio TA, Ellerton J, Valone F, Budinger S, Day JM, Hopkins J, Tepper J, Goldberg RM, Mayer RJ: Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281). J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 01;26(19):3229-34
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  • [Title] Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281).
  • PURPOSE: Although most patients with anal canal cancer are cured with sphincter-preserving, nonsurgical, combined-modality therapy, those with large tumors and lymph node involvement have a poor prognosis.
  • To establish the safety and efficacy of induction chemotherapy with infusional fluorouracil (FU) plus cisplatin followed by FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent radiation in patients with poor-prognosis squamous cell cancers of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated anal canal cancers with T3 or T4 tumors and/or extensive nodal involvement (bulky N2 or N3) received two 28-day cycles of induction treatment with infusional FU plus cisplatin followed by two 28-day cycles of FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent split-course radiation.
  • CONCLUSION: A combined-modality approach that includes induction treatment with FU and cisplatin followed by combined-modality therapy with FU, mitomycin C, and concurrent radiation results in long-term disease control in the majority of patients with poor-prognosis anal canal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18490648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04326; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
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  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • [Cites] Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002 Jul;43(1):77-92 [12098609.001]
  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 Jan;45(1):16-22 [11786758.001]
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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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38. Raffetto N, Monaco A, Banelli E: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2B):1335-9
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of conformal radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy in patients with anal canal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 83 patients affected by anal canal carcinoma were treated at the Radiotherapy Department of "La Sapienza" University of Rome.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control.

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  • (PMID = 18505075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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39. Yamauchi M, Okamoto Y, Doi M, Shinozaki K: [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2209-11
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  • [Title] [mFOLFOX6 for treatment of anal canal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of bone marrow--a case report].
  • There was a hard anal mass on rectal examination.
  • Colonoscopy and computed tomography showed anal adenocarcinoma, multiple metastases to lymph nodes and bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21084829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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40. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Sana S, Khan AU: Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer.
  • Our understandings of anal canal cancer pathogenesis and treatment have undergone significant changes due to continuing research into its pathogenesis and the results of major clinical trials conducted over the past 20 years.
  • Anal canal cancer can be cured by combined modality chemoradiation therapy, a treatment that preserves continence and reserves abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and anal canal in patients with recurrent or residual disease after primary chemoradiotherapy.
  • Future challenges include an increasing incidence of human papillomavirus infection, the AIDS epidemic, diagnosis of early disease, and optimization of chemotherapy and radiation regimens.
  • This article aims to provide a summary of recently completed and ongoing clinical trials in the management of anal canal cancer.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1999 Apr 15;85(8):1686-93 [10223561.001]
  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7 [18427149.001]
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  • (PMID = 20436836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780239
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal cancer / chemotherapy / radiation therapy
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42. Ortholan C, Ramaioli A, Peiffert D, Lusinchi A, Romestaing P, Chauveinc L, Touboul E, Peignaux K, Bruna A, de La Roche G, Lagrange JL, Alzieu C, Gerard JP: Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors &lt; or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jun 1;62(2):479-85
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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors < or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical history, management, and pattern of recurrence of very early-stage anal canal cancer in a French retrospective survey.
  • METHODS: The study group consisted of 69 patients with Stage Tis and T1 anal canal carcinoma < or =1 cm treated between 1990 and 2000 (12 were in situ, 57 invasive, 66 Stage N0, and 3 Stage N1).
  • These small anal cancers could be treated by RT using a small volume and moderate dose (40-50 Gy for subclinical lesions and 50-60 Gy for T1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15890590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Lisovsky M, Patel K, Cymes K, Chase D, Bhuiya T, Morgenstern N: Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Aug;131(8):1304-11
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic characterization of anal gland carcinoma: loss of p63 and cytokeratin 5/6.
  • Anal gland carcinoma (AGC) is a rare perianal invasive cancer composed of tubular glands lined by cuboidal epithelium.
  • The clinical features and histogenesis of AGC are not well understood and its origin from anal glands is often difficult to prove.
  • Little is known about immunophenotypic features of AGC that could be useful in establishing the diagnosis.
  • This study evaluated the immunohistochemical profile of 2 cases of AGC in comparison to anal glands from 11 hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • In biopsies from this case, the neoplastic anal glands had a tubular pattern, whereas most glands in the resection specimen exhibited mucinous features.
  • Normal anal glands showed immunoreactivity for myoepithelial and basal cell markers CK5/6 and p63 in basal and parabasal cell layers and for CK7 in superficial cell layers.
  • Anal gland carcinoma shares negativity for CDX2 and CK7+/CK20- profile with normal anal glands.
  • No evidence of myoepithelial cells was found in normal or malignant anal glands.
  • These data may be useful in establishing the diagnosis of AGC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anal Canal / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Hemorrhoids / surgery. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Oct;132(10):1547-8 [18834205.001]
  • (PMID = 17683193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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44. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Amano K, Ishibashi K, Nakada H, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Gonda T, Ishida H, Takahashi T: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2025-8
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report].
  • We reported an elderly case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following radiotherapy alone.
  • An 86-year-old man complaining of anal bleeding and pain was admitted.
  • Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Yoshitani S, Hosokawa K, Yokoi M, Kinami S, Omote K, Ueda N, Nakano Y, Kosaka T: [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2229-31
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  • [Title] [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy].
  • We describe our experience with a patient who had unresectable anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with extensive metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, and bones.
  • Signet-ring cell carcinoma was diagnosed by examination of a biopsy specimen from the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • A search for the primary tumor was performed, and anal canal carcinoma with pagetoid spread was detected in the perianal region.
  • In conclusion, Bev+mFOLFOX6 therapy achieved 6 months of CR in our patient who had anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with systemic metastases, which seemed likely to have a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20037379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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47. Lee SE, Jeon EJ, Oh JH, Shim KH, Lee J, Kim EH, Choi SW, Min KO: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;51(1):40-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis].
  • The most common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are liver, lung, bone and adrenal gland.
  • However, skin metastases from gastric cancer are relatively rare.
  • We herein report a case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis in a 70-year-old male.
  • Endoscopy and abdominal CT scan demonstrated the stage IV gastric cancer.
  • He had one painless nodule on perianal skin area, biopsy of that lesion showed a feature of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma clinically from the stomach.
  • We suspected that the perianal lesion was originated from gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18349561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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48. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Hwang HJ, Bestani C, Jiménez R, Masciángioli G, Gutiérrez A, Cartelli C, Rafailovici L, Barugel M, Rodríguez G, Méndez G: [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2005;35(2):94-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the last 20 years in a gastroenterology hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] El tratamiento de los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide del canal anal en los últimos 20 años en nuestro hospital.
  • Anal cancers compromise only 1.5% of all digestive tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To collect and analyze clinical data from the medical records of all consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated by the Oncology Section in 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16127985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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50. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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51. Zagar TM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes.
  • The treatment of cancer of the anal canal has changed significantly over the past several decades.
  • Although the abdominoperineal resection (APR) was the historical standard of care, a therapeutic paradigm shift occurred with the seminal work of Nigro, who reported that anal canal cancer could be treated with definitive chemoradiation, with APR reserved for salvage therapy only.
  • With the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), many oncologists are beginning to utilize this technology in the treatment of anal cancer in order to decrease these toxicities while maintaining similar treatment efficacy.
  • This article reviews the relevant literature leading up to the modern treatment of anal canal cancer, and discusses IMRT-related toxicity and disease-related outcomes in the context of outcomes of conventionally treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1 [20923036.001]
  • (PMID = 20923035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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53. Eng C, Pathak P: Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(4-6):400-7
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  • [Title] Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that is often cured with the combined modality therapy of chemoradiation.
  • Here, we present a summary of the existing literature in the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma in the hopes of providing insight and potential treatment alternatives for the practicing physician.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19479383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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54. Wakatsuki K, Oeda Y, Isono T, Yoshioka S, Nukui Y, Yamazaki K, Nabeshima S, Miyazaki M: Adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon seeding into pre-existing anal fistula. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 May-Jun;55(84):952-5
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon seeding into pre-existing anal fistula.
  • This paper reports a rare case of rectosigmoid colon carcinoma metastasizing to anal fistula.
  • Colonoscopy revealed a rectosigmoid carcinoma.
  • Pathology revealed that the colon cancer and the perianal tumor were both moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Sixteen reports could be found of implantation metastasis of colorectal cancer into anal fistula.
  • In diagnosis, it is important to differentiate implantation of colorectal cancer in anal fistula from primary anal fistular adenocarcinoma.
  • The histology of the perianal tumor in this patient closely resembles the tumor of the colon.
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins 7 and 20 was performed on tissues to distinguish colorectal adenocarcinoma from anal gland carcinoma.
  • Both colorectal cancer and perianal tumor showed CK7-/CK20+.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Colon, Sigmoid / pathology. Colon, Sigmoid / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18705305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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55. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


56. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Rödel C: [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 4:24-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer].
  • Standard treatment for anal canal cancer is definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C.
  • Because anal cancer overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a KRAS wild type is usually present, treatment with the EGFR antibody cetuximab is potentially interesting.

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  • (PMID = 20431309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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58. Bège T, Turrini O, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Apr;19(2):e41-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target.
  • BACKGROUND: Local recurrence of pelvic cancer is a therapeutic challenge.
  • CASE: A 53-year-old woman presented in 2006 with a small (20 mm) pelvic recurrence of an anal canal cancer initially treated by radiochemotherapy and amputation of the rectum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RFTA is a feasible therapeutic option for some selected small isolated pelvic cancer recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 19390261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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60. Nagle D: Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):102-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal squamous cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is uncommon.
  • Modern therapy of HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the overall survival of HIV patients and allowed effective therapy for those who develop epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 20436834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780243
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus / HIV / anal cancer
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61. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
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  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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62. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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63. Blumetti J, Bastawrous AL: Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):77-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is an uncommon disease, but has increased in incidence with the HIV epidemic.
  • This review provides an overview of the historical, current, and future treatments of epidermoid anal canal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20436831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780240
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal malignancy / Nigro protocol / chemoradiation / epidermoid carcinoma
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64. Dyson T, Draganov PV: Squamous cell cancer of the rectum. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 21;15(35):4380-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy.
  • The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion.
  • Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins.
  • Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease.
  • Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19764088.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747057
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65. Tomimaru Y, Ohue M, Noura S, Tanida T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1776-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of anal fistula cancer probably developing from intraluminal dissemination of rectal cancer].
  • A 63-year-old man with a history of anal fistula was admitted to our hospital because the anal pain didn't disappear after the operation.
  • On digital examination, a hard mass measuring 3.0 cm in diameter was found at the anal canal.
  • Colonoscopy revealed another rectal cancer at 15 cm from anal verge.
  • Biopsy of the tumor also showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, resembling the anal canal tumor.
  • Because the histological findings of both tumors were nearly identical, we considered that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal fistula.
  • The patient underwent anterior resection for the rectal cancer, and a local resection for the anal canal cancer.
  • We may suggest from these results that cancer cells from the rectal cancer had been implanted and developed the metastatic tumor in the anal canal.


66. Amano K, Kumamoto K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Ishibashi K, Inokuma S, Nakada H, Yokoyama M, Haga N, Ishida H: [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2653-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases].
  • Perianal Paget's disease is categorized as Paget's disease, which is epidermotropic neoplasm arising from the apocrine glands of perianal region, or Pagetoid spread invaded from rectal or anal canal cancer.
  • Five patients with perianal Paget's disease who underwent a surgical operation had been treated in our department between 1997 and 2006.
  • All cases presented the redness around perianal regions, and 2 cases were recognized a tumor at the anal canal.
  • It was compatible with the preoperative diagnosis.
  • Only one of 3 Paget's disease cases was positive for GCDFP15 and negative for CK20 resulting in the diagnosis of perianal Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Keratin-20 / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / PIP protein, human
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67. Jiang Y, Mackley H, Cheng H, Ajani JA: Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy? J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):135-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy?
  • Use of definitive chemoradiation as primary therapy for locoregional squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has been the standard approach in the United States since the 1980s.
  • Further improvement is likely depending on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of anal carcinoma and the addition of relevant biologic agents to chemoradiation to overcome chemoradiation resistance.

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  • (PMID = 20064295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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68. Hinojosa MW, Parikh DA, Menon R, Wirth GA, Stamos MJ, Mills S: Recent experience with abdominal perineal resection with vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction after preoperative pelvic radiation. Am Surg; 2009 Oct;75(10):995-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Indications for APR were rectal cancer (n = 14, 93%) and anal canal cancer (n = 1, 7%).

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  • (PMID = 19886152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Das P, Cantor SB, Parker CL, Zampieri JB, Baschnagel A, Eng C, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):822-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with localized squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 80 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, for anal cancer, with a minimum 2-year interval after the completion of radiotherapy.
  • The questionnaire included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sexual Problems Scale, and questions regarding demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with radiotherapy for anal cancer reported acceptable overall QoL scores, but poor sexual function scores.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 20041481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Joseph KJ, Syme A, Small C, Warkentin H, Quon H, Ghosh S, Field C, Pervez N, Tankel K, Patel S, Usmani N, Severin D, Nijjar T, Fallone G, Pedersen J: A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jan;94(1):60-6
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  • [Title] A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A planning study to compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) patients with anal cancer previously treated radically were identified.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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71. Tanaka K, Noura S, Ohue M, Seki Y, Gotou K, Motoori M, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Murata K, Kameyama M: [A case of refractory inguinal lymphorrhea cured by lipiodol lymphangiography]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2162-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patient was a 80-year-old female who underwent an abdomino-perineal resection with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection and inguinal lymph node extraction for anal canal cancer.
  • Histologically, the tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and considered to be stage IV (a2, n3 (+), P0, H3, M (-), cur C) in the Japanese classification of colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodized Oil. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18219932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil
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72. Homsi J, Garrett C: Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):1004-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the anal canal: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: Anal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive cancer.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with anal melanoma treated at the H.
  • Lee Moffitt Cancer and Research Institute between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed.
  • Published anal melanoma studies, including more than ten patients with outcome data, also were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified (8 percent of all cancer of the anal canal).
  • Four patients had nodal involvement, and one had bone metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Five of the 11 patients without metastatic disease relapsed or died within the first year of diagnosis (4 had local excision and 1 had abdominoperineal resection).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17468984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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73. Zaleski L, Turiansky GW: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cutis; 2010 Mar;85(3):143-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is an increasing concern in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • A discussion of the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of SCCAC is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2010 Mar;85(3):119 [20408506.001]
  • (PMID = 20408513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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74. Irabor DO, Dongo AE: Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed? Trop Doct; 2009 Jan;39(1):7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed?
  • The paper is a retrospective look at the clinicopathological presentation of carcinoma of the anal canal in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
  • Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with anal carcinoma over a five-year period (2002-2006) from a total of 394 patients who had malignancies of the colon, rectum and anus.
  • The male: female ratio was 1.2: 1 showing a slight male predominance; the average age was 48 years; tenesmus, bleeding per rectum and anal pain were the most common presenting features.
  • The most predominant histopathological subtype was adenocarcinoma - a departure from the hitherto squamous cell cancer dominance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors. Tropical Climate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19211411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Hauerstock D, Ennis RD, Grossbard M, Evans A: Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2010 Oct;9(4):238-42
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  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation in the treatment of HIV-associated anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the results and the toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive patients treated at a single institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: HIV-positive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the canal treated at Continuum Cancer Centers-affiliated hospitals were identified from tumor registries.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Radiotherapy, Conformal


76. Martin FT, Kavanagh D, Waldron R: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surgeon; 2009 Aug;7(4):232-7
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract.
  • Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19736891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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77. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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78. Chen LS, Li TY, Cao YF, Liang JL, Zhang S, Tang WZ, Tang ZJ, Gao F: [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;9(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of P33ING1, P53 and their relationship with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the expressions of P33ING1, P53 and their relationships with apoptosis in anal canal carcinoma (ACC).
  • METHODS: The expressions of P33ING1, P53 proteins were measured by immunohistochemistry method (SP method), and apoptosis was detected in 42 cases with ACC, 36 cases with anal canal adenoma (ACA) or anal canal papilloma (ACP), and 40 cases with paraanal inflammatory mass(PAIM).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16886119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ING1 protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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79. Klenova A, Balabanova A: [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2008;(3):25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of the spinocellular cancer of the anal canal--a brief survey and report on 6 cases].
  • PURPOSE: The conservative treatment for carcinoma of the anal canal has become the standard care for this malignancy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and December 2003 six female patients with UICC T2-3, No, Mo, G1-G2 squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated.
  • The therapy was well tolerated, with good anal continence and moderate late side effects, including soft chronic diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20063470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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80. Mullen JT, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Barcenas CH, Crane CH, Skibber JM, Feig BW: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):478-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal consists of combined radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival following salvage surgery for persistent or locally recurrent epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal can be achieved in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17103253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Cotter SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Malyapa RS, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Wang X, Abbey E, Tan B, Kodner IJ, Hunt SR, Lowney JK, Mutch MG, Dietz DW, Myerson RJ: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):720-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy.
  • In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. HIV Seropositivity / radiography. HIV Seropositivity / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16626889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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82. Tajima Y, Ishibashi K, Gonda T, Miyazaki T, Nakada H, Takahashi T, Ishida H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2050-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II).
  • This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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83. Kobayashi H, Ueno H, Hashiguchi Y, Ishiguro M, Omata J, Kajiwara Y, Shimazaki H, Mochizuki H: T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of anal canal after transanal resection for intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 May;36(5):325-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of anal canal after transanal resection for intramucosal adenocarcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the anal canal are rare, representing 1% of malignant tumors of the anal canal.
  • We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with T1 neuroendocrine carcinoma of the anal canal arising from the site of a previous transanal excision performed 13 months earlier for intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • She underwent abdominoperineal resection after the initial diagnostic transanal excision of the neuroendocrine carcinoma, which had shown submucosal invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16702164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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84. Rabbani AN, Zlotecki RA, Kirwan J, George TJ Jr, Morris CG, Rout WR, Mendenhall WM: Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;33(1):47-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of definitive radiotherapy (RT) alone or combined with chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19704368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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85. Suenaga M, Oya M, Ueno M, Yamamoto J, Yamaguchi T, Mizunuma N, Hatake K, Kato Y, Muto T: Anal canal carcinoma with Pagetoid spread: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):666-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma with Pagetoid spread: report of a case.
  • A 70-year-old man with a history of colon polyps was found to have a semipedunculated polyp in the anal canal.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • During transanal local excision of the tumor, an abnormality of the perianal skin was recognized.
  • Although intraoperative frozen section of the perianal skin did not show malignancy, permanent sections of the perineal skin revealed Paget's cells in the epidermis.
  • Pathological examination of the anal canal carcinoma revealed submucosally invasive well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a positive distal surgical margin.
  • Thus, we performed additional wide local excision of the perianal skin including the distal margin of the previous local excision.
  • Pathological examination revealed continuance within the epidermis between the anal canal adenocarcinoma and Paget's cells in the perianal skin lesion.
  • Thus, we concluded that the perianal skin lesion was Pagetoid spread of anal canal adenocarcinoma.
  • This report shows that the perianal skin should be examined carefully in patients with anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16794808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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86. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19404066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Tournier-Rangeard L, Mercier M, Peiffert D, Gerard JP, Romestaing P, Lemanski C, Mirabel X, Pommier P, Denis B: Radiochemotherapy of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: prospective assessment of early impact on the quality of life (randomized trial ACCORD 03). Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):391-7
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: prospective assessment of early impact on the quality of life (randomized trial ACCORD 03).
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the quality of life (QOL) of patients treated by concomitant chemo radiation for locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.
  • QOL was assessed both before and 2 months after treatment using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire as well as a questionnaire relating to anal sphincter conservative treatment (AS-CT).
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective study comparing QOL of patients with advanced anal canal carcinoma, before and 2 months after conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18191265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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88. Jain SK, Tanwar R, Kaza RC, Ghuliani D: Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site. J Wound Care; 2010 Dec;19(12):532-4
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  • [Title] Post burn Marjolin's ulcer in the natal cleft mimicking anal canal carcinoma: a rare site.
  • The only current method for confirming diagnosis is biopsy, which if positive will be followed by wide local excision and skin coverage.
  • Its presentation mimicked that of an anal canal carcinoma, although detailed workup, which included computed tomography (CT) scan revealed this growth to be separate from the anal canal, albeit in close association.
  • This is an extremely rare site and the study illustrates that squamous cell carcinoma can mimic anal carcinoma unless carefully examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burns / complications. Buttocks / injuries. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21160444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Wright JL, Patil SM, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Saltz LB, Goodman KA: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1064-72
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) is increasingly used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC).
  • Cumulative sites of LRF (patients may have one or more site of failure) were as follows: primary, 35; inguinal, 8; external perianal, 5; common iliac, 4; presacral, 3; distal rectum, 2; external iliac, 2; and internal iliac, 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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90. Arikawa S, Uchida M, Ogoh E, Uozumi J, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Kaida H, Ishibashi N, Shirouzu K, Hayabuchi N: [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):727-30
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  • [Title] [Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal].
  • We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response.
  • Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20414036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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91. Robb BW, Mutch MG: Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):54-60
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  • [Title] Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Anal cancers are rare tumors with only an expected 4000 new diagnoses in 2005.

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  • (PMID = 20011311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780104
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidermoid cancer / anal canal / squamous cancer
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92. Lê LH, Chetty R, Moore MJ: Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in anal canal carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jul;124(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in anal canal carcinoma.
  • Most anal canal carcinomas (ACCs) are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15923158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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93. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Provencher S, Oehler C, Lavertu S, Jolicoeur M, Fortin B, Donath D: Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:41
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  • [Title] Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) and outcome of patients with anal carcinoma treated with short split-course chemoradiation (CRT).
  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 58 patients with anal cancer were curatively treated with CRT.
  • Significant anal pain or fecal incontinence was infrequently reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short split-course CRT for anal carcinoma seems to be associated with good local control, survival and long-term global QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 20492729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883545
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95. Rousseau DL Jr, Thomas CR Jr, Petrelli NJ, Kahlenberg MS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;14(3):121-32
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal is a rare condition with increasing incidence rates in the United States population in the past several decades.
  • This review article provides a complete overview of the etiology, anatomy and the approach to the multidisciplinary management of the patient with anal SCC.
  • Chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of SCC of the anal canal provides excellent disease control and survival while preserving anal sphincter function in the majority of patients.
  • The surgeon plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery


96. Ajani JA, Wang X, Izzo JG, Crane CH, Eng C, Skibber JM, Das P, Rashid A: Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Apr;55(4):1098-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biomarkers correlate with disease-free survival in patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation.
  • Large primary tumor and clinical nodal involvement in patients with anal carcinoma treated with chemoradiation are associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS).
  • We analyzed clinical and biomarker data in 30 patients with anal carcinoma who had chemoradiation.
  • Patient selection was based on the availability of untreated cancer for biomarkers, completion of prescribed chemoradiation, and patient outcomes (~50% disease-free) nonrepresentative of published cohorts but conducive to biomarker discovery.
  • Upon further expansion and validation, these results may provide a biomarker-based understanding of heterogeneous clinical biology of patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hedgehog Proteins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. NF-kappa B / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Zinc Finger Protein GLI1

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  • (PMID = 19399614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zinc Finger Protein GLI1; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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97. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • This appearance together with microcystic spaces simulated that of an adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • BSC of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern is an infrequently encountered and reported variant, although it is seen more often in the aerodigestive tract.
  • The histologic differential diagnosis is true salivary gland-type adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and awareness of this unusual pattern of BSC will facilitate the correct diagnosis being reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Gretschel S, Warnick P, Bembenek A, Dresel S, Koswig S, String A, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):890-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • AIM: Although 15-25% of patients with anal cancer present with superficial inguinal lymph node metastases but the routine application of groin irradiation is controversial because of serious side effects.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with anal cancer underwent 1 ml Tc(99m)-Nanocolloid injection in four sites around the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18178364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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99. Engineer R, Mallik S, Mahantshetty U, Shrivastava S: Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):283-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To perform a systematic analysis of clinical data of presentation, treatment, outcome, toxicity, survival and other associated prognostic factors of the patients of anal canal who received treatment at our hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20452695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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100. Huang K, Haas-Kogan D, Weinberg V, Krieg R: Higher radiation dose with a shorter treatment duration improves outcome for locally advanced carcinoma of anal canal. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Feb 14;13(6):895-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Higher radiation dose with a shorter treatment duration improves outcome for locally advanced carcinoma of anal canal.
  • AIM: To assess whether radiation dose and duration of treatment influence local control and survival of patients with locally advanced anal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients who were treated with definitive radiation therapy for bulky anal cancers (> 5 cm in size) were reviewed.
  • CONCLUSION: Local failure is a significant problem in locally advanced carcinomas of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 17352019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4065925
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