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1. Styczynski J, Wysocki M, Dluzniewska A, Juraszewska E, Balwierz W, Czyzewski K, Wieczorek M, Olejnik I, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kuzmicz M, Kowalczyk J, Stefaniak J, Badowska W, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepanski T, Matysiak M, Stanczak E, Malinowska I, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Gil L, Balcerska A, Kapuscinska L, Szczepanek J, Kolodziej B, Rafinska B, Kubicka M: Prognostic impact of combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2008 May-Jun;28(3B):1927-31
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  • [Title] Prognostic impact of combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of cellular drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not yet been established.
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the clinical value of ex vivo drug resistance in pediatric AML.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 90 children with de novo AML were assayed for drug resistance profile by the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and prognostic model of in vitro drug sensitivity was analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Children who relapsed during follow-up showed higher in vitro resistance of leukemic blasts to most of the drugs tested, except for cytarabine, cladribine, vincristine, mercaptopurine and thioguanine.
  • A combined in vitro drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone (FTM score) was defined and it had an independent prognostic significance for disease free survival in pediatric AML.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile to possibly may be used for better stratification of children with AML or indicate the necessity for additional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUDARABINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TREOSULFAN .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VIDARABINE .
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  • (PMID = 18630483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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2. Styczynski J, Gil L, Derwich K, Wachowiak J, Balwierz W, Badowska W, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Matysiak M, Wieczorek M, Balcerska A, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Stefaniak J, Kowalczyk J, Urasinski T, Sobol G, Komarnicki M, Wysocki M: Comparison of clofarabine activity in childhood and adult acute leukemia: individual tumor response study. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1643-50
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  • [Title] Comparison of clofarabine activity in childhood and adult acute leukemia: individual tumor response study.
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of ex vivo activity of clofarabine and 14 other anticancer drugs in pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid (AML) leukemia.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The ex vivo drug resistance profile was analyzed in 282 patients, including 201 children with ALL de novo, 24 children with relapsed ALL, 25 children with AML de novo and 32 adults with AML.
  • Its activity in acute myeloid leukemia was independent of patient age.
  • No significant differences in drug resistance to clofarabine between pediatric age-based subgroups of ALL were detected, while it was observed for most of other drugs.
  • An activity of clofarabine in relapsed pediatric ALL patients was as good as in newly-diagnosed ones.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lack of differences in ex vivo activity gives rationale for use of clofarabine in refractory and relapsed pediatric and adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenine Nucleotides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arabinonucleosides / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19443380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine
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3. Styczynski J, Toporski J, Wysocki M, Debski R, Chybicka A, Boruczkowski D, Wachowiak J, Wojcik B, Kowalczyk J, Gil L, Balwierz W, Matysiak M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Balcerska A, Sonta-Jakimczyk D: Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2007 May-Jun;27(3B):1547-51
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the ex vivo drug resistance profile has not yet been proved in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the impact of the ex vivo drug resistance profile in a cohort of 44 children with AML undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • RESULTS: Children who relapsed after transplantation showed higher ex vivo resistance of the leukemic blasts to etoposide, mercaptopurine, thioguanine, fludarabine, mitoxantrone and treosulfan than those who stayed in remission.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide may be useful for better stratification of children with AML undergoing stem cell transplantation or to indicate the necessity for additional post-transplant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / drug effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Busulfan / pharmacology. Child. Child, Preschool. Etoposide / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17595774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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4. Kaspers GJ, Reinhardt D, Fleischhack G, Armendariz H, Stark B, Zwaan CM, Zimmermann M, Creutzig U: Low efficacy of methotrexate in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML): single-agent therapeutic window study in relapsed AML. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Oct 15;47(5):539-42
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  • [Title] Low efficacy of methotrexate in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML): single-agent therapeutic window study in relapsed AML.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficacy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of single-agent methotrexate (MTX) at a higher dose than previously applied, 1,000 mg/m2, given as a theoretically beneficial 36-hr continuous infusion, is unknown, but may be beneficial based on preclinical data.
  • PROCEDURE: We performed a therapeutic window study in children with first relapsed AML treated in four different countries.
  • By that time, another four patients had been enrolled, of which one patient with a late relapsed AML FAB type M7 showed a good response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that single-agent MTX in the applied regimen in pediatric relapsed AML has limited efficacy.
  • However, it also demonstrates the feasibility of an international and therapeutic window phase II study in pediatric relapsed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use


5. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36
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  • [Title] Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine.
  • Approximately 4000 children and adolescents under the age of 20 years develop acute leukemia per year in the US.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer.
  • Despite impressive improvements in outcome, relapsed ALL is the fourth most common pediatric malignancy.
  • Therapy for relapsed ALL remains unsatisfactory, and the majority of relapse patients still succumb to leukemia.
  • Between one-third and one-half of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) relapse, and no standard therapy is recognized for patients with relapsed and/or refractory AML.
  • Novel therapeutic agents are needed to improve the cure rate for relapsed ALL and AML.
  • Phase I and II single-agent trials in children have shown that clofarabine is safe and active in both myeloid and lymphoid relapsed/refractory acute leukemias.
  • Clofarabine has been approved by the FDA for pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory ALL after at least 2 prior therapeutic attempts.

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  • (PMID = 18728851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504075
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; childhood / clofarabine / leukemia / pediatric / refractory
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6. Arceci RJ, Sande J, Lange B, Shannon K, Franklin J, Hutchinson R, Vik TA, Flowers D, Aplenc R, Berger MS, Sherman ML, Smith FO, Bernstein I, Sievers EL: Safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric patients with advanced CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1183-8
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric patients with advanced CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia.
  • This open-label, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and efficacy of single-agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody-targeted chemotherapeutic agent, for pediatric patients with multiple relapsed or primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Twenty-nine children 1 to 16 years of age (relapsed disease, 19; refractory disease, 10) received gemtuzumab ozogamicin ranging from 6 to 9 mg/m2 per dose for 2 doses (separated by 2 weeks) infused over 2 hours.
  • Remissions were comparable in patients with refractory (30%) and relapsed (26%) disease.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was relatively well tolerated at 6 mg/m2 for 2 doses and was equally effective in patients with refractory and relapsed disease.
  • Further studies in combination with standard induction therapy for childhood AML are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Aminoglycosides / toxicity. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Blast Crisis. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease / chemically induced. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Remission Induction / methods. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • (PMID = 15886328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 0 / gemtuzumab
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7. Heng JL, Chen YC, Quah TC, Liu TC, Yeoh AE: Dedicated cytogenetics factor is critical for improving karyotyping results for childhood leukaemias - experience in the National University Hospital, Singapore 1989-2006. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2010 Feb;39(2):102-6
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  • [Title] Dedicated cytogenetics factor is critical for improving karyotyping results for childhood leukaemias - experience in the National University Hospital, Singapore 1989-2006.
  • INTRODUCTION: Childhood leukaemia accounts for more than 40% of new childhood cancer cases.
  • Unfortunately, karyotyping of childhood leukaemia is difficult, laborious and often unsuccessful.
  • Among them, 369 newly diagnosed and relapsed childhood acute leukaemia cases [281 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 88 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] have been diagnosed at NUH.
  • For AML, the success rate also was significantly improved (P = 0.04) from 85% (34/40) to 95.8% (46/48).
  • [MeSH-major] Cytogenetic Analysis / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20237730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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8. Oda M, Isoyama K, Ito E, Inoue M, Tsuchida M, Kigasawa H, Kato K, Kato S: Survival after cord blood transplantation from unrelated donor as a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2009 Apr;89(3):374-82
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  • [Title] Survival after cord blood transplantation from unrelated donor as a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The Japan Cord Blood Bank Network (JCBBN) reports the treatment of 22 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors (CBT) as their second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • Second complete remission at second transplantation was favorable prognosis (58.3 +/- 18.6%, compared with 17.1 +/- 10.8% for the non-CR group.
  • In conclusion, CBT combined with RIC as second HSCT may be useful against a recurrence of AML in children after the initial HSCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Tissue Donors


9. Tan RM, Quah TC, Aung L, Liang S, Kirk RC, Yeoh AE: Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: The introduction of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML 10) protocol incorporating high-dose anthracycline therapy has improved outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In this study, we review the results of childhood AML therapy in a Singapore university hospital over the last 17 years emphasizing toxicity and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis revealed 34 children with AML between 1988 and 2003.
  • From September 1996, all but one of 15 children received MRC AML 10 treatment.
  • RESULTS: At the time of analysis, 17 had died from disease, and 17 patients were alive among whom 2 had relapsed.
  • MRC AML 10-treated patients (n = 14) had significantly better 3-year overall, event-free, and disease-free survival (74% vs. 35%, 77% vs. 20%, 83% vs. 31%; P = 0.019, P = 0.002, and P = 0.010, respectively) and were likelier to achieve complete remission (CR) than non-MRC AML 10 patients (P = 0.102).
  • Among patients who achieved CR, MRC AML 10-treated patients were significantly more likely to achieve CR after only one cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MRC AML 10 treatment results in significantly superior survival, without excess toxicity.
  • Future studies should attempt to elucidate the relative importance of individual MRC AML 10 components and reduce the high cumulative anthracycline dose without compromising outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Acute Disease. Amsacrine / administration & dosage. Amsacrine / adverse effects. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Azacitidine / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / adverse effects. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Evaluation. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infant. Infection / etiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16602120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 00DPD30SOY / Amsacrine; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; MRC AML 10 protocol; POG-8498 protocol
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10. Styczynski J, Wysocki M, Debski R, Czyzewski K, Kolodziej B, Rafinska B, Kubicka M, Koltan S, Koltan A, Pogorzala M, Kurylak A, Olszewska-Slonina D, Balwierz W, Juraszewska E, Wieczorek M, Olejnik I, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kuzmicz M, Kowalczyk J, Stefaniak J, Badowska W, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepanski T, Matysiak M, Malinowska I, Stanczak E, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Gil L, Balcerska A, Maciejka-Kapuscinska L: Predictive value of multidrug resistance proteins and cellular drug resistance in childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2007 Nov;133(11):875-93
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  • [Title] Predictive value of multidrug resistance proteins and cellular drug resistance in childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Cellular resistance in childhood acute leukemias might be related to profile and function of multidrug resistance proteins and apoptosis regulating proteins.
  • (2) correlation with ex vivo drug resistance, and (3) analysis of their prognostic impact on clinical outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and acute myeloid (AML) leukemia.
  • METHODS: Total number of 787 children diagnosed for initial ALL (n = 527), relapsed ALL (n = 104), initial AML (n = 133) and relapsed AML (n = 23) were included into the study.
  • RESULTS: Both initial AML and relapsed ALL samples showed higher drug resistance than initial ALL samples.
  • No significant differences were found in drug resistance between initial and relapsed AML samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of cellular drug resistance in childhood acute leukemias is multifactorial and plays an important role in response to therapy.
  • Expression of MRP1, PGP and LRP proteins, as well as their co-expression play possible role in childhood relapsed ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov;133(11):895. Wachowiak, Jacek [added]; Konatkowska, Benigna [added]; Gil, Lidia [added]; Balcerska, Anna [added]; Maciejka-Kapuscinska, Lucyna [added]
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  • (PMID = 17671794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles; 0 / major vault protein
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11. Castellino SM, Alonzo TA, Buxton A, Gold S, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213.
  • BACKGROUND: The majority of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients lack a matched-related bone marrow transplant (BMT) donor in first remission.
  • PROCEDURE: Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and post-relapse outcome were evaluated for children with de novo AML on CCG 213 and the standard timing (ST) and intensive timing (IT) induction arms of CCG 2891 who were randomized to (intent-to-treat, ITT) or who received (as-treated, AT) only chemotherapy intensification.
  • Overall 48% of patients on both trials relapsed and 19.1% of patients who relapsed on these trials survived.
  • Overall survival for childhood AML in the absence of BMT in CR1 is influenced by duration of CR1 and by race.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17252564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Gorman MF, Ji L, Ko RH, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML: Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):421-9
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  • [Title] Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study.
  • BACKGROUND: Current event-free survival (EFS) rates for children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) approach 50-60%.
  • This report highlights efforts to assess the response rates and survival outcomes after first or greater relapse in children with AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We performed a retrospective cohort review of pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory AML (rAML) previously treated at TACL institutions between the years of 1995 and 2004.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA113557
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Kudo K, Kojima S, Tabuchi K, Yabe H, Tawa A, Imaizumi M, Hanada R, Hamamoto K, Kobayashi R, Morimoto A, Nakayama H, Tsuchida M, Horibe K, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group: Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Dec 1;25(34):5442-7
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  • [Title] Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate a less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen specifically designed for patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to determine the prognostic factors for event-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with AML-DS were treated with remission induction chemotherapy consisting of pirarubicin (25 mg/m2/d for 2 days), cytarabine (100 mg/m2/d for 7 days), and etoposide (150 mg/m2/d for 3 days).
  • Prophylaxis for CNS leukemia was not included.
  • RESULTS: All but two patients were younger than 4 years, and 67 of the 72 patients (93%) were diagnosed as acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL).
  • Nine patients relapsed, and one died as a result of pneumonia during CR.
  • CONCLUSION: A less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen produces excellent outcomes in standard-risk AML-DS patient.
  • Risk-oriented therapy should be considered for future trials in AML-DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Down Syndrome / complications. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / drug therapy


14. Shenoy S, Smith FO: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignancies of myeloid origin. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jan;41(2):141-8
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  • [Title] Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignancies of myeloid origin.
  • Myeloid malignancies in children include de novo acute/chronic myeloid leukemia (AML/CML) and secondary malignancy due to genetic predisposition or previous therapy.
  • Generations of clinical trials for childhood myeloid disorders have resulted in improved disease characterization and outcome, and defined therapeutic strategies combining chemotherapy, biologic response modifiers and immunotherapy.
  • With advancement in molecular genetics and the development of sensitive techniques to detect response, residual disease and relapse, therapy can be tailored in a risk-based manner using clinical and biological/molecular parameters and several 'good-risk' myeloid malignancies enjoy high cure rates with targeted therapy.
  • However, hematopoietic stem cell transplant remains the best method of treatment intensification for poor-risk disorders such as relapsed/secondary AML, myelodysplastic syndrome and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / classification. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18176616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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15. Styczynski J, Wysocki M, Debski R, Czyzewski K, Balwierz W, Juraszewska E, Matysiak M, Malinowska I, Stanczak E, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepanski T, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Balcerska A, Ploszynska A, Kowalczyk J, Stefaniak J, Badowska W, Wieczorek M, Olejnik I, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kuzmicz M: In vitro sensitivity of leukemic cells to nucleoside derivatives in childhood acute leukemias: good activity in leukemic relapses. Neoplasma; 2005;52(1):74-8
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  • [Title] In vitro sensitivity of leukemic cells to nucleoside derivatives in childhood acute leukemias: good activity in leukemic relapses.
  • Nucleoside analogues such as fludarabine and cladribine are used in therapy of indolent lymphomas and leukemias in adults, while cytarabine is used mainly in protocols for acute leukemias.
  • The objective of the study was the analysis of in vitro cellular drug sensitivity in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid (AML) leukemia.
  • Isolated leukemic cells obtained from 264 patients, including 152 initial ALL, 45 relapsed ALL, 54 initial AML and 13 relapsed AML were tested for cytotoxicity for fludarabine, cladribine, and cytarabine by the MTT assay.
  • Samples of relapsed ALL and initial AML were more resistant than ALL de novo ones.
  • Unexpectedly, no differences were observed between initial and relapsed AML samples for all tested drugs, what suggests that nucleoside analogues are active drugs in relapsed AML, which is commonly regarded as a resistant disease.
  • In summary, tested nucleoside analogues presented relatively good activity against childhood leukemias at relapse stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cladribine / pharmacology. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15739031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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16. Liu CF, Liu GL, Zhang LP, Cheng YF, Lu AD, Tian KG, Liu YR, Qin YZ: [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;13(1):76-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction].
  • Fourteen AML1/ETO positive children out of 52 AML children were selected.
  • Six patients showed a slight decline of AML1/ETO (higher than 5 x 10(-2)) at 1 month, three of whom relapsed in the early stage and one later.
  • Five patients had a higher level than 5 x 10(-3) at 3 months, three of whom relapsed.
  • Four patients with always a higher level than 5 x 10(-3) all relapsed in early stage.
  • In another patient, a rapid rise of AML1/ETO transcripts could be detected at CR stage and he relapsed 5 months later.
  • It is concluded that real-time RT-PCR is a suitable approach for quantifying AML1/ETO transcripts in monitoring of AML patients with t(8;21) during/after chemotherapy and provides data of diagnostic relevance.

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  • (PMID = 15748440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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17. Brethon B, Yakouben K, Oudot C, Boutard P, Bruno B, Jérome C, Nelken B, de Lumley L, Bertrand Y, Dalle JH, Chevret S, Leblanc T, Baruchel A: Efficacy of fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin combined with cytarabine in advanced childhood myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2008 Nov;143(4):541-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin combined with cytarabine in advanced childhood myeloid leukaemia.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) monotherapy is reported to yield a 20-30% response rate in advanced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
  • This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of GO combined with cytarabine (GOCYT) in children with refractory/relapsed CD33(+) AML.
  • At the outset of GOCYT, two patients were refractory; eight patients were in refractory first relapse; six patients had relapsed after stem cell transplantation (SCT); and one patient [del(5q) therapy-related AML (t-AML)] had not yet been treated.
  • GOCYT combination therapy yielded a high response rate (53%) and showed acceptable toxicity in heavily pretreated children with refractory/relapsed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2009 Aug;146(3):342-4 [19545292.001]
  • (PMID = 18759760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / gemtuzumab; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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18. Xie XT, Jiang SY, Li BS, Yang LL: [Relationship between the expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes for cytarabine metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of cytarabine in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia with high-dose cytarabine]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;46(4):276-80
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  • [Title] [Relationship between the expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes for cytarabine metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of cytarabine in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia with high-dose cytarabine].
  • OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) was very effective for childhood hematological malignancies, especially for improving the long-term survival of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and T-cell lymphoid malignancies (T-ALL, T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma).
  • This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of HD-AraC for childhood hematological malignancies, and the relationship between the expression of the genes coding the key enzymes for Ara-C metabolism with the outcome of the patients.
  • METHODS: The drug levels of Ara-C in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were detected with HPLC while HD-AraC was used, the expression of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and cytidine deaminase (CDA) mRNA in human leukemia cell lines and the bone marrow cells were investigated in 48 cases of childhood hematological malignancies with RT-PCR methods, and the relationship between the expression of these enzymes mRNA and the outcome of the patients was analyzed. RESULTS:.
  • (1) When HD-AraC was used, the plasma levels of Ara-C and Ara-U could be respectively about 50 times and 25 times higher than those obtained when the patients were treated with regular dose of Ara-C treatment, and the level of Ara-C in cerebrospinal fluid could reach about 10% of plasma level of Ara-C. (2) There were significantly different expressions of dCK mRNA in different childhood acute leukemia (AL) patients, which were markedly related to the chemotherapy results.
  • The expression of dCK in ALL was much higher than that in AML and relapsed AL cases.
  • There were no significant differences in expressions of dCK in T-ALL and B lineage ALL. (3) In vitro study found that the expressions of dCK and CDA mRNA did not change in leukemia cell lines incubated at different doses and times of Ara-C.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HD-AraC was a very effective protocol for childhood hematological malignancies for it could significantly elevate the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid drug levels.
  • Good long-term outcomes of the childhood T-ALL could be achieved as the B lineage ALL had been treated with HD-AraC regimen.
  • As the expression levels of dCK were much lower, it may be necessary for the treatment of AML with HD-AraC for consecutive three days.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Cytarabine / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia / genetics. Leukemia / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Cytidine Deaminase / genetics. Deoxycytidine Kinase / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / genetics. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19099730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; EC 2.7.1.74 / Deoxycytidine Kinase; EC 3.5.4.5 / Cytidine Deaminase
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19. Gregory J, Feusner J: Acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;11(6):439-45
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a relatively rare form of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • In the United States, APL in children constitutes only 5% to 10% of AML.
  • Molecularly, the disease is characterized by a fusion protein, promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha that results from a balanced reciprocal translocation between the PML gene on chromosome 15 and the RAR-alpha (RARA) gene on chromosome 17.
  • Advances in the treatment of APL have taken this form of AML from a disease with significant morbidity and mortality to one with an excellent outcome.
  • Recent trials have shown a role for arsenic trioxide in both newly diagnosed and relapsed APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19840521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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20. Ribeiro RC, Razzouk BI, Pounds S, Hijiya N, Pui CH, Rubnitz JE: Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2125-9
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  • [Title] Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000.
  • Despite substantial progress in the management of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), only about 50% of patients are cured by intensive chemotherapy.
  • From 1980 to 2000, 251 patients <15 years of age with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled on one of the five consecutive St Jude AML studies.
  • With the exception of one protocol (AML-83), outcomes improved in general over the two decades.
  • The estimated 5-year event-free survival (+/-s.e.) was 30.8+/-5.6% for AML-80; 11.1+/-4.3% for AML-83; 35.9+/-7.4% for AML-87; 43.5+/-6.2% for AML-91; and 45.0+/-11.1% for AML-97.
  • Resistant or relapsed AML caused the great majority of treatment failures.
  • Increasing the intensity of chemotherapy (AML-87) did not improve outcome, partially because of toxicity, nor did prolonging postremission therapy by adding sequential myeloablative (AML-80) or nonmyeloablative (AML-83) chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16281077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Shih LY, Liang DC, Huang CF, Chang YT, Lai CL, Lin TH, Yang CP, Hung IJ, Liu HC, Jaing TH, Wang LY, Yeh TC: Cooperating mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases and Ras genes in childhood core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples. Leukemia; 2008 Feb;22(2):303-7
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  • [Title] Cooperating mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases and Ras genes in childhood core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples.
  • c-KIT mutations have been described in core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis.
  • The role of c-KIT mutations in the relapse of CBF-AML is not clear.
  • The role of CSF1R mutation in the pathogenesis of AML remains to be determined.
  • We analyzed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and Ras mutations on 154 children with AML.
  • Also, we examined the paired diagnosis and relapse samples in CBF-AML.
  • CBF-AML accounted for 27% (41/154).
  • c-KIT mutations were detected in 41.5% of CBF-AML at diagnosis (6 in exon 8, 10 in exon 17 and 1 in both exons 8 and 17) , FLT3-TKD 2.7%, N-Ras mutations 7.3% and K-Ras mutations 4.9%.
  • FLT3-LM and CSF1R mutations were not found in CBF-AML.
  • Eight of the 41 CBF-AML patients relapsed; four patients retained the identical c-KIT mutation patterns as those at diagnosis, the remaining four without c-KIT mutations at diagnosis did not acquire c-KIT mutations at relapse.
  • Our study showed that 54% of childhood CBF-AML had RTKs and/or Ras mutations; c-KIT but not CSF1R mutations play a role in the leukemogenesis of childhood CBF-AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factors. Genes, ras / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17960171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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22. Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Dworzak M, Urban C, Henze G, Kremens B, Lakomek M, Bourquin JP, Stary J, Reinhardt D: Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses. Br J Haematol; 2010 May;149(3):399-409
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  • [Title] Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) treatment often includes high cumulative doses of anthracyclines, which can cause long-term cardiotoxicity.
  • Here, we report the favourable outcome in 81 paediatric APL patients treated according to the consecutive acute myeloid leukaemia-Berlin/Frankfurt/Muenster (AML-BFM) trials -93/-98/-2004 with an anthracycline-cytarabine regimen in combination with all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA).
  • Overall survival was similar when comparing AML-BFM trial periods (trial 93: 88 +/- 8%, 98: 85 +/- 7% and 2004: 94 +/- 8%, P((logrank)) = 0.63).
  • Salvage treatment was effective in 7/9 patients (78%) with relapsed APL, who now are long-term survivors after second line combination treatment with arsenic trioxide (4/7 patients) and stem cell transplantation (5/7 patients).
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20230404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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23. Spanaki A, Perdikogianni C, Linardakis E, Kalmanti M: Quantitative assessment of PRAME expression in diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia. Leuk Res; 2007 May;31(5):639-42
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  • [Title] Quantitative assessment of PRAME expression in diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate PRAME expression levels in children with acute leukemia with real-time PCR analysis.
  • Seventeen children with newly diagnosed or relapsed acute leukemia (11 ALL, 4 AML, 1 acute myeloblastic leukemia secondary to MDS, 1 ALL at relapse) and a control group of seven children were studied.
  • Overexpression of PRAME was found in 52.9% (3 AML, 6 ALL) of the patients studied.
  • The above findings indicate that PRAME expression in acute leukemia does not seem to be of prognostic significance, whereas it might represent a candidate marker for the monitoring of minimal residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Neoplasm, Residual / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16860864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PRAME protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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24. Boublikova L, Kalinova M, Ryan J, Quinn F, O'Marcaigh A, Smith O, Browne P, Stary J, McCann SR, Trka J, Lawler M: Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a wide range of WT1 expression levels, its impact on prognosis and minimal residual disease monitoring. Leukemia; 2006 Feb;20(2):254-63
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  • [Title] Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a wide range of WT1 expression levels, its impact on prognosis and minimal residual disease monitoring.
  • Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) is overexpressed in the majority (70-90%) of acute leukemias and has been identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor, a convenient minimal residual disease (MRD) marker and potential therapeutic target in acute leukemia.
  • We examined WT1 expression patterns in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where its clinical implication remains unclear.
  • Using a real-time quantitative PCR designed according to Europe Against Cancer Program recommendations, we evaluated WT1 expression in 125 consecutively enrolled patients with childhood ALL (106 BCP-ALL, 19 T-ALL) and compared it with physiologic WT1 expression in normal and regenerating bone marrow (BM).
  • In childhood B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL, we detected a wide range of WT1 levels (5 logs) with a median WT1 expression close to that of normal BM.
  • WT1 expression in childhood T-ALL was significantly higher than in BCP-ALL (P<0.001).
  • Analysis of relapsed cases (14/125) indicated that an abnormal increase or decrease in WT1 expression was associated with a significantly increased risk of relapse (P=0.0006), and this prognostic impact of WT1 was independent of other main risk factors (P=0.0012).
  • In summary, our study suggests that WT1 expression in childhood ALL is very variable and much lower than in AML or adult ALL.
  • WT1, thus, will not be a useful marker for MRD detection in childhood ALL, however, it does represent a potential independent risk factor in childhood ALL.
  • Interestingly, a proportion of childhood ALL patients express WT1 at levels below the normal physiological BM WT1 expression, and this reduced WT1 expression appears to be associated with a higher risk of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. WT1 Proteins / genetics


25. Xu XJ, Tang YM, Song H, Yang SL, Shi SW, Wei J: Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Dec;51(12):2262-9
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China.
  • Data on childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in developing countries are limited.
  • Herein we report the outcome of childhood AML treated with modified NPCLC-AML97 in our institution from 1997 to 2005.
  • One hundred and eighty-five children with newly diagnosed AML were admitted.
  • APL was more curable than non-APL (7-year EFS: 63.5 ± 7.9% vs. 35.9 ± 6.3%, p = 0.005).
  • Thirty-one patients (25.2%) relapsed, but no central nervous system leukemia was observed.
  • Although the cure rate of childhood AML in China was low, the treatment outcome for patients who could adhere to the treatment protocol was satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. Hospitals, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


26. Franklin JL, Seibel NL, Krailo M, Fu C, Adamson PC, Reaman G, Children's Oncology Group: Phase 2 study of docetaxel in the treatment of childhood refractory acute leukemias: a Children's Oncology Group report. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):533-6
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of docetaxel in the treatment of childhood refractory acute leukemias: a Children's Oncology Group report.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the response rate and toxicity of docetaxel when administered as a 60 mg/m(2) dose by 1 hr intravenous (IV) infusion weekly x 3 weeks in children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • PROCEDURE: Patients who were under the age of 22-year-old at the time of the original ALL or AML diagnosis and in a second relapse were accrued from August 2002 to May 2005 for this Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase 2 study (ADVL0023).
  • Ten patients with ALL and two patients with AML were enrolled.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel was not effective therapy for children with relapsed ALL at the dose and schedule tested.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fever / etiology. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Male. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17668867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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27. Fazlina N, Maha A, Jamal R, Zarina AL, Cheong SK, Hamidah H, Ainoon O, Zulkifli SZ, Hamidah NH: Expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and in vitro drug resistance in acute leukemias. Hematology; 2007 Feb;12(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and in vitro drug resistance in acute leukemias.
  • The expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence the outcome of treatment in patients with acute leukemia.
  • A total of 82 newly diagnosed acute leukemia cases (43 adult myeloid leukaemia, AML cases and 39 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL cases) and 16 relapsed cases (8 AML cases and 8 ALL cases) were studied.
  • In newly diagnosed cases, we found that childhood ALL samples showed higher IC50 values of dnr (0.040 +/- 2.320) compared to adult AML samples (0.021 +/- 0.158).
  • In contrast, newly diagnosed adult AML samples showed higher IC50 values of ara-C (0.157 +/- 0.529) compared to childhood ALL samples (0.100 +/- 2.350).
  • In relapsed cases, two samples of childhood ALL showed IC50 values of dnr (0.910 +/- 1.760) and ara-C (1.310 +/- 2.390), which was higher compared to childhood AML samples (0.129 +/- 0.214 and 0.210 +/- 0.003, respectively).
  • In conclusion, we found that MTS assay is an easy, rapid and non laborious method to study in vitro drug resistance in acute leukaemia cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. P-Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Survival. Child. Child, Preschool. Coloring Agents / analysis. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Male. Methylphenazonium Methosulfate / pharmacology. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Recurrence. Staining and Labeling / methods. Tetrazolium Salts / analysis. Thiazoles / analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17364990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 138169-43-4 / 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; 299-11-6 / Methylphenazonium Methosulfate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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28. Anuchapreeda S, Thanarattanakorn P, Sittipreechacharn S, Tima S, Chanarat P, Limtrakul P: Inhibitory effect of curcumin on MDR1 gene expression in patient leukemic cells. Arch Pharm Res; 2006 Oct;29(10):866-73
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  • The leukemic cells were collected from 78 childhood leukemia patients admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the period from July 2003 to February 2005.
  • There were 61 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 14 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and 3 cases of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML).
  • Curcumin affected the MDR1 gene expression in 5 of 11 relapsed cases (45%), 10 of 26 cases of drug maintenance (38%), 7 of 18 cases of completed treatment (39%), and 11 of 23 cases of new patients (48%).
  • Thus, curcumin treatment may provide a lead for clinical treatment of leukemia patients in the future.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / metabolism. Bone Marrow / pathology. Cell Survival / drug effects. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / blood. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / isolation & purification. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17121181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pharmacal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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29. Tavil B, Aytac S, Balci YI, Unal S, Kuskonmaz B, Yetgin S, Gurgey A, Tuncer M, Gumruk F, Uckan D, Cetin M: Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) for the treatment of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia: the Hacettepe experience. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;27(7):517-28
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) for the treatment of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia: the Hacettepe experience.
  • Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) regimen has been proven to be a potentially useful chemotherapy regimen for relapsed or poor-prognosis childhood leukemia.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate complete remission (CR) rate, toxicity, and overall survival of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia who received the FLAG-IDA regimen.
  • Between January 2002 and April 2007, 25 children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia were treated with FLAG-IDA regimen in our center.
  • Of the 25 children (16 AML, 9 ALL) with poor-prognosis acute leukemia, 7 (28.0%) received 1 cycle, 17 (68.0%) received 2 cycles, and 1 (4%) received 3 cycles of FLAG or FLAG-IDA regimen.
  • The CR rate was quite high in the present study using the FLAG-IDA regimen, and the authors believe this regimen is a possible option prior to allogeneic HSCT in children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 20677923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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30. Anuchapreeda S, Limtrakul P, Thanarattanakorn P, Sittipreechacharn S, Chanarat P: Inhibitory effect of curcumin on WT1 gene expression in patient leukemic cells. Arch Pharm Res; 2006 Jan;29(1):80-7
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  • Wilms' tumor1 (WT1) protein is highly expressed in leukemic blast cells of myeloid and lymphoid origin.
  • The leukemic cells were collected from 70 childhood leukemia patients admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the period July 2003 to February 2005.
  • There were 58 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 10 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and 2 cases of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML).
  • It affected the WT1 gene expression in 4 of 8 relapsed cases (50%), 12 of 24 cases of drug maintenance (50%), 7 of 16 cases of completed treatment (44%), and 12 of 22 cases of new patients (54%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Curcumin / pharmacology. Genes, Wilms Tumor / drug effects. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / genetics

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLTHIAZOLETETRAZOLIUM .
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  • (PMID = 16491848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pharmacal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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31. Svirnovski AI, Shman TV, Serhiyenka TF, Savitski VP, Smolnikova VV, Fedasenka UU: ABCB1 and ABCG2 proteins, their functional activity and gene expression in concert with drug sensitivity of leukemia cells. Hematology; 2009 Aug;14(4):204-12
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Leukemia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ABCB1 and ABCG2 proteins, their functional activity and gene expression in concert with drug sensitivity of leukemia cells.
  • Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells of adults were studied.
  • No differences between expression of P-gp and BCRP and genes in primary and relapsed acute leukemia (AL) cells as well as in de novo and treated CLL samples were established.
  • Doxorubicine, rubomycinum and L-asparaginase resistance correlates with P-gp overexpression and increased function in pediatric AL whereas vincristine resistance might be associated with P-gp protein expression in AL samples and impared P-gp function in CLL lymphocytes only.
  • A tendency for the decreased doxorubicin cytotoxic activity was shown in BCRP-overexpressing cells both in children and adults leukemia.
  • Multifactorial ANOVA showed that P-gp/MDR1 and BCRP as well as their function could not be used as unconditional and universal predictors of leukemia cell drug resistance in vitro.
  • These results suggest that studied MDR transporter-proteins have a limited role per se in vitro and admittedly in vivo drug resistance estimated in leukemia patients or it is not yet fully understood unless would not be studied in aggregate.
  • In any event, the expression and function studies of the proteins under investigation when singularly considered do not have a crucial significance for impact on drug resistance evaluation in all leukemia patients.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. P-Glycoproteins. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Childhood Leukemia.
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  • (PMID = 19635183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins
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32. Abdel Rahman H, Farrag SA, El-Attar IA: AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Mar;19(1):39-47

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications.
  • The characterization of leukemia-associated chromosome translocations has contributed relevant insights into our understanding of leukemia pathogenesis and has provided new specific tumor markers essential in prognostic assessment and minimal residual disease studies.
  • The aim of this work is to study the frequency of AML1/ETO fusion gene in a series of Egyptian childhood AML cases.
  • The clinical significance and prognostic implications of this aberration, including CR rate, duration of first CR, extramedullary leukemia (EML), and survival are investigated as well.
  • Peripheral blood and/or bone marrow mononuclear cells were available for analysis from 78 children, all newly diagnosed with AML.
  • Patients with de novo AML were treated by 2 courses of induction chemotherapy, followed by 4 courses of consolidation treatment if the patient achieved complete remission (CR).
  • Lymph nodes were enlarged in 8/15 cases (53.34%), hepatomegly was observed in 4/15 cases (26.67%), splenomegaly in 8/15 cases (53.34%), purpura in 6/15 cases (40%), while pallor was observed in all fifteen cases.Extramedullary leukemia occurred in 4/15 cases (26.67%).
  • Eight patients were in complete continuous remission (CCR), four patients (26.67%) relapsed and died during relapse, and one patient (6.67%) died in complete remission due to severe neutropenia and infection.
  • In conclusion, we report a frequency of 19.2% of AML1/ETO fusion gene in our newly diagnosed pediatric AML cases.
  • Key Words: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia , AML1/ETO fusion gene , RT-PCR , Clinical outcome , Prognostic significance.

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  • (PMID = 18839034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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