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1. Becton D, Dahl GV, Ravindranath Y, Chang MN, Behm FG, Raimondi SC, Head DR, Stine KC, Lacayo NJ, Sikic BI, Arceci RJ, Weinstein H, Pediatric Oncology Group: Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421. Blood; 2006 Feb 15;107(4):1315-24
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  • [Title] Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421.
  • Relapse is a major obstacle in the cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 9421 tested 2 different strategies to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • Of the 282 children randomly assigned to receive standard DAT induction, 248 (87.9%) achieved remission compared to 253 (91%) of the 278 receiving high-dose DAT (P = ns).
  • Children with HLA-identical sibling donors who achieved a complete remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as consolidation.
  • Of the 418 children who achieved remission and went on to consolidation with and without CsA, the DFS was 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively (P = .24).
  • Overexpression of P-gp was infrequent (14%) in this pediatric population.
  • In this study, intensifying induction with high-dose DAT and the addition of CsA to consolidation chemotherapy did not prolong the durations of remission or improve overall survival for children with AML.

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  • (PMID = 16254147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90916
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; LJ2P1SIK8Y / Mitolactol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895393
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2. Niewerth D, Creutzig U, Bierings MB, Kaspers GJ: A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2205-14
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  • [Title] A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Survival of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved considerably over the past decades.
  • However, it remains controversial whether allo-SCT is superior to chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed AML.
  • This review summarizes phase 3 clinical trials that compared allo-SCT with chemotherapy (including autologous SCT) in pediatric AML, excluding studies that did not use the intention-to-treat analysis or correct for time-to-transplantation.
  • Because allo-SCT also gives more severe side effects and results more often in secondary malignancies than chemotherapy, we do not recommend allo-SCT in first remission for pediatric AML in general.
  • Further research should focus on the possibility that subgroups might benefit from allo-SCT, aiming at further improvements in the prognosis of pediatric AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


3. Meyer LH, Queudeville M, Eckhoff SM, Creutzig U, Reinhardt D, Karawajew L, Ludwig WD, Stahnke K, Debatin KM: Intact apoptosis signaling in myeloid leukemia cells determines treatment outcome in childhood AML. Blood; 2008 Mar 1;111(5):2899-903
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  • [Title] Intact apoptosis signaling in myeloid leukemia cells determines treatment outcome in childhood AML.
  • Recently we reported that intact apoptosis signaling is indicative of favorable outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Here we addressed this issue in 45 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients analyzing 2 core apoptogenic events: cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation.
  • Thus, the propensity to undergo apoptosis of leukemia cells is an important feature for favorable treatment outcome and may serve as an additional stratification tool for pediatric AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3 / metabolism. Child. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18083847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00111345
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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4. Castellino SM, Alonzo TA, Buxton A, Gold S, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213.
  • BACKGROUND: The majority of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients lack a matched-related bone marrow transplant (BMT) donor in first remission.
  • PROCEDURE: Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and post-relapse outcome were evaluated for children with de novo AML on CCG 213 and the standard timing (ST) and intensive timing (IT) induction arms of CCG 2891 who were randomized to (intent-to-treat, ITT) or who received (as-treated, AT) only chemotherapy intensification.
  • Overall survival for childhood AML in the absence of BMT in CR1 is influenced by duration of CR1 and by race.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17252564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Weeks RJ, Kees UR, Song S, Morison IM: Silencing of TESTIN by dense biallelic promoter methylation is the most common molecular event in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:163
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  • [Title] Silencing of TESTIN by dense biallelic promoter methylation is the most common molecular event in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter DNA methylation has been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and has the potential to contribute to its onset and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Bisulfite sequencing showed that 100% of the ALL samples (n = 20) were methylated at the TES promoter, whereas the matched remission (n = 5), normal bone marrow (n = 6) and normal PBL (n = 5) samples were unmethylated.
  • Expression of TES in hyperdiploid, TEL-AML+, BCR-ABL+, and E2A-PBX+ subtypes of B lineage ALL was markedly reduced compared to that in normal bone marrow progenitor cells and in B cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Alleles. DNA Methylation. Gene Silencing. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20573277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LIM Domain Proteins; 0 / TES protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224738
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6. Rubnitz JE, Crews KR, Pounds S, Yang S, Campana D, Gandhi VV, Raimondi SC, Downing JR, Razzouk BI, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1410-6
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  • [Title] Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial.
  • Because cladribine can increase cytarabine triphosphate levels, we tested a cladribine-cytarabine combination in the St Jude AML97, trial in which this combination was administered before standard chemotherapy to 96 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Thus, although there were trends toward better complete remission rates and overall survival for patients treated in arm B, the reduced efficacy of arm A may have been partially compensated by more intense timing of therapy for that group.
  • Our results suggest that cladribine in combination with continuous-infusion cytarabine is effective therapy for childhood AML.

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  • (PMID = 19242495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS90802; NLM/ PMC2726271
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7. Brown P, McIntyre E, Rau R, Meshinchi S, Lacayo N, Dahl G, Alonzo TA, Chang M, Arceci RJ, Small D: The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML. Blood; 2007 Aug 1;110(3):979-85
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  • [Title] The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML.
  • Frameshift mutations in exon 12 of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) result in aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the NPM protein (NPMc(+)) and occur in 25% to 35% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In adults with AML, NPMc(+) has been associated with normal karyotype, FLT3/ITD mutations, high remission induction rates, and improved survival (particularly in patients lacking FLT3/ITD).
  • NPMc(+) has not been well characterized in childhood AML.
  • This study examines the incidence and clinical significance of NPMc(+) in 295 children with newly diagnosed AML treated on a large cooperative group clinical trial (POG-9421).
  • We find that NPMc(+) is relatively uncommon in childhood AML (23 of 295 patients, 8%); and is significantly associated with FLT3/ITD mutations (P = .046), female sex (P = .029), older age (P = .047), and normal cytogenetics (P < .001).
  • We conclude that NPMc(+) is relatively rare in childhood AML, particularly in younger children.

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  • (PMID = 17440048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA111728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 111728
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1924773
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8. Tan RM, Quah TC, Aung L, Liang S, Kirk RC, Yeoh AE: Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: The introduction of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML 10) protocol incorporating high-dose anthracycline therapy has improved outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In this study, we review the results of childhood AML therapy in a Singapore university hospital over the last 17 years emphasizing toxicity and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis revealed 34 children with AML between 1988 and 2003.
  • From September 1996, all but one of 15 children received MRC AML 10 treatment.
  • MRC AML 10-treated patients (n = 14) had significantly better 3-year overall, event-free, and disease-free survival (74% vs. 35%, 77% vs. 20%, 83% vs. 31%; P = 0.019, P = 0.002, and P = 0.010, respectively) and were likelier to achieve complete remission (CR) than non-MRC AML 10 patients (P = 0.102).
  • Among patients who achieved CR, MRC AML 10-treated patients were significantly more likely to achieve CR after only one cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MRC AML 10 treatment results in significantly superior survival, without excess toxicity.
  • Future studies should attempt to elucidate the relative importance of individual MRC AML 10 components and reduce the high cumulative anthracycline dose without compromising outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Acute Disease. Amsacrine / administration & dosage. Amsacrine / adverse effects. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Azacitidine / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / adverse effects. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Evaluation. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infant. Infection / etiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16602120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 00DPD30SOY / Amsacrine; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; MRC AML 10 protocol; POG-8498 protocol
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9. Klingebiel T, Reinhardt D, Bader P, EBMT Paediatric Diseases Working Party: Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Oct;42 Suppl 2:S7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML.
  • This short review focuses on the role of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in childhood AML.
  • However, published data and evidence-based reports recommend an unrelated or related transplantation in the situation of a renewed remission.
  • Data on haploidentical HSCT and on cord blood HSCT are still lacking in the case of AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Living Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Remission Induction. Siblings. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18978749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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10. Woods WG: Curing childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the half-way point: promises to keep and miles to go before we sleep. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):565-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Curing childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the half-way point: promises to keep and miles to go before we sleep.
  • Childhood and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is traditionally one of the hardest childhood cancers to successfully treat and had an overall survival well under 10% in the 1960s.
  • (1) the role of aggressive induction therapy in not only improving CR rates but in post-remission outcomes; and (2) the role of aggressive post-remission therapy in further improving survival, with an emphasis on high-dose Ara C-based chemotherapy, BMT, and supportive care.
  • Some of the challenges that will lead to ongoing reduction of population-based mortality for AML through young adulthood include:.
  • (1) improving access of adolescents to pediatric AML therapy;.
  • (3) individualized therapy based on individual genetics and leukemia cell biology;.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


11. Slats AM, Egeler RM, van der Does-van den Berg A, Korbijn C, Hählen K, Kamps WA, Veerman AJ, Zwaan CM: Causes of death--other than progressive leukemia--in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML): the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group experience. Leukemia; 2005 Apr;19(4):537-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Causes of death--other than progressive leukemia--in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML): the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group experience.
  • We analyzed causes of death, other than resistant disease or relapse, in 875 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 229 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), treated on three different Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL and three AML protocols.
  • Overall, 23 (2.6%) ALL and 44 (19.2%) AML patients died.
  • Early death (ED, before remission was reached) occurred in nine ALL (1%) and thirty AML (13.1%) patients, including three and ten deaths before treatment was initiated.
  • Chemotherapy-related mortality in remission (CRM) occurred in nine ALL (1.1%) and eight AML (4.4%) patients.
  • For AML a decrease in ED was observed (from 26% to approximately 10%), but counter-balanced by an increase in CRM (from 3 to 8%), maybe related to the scheduling of intensification blocks in AML-92/94.
  • Including transplant-related mortality, death in CR rates in AML increased from 3 to 15% in the last study.
  • We conclude that mortality dropped favorably in ALL, but not in AML.
  • Especially for AML, effective but less toxic therapy and better supportive care guidelines need to be developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Netherlands / epidemiology. Remission Induction


12. MRD-AML-BFM Study Group, Langebrake C, Creutzig U, Dworzak M, Hrusak O, Mejstrikova E, Griesinger F, Zimmermann M, Reinhardt D: Residual disease monitoring in childhood acute myeloid leukemia by multiparameter flow cytometry: the MRD-AML-BFM Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;24(22):3686-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Residual disease monitoring in childhood acute myeloid leukemia by multiparameter flow cytometry: the MRD-AML-BFM Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: Monitoring of residual disease (RD) by flow cytometry in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may predict outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred forty-two specimens of 150 children enrolled in the AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (BFM) 98 study were analyzed by four-color immunophenotyping at up to four predefined time points during treatment.
  • For each of the 12 leukemia-associated immunophenotypes and time points, a threshold level based on a previous retrospective analysis of another cohort of children with AML and on control bone marrows was determined.
  • Compared with commonly defined risk factors in the AML-BFM studies, flow cytometry does not provide additional information for outcome prediction, but may be helpful to evaluate the remission status at day 28.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis


13. Rubnitz J, Inaba H, Ribeiro R, Pounds S, Pui C, Leung W: Pilot study of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10034

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilot study of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We hypothesized that the transplantation of purified haploidentical NK cells may be a safe and effective form of consolidation therapy that will reduce the risk of relapse among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not treated with HSCT.
  • In this pilot study, we assessed the safety, feasibility, and engraftment of NK cell infusions in 10 patients with AML in first remission.
  • With a median follow-up time of 637 days, all patients remain in remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Haploidentical NK cells can be safely administered to AML patients who are in remission.
  • We have recently opened a new trial to evaluate the efficacy of NK cell therapy in children in first remission of AML.

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  • (PMID = 27962581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Armstrong GT, Pan Z, Ness K, Srivastava D, Robison LL: Temporal trends in cause-specific late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10004

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temporal trends in cause-specific late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer.
  • : 10004 Background: Five-year survival rates for childhood cancer have increased over the past 4 decades, increasing the number of long-term survivors.
  • Additionally, all-cause mortality was significantly lower in more recent eras for 5-year survivors of ALL, AML, Hodgkin, NHL, and CNS tumors, but not neuroblastoma and Ewing's Sarcoma where an increase in cumulative incidence of late mortality was seen in more recent eras.
  • CONCLUSIONS: All-cause late mortality has improved with more recent eras, attributable to reduced rates of mortality from progression of primary disease (i.e., durable remission).

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  • (PMID = 27962548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ravindranath Y, Chang M, Steuber CP, Becton D, Dahl G, Civin C, Camitta B, Carroll A, Raimondi SC, Weinstein HJ, Pediatric Oncology Group: Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2101-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000.
  • From 1981 to 2000, a total of 1823 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on four consecutive Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) clinical trials.
  • POG 8101 demonstrated that the induction rate associated with the 3+7+7 combination of daunorubicin, Ara-C, and 6-thioguanine (DAT) was greater than that associated with an induction regimen used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (82 vs 61%; P=0.02).
  • The POG 9421 AML study evaluated high-dose Ara-C as part of the first induction course and the use of the multidrug resistance modulator cyclosporine.
  • Preliminary results showed that patients receiving both high-dose Ara-C for remission induction and the MDR modulator for consolidation had a superior outcome (5-year EFS estimate, 42+/-8.2%) than did patients receiving other treatment; however, the difference was not statistically significant.
  • These four studies demonstrate the importance of dose intensification of Ara-C in the treatment of childhood AML; cytogenetics as the single most prognostic factor and the unique curability of AML in children with Down's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down Syndrome / complications. Down Syndrome / drug therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16136167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-05587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-11233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-20549; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28383; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28439; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29293; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29691; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-32053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33603; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33625; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-41573; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69177; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69428
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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16. Liu CF, Liu GL, Zhang LP, Cheng YF, Lu AD, Tian KG, Liu YR, Qin YZ: [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;13(1):76-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction].
  • Fourteen AML1/ETO positive children out of 52 AML children were selected.
  • After six months, four out of them with constant low-level expression (10(-4) - 10(-6)) were in continuous complete hematological remission (CCR).
  • The AML1/ETO gene expression leveling off by 10(-5) - 10(-6) could be detected in 3 patients at their complete remission after 9 months.
  • It is concluded that real-time RT-PCR is a suitable approach for quantifying AML1/ETO transcripts in monitoring of AML patients with t(8;21) during/after chemotherapy and provides data of diagnostic relevance.

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  • (PMID = 15748440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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17. Shah M, Agarwal B: Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Indian J Pediatr; 2008 Aug;75(8):831-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common childhood malignancy.
  • AML has therapeutically been difficult to treat.
  • In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with the Society for Hematopathology and the European Association of Hematopathology, published a new classification for myeloid neoplasms.
  • A number of chromosomal abnormalities are used to predict outcome and stratify therapeutic risk groups in children with AML.
  • Recently, alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphatases and in oncogenes such as RAS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AML.
  • This article aims to review the recent development in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of AML.
  • Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of AML has led to the development of target-specific therapies.
  • The role of allogenic SCT, particularly whether it should be done during first CR or reserved for second remission, remains the most controversial issue in pediatric AML.
  • There is a need of collaboration with international pediatric cooperative oncology groups and definitive clinical trials in order to establish use of these newer molecules in pediatric populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / blood. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18769895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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18. Tsukimoto I, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tabuchi K, Kigasawa H, Tsuchida M, Yabe H, Nakayama H, Kudo K, Kobayashi R, Hamamoto K, Imaizumi M, Morimoto A, Tsuchiya S, Hanada R: Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug 20;27(24):4007-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To improve the prognosis in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by introducing a dose-dense intensive chemotherapy regimen and an appropriate risk stratification system.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty children with de novo AML were treated with continuous cytarabine-based induction therapy and stratified to three risk groups based on the initial treatment response, age, and WBC at diagnosis and cytogenetics.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-seven children (94.6%) achieved a complete remission (CR).
  • CONCLUSION: A high survival rate, 75.6% at 5 years, was achieved for childhood with de novo AML in the AML99 trial.
  • The treatment strategy was well tolerated with only 1.7% induction death rate and 3.5% remission death rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy


19. Anak S, Saribeyoglu ET, Bilgen H, Unuvar A, Karakas Z, Devecioglu O, Agaoglu L, Gedikoglu G: Allogeneic versus autologous versus peripheral stem cell transplantation in CR1 pediatric AML patients: a single center experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;44(7):654-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Allogeneic versus autologous versus peripheral stem cell transplantation in CR1 pediatric AML patients: a single center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of childhood acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) in first remission, is still evolving.
  • PROCEDURE: Out of 81 pediatric patients with AML in first CR, 67 were biologically randomized for allogeneic (n = 31), autologous (n = 20), or peripheral stem cell transplant (n = 16) after completing consolidation treatment, with the remaining (n = 11) dropping out or receiving chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In pediatric AML patients without a donor, autologous BMT or autologous PBSCT appears to be an effective treatment option with low transplant related mortality especially in less privileged countries where the chemotherapy only results are still low.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15700262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Barnard DR, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Lange B, Woods WG, Children's Oncology Group: Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Jul;49(1):17-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute erythroleukemia (FAB M6), and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (FAB M7) have overlapping features.
  • PROCEDURE: Children without Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 or M7 were compared to children with de novo AML M0-M5.
  • RESULTS: The presentation and outcomes of the 132 children diagnosed with MDS (60 children), AML FAB M6 (19 children), or AML FAB M7 (53 children) were similar.
  • Children with AML FAB M7 were diagnosed at a significantly younger age (P = 0.001).
  • All three groups had significantly inferior overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and event free survival (P < 0.001) compared with the 748 children diagnosed with AML FAB M0-M5 when assessed from entry on study.
  • However, when assessed from successful completion of induction therapy, the 5-year OS (P = 0.090)(49.1 vs. 56.9%) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.113)(38.0 vs. 46.3%) therapy were not significantly different from other children with AML.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood AML FAB M6 and AML M7 resemble MDS in presentation, poor induction success rates, and outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


21. Tomizawa D, Tabuchi K, Kinoshita A, Hanada R, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Tsuchida M, Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group: Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Aug;49(2):127-32
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  • [Title] Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Various methods of intensive chemotherapy have contributed to an improved survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • We here report the long-term results of the two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG), incorporating repetitive use of high-dose cytarabine (HD-Ara-C) based combination chemotherapy in post-remission phase.
  • PROCEDURE: A total of 216 eligible children with newly diagnosed AML were treated in the two consecutive multi-center trials of TCCSG, M91-13 and M96-14, from August 1991 to September 1998.
  • In M91-13 trial, patients received eight courses of intensive post-remission chemotherapy, including six HD-Ara-C containing courses, after remission-induction therapy.
  • RESULTS: The remission-induction rate was 88.8% and probability of 5-year Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 62% (56-69% with 95% Confidence intervals (CIs)) and 56% (49-62%), respectively.
  • Among patients without Down syndrome (DS) or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the presence of t(8;21) or inv(16) was a significant good prognostic factor both in the univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that repetitive use of HD-Ara-C was effective and safe for childhood AML.
  • However, further optimization of AML therapy is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Down Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Infant. Infection / etiology. Infection / mortality. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage


22. Pession A, Rondelli R, Basso G, Rizzari C, Testi AM, Fagioli F, De Stefano P, Locatelli F, AML Strategy & Study Committee of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP): Treatment and long-term results in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP AML protocols. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2043-53
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  • [Title] Treatment and long-term results in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP AML protocols.
  • Since 1982, four consecutive studies on childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (namely LAM-82, -87, -87M and -92) have been conducted in Italy by the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) group.
  • Patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (20% of diagnoses) were included in LAM-87 and 87M studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Dawczynski K, Kauf E, Schlenvoigt D, Gruhn B, Fuchs D, Zintl F: Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 is associated with a high relapse risk after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood AML. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2006 Mar;37(6):589-94
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  • [Title] Elevated serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 is associated with a high relapse risk after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood AML.
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the diagnostic and prognostic significance of elevated IGFBP-2 levels in children with AML after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at relapse and continuous complete remission (CCR).
  • In 27 children with AML (mean age 13.6+/-5.3 years; patients in remission n=15 with relapse n=12) serum parameters of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGF-I and IGF-II were analyzed up to 18 months after HSCT by RIA.
  • AML-patients with evidence of relapse demonstrated a continuous increase of IGFBP-2 levels during the follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16444283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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24. Trobaugh-Lotrario AD, Kletzel M, Quinones RR, McGavran L, Proytcheva MA, Hunger SP, Malcolm J, Schissel D, Hild E, Giller RH: Monosomy 7 associated with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): successful management by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Bone Marrow Transplant; 2005 Jan;35(2):143-9
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  • [Title] Monosomy 7 associated with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): successful management by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
  • Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with monosomy 7 is associated with poor disease-free survival when treated by conventional chemotherapy, immunosuppression or supportive measures.
  • To better understand the curative potential of HSCT in these patients, all cases of AML and MDS with monosomy 7 treated by two transplant programs (1992 to present) were reviewed.
  • Primary diagnoses were MDS (N = 5), therapy-related MDS (N = 3), AML (N = 5) and therapy-related AML (N = 3).
  • Toxicity caused deaths of the five nonsurviving patients, four of whom were transplanted with active leukemia.
  • Allogeneic HSCT is effective therapy for childhood AML and MDS associated with monosomy 7, particularly for patients with AML in complete remission and MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Monosomy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


25. Mizushima Y, Taki T, Shimada A, Yui Y, Hiraumi Y, Matsubara H, Watanabe M, Watanabe K, Kamitsuji Y, Hayashi Y, Tsukimoto I, Kobayashi R, Horibe K, Tawa A, Nakahata T, Adachi S: Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):831-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • High BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic) gene expression may indicate an adverse prognosis for adults who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a normal karyotype, but its prognostic significance for pediatric AML cases is unclear.
  • Newly diagnosed AML patients with normal karyotype who were treated by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Treatment Protocol AML 99 were analyzed in terms of their BAALC expression levels (n = 29), BAALC isoforms (n = 29), and CEBPA mutations (n = 49).
  • All four patients have maintained complete remission for at least 5 years.
  • Thus, 1-5-6-8 isoform expression may be associated with an adverse prognosis in pediatric AML with normal karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins

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  • (PMID = 20495894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAALC protein, human; 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins; 0 / CEBPA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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26. Kudo K, Kojima S, Tabuchi K, Yabe H, Tawa A, Imaizumi M, Hanada R, Hamamoto K, Kobayashi R, Morimoto A, Nakayama H, Tsuchida M, Horibe K, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group: Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Dec 1;25(34):5442-7
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  • [Title] Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate a less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen specifically designed for patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to determine the prognostic factors for event-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with AML-DS were treated with remission induction chemotherapy consisting of pirarubicin (25 mg/m2/d for 2 days), cytarabine (100 mg/m2/d for 7 days), and etoposide (150 mg/m2/d for 3 days).
  • Prophylaxis for CNS leukemia was not included.
  • RESULTS: All but two patients were younger than 4 years, and 67 of the 72 patients (93%) were diagnosed as acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL).
  • Seventy of the 72 patients (97.2%) achieved a complete remission (CR), and the estimated 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 83% +/- 9%.
  • CONCLUSION: A less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen produces excellent outcomes in standard-risk AML-DS patient.
  • Risk-oriented therapy should be considered for future trials in AML-DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Down Syndrome / complications. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / drug therapy


27. de Figueiredo AF, Mkrtchyan H, Liehr T, Soares Ventura EM, de Jesus Marques-Salles T, Santos N, Ribeiro RC, Abdelhay E, Macedo Silva ML: A case of childhood acute myeloid leukemia AML (M5) with a neocentric chromosome neo(1)(qter--&gt;q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24--&gt;q43--&gt;neo--&gt;q43--&gt;qter) and tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Sep;193(2):123-6
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  • [Title] A case of childhood acute myeloid leukemia AML (M5) with a neocentric chromosome neo(1)(qter-->q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24-->q43-->neo-->q43-->qter) and tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21.
  • Hyperdiploidy is rarely observed in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Described here is the case of a 2(1/2)-year-old girl with AML-M5 and 51 chromosomes characterized by double tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21 and also a neocentric derivative chromosome neo(1)(qter-->q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24-->q43-->neo-->q43-->qter).
  • Little is known about the prognostic significance of these chromosomal abnormalities in childhood AML.
  • In the actual case, complete remission was achieved after chemotherapy, which continued for 7 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics


28. Entz-Werle N, Suciu S, van der Werff ten Bosch J, Vilmer E, Bertrand Y, Benoit Y, Margueritte G, Plouvier E, Boutard P, Vandecruys E, Ferster A, Lutz P, Uyttebroeck A, Hoyoux C, Thyss A, Rialland X, Norton L, Pages MP, Philippe N, Otten J, Behar C, EORTC Children Leukemia Group: Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2072-81
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  • [Title] Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report.
  • The first EORTC (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer) acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) pilot study (58872) was conducted between January 1988 and December 1991.
  • Out of 108 patients, 78% achieved complete remission (CR), and event-free survival (EFS) and survival rates (s.e., %) at 7 years were 40 (5) and 51% (6%), respectively.
  • It indicated that mitoxantrone could be substituted for conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of childhood AML without inducing cardiotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16136166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-35
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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29. Brethon B, Yakouben K, Oudot C, Boutard P, Bruno B, Jérome C, Nelken B, de Lumley L, Bertrand Y, Dalle JH, Chevret S, Leblanc T, Baruchel A: Efficacy of fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin combined with cytarabine in advanced childhood myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2008 Nov;143(4):541-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin combined with cytarabine in advanced childhood myeloid leukaemia.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) monotherapy is reported to yield a 20-30% response rate in advanced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
  • This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of GO combined with cytarabine (GOCYT) in children with refractory/relapsed CD33(+) AML.
  • At the outset of GOCYT, two patients were refractory; eight patients were in refractory first relapse; six patients had relapsed after stem cell transplantation (SCT); and one patient [del(5q) therapy-related AML (t-AML)] had not yet been treated.
  • Ten responses were obtained after GOCYT induction, including complete remission (CR) or CR without complete recovery of platelets (CRp) in six patients (35%).
  • GOCYT combination therapy yielded a high response rate (53%) and showed acceptable toxicity in heavily pretreated children with refractory/relapsed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2009 Aug;146(3):342-4 [19545292.001]
  • (PMID = 18759760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / gemtuzumab; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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30. Gu LJ, Tie LJ, Xue HL, Tang JY, Chen J, Pan C, Chen J, Ye H, Wang YP, Dong L: [Analysis of prognostic variables in childhood acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;27(1):10-3
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  • [Title] [Analysis of prognostic variables in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic value of the biological features and therapy-related factors in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to May 2003, 75 patients with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled on the protocol AML-XH-99.
  • Biological features at presentation [gender, age, white blood cells, platelet count, French-American-British (FAB) subtypes, cytogenetic abnormalities] and therapy-related factors [bone marrow (BM) blast cell counts at 48 h after the first induction course, complete remission (CR) rate after the first course of induction therapy] were analyzed.
  • Univariate analysis also demonstrated that the 5-year pEFS for patients with age < 1 year or > 10 years, platelet count < 20 x 10(9)/L, FAB M(5), hepatomegaly, BM blasts >or= 0.150 at 48 h after the first induction course and no response to the first induction course, central nervous system (CNS) leukemia was unfavorable, while the outcome of patients with cytogenetic abnormalities of t (8;.
  • 17) were better. (2) Multivariate analysis suggested that cytogenetic abnormality of t (15; 17), achieved CR after the first induction course and no CNS leukemia were independent favorable prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16732931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Zhang JH, Zheng YC, Wang YX, Zhang JY, Liu ZG: Laboratory study on near-tetraploid acute myelogenous leukemia of childhood. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Apr;11(4):263-6
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  • [Title] Laboratory study on near-tetraploid acute myelogenous leukemia of childhood.
  • Near-tetraploidy is a rare cytogenetic abnormality in myelocytic malignancies in children, and its significance is unknown.
  • To investigate the characteristics of near-tetraploidy in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M4), bone marrow smears were prepared for morphological analysis.
  • Combined with morphological and immunophenotypic results, AML-M4 was confirmed.
  • The patient was given four cycles of chemotherapy, and finally achieved clinical remission.
  • However, the duration achieving the remission in the child was longer than AML children with normal karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Polyploidy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19374808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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32. Dluzniewska A, Balwierz W, Armata J, Balcerska A, Chybicka A, Kowalczyk J, Matysiak M, Ochocka M, Radwanska U, Rokicka-Milewska R, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M: Twenty years of Polish experience with three consecutive protocols for treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2117-24
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  • [Title] Twenty years of Polish experience with three consecutive protocols for treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Until 1983, results of treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Poland with different regimens were very poor.
  • In 1983, the Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group introduced a unified treatment protocol--a modified version of BFM-83 protocol.
  • This led to an increase in the curability of AML from 15% to approximately 32%.
  • A new treatment protocol employing idarubicin in place of daunorubicin was introduced in 1998 and produced better initial responses, increase in the number of patients attaining remission after induction therapy and proportional increase of standard-risk patients.
  • Unsatisfactory treatment results in children classified into the high-risk group are principally due to the low remission rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Poland. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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33. Rubnitz JE, Inaba H, Dahl G, Ribeiro RC, Bowman WP, Taub J, Pounds S, Razzouk BI, Lacayo NJ, Cao X, Meshinchi S, Degar B, Airewele G, Raimondi SC, Onciu M, Coustan-Smith E, Downing JR, Leung W, Pui CH, Campana D: Minimal residual disease-directed therapy for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the AML02 multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jun;11(6):543-52
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  • [Title] Minimal residual disease-directed therapy for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the AML02 multicentre trial.
  • BACKGROUND: We sought to improve outcome in patients with childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) by applying risk-directed therapy that was based on genetic abnormalities of the leukaemic cells and measurements of minimal residual disease (MRD) done by flow cytometry during treatment.
  • METHODS: From Oct 13, 2002, to June 19, 2008, 232 patients with de-novo AML (n=206), therapy-related or myelodysplasia-related AML (n=12), or mixed-lineage leukaemia (n=14) were enrolled at eight centres.
  • Other analyses were limited to the 216 patients with AML, excluding those with mixed-lineage leukaemia.
  • FINDINGS: Complete remission was achieved in 80% (173 of 216 patients) after induction 1 and 94% (203 of 216) after induction 2.
  • INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the use of targeted chemotherapy and HSCT, in the context of a comprehensive risk-stratification strategy based on genetic features and MRD findings, can improve outcome in patients with childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytogenetic Analysis. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20451454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00136084
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115422-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 93NS566KF7 / gemtuzumab; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; DAV regimen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS319127; NLM/ PMC3171799
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34. Hu SY, Gu WY, Chen ZX, Wang XL, Cen JN, He HL, Chai YH, Chen CS: The significance of detecting WT1 expression in childhood acute leukemias. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Nov;27(8):581-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of detecting WT1 expression in childhood acute leukemias.
  • WT1 (Wilms' tumor gene 1) overexpression is implicated in the prognosis of acute leukemia.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate WT1 expression and its clinical implication in childhood acute leukemia (AL) in Chinese population.
  • Bone marrow specimen from 200 children at different stages of acute leukemia and from 21 children without leukemia were studied.
  • The WT1 expression at diagnostic marrow specimen in both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was higher than control group, whereas WT1 expression in AML was higher than in ALL, and WT1 expression level in relapse in ALL increased more significantly than in AML.
  • The WT1 expression level showed positive correlation with the hypodiploidy and BCR-ABL fusion gene in acute leukemia.
  • A rapidly decrease of WT1 expression level predicted a good response to the induction therapy and low expression of WT1 correlates with remission status.
  • This study suggested that WT1 expression levels in acute leukemia can potentially be a marker for evaluating therapeutic efficacy, correlating with monitoring minimal residue disease, and predicting hematological relapse in children acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20863155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
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35. Kiyotani C, Kiyokawa N, Mori T: [Clinical problems in the treatment of myeloid leukemia in childhood]. Nihon Rinsho; 2009 Oct;67(10):1991-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical problems in the treatment of myeloid leukemia in childhood].
  • As for childhood AML, intensification of chemotherapy and advance in supportive care have contributed toward the patient survival.
  • For childhood CML, the possibilities of unknown risks which accompanied by life-long imatinib treatment should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Child. Communicable Diseases / etiology. Down Syndrome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19860203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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36. Liang DC, Chan TT, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Chen SH, Liu HC, Lin MT, Lee MT, Shu SG, Chang TK, Chen JS, Hsiao CC, Hung IJ, Hsieh YL, Chen RL, Cheng SN, Chang WH, Lee CH, Lin KS: Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):136-41
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  • [Title] Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
  • To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used.
  • From January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002, 141 children younger than 17 years old with de novo AML were enrolled.
  • In total, 117 patients with non-APL AML were treated with induction therapy of idarubicin and cytarabine (Ara-C), postremission therapy with high-dose Ara-C - containing regimens for four monthly courses, and moderate-dose therapy with idarubicin and Ara-C for four monthly courses.
  • Stem cell transplantation was performed in 29 patients in first remission with a similar outcome as chemotherapy alone.
  • The remission rate in the AML-97A study was 90%, the 5-year survival 51 +/- 5.3% (s.e.) and the 5-year event-free survival 50 +/- 4.8%; for APL, these were 100%, 86 +/- 7.0, and 75 +/- 9.8%.
  • The AML-97A regimen was well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16281075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Dłuzniewska A, Balwierz W, Balcerska A, Chybicka A, Kamieńska E, Karolczyk G, Karpińska-Derda I, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kowalczyk JR, Lewandowska D, Maciejka-Kapuścińska L, Kołtano S, Malinowska I, Matysiak M, Mikołajczyk M, Mizia-Malarz A, Muszyńska-Rosłan K, Niedźwiedzki M, Pohorecka J, Sikorska-Fic B, Sobol G, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Tomaszewska R, Urasiński T, Wachowiak J, Wieczorek M, Wójcik B, Wysocki M: [Treatment failure in children with acute myelocytic leukemia: over 25-year experience of Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group with four consecutive unified treatment protocols for childhood acute myelocytic leukemia]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(6):366-70
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  • [Title] [Treatment failure in children with acute myelocytic leukemia: over 25-year experience of Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group with four consecutive unified treatment protocols for childhood acute myelocytic leukemia].
  • Four consecutive intensive unified regimens (BFM-AML-83, PGP-AML 94, PGP-AML 98 AML-BFM 2004 Interim) for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) have been conducted by the Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG) since 1983.
  • There were 726 children with AML diagnosed (226, 102, 247 and 151 in the I, II , III and IV periods, respectively), and 603 of them were eligible for evaluation (208, 83, 195 and 117, respectively).
  • Complete remission rates were: 71.4%, 67.5%, 81.4% and 87% in consecutive periods, respectively.
  • Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were: 33% and 32% for PGP-AML 83 regimen, 38% and 36% for PGP-AML 94 regimen, and 53% and 46% for PGP-AML 98 regimen, respectively.
  • For AML-BFM Interim 2004 the 3-year OS and EFS were 57% and 57%, respectively.
  • Deaths in remission decreased from 10% in first and second period to 3.5% at present.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland / epidemiology. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 21344763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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38. Styczynski J, Toporski J, Wysocki M, Debski R, Chybicka A, Boruczkowski D, Wachowiak J, Wojcik B, Kowalczyk J, Gil L, Balwierz W, Matysiak M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Balcerska A, Sonta-Jakimczyk D: Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2007 May-Jun;27(3B):1547-51
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the ex vivo drug resistance profile has not yet been proved in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the impact of the ex vivo drug resistance profile in a cohort of 44 children with AML undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • RESULTS: Children who relapsed after transplantation showed higher ex vivo resistance of the leukemic blasts to etoposide, mercaptopurine, thioguanine, fludarabine, mitoxantrone and treosulfan than those who stayed in remission.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide may be useful for better stratification of children with AML undergoing stem cell transplantation or to indicate the necessity for additional post-transplant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / drug effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Busulfan / pharmacology. Child. Child, Preschool. Etoposide / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17595774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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39. Podgornik H, Debeljak M, Zontar D, Cernelc P, Prestor VV, Jazbec J: RUNX1 amplification in lineage conversion of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2007 Oct 1;178(1):77-81
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  • [Title] RUNX1 amplification in lineage conversion of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Amplification of RUNX1 (alias AML1) is a recurrent karyotypic abnormality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is generally associated with a poor outcome.
  • It does not occur with other primary chromosomal abnormalities in acute ALL.
  • AML1 amplification in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a rare secondary event described mainly in therapy-related cases.
  • AML1 amplification was found in a 13-year-old patient with AML M4/M5 leukemia that occurred 5 years after she had been diagnosed with common B-cell ALL.
  • Conventional cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and polymerase chain reaction methods revealed no other chromosomal change expected to occur in a disease that we assumed to be a secondary leukemia.
  • While the first course of chemotherapy successfully eradicated the cell line with the t(12;21), the second cell line with AML1 amplification remained latent during the time of complete remission and reappeared with a different immunophenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leukemia, B-Cell / genetics. Leukemia, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Tumor Cells, Cultured


40. Zhang B, Tie LJ, Ye QD, Gu LJ, Tang JY, Yuan XL, Shen LS: [Expression of the transcription factor PAX5 in childhood acute leukemic cells]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;14(1):6-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of the transcription factor PAX5 in childhood acute leukemic cells].
  • To investigate transcription factor PAX5 expression characteristics in childhood acute leukemic cells, expression levels of PAX5 and CD19 mRNA in 6 hematological tumor cell lines and bone marrow cells of 6 normal children, 58 de novo patients and 4 relapse acute leukemic children, including 39 cases of B-ALL, 10 cases of T-ALL and 13 cases of AML, were detected by a real-time RT-PCR.
  • The results showed that PAX5 and CD19 mRNA expression levels were 2.35% and 2.52% in Namalwa (B-cell lines) respectively, but almost not detectable in other T- and myeloid cell lines.
  • Among clinical samples, expression of PAX5 mRNA in B-ALL was significantly higher than that in T-ALL and AML (P = 0.029 and P = 0.013 respectively).
  • PAX5 expression was significantly lower in T-ALL and AML than that in normal controls.
  • The difference of PAX5 mRNA expression levels between T-ALL and AML was not significant.
  • Moreover, PAX5 mRNA expressions in de novo and relapse patients with B-ALL were significantly higher than those in remission (P = 0.011 and P = 0.006 respectively).

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  • (PMID = 16584581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
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41. Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Dworzak M, Urban C, Henze G, Kremens B, Lakomek M, Bourquin JP, Stary J, Reinhardt D: Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses. Br J Haematol; 2010 May;149(3):399-409
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) treatment often includes high cumulative doses of anthracyclines, which can cause long-term cardiotoxicity.
  • Here, we report the favourable outcome in 81 paediatric APL patients treated according to the consecutive acute myeloid leukaemia-Berlin/Frankfurt/Muenster (AML-BFM) trials -93/-98/-2004 with an anthracycline-cytarabine regimen in combination with all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA).
  • Overall survival was similar when comparing AML-BFM trial periods (trial 93: 88 +/- 8%, 98: 85 +/- 7% and 2004: 94 +/- 8%, P((logrank)) = 0.63).
  • Seventy-five (93%) patients achieved complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20230404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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42. Winter SS, Holdsworth MT, Devidas M, Raisch DW, Chauvenet A, Ravindranath Y, Ducore JM, Amylon MD: Antimetabolite-based therapy in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of POG study 9296. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Feb;46(2):179-86
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  • [Title] Antimetabolite-based therapy in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of POG study 9296.
  • PURPOSE: A previous Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) study showed high incidence of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in children treated for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or higher-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Forty-two of 45 patients achieved complete remission (CR), and 27 completed the therapy in continuous CR.
  • One patient taken off study for asparaginase toxicity was treated with multiagent therapy that contained teniposide, and died from secondary myelodysplasia (sMDS)/AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Pilot Projects. Remission Induction. Sepsis / etiology. Sepsis / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16007607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA5312; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA29139
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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43. Lee DH, Kwon YJ, Lim J, Kim Y, Han K, Chung NG, Jeong DC, Cho B, Kim HK: Comparable outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-identical sibling donor bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. Pediatr Transplant; 2009 Mar;13(2):210-6
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  • [Title] Comparable outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-identical sibling donor bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.
  • We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated BMT (MU-BMT, n = 13) and HLA-identical sibling donor BMT (MS-BMT, n = 17) for childhood AML in CR1 between June 2002 and August 2005.
  • The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD and any chronic GVHD at three yr was not different between MS-BMT and MU-BMT.
  • The outcome of HLA-matched unrelated BMT is comparable to that of HLA-identical sibling BMT for childhood AML in CR1.
  • HLA-matched unrelated BMT may be recommended for patients who have AML in CR1 without an HLA-matched sibling donor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Platelets / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Living Donors. Male. Neutrophils / metabolism. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Siblings. Treatment Outcome


44. Rubnitz JE, Inaba H, Ribeiro RC, Pounds S, Rooney B, Bell T, Pui CH, Leung W: NKAML: a pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb 20;28(6):955-9
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  • [Title] NKAML: a pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE To conduct a pilot study to determine the safety, feasibility, and engraftment of haploidentical natural killer (NK) cell infusions after an immunosuppressive regimen in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Ten patients (0.7 to 21 years old) who had completed chemotherapy and were in first complete remission of AML were enrolled on the Pilot Study of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (NKAML) study.
  • With a median follow-up time of 964 days (range, 569 to 1,162 days), all patients remain in remission.
  • We propose to further investigate the efficacy of KIR-mismatched NK cells in a phase II trial as consolidation therapy to decrease relapse without increasing mortality in children with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy


45. Dincaslan HU, Yavuz G, Unal E, Tacyildiz N, Ikinciogullari A, Dogu F, Guloglu D, Yuksek N, Ertem U: Does serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor levels have different importance in pediatric acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma patients? Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;27(7):503-16
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  • [Title] Does serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor levels have different importance in pediatric acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma patients?
  • There are limited data related to childhood hematologic malignancies.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate soluble VEGF (sVEGF) levels in children with acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma (ML) at diagnosis and in remission.
  • The levels of serum sVEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 20 children with acute leukemia, 33 children with different histopathological subtypes of ML, and 20 healthy controls.
  • The levels of sVEGF at diagnosis (range 2 -1040 pg/mL; median 52 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in remission (range 136 -1960 pg/mL; median 630 pg/mL) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) group (P = .018).
  • The sVEGF levels at diagnosis (range: 2 -640 pg/mL; median 89 pg/mL) was significantly lower compared to remission values (range: 116 -1960 pg/mL; median 136 pg/mL) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (P = .002).
  • In ML group, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), sVEGF levels at diagnosis were higher than remission levels, but there was no statistically significant difference (P >.05).
  • The authors noticed that sVEGF levels showed distinct behavioral pattern in different childhood malignancies at diagnosis and in remission.
  • In acute leukemia and ML patients, VEGF acts through different pathophysiological mechanisms, in both bone marrow (BM) angiogenesis and lymphoid tissue lymphangiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Remission Induction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 20677920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
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46. Balamurugan S, Sugapriya D, Shanthi P, Thilaka V, Venkatadesilalu S, Pushpa V, Madhavan M: Multidrug resistance 1 gene expression and AgNOR in childhood acute leukemias. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus; 2007 Dec;23(3-4):73-8

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  • [Title] Multidrug resistance 1 gene expression and AgNOR in childhood acute leukemias.
  • We have studied MDR1 expression and AgNORS in 41 cases of acute leukemia in children.
  • In this study, AgNOR counts in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) L2 subtype (FAB classification) were significantly higher as compared to the ALL L1 subtype.
  • Similarly, mean AgNOR count in the acute myeloid Leukemia (AML) M2 subtype was significantly higher as compared to the ALL L1 subtype.
  • However, there was no correlation between AgNOR and treatment outcome or between AgNOR counts and MDR1 expression in any of the subtypes of acute leukemia included in this series.
  • In AML, MDR1 gene expression was found to be related to reduced remission induction rates and hence poorer prognosis.
  • In ALL, our study has shown no difference in remission induction between MDR1 positive and MDR1 negative cases.
  • This would suggest that factors other than MDR1 may be of relevance in Pediatric ALL.

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  • (PMID = 23100919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-4502
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3453125
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute leukemia / AgNOR / Multidrug Resistance 1 / P-glycoprotein
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47. Ribeiro RC, Razzouk BI, Pounds S, Hijiya N, Pui CH, Rubnitz JE: Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2125-9
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  • [Title] Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000.
  • Despite substantial progress in the management of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), only about 50% of patients are cured by intensive chemotherapy.
  • From 1980 to 2000, 251 patients <15 years of age with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled on one of the five consecutive St Jude AML studies.
  • With the exception of one protocol (AML-83), outcomes improved in general over the two decades.
  • The estimated 5-year event-free survival (+/-s.e.) was 30.8+/-5.6% for AML-80; 11.1+/-4.3% for AML-83; 35.9+/-7.4% for AML-87; 43.5+/-6.2% for AML-91; and 45.0+/-11.1% for AML-97.
  • Resistant or relapsed AML caused the great majority of treatment failures.
  • Increasing the intensity of chemotherapy (AML-87) did not improve outcome, partially because of toxicity, nor did prolonging postremission therapy by adding sequential myeloablative (AML-80) or nonmyeloablative (AML-83) chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16281077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. de Jonge HJ, Weidenaar AC, Ter Elst A, Boezen HM, Scherpen FJ, Bouma-Ter Steege JC, Kaspers GJ, Goemans BF, Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Kamps WA, de Bont ES: Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Feb 1;14(3):924-30
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  • [Title] Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: We hypothesized that downstream effects of endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor signaling on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell survival resulted in increased in vitro cellular drug resistance and a longer time to kill most leukemic cells in vivo upon drug exposure.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In primary AML cells from pediatric patients, VEGFA and VEGFC mRNA expression and in vitro cellular resistance to nine cytotoxic drugs were studied.
  • As in vivo equivalents for in vitro drug resistance, in vivo AML blast reduction upon drug exposure, measured as blast cell reduction on day 15 in the bone marrow and as time in days from diagnosis to complete remission (CR) were used.
  • RESULTS: Increased endogenous VEGFC levels significantly correlated with increased in vitro resistance for six typical AML drugs in primary AML cells from pediatric patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest for the first time that higher endogenous VEGFC levels of AML cells are related to decreased in vitro and in vivo drug responsiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18245556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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49. He J, Chen ZX, Xue YQ, Pan JL, He HL, Li JQ, Wu YF, Huang YP, Zhu LL: [Study on clinical and biological characteristics of childhood acute leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;26(8):477-80
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  • [Title] [Study on clinical and biological characteristics of childhood acute leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory features of childhood acute leukemia (AL) with MLL gene rearrangements.
  • METHODS: Sixteen of 298 cases of childhood AL with MLL rearrangements were studied by using MLL dual-color FISH, multiplex RT-PCR with 13 pairs of primers in combination with R banding karyotype analysis and cell immunophenotyping by flow cytometry.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen cases of childhood AL with MLL rearrangements accounted for 5.4% of 298 AL patients, and 56.3% of infant ALs.
  • Among these 16 patients, 11 were B-ALL, and 5 AML-M5, 3 of the latter were CD7+ and CD2+.
  • Of these 16 patients, 8 received chemotherapy and 7 of them achieved complete remission, while the other 8 patients gave up treatment.
  • Finding out MLL gene rearrangement is of most importance in guiding therapy and predicting prognosis in childhood AL.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement. Leukemia / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16383239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
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50. Steinbach D, Gillet JP, Sauerbrey A, Gruhn B, Dawczynski K, Bertholet V, de Longueville F, Zintl F, Remacle J, Efferth T: ABCA3 as a possible cause of drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 15;12(14 Pt 1):4357-63
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  • [Title] ABCA3 as a possible cause of drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: A major issue in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A newly developed microarray for the simultaneous quantification of 38 ABC transporter genes and Taqman real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of ABC transporters in pediatric AML and healthy bone marrow.
  • RESULTS: Using the microarray, we identified four new ABC transporters, which were overexpressed in many AML samples compared with healthy bone marrow: ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB2, and ABCC10.
  • The overexpression of these four genes was verified by real-time PCR in 42 samples from children with AML and 18 samples of healthy bone marrow.
  • The median expression of ABCA3 was three times higher in 21 patients who had failed to achieve remission after the first course of chemotherapy than in a well-matched group of 21 patients who had achieved remission at this stage (P = 0.023).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB2, and ABCC10 are overexpressed in childhood AML compared with healthy bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16857811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCA3 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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51. Kardos G, Zwaan CM, Kaspers GJ, de-Graaf SS, de Bont ES, Postma A, Bökkerink JP, Weening RS, van der Does-van den Berg A, van Wering ER, Korbijn C, Hählen K: Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2063-71
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  • [Title] Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials.
  • This report describes the long-term follow-up data of three consecutive Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia (AML) protocols.
  • A total of 303 children were diagnosed with AML, of whom 209 were eligible for this report.
  • The first study was the AML-82 protocol.
  • Study AML-87 was based on the BFM-87 protocol, with prophylactic cranial irradiation in high-risk patients only, and without maintenance therapy.
  • The subsequent study AML-92/94 consisted of a modified BFM-93 protocol, that is, without maintenance therapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation.
  • Antileukemic efficacy was offset by an increase in the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality, especially in remission patients, and survival did not improve (5-year pOS 44%).
  • Our results demonstrate that outcome in childhood AML is still unsatisfactory, and that further intensification of therapy carries the risk of enhanced toxicity.
  • Our patients are currently included in the MRC AML studies, based on the results of their AML 10 trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Mandrell BN, Pritchard M: Understanding the clinical implications of minimal residual disease in childhood leukemia. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs; 2006 Jan-Feb;23(1):38-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Understanding the clinical implications of minimal residual disease in childhood leukemia.
  • Improved laboratory techniques now allow a more sensitive detection of leukemia cells at designated intervals throughout therapy.
  • Using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction, it is possible to detect 1 leukemic cell among 10(4) normal cells (1 leukemia cell in 10,000 normal cells), representing a 100-fold greater sensitivity than morphological examination in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Recently, it has been shown that the molecular presence of persistent acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the end of remission therapy is a poor indicator of clinical outcome.
  • Now similar studies are being performed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • While the sensitivity using flow cytometry is less in AML than in ALL (able to detect 1 leukemic cell among 1000 normal cells in AML), persistent or minimal residual AML provides the clinician guidance with future treatment recommendations.
  • Therefore, it is imperative that the nurse have an understanding of the newer techniques to study residual leukemia and their clinical implications for patients and their families.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16689404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-4542
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric oncology nursing : official journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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53. Langebrake C, Klusmann JH, Wortmann K, Kolar M, Puhlmann U, Reinhardt D: Concomitant aberrant overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM in regenerating bone marrow of myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome. Haematologica; 2006 Nov;91(11):1473-80
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  • [Title] Concomitant aberrant overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM in regenerating bone marrow of myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome (ML-DS) has characteristic biological features (e.g. expression of the truncated GATA1s), which are different from those of non-DS childhood acute myeloid leukemias (AML).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 134 bone marrow specimens from 64 children with ML-DS and non-DS AML during chemotherapy and 7 specimens from DS children with- out leukemia,who did not receive any chemotherapy,The specimens were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for transcription factors involved in hematopoiesis.
  • RESULTS: Samples taken from children with ML-DS in complete remission during chemotherapy aberrantly expressed CD56 (NCAM) at the surface of monocytic and granulocytic cells.
  • Compared to non-DS AML cases,children with ML-DS had a statistically significant higher proportion of CD56+ cells in the CD33+ fraction: 71%+/-6% vs. 4%+/-1% (p<0.00001).
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The combined overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM during stress hematopoiesis in children with DS might be a key factor in the development of overt leukemia and/or in the growth advantage of the malignant GATA1s clone in ML- DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Down Syndrome / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17043020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human
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54. Al-Tonbary Y, Mansour AK, Ghazy H, Elghannam DM, Abd-Elghaffar HA: Prognostic significance of foetal-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutation in Egyptian children with acute leukaemia. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Jun;31(3):320-6
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of foetal-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutation in Egyptian children with acute leukaemia.
  • In children with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), internal tandem duplication of the Flt3 gene (Flt3/ITD) was previously reported and correlated to poor prognosis.
  • Limited data are available about childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • We analysed bone marrow specimens from 55 newly diagnosed acute leukaemia cases including 30 AML and 25 ALL by genomic PCR for the presence of Flt3/ITD and correlated its presence with clinical outcome.
  • Tandem duplication was found in 6/30(20%) AML cases: 2/8 M1, 1/8 M2, 2/6 M3, 1/6 M4 with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in two cases.
  • Complete remission was achieved in 16.6% of cases with duplication vs. 45.8% in cases without duplication.
  • Failure to achieve induction remission was noted in 50% of cases with duplication vs. 29.1% in cases without duplication.
  • Patients with Flt3/ITD appear to be refractory to primary induction therapy, and for those who achieve remission, there is a high rate of relapse and death so there may be an association between this type of mutation and patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Gene Duplication. Gene Frequency / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation / genetics. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18336585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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55. Wang D, Tang YM, Xu XJ, Shen HQ, Qian BQ: [Determination of leukemia stem cells in childhood acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;18(4):952-8
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  • [Title] [Determination of leukemia stem cells in childhood acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance].
  • The aim of this study was to detect the presence of human AML leukemia stem cells (LSC) in childhood patients with acute leukemia (AL) and analyze the correlation between LSC concentrations and minimal residual disease (MRD) levels in AML cases after remission.
  • The multi-parameter flow cytometry (FCM) and a panel of monoclonal antibody combination were used to detect the AML LSC or AML LSC immunophenotype-identical cell (AML LSC-IPIC) concentrations in childhood AML or ALL leukemia both at new diagnosis and at remission and correlated AML LSC to the MRD levels at different time points after remission.
  • The results indicated that the AML LSC or AML LSC-IPIC concentrations [in average 166 (range 14 - 1459)/100 000 mononuclear cells (MNCs)] in AML at initial diagnosis were significantly higher than those in ALL [7 (range 0 - 560)/100 000 MNCs, p < 0.017] and control [0 (range 0 - 6)/100 000 MNCs, p < 0.017], respectively.
  • The AML LSC concentrations in AML at non-CR were in average 36 (range 5 - 224)/100 000 MNCs.
  • No statistical difference (p > 0.05) was found between the AML LSC or AML LSC-IPIC concentrations in AML (in average 6 (range 0 - 41)/100, 000 MNCs) and ALL [10 (range 0 - 105)/100, 000 MNCs] after CR.
  • The significantly negative correlation was noticed between AML LSC concentrations and MRD levels.
  • It is concluded that the AML LSCs exist in newly diagnosed AML, which are significantly reduced when complete remission has achieved, but the low levels of these populations still remain.
  • The phenotypically similar (CD34(+)CD38⁻CD123(+)) AML LSC populations have also been found in the bone marrow from ALL patients, but their concentrations are not significantly different when CR has achieved.
  • The significantly negative correlation between AML LSC concentrations and MRD levels is observed in AML patients after remission.

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  • (PMID = 20723307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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56. Gorman MF, Ji L, Ko RH, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML: Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):421-9
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  • [Title] Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study.
  • BACKGROUND: Current event-free survival (EFS) rates for children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) approach 50-60%.
  • This report highlights efforts to assess the response rates and survival outcomes after first or greater relapse in children with AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We performed a retrospective cohort review of pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory AML (rAML) previously treated at TACL institutions between the years of 1995 and 2004.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retreatment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA113557
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Kang HJ, Lee JW, Kho SH, Kim MJ, Seo YJ, Kim H, Shin HY, Ahn HS: High transcript level of FLT3 associated with high risk of relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Jun;25(6):841-5
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  • [Title] High transcript level of FLT3 associated with high risk of relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Identification of prognostic factors and risk-based post-remission therapy was proposed to improve the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a mutation of FLT3 has been reported to be a risk factor, especially for pediatric patients.
  • Recently, FLT3 expression level was implicated to have prognostic significance in adults, but little is known for childhood AML.
  • To define the prognostic significance, transcript level of FLT3 was analyzed in 52 pediatric AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20514303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877222
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; FLT3 / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / Pediatric Age / Transcript Level
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58. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramedullary infiltration (EMI) is an occasional clinical symptom in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but there is considerable controversy regarding the prognostic significance of EMI in AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • RESULTS: Of 240 cases of de novo AML excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia, 56 (23.3%) showed EMI at diagnosis.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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59. Zou Y, Wang H, Chen XJ, Wang SC, Zhang L, Chen YM, Zhu XF: [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;27(9):621-5
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  • [Title] [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical outcome and the prognostic factor of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: Disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox regression with SPSS in 141 childhood AML in our hospital from August 1995 to July 2004.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups: acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as group A and AML other than APL as group B.
  • RESULTS: Of the 90 group B patients, 54.4% (49/90) achieved complete remission (CR) after one course chemotherapy , with a total CR rate of 76.7%.
  • The cumulative 5 year DFS and OS rate for group B patients were (28.4 +/- 9.0)% and (35.5 +/- 6.3)%, the 51 group A patients were (94.3 +/- 4.0)% and (81.4 +/- 5.7)%, and for total 141 AML patients were (56.9 +/- 6.3)% and (53.3 +/- 4.8)% respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher bone marrow blast cell percentage at diagnosis, CR after more than one course of chemotherapy and less than six courses of consolidation chemotherapy were risk prognostic factors in childhood AML other than APL (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of childhood APL is better, while of childhood t(8;21) AML is no better than other FAB subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17278430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Shih LY, Liang DC, Fu JF, Wu JH, Wang PN, Lin TL, Dunn P, Kuo MC, Tang TC, Lin TH, Lai CL: Characterization of fusion partner genes in 114 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and MLL rearrangement. Leukemia; 2006 Feb;20(2):218-23
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  • [Title] Characterization of fusion partner genes in 114 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and MLL rearrangement.
  • The fusion transcripts of MLL rearrangement [MLL(+)] in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their clinicohematologic correlation have not be well characterized in the previous studies.
  • We used Southern blot analysis to screen MLL(+) in de novo AML.
  • MLL(+) was identified in 114 (98 adults) of 988 AML patients.
  • There were no differences in remission rate, event-free survival and overall survival between adult MLL-PTD and MLL/t11q23 groups.
  • MLL-PTD was rare in childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Duplication. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16341046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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61. Hasle H, Alonzo TA, Auvrignon A, Behar C, Chang M, Creutzig U, Fischer A, Forestier E, Fynn A, Haas OA, Harbott J, Harrison CJ, Heerema NA, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Kaspers GJ, Locatelli F, Noellke P, Polychronopoulou S, Ravindranath Y, Razzouk B, Reinhardt D, Savva NN, Stark B, Suciu S, Tsukimoto I, Webb DK, Wojcik D, Woods WG, Zimmermann M, Niemeyer CM, Raimondi SC: Monosomy 7 and deletion 7q in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: an international retrospective study. Blood; 2007 Jun 1;109(11):4641-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monosomy 7 and deletion 7q in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: an international retrospective study.
  • Monosomy 7 (-7) and deletion 7q del(7q)] are rare in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • We retrospectively collected data on 258 children with AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) and -7 or del(7q) with or without other cytogenetic aberrations +/- other].
  • Complete remission (CR) was achieved in fewer patients with -7 +/- other compared with del(7q) +/- other (61% versus 89%, P < .001).
  • Cytogenetic aberrations considered favorable in AML (8;21)(q22;q22), inv(16)(p13q22), t(15;17)(q22;q21), t(9;11)(p22;q23)] (n = 24) were strongly associated with del(7q) and a higher 5-year survival rate compared with del(7q) without favorable cytogenetics (75% versus 46%, P = .03).
  • Childhood AML with chromosome 7 aberrations represents a heterogeneous group of disorders with additional cytogenetic aberrations having a major prognostic impact which should be reflected in future risk-group stratification.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Gene Deletion. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Monosomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. International Cooperation. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Stem Cell Transplantation. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17299091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Roberson JR, Onciu M, Pounds S, Rubnitz JE, Pui CH, Razzouk BI: Prognostic significance of myeloperoxidase expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):542-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of myeloperoxidase expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The percentage of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive blast cells is associated with prognosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but this association is unsubstantiated in pediatric AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We retrospectively compared cytochemical MPO results with outcome in 154 patients younger than 21 years treated on three consecutive institutional protocols for newly diagnosed AML (1987-2001).
  • Patients with FAB M0 and M7 AML (no MPO expression) or M3 AML (100% MPO expression) and Down's syndrome were excluded.
  • The percentage of MPO-positive blasts was not significantly associated with the probability of complete remission (P = 0.97), event-free survival (P = 0.72), or survival (P = 0.76) in multivariate analyses that accounted for age, FAB subtype, presenting WBC count, cytogenetic and protocol treatment risk group.
  • In analysis limited to patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, higher MPO expression appeared to be associated with improved EFS (P = 0.06) but was not associated with remission induction rate (P = 0.16) or overall survival (P = 0.38).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of MPO-positive blast cells is related to FAB subtype in pediatric AML but has limited prognostic relevance.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / blood. Myeloid Cells / enzymology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / enzymology. Peroxidase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17763467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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63. Tavernier E, Le QH, de Botton S, Dhédin N, Bulabois CE, Reman O, Vey N, Lhéritier V, Dombret H, Thomas X: Secondary or concomitant neoplasms among adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated according to the LALA-87 and LALA-94 trials. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2747-55
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  • [Title] Secondary or concomitant neoplasms among adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated according to the LALA-87 and LALA-94 trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Second malignant neoplasms are a serious complication after successful treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • RESULTS: By February 2005 secondary or concomitant neoplasms were documented in 23 patients, including 9 acute myeloid leukemias (AML) or myelodysplasias (MDS), 4 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), 5 skin tumors, and 5 other solid tumors (1 lung cancer, 1 tongue carcinoma, 1 thymoma, 1 condrosarcoma, 1 histiocytosis).
  • There were 22 patients in first remission and 1 was in second remission.
  • However, the median OS in patients developing AML/MDS was 5.7 months.
  • The risk of secondary or concomitant neoplasm appeared higher than that of childhood ALL previously reported in the literature.
  • Considering the low survival rate of this large unselected adult ALL cohort (32% at 10 years) as compared with that observed in childhood ALL, the risk of second malignancy remains underestimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology


64. Yeh TC, Liu HC, Wang LY, Chen SH, Lin WY, Liang DC: The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Dec;29(12):826-31
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  • [Title] The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan.
  • From November 1, 1995 to July 31, 2004, 49 children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were treated at our institution.
  • In total, 48 patients with de novo AML were enrolled in this study.
  • Forty-two patients with AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (non-APL) were treated consecutively with 2 novel protocols: Mackay Memorial Hospital (MMH)-AML-96, designed as a pilot phase, and Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-AML-97A, on the basis of MMH-AML-96 with minor modifications.
  • As of July 31, 2006, the remission rates were 79%, 92%, and 98% after 1, 2, and 3 courses of induction therapy, respectively.
  • The 5-year overall survival was 64%+/-6.9% (SE), and the 5-year event-free survival was 60%+/-7.1%; for non-APL AML, the rates were 62%+/-7.5% and 59%+/-7.6%; for APL, 83+/-15.2 and 67+/-19.3%.
  • Among the factors analyzed, a complete remission achieved after 1 course of induction therapy, lactate dehydrogenase <500 IU/L at diagnosis, patients without invasive fungal infection during chemotherapy, and male sex were associated with a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


65. Elliott MA, Litzow MR, Letendre LL, Wolf RC, Hanson CA, Tefferi A, Tallman MS: Early peripheral blood blast clearance during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia predicts superior relapse-free survival. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4172-4
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  • [Title] Early peripheral blood blast clearance during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia predicts superior relapse-free survival.
  • In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a rapid decline of circulating leukemic blasts in response to induction chemotherapy or prednisone is one of the most important prognostic factors, not only for achieving remission but also for relapse-free survival (RFS).
  • However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) parameters of chemosensitivity have been restricted mainly to the rapidity of achievement of complete remission (CR) or the assessment of residual leukemic bone marrow blasts during aplasia.
  • We hypothesized that the time to circulating peripheral blood blast clearance, as a potential surrogate for in vivo chemosensitivity, would have prognostic relevance in AML also.
  • In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 86 adult patients with AML receiving uniform induction and consolidation chemotherapy, we demonstrate that the time to clearance of circulating blasts during induction chemotherapy is an independent prognostic marker of RFS, superseding other known or established risk factors, including karyotype and number of inductions to achieve CR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Blast Crisis / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2008 Feb 1;111(3):1746-7 [18223180.001]
  • (PMID = 17909077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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66. Arceci RJ, Sande J, Lange B, Shannon K, Franklin J, Hutchinson R, Vik TA, Flowers D, Aplenc R, Berger MS, Sherman ML, Smith FO, Bernstein I, Sievers EL: Safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric patients with advanced CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1183-8
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric patients with advanced CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia.
  • This open-label, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and efficacy of single-agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody-targeted chemotherapeutic agent, for pediatric patients with multiple relapsed or primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Eight of 29 (28%) patients achieved overall remission.
  • Mean multidrug resistance-protein-mediated drug efflux was significantly lower in the leukemic blasts of patients achieving remission (P < .005).
  • Further studies in combination with standard induction therapy for childhood AML are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Aminoglycosides / toxicity. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Blast Crisis. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease / chemically induced. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Remission Induction / methods. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • (PMID = 15886328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 0 / gemtuzumab
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67. Wang Y, Lin D, Wang DH, Ku ZF, Liu JZ, Liu XR, Wang JX, Wang M: [The expression of midkine in acute leukemia and its significance]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Aug;29(8):544-8
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  • [Title] [The expression of midkine in acute leukemia and its significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of midkine (MK) gene in acute leukemia patients, and explore the relationship between the gene and leukemia.
  • METHODS: The MK gene expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RQ-RT-PCR) in bone marrow (BM) of 181 acute leukemia (AL) patients and 31 normal controls.
  • RESULTS: MK gene was expressed in all AL patients, normal controls and AL patients in complete remission (CR).
  • The expression of MK showed a notable increase in all B-ALL subtypes (including pro-B-ALL, common-B-ALL and pre-B-ALL) as well as in adult and childhood B-ALL patients (P < 0.01).
  • Moreover, the gene expression in B-ALL was also significantly higher than that in TALL, HAL and FAB subtypes of AML (P < 0.01).
  • In addition, M2 patients showed significantly increased in MK expression compared with that in normal controls (P < 0.01) and in other FAB subtypes of AML (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MK gene expression is increased with different levels in B-ALL, M2 and M3 patients, which provides novel insights into the leukemogenesis of acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokines / metabolism. Leukemia / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19112919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 137497-38-2 / midkine
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68. Xu XJ, Tang YM, Song H, Yang SL, Shi SW, Wei J: Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Dec;51(12):2262-9
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China.
  • Data on childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in developing countries are limited.
  • Herein we report the outcome of childhood AML treated with modified NPCLC-AML97 in our institution from 1997 to 2005.
  • One hundred and eighty-five children with newly diagnosed AML were admitted.
  • Among eligible patients, 111 (90.2%) achieved complete remission (CR).
  • Thirty-one patients (25.2%) relapsed, but no central nervous system leukemia was observed.
  • Although the cure rate of childhood AML in China was low, the treatment outcome for patients who could adhere to the treatment protocol was satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. Hospitals, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


69. Betts DR, Ammann RA, Hirt A, Hengartner H, Beck-Popovic M, Kuhne T, Nobile L, Caflisch U, Wacker P, Niggli FK: The prognostic significance of cytogenetic aberrations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. A study of the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG). Eur J Haematol; 2007 Jun;78(6):468-76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic significance of cytogenetic aberrations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. A study of the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG).
  • In childhood-onset acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) the clinical value of karyotypic aberrations is now acknowledged, although there is still debate concerning the prognostic significance of some events.
  • To add to this knowledge, cytogenetic analysis was performed on a consecutive series of 84 childhood AML patients diagnosed in Switzerland.
  • The results support the importance of cytogenetic analysis in childhood AML, but show that further work is required in the classification of the poor prognosis aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17419750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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70. Children's Oncology Group, Aplenc R, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Smith FO, Meshinchi S, Ross JA, Perentesis J, Woods WG, Lange BJ, Davies SM: Ethnicity and survival in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood; 2006 Jul 1;108(1):74-80
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  • [Title] Ethnicity and survival in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • We evaluated differences in outcome by ethnicity among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In conclusion, Hispanic and black children with AML have worse survival than white children.
  • Access to chemotherapy, differences in supportive care or leukemia phenotype, and reduced compliance are unlikely explanations for this difference because therapy was given intravenously according to CCG protocols.

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  • [Cites] Transplant Proc. 1991 Oct;23(5):2531-2 [1926465.001]
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  • (PMID = 16537811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 U10 CA98413-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895824
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71. Andreeva SV, Drozdova VD, Kavardakova NV: [Phenomenon of the evolution of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia]. Tsitol Genet; 2010 May-Jun;44(3):41-52
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  • [Title] [Phenomenon of the evolution of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].
  • Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells in 116 children with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was performed.
  • Frequency of evolution of clonal chromosome abnormalities in AML constituted 42,3%.
  • The patients with clonal evolution died earlier, before reaching remission, that can be connected with heavy initial state and high frequency of relapse.
  • Identity of abnormal chromosome structure at diagnosis and relapse of disease can be an evidence of the influence of chemical agent on establishment of some types of evolution of chromosome abnormalities in leukemic cells in AML in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20608159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0564-3783
  • [Journal-full-title] T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i genetika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tsitol. Genet.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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72. Xu XJ, Shi SW, Tang YM, Song H, Yang SL, Wei J, Xu WQ, Pan BH, Chen YH, Zhao FY, Shen HQ, Qian BQ, Zhang LY, Ning BT: [Long-term follow-up of treatment outcome and prognosis on 46 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;9(1):28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term follow-up of treatment outcome and prognosis on 46 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a specific type of hematopoietic malignancy, accounting for 10% of the de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical biological features, diagnosis, prognosis and long-term survival of childhood APL.
  • RESULTS: Of the 39 patients who had completed the regular treatment, 36 (92.3%) achieved a complete remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Remission induction therapy with ATRA + DNR or THP is effective and safe for newly diagnosed childhood APL.
  • The remission induction therapy combined with chemotherapy containing high/intermediate dose Ara-C can improve the long-term survival rates of APL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17306073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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73. Lee DH, Chung NG, Cho B, Kim HK, Kang HJ, Shin HY, Ahn HS, Yoo KH, Sung KW, Koo HH, Kook H, Hwang TJ, Im HJ, Seo JJ, Park HJ: Idarubicin plus behenoyl cytarabine and 6-thioguanine compares favorably with idarubicin plus cytarabine-based regimen for children with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia: 10-year retrospective, multicenter study in Korea. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Jan;25(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Idarubicin plus behenoyl cytarabine and 6-thioguanine compares favorably with idarubicin plus cytarabine-based regimen for children with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia: 10-year retrospective, multicenter study in Korea.
  • We investigated the outcome of idarubicin plus N(4)-behenoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (BHAC)-based chemotherapy (BHAC group, n=149) compared to idarubicin plus cytarabine-based chemotherapy (cytarabine group, n=191) for childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Between January 1996 and December 2005, 340 children with AML from 5 university hospitals in Korea received the BHAC-based or cytarabine-based chemotherapy, with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • After induction therapy, 264 (77.6%) of 340 children achieved a complete remission (CR) and 43 (12%) achieved a partial remission (PR).
  • In the present study, the clinical outcomes of the BHAC-based chemotherapy, consisting of BHAC, idarubicin, and 6-TG, are comparable to that of the cytarabine-based chemotherapy for childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / analogs & derivatives. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Thioguanine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20052341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 9YVR68W306 / enocitabine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2800026
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Enocitabine / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
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74. Tavil B, Aytac S, Balci YI, Unal S, Kuskonmaz B, Yetgin S, Gurgey A, Tuncer M, Gumruk F, Uckan D, Cetin M: Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) for the treatment of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia: the Hacettepe experience. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;27(7):517-28
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) for the treatment of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia: the Hacettepe experience.
  • Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and idarubicin (FLAG-IDA) regimen has been proven to be a potentially useful chemotherapy regimen for relapsed or poor-prognosis childhood leukemia.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate complete remission (CR) rate, toxicity, and overall survival of children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia who received the FLAG-IDA regimen.
  • Between January 2002 and April 2007, 25 children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia were treated with FLAG-IDA regimen in our center.
  • Of the 25 children (16 AML, 9 ALL) with poor-prognosis acute leukemia, 7 (28.0%) received 1 cycle, 17 (68.0%) received 2 cycles, and 1 (4%) received 3 cycles of FLAG or FLAG-IDA regimen.
  • Five (20%) of these patients in CR who underwent allogeneic HSCT are still in remission.
  • The CR rate was quite high in the present study using the FLAG-IDA regimen, and the authors believe this regimen is a possible option prior to allogeneic HSCT in children with poor-prognosis acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 20677923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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75. Ashfaq K, Yahaya I, Hyde C, Andronis L, Barton P, Bayliss S, Chen YF: Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Dec;14(54):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-141
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  • [Title] Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute leukaemia is a group of rapidly progressing cancers of bone marrow and blood classified as either acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • OBJECTIVES: A systematic overview of the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCT in the treatment of acute leukaemia.
  • Included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and donor versus no donor (DvND) studies were mapped to the evidence covered in existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses according to a framework of 12 decision problems (DPs): DP1 related to SCT in adults with AML in first complete remission (CR1); DP2 to adults with AML in second or subsequent remission or with refractory disease (CR2+); DP3 to children with AML in CR1; DP4 to children with AML in CR2+; DP5 to adults with ALL in CR1; DP6 to adults with ALL in CR2+; DP7 to children with ALL in CR1; DP8 to children with ALL in CR2+; DP9 to comparison of different sources of stem cells in transplantation; DP10 to different conditioning regimens; DP11 to the use of purging in autologous SCT; and DP12 to the use of T-cell depletion in allogeneic SCT.
  • Although there is a wealth of information on costs and some information on cost-effectiveness of allogeneic SCT in adults with AML (DPs 1 and 2), there is very limited evidence on relative costs and cost-effectiveness for other DPs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bearing in mind the limitations, existing evidence suggests that sibling donor allogeneic SCT may be more effective than chemotherapy in adult AML (except in good-risk patients) in CR1, childhood AML in CR1 and adult ALL in CR1, and that autologous SCT is equal to or less effective than chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery


76. Liu Y, Tang SQ, Wang JW, Long H, Feng C, Zhang H: [Treatment of acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;11(11):901-4
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  • [Title] [Treatment of acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the antifungal treatment and intensive chemotherapy in children with acute leukemia and invasive aspergillosis.
  • METHODS: The diagnosis and treatment of 4 cases of childhood acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis between July 2007 and July 2008 were studied retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Three children who underwent remission induction chemotherapy for ALL and one who underwent consolidation chemotherapy for AML developed invasive aspergillosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 20113657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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77. Chen YM, Liu TF, Ruan M, Zou Y, Chen XJ, Guo Y, Wang SC, Zhu XF: [Prognosis and chromosomal abnormalities in 79 children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2009 Oct;31(5):542-6
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  • [Title] [Prognosis and chromosomal abnormalities in 79 children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and evaluate the prognostic value of post-remission chemotherapy in children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: The diagnosis of AML and its subtyping were performed using morphological, immunological, and cytogenetic methodologies in 79 children.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation or 5-6 cycles of intensive chemotherapy was performed after remission therapy.
  • The complete remission (CR) rates were 81.7% (49/60) and 94.8% (55/58), respectively, after one and two cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Post-remission consolidation by high dose cytarabine (HDAC) was significantly superior to standard chemotherapy (66.7% vs. 27.3%, P = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Most children with t (8;21) AML have additional chromosomal abnormalities, although they do not affect the prognosis and long-term survival.
  • Childhood t (8;21) AML usually has high CR rate with relatively good prognosis, and post-remission consolidation by HDAC can improve the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19968066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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78. Rubnitz JE, Lensing S, Razzouk BI, Pounds S, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Effect of race on outcome of white and black children with acute myeloid leukemia: the St. Jude experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Jan;48(1):10-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of race on outcome of white and black children with acute myeloid leukemia: the St. Jude experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between race and outcome of treatment for childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been adequately studied.
  • PROCEDURE: We compared the clinical characteristics, biological features, and outcomes between white and black children with AML who were treated on five consecutive clinical protocols (1980-2002) at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.
  • However, on our most recent trial (AML-97), there was a trend towards inferior outcome among black patients: the 5-year survival estimates were 55.6% +/- 12.3% and 27.3% +/- 13.5% for whites and blacks, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although we detected no differences in treatment outcome between white and black children with AML over the entire study period, black children appear to have worse outcomes than white children during more recent studies.
  • Improved treatment is needed for all children with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. European Continental Ancestry Group. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hospitals, Pediatric. Humans. Infant. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16642489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Abdel Rahman H, Farrag SA, El-Attar IA: AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Mar;19(1):39-47

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications.
  • The characterization of leukemia-associated chromosome translocations has contributed relevant insights into our understanding of leukemia pathogenesis and has provided new specific tumor markers essential in prognostic assessment and minimal residual disease studies.
  • The aim of this work is to study the frequency of AML1/ETO fusion gene in a series of Egyptian childhood AML cases.
  • The clinical significance and prognostic implications of this aberration, including CR rate, duration of first CR, extramedullary leukemia (EML), and survival are investigated as well.
  • Peripheral blood and/or bone marrow mononuclear cells were available for analysis from 78 children, all newly diagnosed with AML.
  • Patients with de novo AML were treated by 2 courses of induction chemotherapy, followed by 4 courses of consolidation treatment if the patient achieved complete remission (CR).
  • Lymph nodes were enlarged in 8/15 cases (53.34%), hepatomegly was observed in 4/15 cases (26.67%), splenomegaly in 8/15 cases (53.34%), purpura in 6/15 cases (40%), while pallor was observed in all fifteen cases.Extramedullary leukemia occurred in 4/15 cases (26.67%).
  • As regards the fate of the positive cases, thirteen cases (86.67%) attained complete remission (CR) following induction chemotherapy.
  • Eight patients were in complete continuous remission (CCR), four patients (26.67%) relapsed and died during relapse, and one patient (6.67%) died in complete remission due to severe neutropenia and infection.
  • In conclusion, we report a frequency of 19.2% of AML1/ETO fusion gene in our newly diagnosed pediatric AML cases.
  • Positive cases showed good response to induction therapy, as well as high complete remission rates, which are features of good prognosis.
  • Key Words: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia , AML1/ETO fusion gene , RT-PCR , Clinical outcome , Prognostic significance.

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  • (PMID = 18839034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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80. Cogulu O, Kosova B, Gunduz C, Karaca E, Aksoylar S, Erbay A, Karapinar D, Vergin C, Vural F, Tombuloglu M, Cetingul N, Ozkinay F: The evaluation of hTERT mRNA expression in acute leukemia children and 2 years follow-up of 40 cases. Int J Hematol; 2008 Apr;87(3):276-83
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  • [Title] The evaluation of hTERT mRNA expression in acute leukemia children and 2 years follow-up of 40 cases.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the human telomerase-specific reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression in childhood acute leukemia, (2) the association between the hTERT mRNA expression with the patients' characteristics and the known prognostic factors and (3) the correlation of the patients' survival with the initial hTERT mRNA value at diagnosis.
  • A total of 40 newly diagnosed patients consist of children [31 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 9 cases with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)] were prospectively included into the study.
  • The highest hTERT mRNA value was observed in Pre B-cell ALL patients followed by B-cell ALL, T-cell ALL and AML.
  • The hTERT mRNA relative ratio difference between the ALL and AML groups was significant.
  • No significant difference was determined between the rate of complete remission and relapse of cases with the hTERT mRNA values in all malignancy groups.
  • Although DFS and OS was longer in AML patients with lower initial hTERT mRNA, the difference was not significant.
  • In conclusion, the hTERT mRNA expression values were not significantly associated with the known prognostic factors in children both with ALL and AML. hTERT mRNA value is a significant factor for childhood ALL at diagnosis in relation to the estimated survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18293058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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81. Piccinelli KJ, Taj M, Lucraft HH, Skinner R: Secondary parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma after TBI and chemotherapy in childhood AML. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Sep;47(3):345-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma after TBI and chemotherapy in childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Whole-Body Irradiation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16572403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Shimada A, Taki T, Kubota C, Itou T, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Hanada R, Tsukimoto I, Hayashi Y, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: N822 mutation of KIT gene was frequent in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with t(8;21) in Japan: a study of the Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group. Leukemia; 2007 Oct;21(10):2218-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] N822 mutation of KIT gene was frequent in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with t(8;21) in Japan: a study of the Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / physiology. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Child. Exons. Humans. Japan. Oncogenes. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Remission Induction






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