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1. Davicioni E, Finckenstein FG, Shahbazian V, Buckley JD, Triche TJ, Anderson MJ: Identification of a PAX-FKHR gene expression signature that defines molecular classes and determines the prognosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 15;66(14):6936-46
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  • [Title] Identification of a PAX-FKHR gene expression signature that defines molecular classes and determines the prognosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) are aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas affecting children and young adults.
  • Most ARMS tumors express the PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR (PAX-FKHR) fusion genes resulting from the t(2;13) or t(1;13) chromosomal translocations, respectively.
  • However, up to 25% of ARMS tumors are fusion negative, making it unclear whether ARMS represent a single disease or multiple clinical and biological entities with a common phenotype.
  • To test to what extent PAX-FKHR determine class and behavior of ARMS, we used oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling on 139 primary rhabdomyosarcoma tumors and an in vitro model.
  • We found that ARMS tumors expressing either PAX-FKHR gene share a common expression profile distinct from fusion-negative ARMS and from the other rhabdomyosarcoma variants.
  • Using an ectopic PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR expression model, we identified an expression signature regulated by PAX-FKHR that is specific to PAX-FKHR-positive ARMS tumors.
  • Data mining for functional annotations of signature genes suggested a role for PAX-FKHR in regulating ARMS proliferation and differentiation.
  • Cox regression modeling identified a subset of genes within the PAX-FKHR expression signature that segregated ARMS patients into three risk groups with 5-year overall survival estimates of 7%, 48%, and 93%.
  • These prognostic classes were independent of conventional clinical risk factors.
  • Our results show that PAX-FKHR dictate a specific expression signature that helps define the molecular phenotype of PAX-FKHR-positive ARMS tumors and, because it is linked with disease outcome in ARMS patients, determine tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16849537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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2. Ren YX, Finckenstein FG, Abdueva DA, Shahbazian V, Chung B, Weinberg KI, Triche TJ, Shimada H, Anderson MJ: Mouse mesenchymal stem cells expressing PAX-FKHR form alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas by cooperating with secondary mutations. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6587-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mouse mesenchymal stem cells expressing PAX-FKHR form alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas by cooperating with secondary mutations.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) are highly malignant soft-tissue sarcomas that arise in children, adolescents, and young adults.
  • We hypothesize that PAX-FKHR determine the ARMS progenitor to the skeletal muscle lineage, which when coupled to the inactivation and/or activation of critical cell signaling pathways leads to the formation of ARMS.
  • Additional activation of the Ras signaling pathway leads to highly malignant tumor formation for all of the populations.
  • The PAX-FKHR-expressing tumors were shown to have histologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiles similar to human ARMS.
  • Our results show the critical role played by PAX-FKHR in determining the molecular, myogenic, and histologic phenotype of ARMS.
  • More importantly, we identify MSCs as a progenitor that can give rise to ARMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Genes, ras / physiology. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / pathology. Mutation / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. PAX7 Transcription Factor / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxo1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Pax7 protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 138016-91-8 / Pax3 protein, mouse
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3. Jha P, Frölich AM, McCarville B, Navarro OM, Babyn P, Goldsby R, Daldrup-Link H: Unusual association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastasis: emerging role of PET-CT in tumor staging. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Aug;40(8):1380-6
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  • [Title] Unusual association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastasis: emerging role of PET-CT in tumor staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreatic metastases in childhood cancer have been rarely reported in the radiology literature although ample evidence exists in pathology reports for its occurrence in patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS).
  • OBJECTIVE: Assess the occurrence of pancreatic metastases in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, increase awareness of this association and reassess current staging protocols.
  • RESULTS: Pancreatic metastases occurred in eight patients with alveolar RMS.
  • Four of these presented at diagnosis and four with disease recurrence.
  • In recurrent disease, the duration between the diagnosis of the primary tumor and pancreatic metastases varied from 8 months to 6 years (mean +/- SD: 2.38 +/- 2.49 years).
  • Pancreatic metastases were not associated with certain primary tumor locations or presence of other metastases, mandating an evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiologists should be sensitized and actively evaluate the pancreas in patients with alveolar RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20180103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895865
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4. Bahrami A, Gown AM, Baird GS, Hicks MJ, Folpe AL: Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a potentially serious diagnostic pitfall. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jul;21(7):795-806
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a potentially serious diagnostic pitfall.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma may be extremely difficult to distinguish from other primitive round cell neoplasms without ancillary immunohistochemistry and/or genetic study.
  • Particularly in adults and in the head and neck locations, the differential diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma includes small cell carcinoma and neuroepithelial tumors, such as esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • We have recently seen cases of genetically confirmed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which were misdiagnosed owing to expression of cytokeratins and neuroendocrine markers.
  • We studied a large group of well-characterized alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas for expression of such markers.
  • Forty-four alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (18 genetically confirmed) were retrieved from our archives and immunostained for wide-spectrum cytokeratin (OSCAR), low molecular weight cytokeratin (Cam5.2), synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56 using commercially available antibodies.
  • The tumors occurred in 23 males and 21 females at a mean age of 18 years (range, <1-64 years), and involved many sites.
  • Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers is relatively common in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, occurring in 30-40% of cases.
  • These findings have significant implications for the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, particularly in adults and in the head and neck locations.
  • Although expression of cytokeratin and/or synaptophysin alone does not necessarily indicate epithelial or neuroendocrine differentiation, coexpression of cytokeratin and neuroendocrine markers, and in particular the presence of chromogranin expression, suggest true epithelial and/or neuroendocrine differentiation in a subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • These findings emphasize the need to employ a panel of markers, to include desmin, myogenin/MyoD1, and genetic study in the diagnosis of primitive round cell neoplasms in all age groups and in all locations.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Infant. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18487991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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5. Taniguchi E, Nishijo K, McCleish AT, Michalek JE, Grayson MH, Infante AJ, Abboud HE, Legallo RD, Qualman SJ, Rubin BP, Keller C: PDGFR-A is a therapeutic target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Oncogene; 2008 Nov 20;27(51):6550-60
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  • [Title] PDGFR-A is a therapeutic target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive skeletal muscle cancer of childhood.
  • Our initial studies of rhabdomyosarcoma gene expression for patients enrolled in a national clinical trial suggested that platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFR-A) may be a mediator of disease progression and metastasis.
  • Using our conditional mouse tumor models that authentically recapitulate the primary mutations and metastatic progression of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas in humans, we found by immunoblotting and immunokinase assays that PDGFR-A and its downstream effectors, mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt, were highly activated in both primary and metastatic tumors.
  • These results establish proof-of-principal for PDGFR-A as a therapeutic target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18679424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA54174; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133229-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA054174; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133229-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA133229
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161083; NLM/ PMC2813858
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6. Cao L, Yu Y, Bilke S, Walker RL, Mayeenuddin LH, Azorsa DO, Yang F, Pineda M, Helman LJ, Meltzer PS: Genome-wide identification of PAX3-FKHR binding sites in rhabdomyosarcoma reveals candidate target genes important for development and cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 15;70(16):6497-508
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  • [Title] Genome-wide identification of PAX3-FKHR binding sites in rhabdomyosarcoma reveals candidate target genes important for development and cancer.
  • The PAX3-FKHR fusion protein is present in a majority of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas associated with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis.
  • To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of PAX3-FKHR, we carried out the first, unbiased genome-wide identification of PAX3-FKHR binding sites and associated target genes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The genome-wide analysis reveals that the PAX3-FKHR sites are (a) mostly distal to transcription start sites, (b) conserved, (c) enriched for PAX3 motifs, and (d) strongly associated with genes overexpressed in PAX3-FKHR-positive rhabdomyosarcoma cells and tumors.
  • The map of PAX3-FKHR binding sites provides a framework for understanding the pathogenic roles of PAX3-FKHR, as well as its molecular targets to allow a systematic evaluation of agents against this aggressive rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • [Copyright] (c)2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20663909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA BC011189-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218520; NLM/ PMC2922412
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7. Barroca H, Oliveira MJ, Castedo S: Aberrant expression of synaptophysin in two metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis. Cytopathology; 2010 Jun;21(3):198-200

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant expression of synaptophysin in two metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscles / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Synaptophysin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19751226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin
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8. Mehra S, de la Roza G, Tull J, Shrimpton A, Valente A, Zhang S: Detection of FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart by fluorescence in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and its clinicopathologic correlation. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Mar;17(1):14-20
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  • [Title] Detection of FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart by fluorescence in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and its clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Chromosomal translocations of t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14), resulting in PAX3-FOXO1 (FKHR) and PAX7-FOXO1 (FKHR) gene fusions, have been found to be specific molecular markers for alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) and can be identified in approximately 80% cases.
  • As the prognosis of ARMS is worse than that of embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMS), it is important to accurately distinguish between these 2 subtypes.
  • To detect the genetic alterations, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or dual-color dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have been used in most studies so far.
  • In this study, we used FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart FISH probe, which can detect both of the translocations involving the FOXO1 gene, and tested 20 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) including 6 cases of ARMS, 8 ERMS, 1 pleomorphic type, 5 not otherwise specified (RMS-NOS), and 10 non-RMS sarcomas.
  • A home-brew RT-PCR that could detect both PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 was also performed.
  • Four pathologists independently reviewed all RMS and a consensus diagnosis was also reached in discrepant cases.
  • FOXO1 break-apart by FISH was positive in 4 of 6 (66%) ARMS and 2 of 5 (40%) RMS-NOS cases.
  • RT-PCR assay confirmed all FISH results.
  • While 2 of 6 (33%) RMS patients with a FOXO1 break-apart died of the disease, there were no deaths among the patients with negative result.
  • The FOXO1 gene break-apart FISH probe is a simple and accurate tool to detect the translocations associated with ARMS.
  • As characteristic genetic alterations of ARMS can be identified in 40% of RMS-NOS cases in our study, the FISH assay would provide an additional useful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of ARMS, and an alternative to RT-PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Breakage. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Formaldehyde / pharmacology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / genetics. Paraffin Embedding. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18303411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-9551
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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9. Wang Z, Velagaleti GV, Eltorky MA, Tang WW, Hawkins HK, Jones EA, Northup J, Panova N, Qiu S: Cytogenetic and molecular studies of an unusual case of multiple primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas: low-level chromosomal instability and reciprocal translocation t(6;11). Exp Mol Pathol; 2007 Feb;82(1):58-62
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic and molecular studies of an unusual case of multiple primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas: low-level chromosomal instability and reciprocal translocation t(6;11).
  • Cytogenetic and molecular studies have shown that approximately 80% of cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have consistent chromosomal translocation of either t(2;13) or t(1;13), resulting in either PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR gene fusions.
  • We present an unusual case of a 7-year-old boy who developed three separate primary ARMS over a 5-year period, with the first tumor diagnosed at the age of 12 months.
  • PCR amplification of the p53 gene, exons 2-11, followed by DNA sequencing did not detect any germline p53 mutation.
  • These clinical and cytogenetic features have not been reported previously in ARMS.
  • The findings suggest that cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 6 may be associated with the development of early onset multiple ARMS in a subgroup of pediatric patients as seen in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17097083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4800
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Parham DM, Ellison DA: Rhabdomyosarcomas in adults and children: an update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1454-65
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcomas in adults and children: an update.
  • CONTEXT: Rhabdomyosarcomas comprise a relatively common diagnostic entity among childhood cancers and a relatively rare one among adult tumors.
  • These lesions appear to be separate biologic entities as well as morphologic categories, with embryonal tumors having genetic lesions related to loss of heterozygosity and aberrant parental imprinting, alveolar tumors containing genetic fusions between PAX and forkhead genes, and pleomorphic tumors showing an accumulation of genetic lesions similar to other adult high-grade sarcomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present guidelines for diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma and recent finding concerning the biology and classification of these lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infants and young children tend to have embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, adolescents and young adults tend to have alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and older adults tend to have pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, although there is some overlap.
  • Newer rare entities, including spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma and sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, have been described in children and adults.
  • Genetic testing may be successfully used for diagnosis and may guide therapy in future clinical trials.
  • Differential diagnosis has become simpler than in previous years, because of use of myogenic factors in immunohistochemistry, but classification based solely on histologic features remains challenging.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron. Molecular Biology. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17090187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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11. Parham DM, Qualman SJ, Teot L, Barr FG, Morotti R, Sorensen PH, Triche TJ, Meyer WH, Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group: Correlation between histology and PAX/FKHR fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jun;31(6):895-901
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  • [Title] Correlation between histology and PAX/FKHR fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • At the molecular level, alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) are characterized by 3 mutually exclusive PAX/FKHR conditions: PAX3/FKHR fusion (present in 60% of cases), PAX7/FKHR fusion (present in 20%), and PAX/FKHR fusion-negativity (present in 20%).
  • The possibility of morphologic variation among these molecular subtypes has not been investigated.
  • We undertook a blinded retrospective study of 65 cases of ARMS (16 PAX/FKHR fusion-negative, 36 PAX3/FKHR-positive, and 13 PAX7/FKHR-positive by routine reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction).
  • We evaluated cytohistologic parameters such as microcyst formation, solid foci, differentiation, giant cell formation, anaplasia, nuclear grade, mitosis/karyorrhexis index, rosette formation, geographic necrosis, presence and amount of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, and the presence of foci resembling embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Of these features, only totally solid alveolar architecture reached significance (P=0.00014), with 7 of 16 PAX/FKHR-negative cases lacking this feature, compared with 0 of 36 PAX3/FKHR cases and 2/13 PAX7/FKHR cases.
  • These preliminary results indicate that in general, only totally solid alveolar architecture in ARMS may predict the absence of a PAX/FKHR fusion.
  • Our results suggest that histologic assessment of ARMS has limited correlation with PAX/FKHR fusion status.
  • [MeSH-major] Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17527077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81659; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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12. Magnan HD, Chou T, LaQuaglia MP, Gerald W, Ladanyi M, Merchant MS: Elevated expression of VEGFR-2 and VEGFA in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and activity of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a xenograft model of DSRCT. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10016

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: RNA was extracted from frozen tumor samples (DSRCT, alveolar soft part sarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma) and a human DSRCT cell line, JN-DSRCT.

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  • (PMID = 27962501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Indelicato DJ, Keole SR, Shahlaee AH, Morris CG, Gibbs CP, Scarborough MT, Islam S, Marcus RB: Ewing tumors of the chest wall: Local control and long-term outcomes. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e21501

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  • Pts characteristics: median age 41 (19-80 y), male/female 19/12; symptoms at diagnosis: dyspnoea (42%), chest and shoulder pain (39%), cough (35%), hemophtoae (13%), discomfort (10%).
  • 26 lung sarcomas presented as a singular mass in 23 cases and as a metastatic disease in 3.
  • The histology were: peripheral nerve tumour 7, leiomyosarcoma 4, MFH 2, fibrosarcoma 2, liposarcoma 1, angiosarcoma 2, undifferentiated sarcoma 1, solitary fibrous tumour 2, rhabdomyosarcoma 2, synovialsarcoma 2, pulmonary artery sarcoma 1, pleuropolmonary blastoma 1, malignant hemangiopericytoma 1, mixoid chondrosarcoma 1, ectopic osteosarcoma 1, aggressive fibromatosis 1.
  • Only 4 pts received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11 adjuvant CT, 5 exclusive CT + RT for inoperable disease.
  • Of these only 8 are alive (2 with disease).
  • Volume of disease, complete resection and grading are the dominant prognostic factors.

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  • (PMID = 27963390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Comandone A, Boglione A, Pochettino P, Berno E, Inguì M, Papotti M, Borasio P, Maggi G, Brach Del Prever E, Gino G: Primary sarcomas of the lungs and mediastinum: Clinicopathological study and therapy results of Piedmontese Group for Sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e21509

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pts characteristics: median age 41 (19-80 y), male/female 19/12; symptoms at diagnosis: dyspnoea (42%), chest and shoulder pain (39%), cough (35%), hemophtoae (13%), discomfort (10%).
  • 26 lung sarcomas presented as a singular mass in 23 cases and as a metastatic disease in 3.
  • The histology were: peripheral nerve tumour 7, leiomyosarcoma 4, MFH 2, fibrosarcoma 2, liposarcoma 1, angiosarcoma 2, undifferentiated sarcoma 1, solitary fibrous tumour 2, rhabdomyosarcoma 2, synovialsarcoma 2, pulmonary artery sarcoma 1, pleuropolmonary blastoma 1, malignant hemangiopericytoma 1, mixoid chondrosarcoma 1, ectopic osteosarcoma 1, aggressive fibromatosis 1.
  • Only 4 pts received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11 adjuvant CT, 5 exclusive CT + RT for inoperable disease.
  • Of these only 8 are alive (2 with disease).
  • Volume of disease, complete resection and grading are the dominant prognostic factors.

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  • (PMID = 27963441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kindlmann GL, Weinstein DM, Jones GM, Johnson CR, Capecchi MR, Keller C: Practical vessel imaging by computed tomography in live transgenic mouse models for human tumors. Mol Imaging; 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):417-24
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  • Using a long-acting iodinated triglyceride blood-pool contrast agent, we present optimized scanner acquisition parameters and volume-rendering techniques for examining the intermediate and large vessels of complex spontaneous tumors (e.g., alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas) in transgenic mice.
  • This finding was consistent in visualizations using a one-dimensional transfer function where voxel color and opacity was assigned in proportion to CT value and a two-dimensional transfer function where voxel color and opacity was assigned in proportion to CT value and gradient magnitude.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiography / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Neoplasms / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16285903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3508
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K08 CA90438-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR12553
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kurmasheva RT, Peterson CA, Parham DM, Chen B, McDonald RE, Cooney CA: Upstream CpG island methylation of the PAX3 gene in human rhabdomyosarcomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Apr;44(4):328-37
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  • [Title] Upstream CpG island methylation of the PAX3 gene in human rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • PAX3 is an important gene in muscle development and muscle-producing neoplasms such as rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • PROCEDURES: We examined the methylation status of a PAX3 5'-CpG island in rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes and in normal fetal skeletal muscle.
  • PAX3 methylation was analyzed in 15 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 12 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and in six normal skeletal muscle samples, using semi-quantitative PCR analysis of DNA digested with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes.
  • RESULTS: The CpG island in the upstream region of the human PAX3 gene was hypermethylated in the majority of ERMS examined (13 of 15 tumors, mean of 52% methylation), whereas most ARMS (9 of 12 tumors) and all normal muscle samples showed relative hypomethylation (both 18% mean methylation).
  • Various CpG sites differ in contribution to overall PAX3 CpG island methylation, with methylation at a HaeII site being inversely correlated with PAX3 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAX3 CpG island methylation appears to distinguish embryonal subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma from alveolar, and methylation at certain sites within this CpG island is inversely correlated with PAX3 expression.
  • In addition to exemplifying developmental dysregulation, methylation of PAX3 has potential in the development of an epigenetic profile for the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Muscle Development / genetics. Muscle, Skeletal / chemistry. Muscle, Skeletal / embryology. Paired Box Transcription Factors. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15602708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG20941
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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17. Yang Y, Wang H, Wang YP, Zhang W, Hui YZ, Wang ZH, Zheng J: [Detection of EWS-WT1 fusion transcripts in paraffin-embedded tissues for desmoplastic small round cell tumor]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Jun 18;37(3):325-8
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  • The following tumor specimens were included as controls: 2 Ewing's sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET/ES), 2 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and 2 lymphomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The analysis of the EWS-WT1 fusion transcript which was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is a sensitive and specific method in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of DSRCT.

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  • (PMID = 15968330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / EWS1-WT1 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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18. Graf Finckenstein F, Shahbazian V, Davicioni E, Ren YX, Anderson MJ: PAX-FKHR function as pangenes by simultaneously inducing and inhibiting myogenesis. Oncogene; 2008 Mar 27;27(14):2004-14
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  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) escape terminal differentiation despite exhibiting a skeletal muscle phenotype.
  • To understand the role of the ARMS-specific PAX-FKHR proteins in myogenesis, we characterized their regulation of MyoD expression and function.
  • In a single experimental system we demonstrate that PAX3-FKHR can simultaneously induce myogenesis while preventing its completion.
  • We propose a model whereby PAX-FKHR commit a yet undefined precursor cell to the myogenic lineage while at the same time inhibit terminal differentiation, thereby contributing to ARMS formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Muscle Development / genetics. MyoD Protein / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17922034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
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19. Yamaguchi U, Hasegawa T, Morimoto Y, Tateishi U, Endo M, Nakatani F, Kawai A, Chuman H, Beppu Y, Endo M, Kurotaki H, Furuta K: A practical approach to the clinical diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour and other small round cell tumours sharing EWS rearrangement using new fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes for EWSR1 on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Oct;58(10):1051-6
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  • [Title] A practical approach to the clinical diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour and other small round cell tumours sharing EWS rearrangement using new fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes for EWSR1 on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue.
  • Although this rearrangement can be analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using routinely formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded (FFPE) tissues when fresh or frozen tissues are not available, a sensitive and convenient detection method is needed for routine clinical diagnosis.
  • AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of newly developed probes for detecting EWS rearrangement resulting from chromosomal translocations using FISH and FFPE tissue in the clinical diagnosis of ES/PNET, DSRCT, and CCS.
  • Three poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, three alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and three neuroblastomas served as negative controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interphase FISH using this newly developed probe is sensitive and specific for detecting the EWS gene on FFPE tissues and is of value in the routine clinical diagnosis of ES/PNET, DSRCT, and CCS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / diagnosis. RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. DNA Probes. Female. Formaldehyde. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraffin Embedding. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16189150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / DNA Probes; 0 / EWSR1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770737
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20. Sigauke E, Rakheja D, Maddox DL, Hladik CL, White CL, Timmons CF, Raisanen J: Absence of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys and soft tissue: an immunohistochemical study with implications for diagnosis. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):717-25
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  • [Title] Absence of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys and soft tissue: an immunohistochemical study with implications for diagnosis.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors are high-grade neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS), kidneys and soft tissue that usually occur in children.
  • The histologic diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumor depends on identification of characteristic rhabdoid cells-large cells with eccentrically located nuclei and abundant, eosinophilic cytoplasm-and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to vimentin, keratin and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • In most malignant rhabdoid tumors, the SMARCB1/INI1 gene, located in chromosome band 22q11.2, is inactivated by deletions and/or mutations, so genetic diagnosis is often possible.
  • In total, 12 brain, three renal and two soft tissue rhabdoid tumors were examined along with four glioblastomas, four pilocytic astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas, two ependymomas, two choroid plexus papillomas, five pituitary adenomas, four germinomas, four renal carcinomas with Xp11.2 translocations, two clear cell sarcomas, two Wilms' tumors, one renal medullary carcinoma, two desmoplastic small round cell tumors, two alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, two embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, one low-grade chondrosarcoma, two extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, one mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, four malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, five metastatic carcinomas and four epithelioid sarcomas, two primary and two metastatic.
  • Immunohistochemistry to assess expression of SMARCB1/INI1 may be useful in the diagnosis of rhabdoid tumors of the CNS, kidneys and soft tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16528370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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21. Finckenstein FG, Davicioni E, Osborn KG, Cavenee WK, Arden KC, Anderson MJ: Transgenic mice expressing PAX3-FKHR have multiple defects in muscle development, including ectopic skeletal myogenesis in the developing neural tube. Transgenic Res; 2006 Oct;15(5):595-614
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  • The t(2;13) chromosomal translocation is found in the majority of human alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS).
  • These studies reveal a prominent role for PAX3-FKHR in disrupting Pax3 functions and in deregulating skeletal muscle development, suggesting that this fusion protein plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of alveolar RMS by influencing the commitment and differentiation of the myogenic cell lineage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Muscle, Skeletal / cytology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / etiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Somites / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16952014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0962-8819
  • [Journal-full-title] Transgenic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transgenic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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22. Yasuda T, Perry KD, Nelson M, Bui MM, Nasir A, Goldschmidt R, Gnepp DR, Bridge JA: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck region in older adults: genetic characterization and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol; 2009 Mar;40(3):341-8
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck region in older adults: genetic characterization and a review of the literature.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is remarkably rare in adults older than 45 years.
  • Initial immunoprofiling of a small cell neoplasm of the head and neck region in an older adult may not include myogenic markers.
  • A valuable diagnostic aid and important prognostic parameter in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is the identification of PAX3-FOXO1 [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FOXO1 [t(1;13)(p36;q14)] rearrangements.
  • The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of head/neck alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in older adults.
  • Each neoplasm was composed of undifferentiated, small round cells in a predominantly solid pattern.
  • Definitive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma diagnoses were confirmed genetically.
  • This study illustrates the diagnosis of head/neck alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in older adults is complicated by its rarity, lack of an alveolar pattern, and a potentially misleading immunoprofile (CD56 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity) if myogenic markers are not used.
  • Both PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas were identified in these patients.
  • In children, PAX7-FOXO1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is associated with a significantly longer event-free survival.
  • In contrast, adult alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma behaves more aggressively with a worse overall survival than pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18973919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA036727-249009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA036727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 36727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA036727-249009
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96749; NLM/ PMC2753286
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23. Downs-Kelly E, Shehata BM, López-Terrada D, Weaver J, Patel RM, Hartke M, Tubbs RR, Skacel M, Goldblum JR: The utility of FOXO1 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens in the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2009 Sep;18(3):138-43
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  • [Title] The utility of FOXO1 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens in the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive neoplasm with unique t(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14) chromosomal translocations, resulting in PAX3/FOXO1 and PAX7/FOXO1 fusion genes, in approximately 80% of cases.
  • We report our experience with a dual-color break-apart FISH probe for the detection of FOXO1 (13q14) rearrangements in neoplasms within the differential diagnosis of ARMS, using routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
  • A total of 52 sarcomas were analyzed including ARMS (n = 25), embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (n = 8), neuroblastoma (n = 1), desmoplastic small round cell tumors (n = 2), Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (EWS/PNET; n = 15), and round cell liposarcoma (n = 1).
  • Cytogenetics and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data were available on a subset of the ARMS (n = 11) and EWS/PNET cases (n = 5).
  • FOXO1 gene rearrangements were identified in 88% (22/25) of ARMS (mean: 91% positive cells/case; range: 50% to 100%), whereas no rearrangements were detected in the other neoplasms examined (mean: 1.4% positive cells/case; range: 0% to 4%).
  • FOXO1 (13q14) FISH on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues samples showed excellent concordance with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cytogenetic analyses in ARMS cases, demonstrated excellent specificity (100%) when applied to potential mimickers such as EWS/PNET, and played an important role in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Pathology / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19704258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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24. Seiz M, Radek M, Buslei R, Kreutzer J, Hofmann B, Kottler U, Doerfler A, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the clivus with intrasellar expansion: Case report. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 Nov;67(4):219-22
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the clivus with intrasellar expansion: Case report.
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas are common tumors of the head and neck region in children.
  • Transsphenoidal biopsy was performed and histopathological examination as well as molecular diagnostics confirmed the diagnosis of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).
  • Staging identified a metastatic lesion in the fourth thoracic vertebra resulting in the diagnosis of stage IV disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17139605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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25. Sullivan LM, Atkins KA, LeGallo RD: PAX immunoreactivity identifies alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 May;33(5):775-80
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  • [Title] PAX immunoreactivity identifies alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Tumors selected for evaluation included embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (55 cases), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) (51 cases), neuroblastoma (22 cases), Wilms tumor (18 cases), Ewing Family of Tumors (11 cases), lymphoblastic lymphoma (8 cases), hepatoblastoma (6 cases), and granulocytic sarcoma (3 cases) as either cores in a tissue microarray or whole mount sections.
  • Of the rhabdomyosarcoma cases, 34 of 51 (67%) ARMS were immunoreactive whereas none of the 55 embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cases stained.
  • Genetic information was available on 7 ARMS, 5 of which had characteristic translocations involving PAX genes, either t(2:13) or t(1;13).
  • PAX3 and PAX7 fusion genes characterize the majority of ARMS making crossreactivity with these proteins an attractive theory, and suggest that PAX5 immunoreactivity may be specific for translocation-positive ARMS.
  • Further study in a larger series of rhabdomyosarcomas is warranted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of PAX5 immunoreactivity for the ARMS variant.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / analysis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Neoplasms / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hepatoblastoma / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Neuroblastoma / chemistry. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / chemistry. Sarcoma, Ewing / chemistry. Sarcoma, Myeloid / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis. Translocation, Genetic. Wilms Tumor / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19145202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human
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26. Henes J, Oberländer Y, Tepe G, Schneider W, Balletshofer B: [Unusual reason for unilateral (corrected) Raynaud's phenomenon with intensification when the arms are elevated]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009;134 Suppl Falldatenbank:F3
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  • [Title] [Unusual reason for unilateral (corrected) Raynaud's phenomenon with intensification when the arms are elevated].
  • [Transliterated title] Einseitiges Raynaud-Phänomen mit Verstärkung bei Elevation des Arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Rib Syndrome / complications. Cervical Rib Syndrome / diagnosis. Raynaud Disease / etiology. Thromboembolism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aneurysm / complications. Aneurysm / surgery. Anticoagulants / administration & dosage. Aspirin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Enoxaparin / administration & dosage. Female. Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Ribs / abnormalities. Ribs / surgery. Subclavian Artery. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / administration & dosage

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:E2
  • (PMID = 19319790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Enoxaparin; 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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27. Laé M, Ahn EH, Mercado GE, Chuai S, Edgar M, Pawel BR, Olshen A, Barr FG, Ladanyi M: Global gene expression profiling of PAX-FKHR fusion-positive alveolar and PAX-FKHR fusion-negative embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. J Pathol; 2007 Jun;212(2):143-51
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  • [Title] Global gene expression profiling of PAX-FKHR fusion-positive alveolar and PAX-FKHR fusion-negative embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are classified into two major subtypes based on histological appearance, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS), but this clinically critical distinction is often difficult on morphological grounds alone.
  • ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is associated in most cases with unique recurrent translocations fusing the PAX3 or PAX7 transcription factor genes to FKHR.
  • To identify novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets, we analysed the global gene expression profiles of these two RMS subtypes in 23 ARMS (16 PAX3-FKHR, 7 PAX7-FKHR) and 15 ERMS (all PAX-FKHR-negative) using Affymetrix HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays.
  • A statistically stringent supervised comparison of the ARMS and ERMS expression profiles revealed 121 genes that were significantly differentially expressed, of which 112 were higher in ARMS, including genes of interest as potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets, such as CNR1, PIPOX (sarcosine oxidase), and TFAPbeta.
  • Interestingly, many known or putative downstream targets of PAX3-FKHR were highly overexpressed in ARMS relative to ERMS, including CNR1, DCX, ABAT, ASS, JAKMIP2, DKFZp762M127, and NRCAM.
  • We validated the highly differential expression of five genes, including CNR1, DKFZp762M127, DCX, PIPOX, and FOXF1 in ARMS relative to ERMS by quantitative RT-PCR on an independent set of samples.
  • Finally, we developed a ten-gene microarray-based predictor that distinguished ARMS from ERMS with approximately 95% accuracy both in our data by cross-validation and in an independent validation using a published dataset of 26 samples.
  • The gene expression signature of ARMS provides a source of potential diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and PAX-FKHR downstream genes, and can be used to reliably distinguish these sarcomas from ERMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. PAX7 Transcription Factor / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17471488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA64202; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87812; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89461
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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28. Charytonowicz E, Cordon-Cardo C, Matushansky I, Ziman M: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: is the cell of origin a mesenchymal stem cell? Cancer Lett; 2009 Jul 8;279(2):126-36
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: is the cell of origin a mesenchymal stem cell?
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a pediatric sarcoma that typically occurs in older children predominantly arising in the trunk and extremities, and exhibits a worse prognosis than other types of rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Most ARMS tumors have t(2;. 13) or t(1;.
  • While a significant amount of work has been done characterizing PAX-FKHR fusion proteins in ARMS and elucidating their involvement in the sarcomagenic process, their relationship to normal skeletal muscle differentiation remains unestablished.
  • In this manuscript we will explore a potential role for mesenchymal stem cells as the cell of origin of ARMS, and the possibility that PAX-FKHR fusion genes may commit these cells to a myogenic lineage while inhibiting terminal differentiation, thus contributing to ARMS formation.
  • We will also review the structure and function of alternate transcripts of PAX3, PAX7, FKHR and the fusion genes PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR, and discuss the role of these genes and their downstream targets in development of ARMS.
  • Additionally, we will review transgenic mouse models and their ability to mimic the formation of ARMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Child. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Mice. Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / metabolism. Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / pathology. Mutation. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19008039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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29. Corao DA, Biegel JA, Coffin CM, Barr FG, Wainwright LM, Ernst LM, Choi JK, Zhang PJ, Pawel BR: ALK expression in rhabdomyosarcomas: correlation with histologic subtype and fusion status. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):275-83
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  • [Title] ALK expression in rhabdomyosarcomas: correlation with histologic subtype and fusion status.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been described in rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS), especially the alveolar subtype.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate ALK receptor protein expression in a large series of RMS; to correlate these results with fusion status; and to investigate the possibility of 2p23 amplification or translocation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Sixty-nine cases of RMS were examined and classified as alveolar RMS (ARMS), embryonal RMS (ERMS), or unclassifiable RMS (URMS) subtypes.
  • There were 30 ARMS, 37 ERMS, and 2 URMS subtypes.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for PAX3/PAX7-FKHR fusion analysis had been done in all cases of ARMS, in 27 of 37 cases of ERMS, and in both URMS cases.
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase staining was positive in 16 of 30 ARMS (53%) and 9 of 39 nonalveolar RMS (23%) cases (P < 0.05).
  • Of the 21 ARMS cases with PAX3-FKHR fusion, 10 of 21 (48%) were positive for ALK staining; of the 6 ARMS cases with PAX7-FKHR fusion, 3 of 6 (50%) were positive for ALK staining; and 3 of 3 (100%) of the fusion-negative ARMS were positive with ALK staining.
  • When comparing each of the ARMS subtypes, statistical significance was not reached.
  • Of a subset of 6 ALK-positive ARMS submitted for break-apart FISH for the ALK locus, there was no evidence of a translocation; 1 case had ALK amplification and 2 had low-level gains of the ALK gene.
  • We conclude that there is ALK overexpression in RMS, more commonly in ARMS than in ERMS, most likely independent of fusion status.
  • Amplification or upregulation of ALK may underlie ALK protein overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / biosynthesis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18788887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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30. Montone KT, Barr FG, Zhang PJ, Feldman MD, LiVolsi VA: Embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of parameningeal sites in adults: a report of 13 cases. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;17(1):22-30
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  • [Title] Embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of parameningeal sites in adults: a report of 13 cases.
  • This study reports 13 adult parameningeal rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Nine lesions were alveolar, 3 were embryonal, and 1 could not be further classified.
  • PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR fusion transcripts or FKHR breaks were identified in 5 cases confirming a diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Three cases were negative supporting a diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Three patients are alive with no disease, 3 are alive with disease, 3 died of disease, and 4 patients are lost to follow-up.
  • Adult sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma is uncommon and should be considered in the differential of sinonasal neoplasms.
  • Disease can occur in the elderly.
  • Desmin and myogenin can aid in the diagnosis but cytokeratin reactivity can be seen and care must be taken not to diagnose carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18945709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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31. Williamson D, Lu YJ, Gordon T, Sciot R, Kelsey A, Fisher C, Poremba C, Anderson J, Pritchard-Jones K, Shipley J: Relationship between MYCN copy number and expression in rhabdomyosarcomas and correlation with adverse prognosis in the alveolar subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 1;23(4):880-8
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  • [Title] Relationship between MYCN copy number and expression in rhabdomyosarcomas and correlation with adverse prognosis in the alveolar subtype.
  • PURPOSE: Amplification of the transcription factor MYCN is an important molecular diagnostic tool in stratifying treatment for neuroblastoma.
  • Increased copy number and overexpression of MYCN in the pediatric cancer rhabdomyosarcoma has been described in a number of small studies with conflicting conclusions about its association with clinicopathologic characteristics.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured MYCN copy number and expression levels in rhabdomyosarcoma samples from 113 and 92 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Increased copy number of MYCN was found to be a feature of both the embryonal and alveolar subtypes.
  • The copy number and expression levels were significantly greater in the alveolar subtype, although the range of expression in both subtypes spanned several orders of magnitude.
  • MYCN copy number showed a significant correlation with expression in the alveolar subtype; this relationship between copy number and expression could be modeled as a logarithmic function.
  • It is notable that relatively high expression frequently occurred in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma without high copy number and that low expression was found in some cases with high copy number.
  • In patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, overexpression (greater than median) or gain of genomic copies of MYCN were significantly associated with adverse outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: MYCN deregulation is a feature of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis, defines groups of patients with a poor prognosis, and is a potential target for novel therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Dosage. Genes, myc. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15681534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Fara P: Scientific coats of arms. Endeavour; 2005 Sep;29(3):101-3

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  • [Title] Scientific coats of arms.
  • With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science.

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  • (PMID = 16098590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] Endeavour
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endeavour
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Rutherford E
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33. Wurm J, Constantinidis J, Grabenbauer GG, Iro H: Rhabdomyosarcomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses: treatment results in 15 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Jul;133(1):42-50
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses: treatment results in 15 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Primary rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) of the nose and the paranasal sinuses occur very rarely.
  • Treatment of these tumors usually is conducted according to standardized therapy protocols like the German Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study (CWS) or the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS).
  • Histologic subtypes encompassed 9 embryonal (e) and 6 alveolar (a) RMS.
  • With respect to histologic subtype, 5-year survival was 55% for eRMS, as compared with 33% for aRMS.
  • Patients with eRMS showed an overall more favorable clinical course than patients with aRMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16025051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Lisboa S, Cerveira N, Vieira J, Torres L, Ferreira AM, Afonso M, Norton L, Henrique R, Teixeira MR: Genetic diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the bone marrow of a patient without evidence of primary tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):554-7
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  • [Title] Genetic diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the bone marrow of a patient without evidence of primary tumor.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by two pathognomonic translocations, both involving the FOXO1 gene.
  • Interphase FISH analysis with specific probes evidenced a rearrangement involving the FOXO1 gene and RT-PCR identified the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion transcript.
  • These data show a case of ARMS with no evidence of primary tumor presenting the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18561177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Seleye-Fubara D, Etebu EN: Juvenile rhabdomyosarcomas in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A twelve year review. West Afr J Med; 2006 Jan-Mar;25(1):57-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile rhabdomyosarcomas in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A twelve year review.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile rhabdomyosarcoma (JRMS) though rare, is the most common soft tissue malignancy of childhood that exhibits bimodal age distribution pattern.
  • METHODOLOGY: We studied 21 juvenile rhabdomyosarcomas during the period under review.
  • The hematoxylin and eosin stained histological slides were retrieved and reviewed to confirm previous diagnosis and histologically typed for the study.
  • The trunk is the most common site of occurrence (47.7%) of which the genitourinary system is the most affected (23.8%) in this study.
  • The most common histologic type is the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (71.5%).
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma accounted for (19%) and the sarcoma botryoides (9.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: The age of presentation and anatomic sites of the tumor are important in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • If a tumor histologically shows as small round blue cells, rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Head. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lower Extremity. Male. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / epidemiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / epidemiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sex Distribution. Upper Extremity

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  • (PMID = 16722360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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36. Nishio J, Althof PA, Bailey JM, Zhou M, Neff JR, Barr FG, Parham DM, Teot L, Qualman SJ, Bridge JA: Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Invest; 2006 Jun;86(6):547-56
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  • [Title] Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • A valuable diagnostic adjunct and important prognostic parameter in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is the identification of translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14), and the associated PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion transcripts, respectively.
  • Most RMS fusion gene type studies have been based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of the fusion transcript, a technique limited by RNA quality and failure of devised primer sets to detect unusual variants.
  • (1) distinguish between the two most common ARMS-associated fusion genes;.
  • (3) assess histologic components in mixed alveolar/embryonal RMS; and (4) be performed on paraffinized tissue.
  • FISH analyses of 75 specimens (40 ARMS, 16 ERMS, 8 mixed ARMS/ERMS, and 11 non-RMS tumors) using selected cosmid clone, bacterial, P1-derived, and yeast artificial chromosome probe sets were successful in all but two cases.
  • Among specimens with informative results for both FISH and RT-PCR or standard karyotyping, PAX/FKHR classification results were concordant in 94.6% (53/56).
  • The three discordant cases included one exhibiting a t(2;13) by FISH that was subsequently confirmed by repeat RT-PCR, a second showing a rearrangement of the PAX3 locus only (consistent with the presence of a PAX3 variant translocation), and a third revealing a t(2;13) by FISH that lacked this translocation cytogenetically.
  • Both alveolar and embryonal components of the mixed ARMS/ERMS subtype were negative for PAX3, PAX7, and FKHR rearrangements, a surprising finding confirmed by RT-PCR and/or conventional karyotyping.
  • These data demonstrate that FISH with newly designed probe sets is a reliable and highly specific method of detecting t(1;13) and t(2;13) in routinely processed tissue and may be useful in differentiating ARMS from other small round cell tumors.
  • The findings also suggest that FISH may be a more sensitive assay than RT-PCR in some settings, capable of revealing variant translocations.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16607381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA36727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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37. Kamioka S, Takahashi T, Kawauchi S, Adachi H, Mori Y, Fujii K, Uekusa H, Doi T: Chiral tetraazamacrocycles having four pendant-arms. Org Lett; 2009 Jun 4;11(11):2289-92
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  • [Title] Chiral tetraazamacrocycles having four pendant-arms.
  • A chiral tetraazamacrocycle 9 having four pendant-arms was synthesized by repeating ring opening of an Ns-aziridine with secondary amines, followed by macrocyclization.

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  • (PMID = 19432409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-7052
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Aziridines; 0 / Macrocyclic Compounds; 54P5FEX9FH / aziridine
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38. Thompson JN: Coevolution: the geographic mosaic of coevolutionary arms races. Curr Biol; 2005 Dec 20;15(24):R992-4
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  • [Title] Coevolution: the geographic mosaic of coevolutionary arms races.
  • Coevolutionary arms races between species can favor exaggeration of traits for attack and defense, but relentless escalation of these arms races does not necessarily occur in all populations.

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  • (PMID = 16360677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9822
  • [Journal-full-title] Current biology : CB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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39. Aslam MB, Sahasrabudhe N, Kumar SN, Shenjere P, Belloso A, Morar P: Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck region: a case report of a diagnostic dilemma in a head and neck fine needle aspiration clinic. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):849-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck region: a case report of a diagnostic dilemma in a head and neck fine needle aspiration clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is one of the major categories of rhabdomyosarcomas; it encompasses malignant tumors of striated muscle and occurs more frequently in the extremities.
  • The diagnosis of an undifferentiated malignant small round cell tumor was made from cytologic examination of the aspirated sample, and biopsy of the lesion was advised.
  • On histologic analysis, diagnosis of solid variant of ARMS was made.
  • CONCLUSION: A solid variant of ARMS in an older population has not been published in the literature within the settings of a rapid head and neck clinic.
  • Therefore, the remote possibility of this diagnosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a malignant, round cell tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology in an older patient's neck lump.
  • [MeSH-major] Head / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neck / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 21053554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Byrne RA, Kuba MJ, Meisel DV, Griebel U, Mather JA: Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms? J Comp Psychol; 2006 Aug;120(3):198-204
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  • [Title] Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?
  • The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks.
  • However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved.
  • Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms.
  • These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

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  • [Copyright] ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
  • (PMID = 16893257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7036
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comp Psychol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Stevens MJ, Hoh JH: Conformational dynamics of neurofilament side-arms. J Phys Chem B; 2010 Jul 15;114(27):8879-86
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  • [Title] Conformational dynamics of neurofilament side-arms.
  • The side-arms of neurofilaments (NFs) have been proposed to be highly disordered, leading to entropic repulsion that modulates interfilament spacing.
  • To gain further insight into the dynamics and organization of the side-arms, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of neurofilament brushes using a coarse-grained model.
  • Further, we find cross-correlations between neurofilament side-arms within the brush, even for the NF-L polymers.

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  • (PMID = 20557103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5207
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
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42. Endo M, Hidaka K, Kato T, Namba K, Sugiyama H: DNA prism structures constructed by folding of multiple rectangular arms. J Am Chem Soc; 2009 Nov 4;131(43):15570-1
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  • [Title] DNA prism structures constructed by folding of multiple rectangular arms.
  • Novel multiarm DNA structures were designed using two-dimensional DNA origami scaffolds, and these structures were folded into hollow three-dimensional (3D) structures by introducing connection strands into the arms.
  • The opening of the prism structures was examined by high-speed AFM imaging, which showed the dissociation of the connecting arms in the 3D structures.

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  • (PMID = 19824672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5126
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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43. Balter JE, Zehr EP: Neural coupling between the arms and legs during rhythmic locomotor-like cycling movement. J Neurophysiol; 2007 Feb;97(2):1809-18

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neural coupling between the arms and legs during rhythmic locomotor-like cycling movement.
  • Neuronal coupling between the arms and legs allowing coordinated rhythmic movement during locomotion is poorly understood.
  • We used the modulation of cutaneous reflexes to probe this neuronal coupling between the arms and legs using a cycling paradigm.
  • Participants performed rhythmic cycling with arms, legs, or arms and legs together.
  • We hypothesized that any contributions from the arms would be functionally linked to locomotion and would thus be phase-dependent.
  • Reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal nerve at the ankle, and electromyography (EMG) was recorded from muscles in the arms and legs.
  • The main finding was that the relative contribution from the arms and legs was linked to the functional state of the legs.
  • Thus the contribution from the arms was functionally gated throughout the locomotor cycle in a manner that appears to support the action of the legs.
  • Additionally, the effect of arm cycling on reflexes in leg muscles when the legs were not moving was relatively minor; full expression of the effect of rhythmic arm movement was only observed when both the arms and legs were moving.

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  • (PMID = 17065245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurophysiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. John IA: The impact of small arms on health in Nigeria. Med Confl Surviv; 2005 Oct-Dec;21(4):312-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of small arms on health in Nigeria.
  • Nigeria, the most populous Black country in the world, though it has contributed to the welfare of other African countries, is plagued by internal conflicts with small arms.
  • Over a million illegal small arms circulate in Nigeria in the hands of militant groups.
  • Quality health care is unavailable in much of the country, and small arms injuries often overstretch emergency health care.
  • A national committee has been set up to implement the ECOWAS moratorium on small arms and light weapons, but much remains to be done.

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  • (PMID = 16450652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-3699
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine, conflict, and survival
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Confl Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Zubarev ER, Xu J, Sayyad A, Gibson JD: Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with V-shaped arms. J Am Chem Soc; 2006 Apr 19;128(15):4958-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with V-shaped arms.
  • Here we describe a very efficient method to produce well-defined amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with an equal number of hydrophobic and hydrophilic arms which are distributed along the surface of a 2-nm gold core in an alternating fashion.

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  • (PMID = 16608322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Eaker S, Johnson M, Jenkins J, Bauer M, Little S: Detection of CFTR mutations using ARMS and low-density microarrays. Biosens Bioelectron; 2005 Dec 15;21(6):933-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of CFTR mutations using ARMS and low-density microarrays.
  • The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) is routinely used for the identification of specific mutations within genomes.
  • This PCR-based assay, although simple, is performed at a low-throughput scale, usually requiring gel-electrophoresis for the identification of specific mutations.
  • We have applied the ARMS technology to a low-density microarray system to facilitate the needs of the medical clinic; high-throughput capabilities and ease-of-use.
  • Mutations within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene (DeltaF508, 1717-1G>A, G542X, 621+1G>T, and N1303K) were detected by multiplex-ARMS-PCR, and fragments were post-PCR labeled with Cy5.
  • Amine-modified probes specific for both the wild-type and mutant forms of each mutation site were attached to glass substrates.
  • The novel combination of the ARMS and low-density microarray technologies allows for a high-throughput, simple means to rapidly identify multiple known mutations for many genetic diseases including cystic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / instrumentation. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15890513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5663
  • [Journal-full-title] Biosensors & bioelectronics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosens Bioelectron
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 126880-72-6 / Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
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47. Leng M, Bessuso D, Jung SY, Wang Y, Qin J: Targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and regulating chromosome compaction by the PICH ATPase. Cell Cycle; 2008 May 15;7(10):1480-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and regulating chromosome compaction by the PICH ATPase.
  • In this study, we report the identification of a putative ATPase that targets Plk1 to chromosome arms during mitosis.
  • PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint "helicase") displays a temporal localization on chromosome arms and kinetochores during early mitosis.
  • Interaction with PICH recruits Plk1 to chromosome arms and disruption of this interaction abolishes Plk1 localization on chromosome arms.
  • Our study provides a mechanism for targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and suggests that the PICH ATPase activity is important for the regulation of mitotic chromosome architecture.

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  • (PMID = 18418076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA84199
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / polo-like kinase 1; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases; EC 3.6.4.12 / ERCC6L protein, human
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48. Babakhanian AR, Babakhanian RB, Isakov VD: [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms]. Sud Med Ekspert; 2005 Jul-Aug;48(4):5-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms].
  • Special literature (surgical, forensic-medical and criminalistic) is reviewed on classification, mechanisms of a harmful action and characteristics of injuries inflicted by non-lethal arms.
  • Some details of such arms construction and damaging action are given.

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  • (PMID = 16130323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sudebno-meditsinskaia ekspertiza
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sud. Med. Ekspert.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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49. Hanifin CT, Brodie ED, Brodie ED: Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution. PLoS Biol; 2008 Mar 11;6(3):e60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.
  • In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed.
  • The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction.
  • This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

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  • [CommentIn] PLoS Biol. 2008 Mar;6(3):e75 [20076705.001]
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  • (PMID = 18336073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-7885
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265764
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50. Toju H, Sota T: Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes. Mol Ecol; 2009 Sep;18(18):3940-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.
  • Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes.
  • A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations.

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  • (PMID = 19732333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-294X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular ecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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51. Mahmudi-Azer S: Arms trade and its impact on global health. Theor Med Bioeth; 2006;27(1):81-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - International Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Arms trade and its impact on global health.
  • The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts.
  • This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Developed Countries. Developing Countries. Humans. Internationality. Social Environment. United States

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  • (PMID = 16532304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-0980
  • [Journal-full-title] Theoretical medicine and bioethics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theor Med Bioeth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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52. Lawrence JM: Energetic costs of loss and regeneration of arms in stellate echinoderms. Integr Comp Biol; 2010 Oct;50(4):506-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Energetic costs of loss and regeneration of arms in stellate echinoderms.
  • Loss of arms has energetic consequences for stellate echinoderms (crinoids, ophiuroids, and asteroids).
  • The energetic cost of losing an arm includes loss of investment, decrease in ability to obtain nutrients and allocation of nutrients to regeneration of the lost arms at a cost to other body compartments.
  • Loss of investment is greater in asteroids than in crinoids and ophiuroids because of greater development of the body wall and presence of gonads and pyloric caeca in the arms.
  • The cost of regeneration of organic matter in an arm can be estimated from the amount of organic matter present in intact arms and the cost of anabolism.
  • A major energetic cost of loss of arms that affects regeneration is decrease in food consumption.
  • They are also a good model for the study of the evolutionary significance of regeneration by comparing individuals that have lost arms and are regenerating them to those that have lost arms and are not.
  • The difference in the frequency of loss of arms of species is related to the difference in availability of food and the ability to feed that affect the capacity for re-investment in the lost arm.

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  • [Copyright] © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21558218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7023
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative and comparative biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr. Comp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Lazzarini L, Salviati G, Fabbri F, Zha M, Calestani D, Zappettini A, Sekiguchi T, Dierre B: Unpredicted nucleation of extended zinc blende phases in wurtzite ZnO nanotetrapod arms. ACS Nano; 2009 Oct 27;3(10):3158-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unpredicted nucleation of extended zinc blende phases in wurtzite ZnO nanotetrapod arms.
  • The conventional picture is that ZnO arms are thermodynamically stable only in the wurtzite phase.
  • Here, we provide the first experimental evidence of unpredicted extended zinc blend phases (50-60 nm long) embedded in the arms of ZnO wurtzite tetrapods.

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  • (PMID = 19739604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] ACS nano
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ACS Nano
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Xu T, Lu R, Liu X, Chen P, Qiu X, Zhao Y: Porphyrins with four monodisperse oligocarbazole arms: facile synthesis and photophysical properties. J Org Chem; 2008 Mar 7;73(5):1809-17

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Porphyrins with four monodisperse oligocarbazole arms: facile synthesis and photophysical properties.
  • A series of novel monodisperse, well-defined, star-shaped molecules T(OCAn)Ps (n = 2-6) with a central porphyrin core and four oligocarbazole arms are synthesized from the corresponding formyl-substituted oligocarbazoles via Adler reaction.
  • The obtained star-shaped porphyrins are intrinsically two-dimensional nanosized molecules, and the diameter of compound T(OCA6)P is 7.4 nm, representing one of the largest known star-shaped conjugated systems.
  • Their photophysical properties have been investigated by absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, together with the corresponding monodisperse oligocarbazole aldehyde precursors.
  • It is found that the light-harvesting capability of T(OCAn)Ps increases with the increasing length of the arms and reaches the maximum when n = 6.
  • A selective excitation of the oligocarbazole arms leads to the typical emission from the porphyrin cores, indicating occurrence of photoinduced intramolecular energy transfer, and the energy transfer efficiency decreases from T(OCA2)P to T(OCA6)P owing to the Förster energy-transfer process.
  • 3 nm in our system.
  • Notably, the monodisperse oligocarbazole aldehyde precursors give twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) excited states and luminescence in polar solvents with large Stokes shifts.

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  • (PMID = 18229940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of organic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Org. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Ishikawa T, Sakakibara H, Oiwa K: The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ. J Mol Biol; 2007 May 18;368(5):1249-58

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ.
  • Outer dynein arms, the force generators for axonemal motion, form arrays on microtubule doublets in situ, although they are bouquet-like complexes with separated heads of multiple heavy chains when isolated in vitro.
  • To understand how the three heavy chains are folded in the array, we reconstructed the detailed 3D structure of outer dynein arms of Chlamydomonas flagella in situ by electron cryo-tomography and single-particle averaging.
  • The neighboring outer dynein arms are connected through two filamentous structures: one at the exterior of the axoneme and the other through the alpha-tail.

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  • (PMID = 17391698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2836
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.4.2 / Dyneins
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56. Birch PR, Rehmany AP, Pritchard L, Kamoun S, Beynon JL: Trafficking arms: oomycete effectors enter host plant cells. Trends Microbiol; 2006 Jan;14(1):8-11
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trafficking arms: oomycete effectors enter host plant cells.
  • Evidence of diversifying selection in these genes and their cognate plant host resistance genes suggests a molecular "arms race" as plants and oomycetes attempt to achieve and evade detection, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16356717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-842X
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Algal Proteins; 0 / Plant Proteins
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57. Bremer AK, Sennwald GR, Favre P, Jacob HA: Moment arms of forearm rotators. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon); 2006 Aug;21(7):683-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moment arms of forearm rotators.
  • This investigation aims at determining the moment arms of muscles that contribute to pronation and supination at three different angles of elbow flexion throughout the entire range of forearm rotation.
  • METHODS: Muscle moment arms were derived from tendon excursions that were recorded on a full-size epoxy model of the radioulnar complex.
  • FINDINGS: Moment arms of all major supinators exhibit peak values in 40-50 degrees of pronation, for all three positions of the elbow.

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  • (PMID = 16678316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-0033
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Parelho V, Hadjur S, Spivakov M, Leleu M, Sauer S, Gregson HC, Jarmuz A, Canzonetta C, Webster Z, Nesterova T, Cobb BS, Yokomori K, Dillon N, Aragon L, Fisher AG, Merkenschlager M: Cohesins functionally associate with CTCF on mammalian chromosome arms. Cell; 2008 Feb 8;132(3):422-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cohesins functionally associate with CTCF on mammalian chromosome arms.
  • We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity, in contrast to S. cerevisiae.
  • Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to DNA methylation, allows cohesin positioning to integrate DNA sequence and epigenetic state.

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  • (PMID = 18237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120074328; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120027516; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120036884; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM59150
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCCTC-binding factor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / cohesins; EC 3.1.21.1 / Deoxyribonuclease I
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59. Li X, Ding X, Chu B, Ding G, Gu S, Qian L, Wang Y, Zhou Q: Molecular authentication of Alisma orientale by PCR-RFLP and ARMS. Planta Med; 2007 Jan;73(1):67-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular authentication of Alisma orientale by PCR-RFLP and ARMS.
  • Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis were applied to the ITS region for the identification of A. orientale.
  • A restriction site for PSTI useful for PCR-RFLP analysis was detected and a pair of diagnostic primers DFZX-JB02S and DFZX-JB02X were designed for ARMS.

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  • (PMID = 17109255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-0943
  • [Journal-full-title] Planta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Planta Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Plant; 0 / DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
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60. Dai Y, Grant S: Targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic regulatory machinery. Cancer Res; 2007 Apr 1;67(7):2908-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic regulatory machinery.
  • Here, we summarize recent findings indicating that Mcl-1 represents a critical determinant of ABT-737 sensitivity and resistance, and that Mcl-1 down-regulation by various pharmacologic agents or genetic approaches dramatically increases ABT-737 lethality in diverse malignant cell types.
  • Collectively, these findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic machinery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Piperazines / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17409392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 100866; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 93738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63753
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABT-737; 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nitrophenols; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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61. Kuntner M, Coddington JA, Schneider JM: Intersexual arms race? Genital coevolution in nephilid spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae). Evolution; 2009 Jun;63(6):1451-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intersexual arms race? Genital coevolution in nephilid spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae).
  • Although the results are compatible with both recently favored sexual selection hypotheses, sexually antagonistic coevolution, and cryptic female choice, the evidence of strong intersexual conflict and genitalic damage in both sexes is more easily explained as sexually antagonistic coevolution due to an evolutionary arms race.

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  • (PMID = 19492993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Evolution
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Morocho AM, Karamyshev V, Shcherbinina O, Polushin N: Biotin-labeled oligonucleotides with extraordinarily long tethering arms. Methods Mol Biol; 2005;288:225-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biotin-labeled oligonucleotides with extraordinarily long tethering arms.
  • We describe synthesis of four novel biotin phosphoramidites with tethering arms ranging from 20 to 74 atoms in length.

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  • (PMID = 15333906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin
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63. Caro JJ, Ishak KJ: No head-to-head trial? simulate the missing arms. Pharmacoeconomics; 2010;28(10):957-67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] No head-to-head trial? simulate the missing arms.
  • In this article, we describe the simulated treatment comparison (STC) approach to incorporating 'missing arms' into an existing trial.
  • The simulation is used to add the missing arms to the index trial and estimate the results that would have been obtained in a head-to-head trial.

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  • (PMID = 20831304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-2027
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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64. Lappin JM, Morgan KD, Valmaggia LR, Broome MR, Woolley JB, Johns LC, Tabraham P, Bramon E, McGuire PK: Insight in individuals with an At Risk Mental State. Schizophr Res; 2007 Feb;90(1-3):238-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Insight in individuals with an At Risk Mental State.
  • PURPOSE: On average, people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis are more willing to seek and accept clinical help than patients with psychotic disorders, suggesting that insight in this group is relatively less impaired.
  • We compared the level and quality of insight in the ARMS and in first episode psychosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insight about illness was assessed in subjects with an ARMS and in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) who were and were not help-seeking, using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI-E).
  • RESULTS: Insight was impaired in ARMS subjects, but there was considerable variability in the insight displayed between subjects.
  • Compared to FEP subjects, ARMS subjects showed greater insight, particularly with respect to Symptom Relabelling.
  • ARMS subjects were more likely to interpret anomalous experiences as symptoms of illness, and to perceive themselves as needing treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Insight in people at high risk for psychosis is impaired, despite the fact that they are help-seeking.
  • Insight varies between subjects, highlighting the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of insight in those with an ARMS.
  • ARMS subjects are impaired in their ability to appraise anomalous experiences as symptoms of illness, but much less impaired than FEP subjects.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data. Reference Values. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / diagnosis. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / psychology

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  • (PMID = 17215109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-9964
  • [Journal-full-title] Schizophrenia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schizophr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0901310; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / PDA/02/06/016
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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65. Ingle RA, Carstens M, Denby KJ: PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race. Bioessays; 2006 Sep;28(9):880-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race.
  • Plants have evolved systems analogous to animal innate immunity that recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
  • PAMP detection is an important component of non-host resistance in plants and serves as an early warning system for the presence of potential pathogens.
  • Binding of a PAMP to the appropriate pattern recognition receptor leads to downstream signalling events and, ultimately, to the induction of basal defence systems.
  • To overcome non-host resistance, pathogens have evolved effectors that target specific regulatory components of the basal defence system.
  • In turn, this has led to the evolution in plants of cultivar-specific resistance mediated by R proteins, which guard the targets of effectors against pathogen manipulation; the arms race continues.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16937346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-9247
  • [Journal-full-title] BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioessays
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12777-81-0 / Flagellin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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66. Abel SM: Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2008 Jun;79(6):591-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations.
  • A focus group study involving four combat arms occupations was carried out to probe individuals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to hearing loss prevention to find ways to improve compliance.

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  • (PMID = 18581943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Liao YH, Hsu SM, Huang PH: ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma. Cancer Res; 2007 Dec 15;67(24):11547-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma.
  • Here, we report that ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), a transmembrane protein abundant in the developing and adult neural tissues, is overexpressed in melanoma, a tumor ontogenetically originating from neural crest.
  • Immunohistochemical study of 79 melanocytic lesions showed significantly increased expression of ARMS in primary malignant melanomas (92.9%) and metastatic melanoma (60.0%) in comparison with benign nevocellular nevi (26.7%).
  • To investigate the role of ARMS in melanoma formation, murine B16F0 melanoma cells with stable knockdown of ARMS were established by RNA interference.
  • Down-regulation of ARMS resulted in significant inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and restrictive growth of melanoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice.
  • Importantly, depletion of ARMS facilitated UVB-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells through inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK.
  • Addition of MEK inhibitor PD98059 further sensitized ARMS-depleted melanoma cells to UVB-induced apoptosis, whereas constitutively active MEK rescued ARMS-depleted cells from apoptosis.
  • We further showed that BRAF, a downstream signaling molecule of ARMS in ERK pathway, is not mutated as a constitutively active form in acral lentiginous melanoma; in contrast, BRAF(T1799A) mutation, which leads to constitutive activation of ERK signaling, was detected in 57.1% of superficial spreading melanoma.
  • Our study suggests that overexpression of ARMS per se serves as one mechanism to promote melanoma formation by preventing stress-induced apoptotic death mediated by the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, especially in acral lentiginous melanoma, most of which does not harbor BRAF mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / physiopathology. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Foreskin. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Melanocytes / cytology. Melanocytes / physiology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. RNA Interference. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 18089783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KIDINS220 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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68. Jin S, Higashihara T, Jin KS, Yoon J, Rho Y, Ahn B, Kim J, Hirao A, Ree M: Synchrotron X-ray scattering characterization of the molecular structures of star polystyrenes with varying numbers of arms. J Phys Chem B; 2010 May 20;114(19):6247-57

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchrotron X-ray scattering characterization of the molecular structures of star polystyrenes with varying numbers of arms.
  • We have synthesized well-defined multiarmed star polystyrenes, with 6, 9, 17, 33, and 57 arms, and studied their molecular shapes and structural characteristics in a good solvent (tetrahydrofuran at 25 degrees C) and in a theta (Theta) solvent (cyclohexane at 35 degrees C) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) using a synchrotron radiation source.
  • Analysis of the SAXS data provided a detailed characterization of the molecular shapes, including the contributions of the blob morphology of the arms, the radius of gyration, the paired distance distribution, the radial electron density distribution, and the Zimm-Stockmayer and Roovers g-factor, for the multiarmed star polystyrenes.
  • In particular, the molecular shapes of the star polystyrenes were found to change from a fuzzy ellipsoid, for the 6-armed polystyrene, to a fuzzy sphere, for the 57-armed polystyrene, with an increasing number of arms.
  • The ellipsoidal character of the star polystyrenes with fewer arms may originate from the extended anisotropically branched architecture at the center of the molecule.
  • The arms of the star polystyrenes were found to be more extended than those of the linear polystyrenes.
  • Furthermore, the degree of chain extension in the arms increased with the number of arms.

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  • (PMID = 20426443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5207
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Nakajima M, Kumada K, Hatakeyama K, Noda T, Peters JM, Hirota T: The complete removal of cohesin from chromosome arms depends on separase. J Cell Sci; 2007 Dec 1;120(Pt 23):4188-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The complete removal of cohesin from chromosome arms depends on separase.
  • The prophase pathway, which requires phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit SA2 and a cohesin-binding protein, called Wapl, removes the bulk of cohesin from the chromosome arms in early mitosis and allows the resolution of the chromosome arms.
  • When anaphase onset is delayed by the spindle-assembly checkpoint, the complete removal of cohesin from chromosome arms but not from centromeres generates typical X- or V-shaped chromosomes.
  • Here, we found that cohesion between chromosome arms is preserved if mitosis is arrested with the proteasome inhibitor MG132.
  • This arm cohesion depends on cohesin complexes that are protected by the shugoshin protein Sgo1, which appears to be distributed on chromosome arms as well as on centromeres in early mitosis.

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  • (PMID = 18003702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Azure Stains; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / SGOL1 protein, human; 0 / cohesins; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; EC 3.4.- / Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.49 / ESPL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.49 / Separase; SH1WY3R615 / Nocodazole
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70. López-Menéndez C, Gascón S, Sobrado M, Vidaurre OG, Higuero AM, Rodríguez-Peña A, Iglesias T, Díaz-Guerra M: Kidins220/ARMS downregulation by excitotoxic activation of NMDARs reveals its involvement in neuronal survival and death pathways. J Cell Sci; 2009 Oct 1;122(Pt 19):3554-65

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Kidins220/ARMS downregulation by excitotoxic activation of NMDARs reveals its involvement in neuronal survival and death pathways.
  • A shared downstream effector for neurotrophin- and ephrin-receptor signaling is kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS).
  • Because this molecule is obligatory for neurotrophin-induced differentiation, we investigated whether Kidins220/ARMS and NMDAR functions were related.
  • Here, we identify an association between these proteins and discover that excitotoxicity, a specific form of neuronal death induced by NMDAR overstimulation, dramatically decreases Kidins220/ARMS levels in cortical neurons and in a model of cerebral ischemia.
  • Kidins220/ARMS downregulation is triggered by overactivation of NMDARs containing NR2B subunits and subsequent Ca(2+) influx, and involves a dual mechanism: rapid cleavage by the Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain and calpain-independent silencing of Kidins220/Arms gene transcription.
  • Additionally, Kidins220/ARMS knockdown decreases ERK activation and basal neuronal viability, and enhances neuronal death under excitotoxic conditions.
  • Our results demonstrate Kidins220/ARMS participation in neuronal life and death pathways, and constitute the first report of its regulation under pathological conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Down-Regulation. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neurons / cytology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Death. Cell Survival. Cells, Cultured. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Male. Protein Binding. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19759287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kidins220 protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
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71. Barr M Jr: The long arms of anencephaly: A refutation. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol; 2009 Aug;85(8):710-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The long arms of anencephaly: A refutation.
  • A paper published in 1925 reported that human fetuses with anencephaly have arms that are longer than normal.
  • This finding was accepted as true through the early 1990s.
  • An analysis of body dimensions done in 1996 and enlarged and updated here shows that the arms of human fetuses with anencephaly are appropriate for gestational age and normal in proportion to their leg lengths.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fetus / abnormalities. Fetus / anatomy & histology. Fetus / embryology. Humans. Leg / abnormalities. Leg / embryology. Leg / ultrasonography. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19441097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Tian Y, He Y, Ribbe AE, Mao C: Preparation of branched structures with long DNA duplex arms. Org Biomol Chem; 2006 Sep 21;4(18):3404-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preparation of branched structures with long DNA duplex arms.
  • Branched structures with long DNA duplex arms have been constructed through biotin-streptavidin binding and characterized by gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging.

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  • (PMID = 17036131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0520
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic & biomolecular chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Biomol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 9013-20-1 / Streptavidin
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73. Ganesan P, Thulkar S, Rajan A, Bakhshi S: Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking non-Hodgkin lymphoma: case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Oct;30(10):772-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking non-Hodgkin lymphoma: case report and review of literature.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a high-grade neoplasm, which forms about 30% of rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • A histopathologic diagnosis of solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapy but had progressive disease.
  • In addition, the importance of biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected lymphomas and the pitfalls of needle aspirations are briefly discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leg. Muscle, Skeletal. Salvage Therapy


74. Smith NC, Payne RC, Jespers KJ, Wilson AM: Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). J Anat; 2007 Sep;211(3):313-24

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).
  • Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance.
  • The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running.
  • Six of the 21 muscles measured were found to have moment arms that did not change with joint angle, whilst the remainder all demonstrated angle-dependent changes for at least one of the joints crossed.
  • Moment arm lengths tended to be longest for the large proximal muscles, whilst the largest relative changes were found for the moment arms of the distal muscles.
  • For muscles where moment arm varied with joint angle: all hip muscles were found to have increasing moment arms with extension of the joint, knee flexors were found to have moment arms that increased with extension, knee extensor moment arms were found to increase with flexion and ankle extensor moment arms increased with extension.

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  • (PMID = 17608640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/E013244/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375818
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75. Bilgic H, Cho S, Garvin DF, Muehlbauer GJ: Mapping barley genes to chromosome arms by transcript profiling of wheat-barley ditelosomic chromosome addition lines. Genome; 2007 Oct;50(10):898-906
SciCrunch. ArrayExpress: Data: Microarray .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mapping barley genes to chromosome arms by transcript profiling of wheat-barley ditelosomic chromosome addition lines.
  • We mapped 1257 barley genes to chromosome arms 1HS, 2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4HL, 5HS, 5HL, 7HS, and 7HL based on their transcript levels in the ditelosomic addition lines.
  • The number of genes assigned to individual chromosome arms ranged from 24 to 197.
  • We found our physical mapping of barley genes to chromosome arms to be consistent with our previous physical mapping to whole chromosomes.
  • In silico comparative mapping of barley genes assigned to chromosome arms revealed that the average genomic synteny to wheat and rice chromosome arms was 63.2% and 65.5%, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18059553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0831-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Genome
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genome
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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76. Gorea RK: Impact of proliferation of small arms and light weapons in south Asia. Med Confl Surviv; 2006 Jul-Sep;22(3):199-206
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Wounds and Injuries.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of proliferation of small arms and light weapons in south Asia.
  • Small arms and light weapons (SALW) cause much death and injury around the world, through war, homicide and suicide.

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  • (PMID = 16961121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-3699
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine, conflict, and survival
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Confl Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Luo S, Chen Y, Lai KO, Arévalo JC, Froehner SC, Adams ME, Chao MV, Ip NY: {alpha}-Syntrophin regulates ARMS localization at the neuromuscular junction and enhances EphA4 signaling in an ARMS-dependent manner. J Cell Biol; 2005 Jun 6;169(5):813-24
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] {alpha}-Syntrophin regulates ARMS localization at the neuromuscular junction and enhances EphA4 signaling in an ARMS-dependent manner.
  • In this study, we show that ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS; also known as a kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kD), a substrate for ephrin and neurotrophin receptors, was expressed in developing muscle and was concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ).
  • Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg, ZO-1) domain protein, alpha-syntrophin, as an ARMS-interacting protein in muscle.
  • Overexpression of alpha-syntrophin induced ARMS clustering in a PDZ domain-dependent manner.
  • Coexpression of ARMS enhanced EphA4 signaling, which was further augmented by the presence of alpha-syntrophin.
  • Moreover, the ephrin-A1-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EphA4 was reduced in C2C12 myotubes after the blockade of ARMS and alpha-syntrophin expression by RNA interference.
  • Finally, alpha-syntrophin-null mice exhibited a disrupted localization of ARMS and EphA4 at the NMJ and a reduced expression of ARMS in muscle.
  • Altogether, our findings suggest that ARMS may play an important role in regulating postsynaptic signal transduction through the syntrophin-mediated localization of receptor tyrosine kinases such as EphA4.

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  • (PMID = 15939763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9525
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD023315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021072; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R56 NS021072
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ephrins; 0 / Kidins220 protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / syntrophin alpha1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2171611
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78. Borgwardt SJ, Riecher-Rössler A, Dazzan P, Chitnis X, Aston J, Drewe M, Gschwandtner U, Haller S, Pflüger M, Rechsteiner E, D'Souza M, Stieglitz RD, Radü EW, McGuire PK: Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state. Biol Psychiatry; 2007 May 15;61(10):1148-56
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Schizophrenia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state.
  • BACKGROUND: Individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) have a very high risk of developing a psychotic disorder but the basis of this risk is unclear.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five individuals with an ARMS, 25 patients with first episode schizophrenia, and 22 healthy volunteers were studied using a 1.5T MRI scanner.
  • Twelve (34%) of the ARMS group developed schizophrenia in the 2 years subsequent to scanning.
  • In these regions, the volume in the ARMS group was smaller than in volunteers but not significantly different from that in the first episode (FE) group.
  • Direct comparison of the ARMS and control groups revealed additional areas of reduced volume in the left medial temporal cortex.
  • Within the ARMS group, those subjects who later developed psychosis had less gray matter than subjects who did not in the right insula, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyrus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ARMS was associated with reductions in gray matter volume in areas that are also reduced in schizophrenia, suggesting that these are a correlate of an increased vulnerability to psychosis.
  • Volumetric differences within the ARMS group may be related to the subsequent onset of schizophrenia in a subset of those at high risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Schizophrenia / genetics. Schizophrenic Psychology. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Early Diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gyrus Cinguli / pathology. Humans. Male. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Reference Values. Risk

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  • (PMID = 17098213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Broome MR, Fusar-Poli P, Matthiasson P, Woolley JB, Valmaggia L, Johns LC, Tabraham P, Bramon E, Williams SC, Brammer MJ, Chitnis X, Zelaya F, McGuire PK: Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in the 'at-risk mental state'. Psychol Med; 2010 Dec;40(12):1987-99
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Schizophrenia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in the 'at-risk mental state'.
  • BACKGROUND: Impaired spatial working memory (SWM) is a robust feature of schizophrenia and has been linked to the risk of developing psychosis in people with an at-risk mental state (ARMS).
  • We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural substrate of SWM in the ARMS and in patients who had just developed schizophrenia.
  • METHOD: fMRI was used to study 17 patients with an ARMS, 10 patients with a first episode of psychosis and 15 age-matched healthy comparison subjects.
  • Significant between-group differences in activation were evident in a cluster spanning the medial frontal cortex and right precuneus, with the ARMS groups showing less activation than controls but greater activation than first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
  • However, there was a significant group difference in the response of the right precuneus across repeated trials, with an attenuation of activation in controls but increased activation in FEP and little change in the ARMS.

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  • (PMID = 20214840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-8978
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychological medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0901310; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / PDA/02/06/016
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Arévalo JC, Wu SH, Takahashi T, Zhang H, Yu T, Yano H, Milner TA, Tessarollo L, Ninan I, Arancio O, Chao MV: The ARMS/Kidins220 scaffold protein modulates synaptic transmission. Mol Cell Neurosci; 2010 Oct;45(2):92-100
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The ARMS/Kidins220 scaffold protein modulates synaptic transmission.
  • Here we report that basal synaptic transmission is regulated in an unexpected manner by the ankyrin repeat-rich membrane-spanning (ARMS/Kidins220) scaffold protein.
  • In particular, decreases in the levels of ARMS/Kidins220 in vivo led to an increase in basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, without affecting paired pulse facilitation.
  • One explanation to account for the effects of ARMS/Kidins220 is an interaction with the AMPA receptor subunit, GluA1, which could be observed after immunoprecipitation.
  • Importantly, shRNA and cell surface biotinylation experiments indicate that ARMS/Kidins220 levels have an impact on GluA1 phosphorylation and localization.
  • Moreover, ARMS/Kidins220 is a negative regulator of AMPAR function, which was confirmed by inward rectification assays.
  • These results provide evidence that modulation of ARMS/Kidins220 levels can regulate basal synaptic strength in a specific manner in hippocampal neurons.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20547223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA08259; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL18974; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD023315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS21072; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021072; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA008259; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL018974; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS049442; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD23315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS049442; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R56 NS021072
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kidins220 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213926; NLM/ PMC2923264
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81. Ackland DC, Pak P, Richardson M, Pandy MG: Moment arms of the muscles crossing the anatomical shoulder. J Anat; 2008 Oct;213(4):383-90
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moment arms of the muscles crossing the anatomical shoulder.
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the instantaneous moment arms of 18 major muscle sub-regions crossing the glenohumeral joint during coronal-plane abduction and sagittal-plane flexion.
  • The tendon-excursion method was used to measure instantaneous muscle moment arms in eight entire upper-extremity cadaver specimens.
  • Significant differences in moment arms were reported across sub-regions of the deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, infraspinatus and supraspinatus (P < 0.01).
  • In flexion, the superior pectoralis major (clavicular fibers), anterior and posterior supraspinatus, and anterior deltoid were the most effective flexors, whereas the teres major and posterior deltoid had the largest extensor moment arms.

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  • (PMID = 18691376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-7580
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anatomy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2644775
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82. Ackland DC, Roshan-Zamir S, Richardson M, Pandy MG: Moment arms of the shoulder musculature after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2010 May;92(5):1221-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moment arms of the shoulder musculature after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
  • (1) to measure the instantaneous moment arms of thirteen subregions of major muscles spanning the glenohumeral joint during abduction and flexion of the shoulder after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty and (2) to compare these data with the muscle moment arms previously measured preoperatively in the anatomical shoulders.
  • The specimens were mounted onto a dynamic testing apparatus, and the instantaneous abductor/adductor and flexor/extensor moment arms of subregions of the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, teres major, and subscapularis muscles (a total of thirteen subregions) were measured with use of the tendon excursion method.
  • These muscle moment arms were compared with those measured preoperatively in the anatomical shoulders.
  • RESULTS: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty resulted in significant increases in the abductor moment arms of the anterior subregion of the deltoid (mean increase = 10.4 mm; 95% confidence interval = 7.5 to 13.3 mm) and the middle subregion of the deltoid (mean increase = 15.5 mm; 95% confidence interval = 10.8 to 20.3 mm) as well as recruitment of the posterior subregion of the deltoid as an abductor.
  • The adductor and extensor moment arms of the teres major, latissimus dorsi subregions, and inferior and middle subregions of the pectoralis major increased substantially after the arthroplasty.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty increases the moment arms of the major abductors, flexors, adductors, and extensors of the glenohumeral joint, thereby reducing muscle effort during common tasks such as lifting and pushing.

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  • (PMID = 20439669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Maor R, Shirasu K: The arms race continues: battle strategies between plants and fungal pathogens. Curr Opin Microbiol; 2005 Aug;8(4):399-404
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  • [Title] The arms race continues: battle strategies between plants and fungal pathogens.
  • The arms race between plants and fungal pathogens is fascinatingly varied, and what might be elicited as a plant defence mechanism against a pathogen could promote or enhance the virulence of other pathogens.
  • Several lines of evidence indicate a co-evolutionary arms race in which both plants and fungi can respond to changes that occur in their opponents.

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  • (PMID = 15996507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-5274
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Glucans; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Plant Growth Regulators; 0 / Sesquiterpenes; 0 / Terpenes; 37297-20-4 / phytoalexins; 9064-51-1 / callose
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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84. Broome MR, Matthiasson P, Fusar-Poli P, Woolley JB, Johns LC, Tabraham P, Bramon E, Valmaggia L, Williams SC, Brammer MJ, Chitnis X, McGuire PK: Neural correlates of movement generation in the 'at-risk mental state'. Acta Psychiatr Scand; 2010 Oct;122(4):295-301
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  • [Title] Neural correlates of movement generation in the 'at-risk mental state'.
  • OBJECTIVE: People with 'prodromal' symptoms have a very high risk of developing psychosis.
  • We examined the neurocognitive basis of this vulnerability by using functional MRI to study subjects with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) while they performed a random movement generation task.
  • METHOD: Cross-sectional comparison of individuals with an ARMS (n = 17), patients with first episode schizophreniform psychosis (n = 10) and healthy volunteers (n = 15).
  • RESULTS: During random movement generation, the ARMS group showed less activation in the left inferior parietal cortex than controls, but greater activation than in the first episode group.
  • CONCLUSION: The ARMS is associated with abnormalities of regional brain function that are qualitatively similar to those in patients who have recently presented with psychosis but less severe.

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  • (PMID = 20064129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0447
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Psychiatr Scand
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0901310; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / PDA/02/06/016; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents
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85. Wang H, Denton AR: Effective electrostatic interactions in solutions of polyelectrolyte stars with rigid rodlike arms. J Chem Phys; 2005 Dec 22;123(24):244901
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  • [Title] Effective electrostatic interactions in solutions of polyelectrolyte stars with rigid rodlike arms.
  • In solutions of star-branched polyelectrolytes, electrostatic interactions between charged arms on neighboring stars can compete with intrastar interactions and rotational entropy to induce anisotropy in the orientational distribution of arms.
  • We explore the influence of arm orientational anisotropy on effective star-star interactions for model stars comprising rigid rodlike arms with evenly spaced charged monomers interacting via an effective screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) potential.
  • For comparison, a torque balance analysis is performed to obtain the configuration and energy of the ground state, in which the torque vanishes on each arm of the two-star system.
  • As two stars begin to overlap, the forward arms are pushed back by interstar arm-arm repulsion, but partially interdigitate due to rotational entropy.
  • At center-center separations approaching complete overlap, the arms relax to an isotropic distribution.
  • For overlapping stars, the effective pair interactions in the simple rigid-arm-Yukawa model agree closely with simulations of a molecular model that includes flexible arms and explicit counterions [A.

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  • (PMID = 16396567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9606
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of chemical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Sandu L, Topala F, Porojan S: Stress distribution in retentive arms of combination clasps used on premolars. J Appl Biomater Biomech; 2010 May-Aug;8(2):76-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stress distribution in retentive arms of combination clasps used on premolars.
  • INTRODUCTION: Stresses resulting from cast clasp arms during insertion and the removal of removable partial dentures are the main causes of deformations or fractures.
  • OBJECTIVE: Retentive clasp arms used for premolars were investigated through the reverse engineering approach.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Purposely designed experimental three-dimensional (3D) models of the clasp arms were constructed on the buccal surface of an upper first premolar, to be used for structural simulations.
  • 3D teeth models obtained after laser scanning were used as a support for retentive clasp arms modeling.
  • Parameters of the clasp arms like length, thickness and cross-section were considered for the simulation of stainless steel wires.
  • This model was a useful tool in designing stainless steel clasp arms of different thickness and cross-section.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study demonstrated that the reverse engineering approach and structural analyses provide a powerful tool for designing clasps and visualizing fracture risk areas and for choosing the adequate cross-section for each case.
  • Within the limitations of this study, it was suggested that, on premolars, the biomechanical performance of half-round cross-sections for the retentive arms may be higher than round sections of clasp arms showing similar mechanical stiffness.

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  • (PMID = 20740469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1722-6899
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied biomaterials & biomechanics : JABB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Biomater Biomech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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87. Konstantaki M, Winter E, Swaine I: Effects of arms-only swimming training on performance, movement economy, and aerobic power. Int J Sports Physiol Perform; 2008 Sep;3(3):294-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of arms-only swimming training on performance, movement economy, and aerobic power.
  • Few studies have assessed the effects of arm training on arm power and swimming performance, yet there have not been any investigations on the effects of arms-only swimming training on swimming performance and physiological responses to arm exercise.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in arms-only and full-stroke swimming performance, movement economy and aerobic power after an arms-only swimming training program.
  • For six weeks ES performed arms-only freestyle swimming exercises for 20% of their weekly training distance three times per week, whereas CS performed their usual swimming training.
  • Before and after the training program, both groups performed a) two time trials, 186 m using arms-only (186ARMS) and 372 m using full-stroke (372FULL) freestyle swimming, and b) an incremental arm-pulling exercise test.
  • CONCLUSION: Arms-only swimming training at 20% of the weekly training distance is an effective method to improve arm conditioning during the preparatory phase of the annual training cycle.

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  • (PMID = 19211942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-0265
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of sports physiology and performance
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Sports Physiol Perform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Gatti CJ, Dickerson CR, Chadwick EK, Mell AG, Hughes RE: Comparison of model-predicted and measured moment arms for the rotator cuff muscles. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon); 2007 Jul;22(6):639-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of model-predicted and measured moment arms for the rotator cuff muscles.
  • BACKGROUND: The ability of mathematical models of the shoulder to accurately replicate physiological muscle moment arms is unknown.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare model-predicted and experimentally measured moment arms for the rotator cuff muscles during arm elevation.
  • METHODS: Moment arms obtained from six mathematical models and seven experimental studies were compared for the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis for elevation in the scapular plane.
  • RESULTS: All of the included models generated moment arms that generally fell within the range of experimentally measured data.
  • INTERPRETATION: The quantitative agreement between model-predicted and experimentally measured moment arms supports the use of the included models for biomechanical shoulder analyses.

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  • [Cites] Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2001 Feb;4(2):93-126 [11264863.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2001 Jun;16(5):389-94 [11390045.001]
  • [Cites] J Biomech. 2001 Sep;34(9):1209-16 [11506792.001]
  • [Cites] J Biomech. 2001 Oct;34(10):1243-55 [11522304.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 May;18(4):287-95 [12689778.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Mar;86-A(3):575-80 [14996885.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2004 May;19(4):350-7 [15109754.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978 Sep;(135):165-70 [709928.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986 Mar;68(3):398-404 [3949834.001]
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  • [Cites] J Biomech. 1992 Feb;25(2):189-99 [1733994.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 May;76(5):667-76 [8175814.001]
  • [Cites] J Biomech. 1994 May;27(5):527-50 [8027089.001]
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  • (PMID = 17395346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-0033
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR048540-03; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR048540; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR048540; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR048540-03
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS25746; NLM/ PMC1950345
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89. Fichtelberg A: Applying the rules of just war theory to engineers in the arms industry. Sci Eng Ethics; 2006 Oct;12(4):685-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Applying the rules of just war theory to engineers in the arms industry.
  • Given the close relationship between the modern arms industry and the military, engineers and other professionals who work in the arms industry should be held accountable to the principles of just war theory.
  • They are morally responsible both for choosing the companies that employ them (and to whom these companies sell arms) and a well as what types of arms they develop.

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  • (PMID = 17199144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1353-3452
  • [Journal-full-title] Science and engineering ethics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Eng Ethics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Sumina MV, Azizova TV, Vlasenko EV, Osovets SV, Gergenreĭder SN, Grigor'eva ES, Krupenina LN: [Chronic morbidity parameters in personel engaged into processing and utilization of arms and military equipment]. Med Tr Prom Ekol; 2009;(10):13-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chronic morbidity parameters in personel engaged into processing and utilization of arms and military equipment].
  • Analysis of chronic morbidity parameters in workers engaged into processing and utilization of arms and military equipment did not reveal any case of occupational radiation disease over 30 years of medical observation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity / trends. Russia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19943527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1026-9428
  • [Journal-full-title] Meditsina truda i promyshlennaia ekologiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Tr Prom Ekol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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91. Yuan YH, Wang C, Yuan Y, Hunt RH: Meta-analysis: incidence of endoscopic gastric and duodenal ulcers in placebo arms of randomized placebo-controlled NSAID trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Aug;30(3):197-209
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meta-analysis: incidence of endoscopic gastric and duodenal ulcers in placebo arms of randomized placebo-controlled NSAID trials.
  • AIM: To investigate the incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers (GDU) in placebo arms in NSAID trials over the last three decades.
  • The pooled incidence of GDU in placebo arms was calculated and compared.
  • Meta-regression was used to identify risk factors related to the incidence of the placebo ulcer at the study level.
  • In total, 3.29% GDUs were reported in 36 placebo arms.
  • The incidence of GDU in placebo arms was 0, 4.20% and 3.03% in the studies from 1975-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2006 respectively (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of GDU in placebo arms has not changed significantly over the last three decades, although has decreased in the past 10 years.
  • Studies show that previous GI events and co-therapy with low-dose aspirin/corticosteroids were associated with increasing GDU in placebo arms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Double-Blind Method. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Nov 1;30(9):955-7; author reply 957-60 [19807724.001]
  • (PMID = 19438429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents
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92. Faria CD, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Goulart FR, Gomes PF: Comparisons of electromyographic activity of scapular muscles between elevation and lowering of the arms. Physiother Theory Pract; 2008 Sep-Oct;24(5):360-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparisons of electromyographic activity of scapular muscles between elevation and lowering of the arms.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of the serratus anterior, upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles between elevation and lowering of the arms with 10 healthy subjects.
  • Significant differences were found between the elevation and the lowering of the arms for all muscles (p<or=0.001).
  • In addition, significant differences were found between phases for all muscles during elevation (p<or=0.001) and lowering of the arms (0.001<p<0.01).

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  • (PMID = 18821442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-5040
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiotherapy theory and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiother Theory Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Tor PC, Lee HY: Comparison of attitudes of psychiatrists vs primary healthcare physicians in Singapore towards at risk mental states (ARMS). Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2009 May;38(5):442-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of attitudes of psychiatrists vs primary healthcare physicians in Singapore towards at risk mental states (ARMS).
  • AIMS: It is possible to define at risk mental states (ARMS) that predict conversion to schizophrenia in up to 40% of help seeking individuals within a year of screening.
  • Treatment of ARMS is controversial due to difficulties with diagnosis and uncertainties of treatment effectiveness.
  • This survey was conducted to assess and compare attitudes of Singapore psychiatrists vs primary healthcare physicians towards ARMS.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous survey containing a clinical vignette and questions related to the diagnosis and management of ARMS was sent out to all registered psychiatrists/ psychiatry trainees and all doctors in a public primary healthcare group in Singapore.
  • The proportion of psychiatrists diagnosing ARMS vs psychosis was 44.8% vs 43.7% respectively.
  • Among psychiatrists who diagnosed ARMS, 74.4% (29/39) would treat the patient with active management.
  • Of the total number of psychiatrists surveyed, 49.4% would advocate population screening of high risk groups compared to 30.8% of primary healthcare physicians.
  • And 64.4% of psychiatrists felt that there was no consensus regarding the management of ARMS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is currently clinical equipoise with regards to both diagnosis and management of ARMS in Singapore.
  • Primary care physicians may be more likely to diagnose psychosis vs ARMS when compared to psychiatrists.
  • Psychiatrists were more likely than primary healthcare physicians to advocate population screening of ARMS in high-risk groups.
  • Most psychiatrists would manage ARMS actively.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude of Health Personnel. Mental Disorders / diagnosis. Physicians, Family. Psychiatry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Schizophrenia. Singapore. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19521648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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94. Brodie ED 3rd, Feldman CR, Hanifin CT, Motychak JE, Mulcahy DG, Williams BL, Brodie ED Jr: Parallel arms races between garter snakes and newts involving tetrodotoxin as the phenotypic interface of coevolution. J Chem Ecol; 2005 Feb;31(2):343-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parallel arms races between garter snakes and newts involving tetrodotoxin as the phenotypic interface of coevolution.
  • Parallel "arms races" involving the same or similar phenotypic interfaces allow inference about selective forces driving coevolution, as well as the importance of phylogenetic and phenotypic constraints in coevolution.
  • Here, we report the existence of apparent parallel arms races between species pairs of garter snakes and their toxic newt prey that indicate independent evolutionary origins of a key phenotype in the interface.

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  • (PMID = 15856788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-0331
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemical ecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Chem. Ecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin
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95. Mayrovitz HN, Sims N, Brown-Cross D, Humen S, Cohen P, Kleinman-Barnett C: Transcutaneous oxygen tension in arms of women with unilateral postmastectomy lymphedema. Lymphology; 2005 Jun;38(2):81-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcutaneous oxygen tension in arms of women with unilateral postmastectomy lymphedema.
  • Previous reports suggest that skin blood flow is reduced in arms of women with lymphedema due to breast cancer treatment.
  • TcPO2 was measured in fibrotic areas of affected arms and in corresponding sites on non-affected arms of 15 women with unilateral arm lymphedema before and after CDP therapy sequences.
  • TcPO2 did not differ between arms initially and did not change with treatment, being 60.1 +/- 8.8 mmHg at the start and 61.8 +/- 9.2 mmHg at the end of treatment.
  • Thus, despite significant amounts of initial edema, TcPO2 was not initially less in affected arms nor was it changed by therapy that improved both edema and fibrosis.

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  • (PMID = 16184817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7766
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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96. Gray S, Watts S, Debicki D, Hore J: Comparison of kinematics in skilled and unskilled arms of the same recreational baseball players. J Sports Sci; 2006 Nov;24(11):1183-94

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of kinematics in skilled and unskilled arms of the same recreational baseball players.
  • Arm segment angular kinematics in three dimensions at 1000 Hz were recorded with the search-coil technique from the arms of eight individuals who on one occasion threw with their skilled right arm and on another with their unskilled left arm.
  • Compared with their unskilled arm, the skilled arm had: a larger angular deceleration of the upper arm in space in the forward horizontal direction; a larger shoulder internal rotation velocity at ball release (unskilled arms had a negative velocity); a period of elbow extension deceleration before ball release; and an increase in wrist velocity with an increase in ball speed.
  • It is suggested that some of these differences in arm kinematics occur because of differences between the skilled and unskilled arms in their ability to control interaction torques (the passive torque at one joint due to motion at adjacent joints).

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  • (PMID = 17175616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-0414
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of sports sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sports Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Schneiders FI, Maertens B, Böse K, Li Y, Brunken WJ, Paulsson M, Smyth N, Koch M: Binding of netrin-4 to laminin short arms regulates basement membrane assembly. J Biol Chem; 2007 Aug 17;282(33):23750-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Binding of netrin-4 to laminin short arms regulates basement membrane assembly.
  • All netrins share structural homology to the laminin N-terminal domains and the laminin epidermal growth factor-like domains of laminin short arms.
  • Here we demonstrate that netrin-4 is a component of basement membranes and is integrated into the laminin polymer via interactions with the laminin gamma1 andgamma3 short arms.
  • In contrast to netrin-4, other members of the netrin family do not bind to these laminin short arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Basement Membrane / cytology. Laminin / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. Mice. Morphogenesis. Mutation. Protein Binding. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Salivary Glands / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17588941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lamc3 protein, mouse; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Ntn4 protein, mouse; 0 / laminin gamma 1
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98. Cortés RY, Arévalo JC, Magby JP, Chao MV, Plummer MR: Developmental and activity-dependent regulation of ARMS/Kidins220 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Dev Neurobiol; 2007 Nov;67(13):1687-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developmental and activity-dependent regulation of ARMS/Kidins220 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
  • A unique downstream protein is the Ankyrin-Repeat Rich Membrane Spanning (ARMS)/Kinase D-interacting substrate-220 kDa (Kidins220), a very abundant scaffold protein in the hippocampus.
  • To determine the roles of ARMS/Kidins220 in hippocampal neurons, we have analyzed the effects of synaptic activity upon the regulation and distribution of ARMS/Kidins220.
  • At early times in vitro (<7 DIV), synaptic activity was low and ARMS/Kidins220 levels were high.
  • As synaptic activity and markers for synapse maturation, such as PSD-95, increased, ARMS/Kidins220 significantly decreased to a plateau by later times in vitro (>12 DIV).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed ARMS/Kidins220 to be concentrated at the tips of growing processes in immature cultures, and more diffusely distributed in older cultures.
  • To examine the apparent inverse relationship between activity and ARMS/Kidins220 levels, neuronal firing was manipulated pharmacologically.
  • Chronic exposure to TTX increased ARMS/Kidins220 levels, whereas bicuculline caused the opposite effect.
  • Moreover, using shRNA to decrease ARMS/Kidins220 levels produced a corresponding increase in synaptic activity.
  • We find that ARMS/Kidins220 may function in neuronal development as an indicator and potentially as a homeostatic regulator of overall synaptic strength in hippocampal neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Hippocampus / embryology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neuronal Plasticity / physiology. Neurons / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Synapses / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
  • (PMID = 17587220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8451
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev Neurobiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD023315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS21072; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS41310
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kidins220 protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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99. Billings T, Wu JJ, Dyson S: Erythematous plaques on the face, trunk, and upper arms. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(7):14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Erythematous plaques on the face, trunk, and upper arms.
  • An 18-year-old woman presented with a one-year history of erythematous to slightly violaceous indurated papules and plaques on the face, earlobes, neck, upper arms, chest, and upper back.
  • [MeSH-major] Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20673542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4QWG6N8QKH / Hydroxychloroquine
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100. Najafi M, Firoozrai M, Gohari HL, Zavarehie A, Basiri G: Direct haplotyping of bi-allelic SNPs using ARMS and RFLP analysis techniques. Biomol Eng; 2007 Dec;24(6):609-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Direct haplotyping of bi-allelic SNPs using ARMS and RFLP analysis techniques.
  • In this study, we have designed a reliable method for direct haplotyping of polymorphic sites using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis techniques.

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  • (PMID = 17913580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-0344
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomolecular engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomol. Eng.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; EC 3.1.8.1 / PON1 protein, human
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