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1. Nishio J, Althof PA, Bailey JM, Zhou M, Neff JR, Barr FG, Parham DM, Teot L, Qualman SJ, Bridge JA: Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Invest; 2006 Jun;86(6):547-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • A valuable diagnostic adjunct and important prognostic parameter in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is the identification of translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14), and the associated PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion transcripts, respectively.
  • Most RMS fusion gene type studies have been based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of the fusion transcript, a technique limited by RNA quality and failure of devised primer sets to detect unusual variants.
  • (1) distinguish between the two most common ARMS-associated fusion genes;.
  • (3) assess histologic components in mixed alveolar/embryonal RMS; and (4) be performed on paraffinized tissue.
  • FISH analyses of 75 specimens (40 ARMS, 16 ERMS, 8 mixed ARMS/ERMS, and 11 non-RMS tumors) using selected cosmid clone, bacterial, P1-derived, and yeast artificial chromosome probe sets were successful in all but two cases.
  • Among specimens with informative results for both FISH and RT-PCR or standard karyotyping, PAX/FKHR classification results were concordant in 94.6% (53/56).
  • The three discordant cases included one exhibiting a t(2;13) by FISH that was subsequently confirmed by repeat RT-PCR, a second showing a rearrangement of the PAX3 locus only (consistent with the presence of a PAX3 variant translocation), and a third revealing a t(2;13) by FISH that lacked this translocation cytogenetically.
  • Both alveolar and embryonal components of the mixed ARMS/ERMS subtype were negative for PAX3, PAX7, and FKHR rearrangements, a surprising finding confirmed by RT-PCR and/or conventional karyotyping.
  • These data demonstrate that FISH with newly designed probe sets is a reliable and highly specific method of detecting t(1;13) and t(2;13) in routinely processed tissue and may be useful in differentiating ARMS from other small round cell tumors.
  • The findings also suggest that FISH may be a more sensitive assay than RT-PCR in some settings, capable of revealing variant translocations.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16607381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA36727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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2. Vanwoerkom RC, Bentz J, Chen L, Adler DG: EUS diagnosis of a primary pancreatic metastasis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. JOP; 2009;10(6):683-5
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  • [Title] EUS diagnosis of a primary pancreatic metastasis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • CONTEXT: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma are rare malignancies.
  • Pancreatic metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma are exceptionally uncommon.
  • CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old man with a history of right orbital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which had been treated with neoadjuvant therapy, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy developed an episode of pancreatitis.
  • EUS guided FNA confirmed the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the pancreas.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first reported case of EUS guided FNA diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19890194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Bahrami A, Gown AM, Baird GS, Hicks MJ, Folpe AL: Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a potentially serious diagnostic pitfall. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jul;21(7):795-806
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  • [Title] Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a potentially serious diagnostic pitfall.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma may be extremely difficult to distinguish from other primitive round cell neoplasms without ancillary immunohistochemistry and/or genetic study.
  • Particularly in adults and in the head and neck locations, the differential diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma includes small cell carcinoma and neuroepithelial tumors, such as esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • We have recently seen cases of genetically confirmed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which were misdiagnosed owing to expression of cytokeratins and neuroendocrine markers.
  • We studied a large group of well-characterized alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas for expression of such markers.
  • Forty-four alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (18 genetically confirmed) were retrieved from our archives and immunostained for wide-spectrum cytokeratin (OSCAR), low molecular weight cytokeratin (Cam5.2), synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56 using commercially available antibodies.
  • The tumors occurred in 23 males and 21 females at a mean age of 18 years (range, <1-64 years), and involved many sites.
  • Aberrant expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers is relatively common in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, occurring in 30-40% of cases.
  • These findings have significant implications for the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, particularly in adults and in the head and neck locations.
  • Although expression of cytokeratin and/or synaptophysin alone does not necessarily indicate epithelial or neuroendocrine differentiation, coexpression of cytokeratin and neuroendocrine markers, and in particular the presence of chromogranin expression, suggest true epithelial and/or neuroendocrine differentiation in a subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • These findings emphasize the need to employ a panel of markers, to include desmin, myogenin/MyoD1, and genetic study in the diagnosis of primitive round cell neoplasms in all age groups and in all locations.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Infant. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18487991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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4. Ihara T, Okamura D, Takahashi N, Kohri M, Kayano H, Tamaru J, Niitsu N: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking nasal lymphoma at the initial presentation. J Clin Exp Hematop; 2008 Nov;48(2):61-4
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking nasal lymphoma at the initial presentation.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is exceedingly rare in adults.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • We conclude that rhabdomyosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnoses of CD56(+) small round cell tumor, and immunohistochemical and cytogenetic studies should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / biosynthesis. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19039198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4280
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology : JCEH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Exp Hematop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human
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5. Ognjanovic S, Linabery AM, Charbonneau B, Ross JA: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer; 2009 Sep 15;115(18):4218-26
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  • [Title] Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005.
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents aged<20 years; its etiology remains largely unknown.
  • It is believed that embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the most common subtypes, arise through distinct biologic mechanisms.
  • RESULTS: Between 1975 and 2005, the incidence of ERMS was stable, whereas a significant increase in the incidence of ARMS was observed (APC, 4.20%; 95% CI, 2.60%-5.82%).
  • This trend may have been attributable in part to shifts in diagnosis, because a significant negative trend in RMS, not otherwise specified was observed concurrently.
  • A bimodal age peak for ERMS was observed, with the second, smaller peak in adolescence noted for males only; ARMS incidence did not vary by age or sex.
  • Five-year survival rates for RMS and ERMS increased during the period from 1976 to 1980 (52.7% and 60.9%, respectively) to the period from 1996 to 2000 (61.8% and 73.4%, respectively), whereas there was little improvement for ARMS (40.1% and 47.8%, respectively).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19536876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA099936-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA099936-06S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099936-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA099936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099936-06S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218300; NLM/ PMC2953716
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6. Seiz M, Radek M, Buslei R, Kreutzer J, Hofmann B, Kottler U, Doerfler A, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the clivus with intrasellar expansion: Case report. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 Nov;67(4):219-22
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the clivus with intrasellar expansion: Case report.
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas are common tumors of the head and neck region in children.
  • Transsphenoidal biopsy was performed and histopathological examination as well as molecular diagnostics confirmed the diagnosis of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).
  • Staging identified a metastatic lesion in the fourth thoracic vertebra resulting in the diagnosis of stage IV disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17139605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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7. Downs-Kelly E, Shehata BM, López-Terrada D, Weaver J, Patel RM, Hartke M, Tubbs RR, Skacel M, Goldblum JR: The utility of FOXO1 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens in the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2009 Sep;18(3):138-43
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  • [Title] The utility of FOXO1 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens in the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive neoplasm with unique t(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14) chromosomal translocations, resulting in PAX3/FOXO1 and PAX7/FOXO1 fusion genes, in approximately 80% of cases.
  • We report our experience with a dual-color break-apart FISH probe for the detection of FOXO1 (13q14) rearrangements in neoplasms within the differential diagnosis of ARMS, using routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
  • A total of 52 sarcomas were analyzed including ARMS (n = 25), embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (n = 8), neuroblastoma (n = 1), desmoplastic small round cell tumors (n = 2), Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (EWS/PNET; n = 15), and round cell liposarcoma (n = 1).
  • Cytogenetics and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data were available on a subset of the ARMS (n = 11) and EWS/PNET cases (n = 5).
  • FOXO1 gene rearrangements were identified in 88% (22/25) of ARMS (mean: 91% positive cells/case; range: 50% to 100%), whereas no rearrangements were detected in the other neoplasms examined (mean: 1.4% positive cells/case; range: 0% to 4%).
  • FOXO1 (13q14) FISH on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues samples showed excellent concordance with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cytogenetic analyses in ARMS cases, demonstrated excellent specificity (100%) when applied to potential mimickers such as EWS/PNET, and played an important role in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Pathology / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19704258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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8. Lisboa S, Cerveira N, Vieira J, Torres L, Ferreira AM, Afonso M, Norton L, Henrique R, Teixeira MR: Genetic diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the bone marrow of a patient without evidence of primary tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):554-7
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  • [Title] Genetic diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the bone marrow of a patient without evidence of primary tumor.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by two pathognomonic translocations, both involving the FOXO1 gene.
  • Interphase FISH analysis with specific probes evidenced a rearrangement involving the FOXO1 gene and RT-PCR identified the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion transcript.
  • These data show a case of ARMS with no evidence of primary tumor presenting the PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18561177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Williamson D, Missiaglia E, de Reyniès A, Pierron G, Thuille B, Palenzuela G, Thway K, Orbach D, Laé M, Fréneaux P, Pritchard-Jones K, Oberlin O, Shipley J, Delattre O: Fusion gene-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is clinically and molecularly indistinguishable from embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2010 May 1;28(13):2151-8
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  • [Title] Fusion gene-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is clinically and molecularly indistinguishable from embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether the clinical and molecular biologic characteristics of the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) subtypes have relevance independent of the presence or absence of the PAX/FOXO1 fusion gene.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The fusion gene status of 210 histopathologically reviewed, clinically annotated rhabdomyosarcoma samples was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess event-free survival and overall survival in fusion gene-negative ARMS (ARMSn; n = 39), fusion gene-positive ARMS (ARMSp; n = 94), and ERMS (n = 77).
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical behavior and molecular characteristics of alveolar cases without a fusion gene are indistinguishable from embryonal cases and significantly different from fusion-positive alveolar cases.
  • This implies that fusion gene status irrespective of histology is a critical factor in risk stratification of RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Genetic Testing. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. PAX7 Transcription Factor / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. France. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Great Britain. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1 / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Proportional Hazards Models. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


10. Williamson D, Lu YJ, Fang C, Pritchard-Jones K, Shipley J: Nascent pre-rRNA overexpression correlates with an adverse prognosis in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2006 Sep;45(9):839-45
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  • [Title] Nascent pre-rRNA overexpression correlates with an adverse prognosis in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Here, we observe that various tumor samples including rhabdomyosarcoma show very prominent staining on the short arms of the acrocentric chromosomes suggesting an increase in expression of ribosomal RNA synthesized from the repetitive rDNA of the nucleolar organizer regions located on these chromosomes.
  • Survival analysis showed a correlation with overexpression from this region and a poor prognosis in rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • This phenomenon was studied in an extended set of rhabdomyosarcoma tumor samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to quantify levels of pre-rRNA (precursor ribosomal RNA).
  • It was demonstrated first that the strong CESH signals did correspond to a marked increase in pre-rRNA expression and second that high pre-rRNA expression correlated with an adverse prognosis in alveolar subtype rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • We conclude that measuring expression of pre-rRNA by real-time PCR is a useful prognostic marker in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] RNA Precursors / biosynthesis. RNA Precursors / genetics. RNA, Ribosomal / biosynthesis. RNA, Ribosomal / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16770781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal
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11. Cerveira N, Torres L, Ribeiro FR, Henrique R, Pinto A, Bizarro S, Ferreira AM, Lopes C, Teixeira MR: Multimodal genetic diagnosis of solid variant alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 Dec;163(2):138-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodal genetic diagnosis of solid variant alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The most common types of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are alveolar RMS (ARMS), which are characterized by the specific translocation t(2;13)(q35;q14) or its rarer variant, t(1;13)(p36;q14), producing the fusion genes PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR, respectively, and embryonal RMS (ERMS), which is characterized by multiple numeric chromosome changes.
  • A solid variant of ARMS that is morphologically indistinguishable from ERMS has been described recently.
  • We present two cases with an initial histopathologic diagnosis of ERMS in which the combined findings by cytogenetic, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses demonstrate that both tumors were in fact the solid variant of ARMS.
  • The cytogenetic analysis of patient 1 revealed a t(2;13)(q35;q14) and the RT-PCR study detected the corresponding PAX3-FKHR chimeric transcript.
  • In patient 2, the cytogenetic finding of multiple trisomies was compatible with the initial histopathologic diagnosis of ERMS, but the finding of a PAX7-FKHR fusion transcript by RT-PCR pointed to the diagnosis of ARMS.
  • Interestingly, the CGH findings of this case reconciled the molecular and cytogenetic data by detecting, in addition to the trisomies, amplification of chromosomal bands 1p36 and 13q14, where the PAX7 and FKHR genes are located, respectively.
  • Our data indicate that this multimodal genetic analysis could be important for the differential diagnosis of these tumors.
  • Furthermore, our findings and previous studies indicate that there are no apparent genetic differences between solid variant and typical ARMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16337856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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12. Nakagawa N, Tsuda T, Yamamoto M, Ito T, Futani H, Yamanishi K: Adult cutaneous alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on the face diagnosed by the expression of PAX3-FKHR gene fusion transcripts. J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;35(7):462-7
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  • [Title] Adult cutaneous alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on the face diagnosed by the expression of PAX3-FKHR gene fusion transcripts.
  • The histology was compatible with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, but immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were negative for desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin and alpha-Sr-1, but were positive for CD56, vimentin and myogenin.
  • The diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was confirmed by the detection of PAX3-FKHR fusion gene transcripts in the paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.
  • The tumor was unresponsive to chemotherapy with pirarubicin, carboplatin and ifosfamide, and the patient died 9 months after the diagnosis.
  • This adult case of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma primarily occurring on the face is very rare, and the detection of PAX3-FKHR fusion gene transcripts was useful for diagnosis of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18705836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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13. Fulciniti F, Botti G, De Chiara A, Parlato V, Russo S, Vosa L, Nappi MM: Fine needle aspiration cytolog of perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: cytohistopathologic and immunocytochemical correlations. Acta Cytol; 2007 May-Jun;51(3):385-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytolog of perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: cytohistopathologic and immunocytochemical correlations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the cytopathologic findings in a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) of the perineum in a 13-year-old girl and to compare the cytopathologic findings with the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features observed on the corresponding fragments obtained from core biopsy of the mass.
  • RESULTS: Following a prospective cytopathologic diagnosis of ARMS, a cutting needle core biopsy was performed.
  • Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of the tissue fragments confirmed the cytopathologic diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Careful cytopathologic evaluation of optimal cell samples from ARMS may elicit a correct diagnosis provided that immunocytochemical staining for markers of myogenic differentiation is performed in a pretherapeutic phase.
  • [MeSH-major] Perineum / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17536540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Comandone A, Boglione A, Pochettino P, Berno E, Inguì M, Papotti M, Borasio P, Maggi G, Brach Del Prever E, Gino G: Primary sarcomas of the lungs and mediastinum: Clinicopathological study and therapy results of Piedmontese Group for Sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e21509

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  • Pts characteristics: median age 41 (19-80 y), male/female 19/12; symptoms at diagnosis: dyspnoea (42%), chest and shoulder pain (39%), cough (35%), hemophtoae (13%), discomfort (10%).
  • 26 lung sarcomas presented as a singular mass in 23 cases and as a metastatic disease in 3.
  • The histology were: peripheral nerve tumour 7, leiomyosarcoma 4, MFH 2, fibrosarcoma 2, liposarcoma 1, angiosarcoma 2, undifferentiated sarcoma 1, solitary fibrous tumour 2, rhabdomyosarcoma 2, synovialsarcoma 2, pulmonary artery sarcoma 1, pleuropolmonary blastoma 1, malignant hemangiopericytoma 1, mixoid chondrosarcoma 1, ectopic osteosarcoma 1, aggressive fibromatosis 1.
  • Only 4 pts received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11 adjuvant CT, 5 exclusive CT + RT for inoperable disease.
  • Of these only 8 are alive (2 with disease).
  • Volume of disease, complete resection and grading are the dominant prognostic factors.

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  • (PMID = 27963441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Magnan HD, Chou T, LaQuaglia MP, Gerald W, Ladanyi M, Merchant MS: Elevated expression of VEGFR-2 and VEGFA in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and activity of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a xenograft model of DSRCT. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10016

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: RNA was extracted from frozen tumor samples (DSRCT, alveolar soft part sarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma) and a human DSRCT cell line, JN-DSRCT.

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  • (PMID = 27962501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Indelicato DJ, Keole SR, Shahlaee AH, Morris CG, Gibbs CP, Scarborough MT, Islam S, Marcus RB: Ewing tumors of the chest wall: Local control and long-term outcomes. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e21501

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pts characteristics: median age 41 (19-80 y), male/female 19/12; symptoms at diagnosis: dyspnoea (42%), chest and shoulder pain (39%), cough (35%), hemophtoae (13%), discomfort (10%).
  • 26 lung sarcomas presented as a singular mass in 23 cases and as a metastatic disease in 3.
  • The histology were: peripheral nerve tumour 7, leiomyosarcoma 4, MFH 2, fibrosarcoma 2, liposarcoma 1, angiosarcoma 2, undifferentiated sarcoma 1, solitary fibrous tumour 2, rhabdomyosarcoma 2, synovialsarcoma 2, pulmonary artery sarcoma 1, pleuropolmonary blastoma 1, malignant hemangiopericytoma 1, mixoid chondrosarcoma 1, ectopic osteosarcoma 1, aggressive fibromatosis 1.
  • Only 4 pts received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11 adjuvant CT, 5 exclusive CT + RT for inoperable disease.
  • Of these only 8 are alive (2 with disease).
  • Volume of disease, complete resection and grading are the dominant prognostic factors.

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  • (PMID = 27963390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Elboukhari A, Errami N, Hemmaoui B, Nadour K, Darouassi Y, Zohair A, Azendour B, Abrouq A, Albouzidi A: [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid gland]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2007 Dec;108(6):536-8
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  • [Title] [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Rhabdomyosarcome alvéolaire de la glande parotide.
  • INTRODUCTION: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of salivary glands is a rare malignant neoplasm, presenting a striated muscular differentiation.
  • OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 57 year-old man presenting with a primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid gland.
  • DISCUSSION: According to literature data, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the parotid gland is exceptionally described after 40 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17919669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / Vimentin
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18. Manucha V, Castellani R, Sun CC: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses in a 57-year-old woman with 1:16 translocation. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;14(3):238-42
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses in a 57-year-old woman with 1:16 translocation.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon tumor.
  • This report describes a locally invasive and destructive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the ethmoid sinus of a 57-year-old woman.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a complex translocation with break apart of the FKHR region, which supports a diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • This report characterizes this tumor through microscopic and cyto-genetic analysis and emphasizes the importance of considering rhabdomyosarcoma in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors of the head and neck region in the middle-aged adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Myogenin / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16959712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myogenin
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19. Kohashi K, Oda Y, Yamamoto H, Tamiya S, Takahira T, Takahashi Y, Tajiri T, Taguchi T, Suita S, Tsuneyoshi M: Alterations of RB1 gene in embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: special reference to utility of pRB immunoreactivity in differential diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma subtype. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;134(10):1097-103
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  • [Title] Alterations of RB1 gene in embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: special reference to utility of pRB immunoreactivity in differential diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma subtype.
  • PURPOSE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, is classified into two major histologic subtypes, embryonal RMS (ERMS) and alveolar RMS (ARMS).
  • RMS is occasionally reported to be the second neoplasm of hereditary retinoblastoma.
  • Osteosarcoma is known as the most common second neoplasm of hereditary retinoblastoma, and tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma has been proven in previous studies to be related to the RB gene (RB1) alteration.
  • RESULTS: Allelic imbalance was more frequently detected in ERMS (13/27), than in ARMS (3/20) (P = 0.04).
  • Homozygous deletion on the protein-binding pocket domain of RB1 was found in 6 of 27 ERMS and in 2 of 20 ARMS (P = 0.24).
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemical pRB labeling indexes (LI) in 31 ERMS (median value, 31%) were significantly reduced in comparison with those observed in 26 ARMS (median value, 85%) (P < 0.0001).
  • In addition, immunohistochemical pRB LI may have the potential to be a useful ancillary tool in the differential diagnosis of RMS subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinoblastoma Protein / biosynthesis. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18386058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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20. Mercado GE, Barr FG: Fusions involving PAX and FOX genes in the molecular pathogenesis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: recent advances. Curr Mol Med; 2007 Feb;7(1):47-61
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  • [Title] Fusions involving PAX and FOX genes in the molecular pathogenesis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: recent advances.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in the pediatric population.
  • Two main histopathologic variants have been described, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS), which demonstrate clinical and genetic differences.
  • In particular, most ARMS but not ERMS tumors are characterized by the presence of recurrent chromosomal translocations, which have been cytogenetically defined as t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14).
  • These chimeric proteins are hypothesized to generate a novel transcriptional program in the target cell, thereby contributing to multiple aspects of ARMS tumorigenesis.
  • This review highlights recent advances in numerous areas of biomedical investigation that are providing new insights into the biology, molecular pathology, and translational science of ARMS: the identification of downstream targets of PAX3-FKHR and collaborating events in the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis; generation of animal models based on the gene fusion and collaborating events; development of new assays for diagnosis, prognosis, and detection of minimal disseminated disease; and exploration of immune recognition of this tumor and the fusion protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2 / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17311532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-5240
  • [Journal-full-title] Current molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA64202; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87812; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89461
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FOXO1A fusion protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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21. Montone KT, Barr FG, Zhang PJ, Feldman MD, LiVolsi VA: Embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of parameningeal sites in adults: a report of 13 cases. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;17(1):22-30
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  • [Title] Embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of parameningeal sites in adults: a report of 13 cases.
  • This study reports 13 adult parameningeal rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Nine lesions were alveolar, 3 were embryonal, and 1 could not be further classified.
  • PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR fusion transcripts or FKHR breaks were identified in 5 cases confirming a diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Three cases were negative supporting a diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Three patients are alive with no disease, 3 are alive with disease, 3 died of disease, and 4 patients are lost to follow-up.
  • Adult sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma is uncommon and should be considered in the differential of sinonasal neoplasms.
  • Disease can occur in the elderly.
  • Desmin and myogenin can aid in the diagnosis but cytokeratin reactivity can be seen and care must be taken not to diagnose carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18945709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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22. Yamaguchi K, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Saito Y, Matsuzaki A, Kanno S, Takimoto T, Suda M, Oda Y, Muto T, Takatsuki H, Hara T: [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of unknown origin mimicking acute leukemia at the initial presentation]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2007 Apr;48(4):315-20
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  • [Title] [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of unknown origin mimicking acute leukemia at the initial presentation].
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated PAX3/FKHR fusion transcripts, confirming the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation eight months after diagnosis, although he died of hepatic veno-occlusive disease on day 21.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma often develops in older children and younger adults, and its bone marrow infiltration may mimic acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Humans. Leukemia. Male. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17515123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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23. Kazanowska B, Reich A, Stegmaier S, Békássy AN, Leuschner I, Chybicka A, Koscielniak E: Pax3-fkhr and pax7-fkhr fusion genes impact outcome of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2007 Jan-Feb;26(1):17-31
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  • [Title] Pax3-fkhr and pax7-fkhr fusion genes impact outcome of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is a highly malignant embryonic tumor of childhood.
  • Two specific translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14) have been identified in about 75-80% of ARMS cells.
  • The extent of disease was graded according to clinical staging system with following distribution: 3 children with stage I, 4 with stage II, 23 with stage III, and 18 with stage IV spread disease having distant metastases.
  • PAX3-FKHR positive patients with locoregional disease had significantly poorer outcome compared with the ones with PAX7-FKHR positive tumors (p = 0.04).
  • In addition, fusion gene analysis is a helpful tool in differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated soft tissue tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. PAX7 Transcription Factor / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Fusion. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Translocation, Genetic. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / genetics. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17613043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3815
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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24. Blizniukov OP, Petrovichev NN, Perevoshchikov AG, Poliakov VG: [Diagnosis of micrometastases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma]. Arkh Patol; 2008 Mar-Apr;70(2):36-40
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis of micrometastases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma].
  • Alveolar rhabgomyosarcoma is a highly malignant, small blue cell pediatric soft tissue tumor.
  • Identification of micrometastases in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is important because the poor prognosis associated with this subgroup necessitates a modified therapeutic regimen.
  • Since the obtained lymph node specimen can be very small; rhabdomyosarcoma cells are not easily detected using conventional histological methods.
  • To assess the value of myogenin staining in the diagnosis of micrometastases in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, the authors examined 36 lymph nodes from children bearing this tumor.
  • The PAX3/7-FKHR gene fusion that resulted from chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma provided potential molecular diagnostic markers.
  • Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to develop an assay capable of identifying RAX3/7-FKHR positive cells in the fresh lymph nodes.
  • Thirty-six lymph nodes were examined and of them 17 lymph nodes had PAX3/7-FKHR fusion transcripts of alveolar rhadomyosarcoma cells.
  • The study demonstrates that molecular RT-PCR detection of micrometastases is the most sensitive method for diagnosing alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Eye Proteins / biosynthesis. Forkhead Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / biosynthesis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18540440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RAX protein, human; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transcription Factors
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25. Rivasi F, Botticelli L, Bettelli SR, Masellis G: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix. A case report confirmed by FKHR break-apart rearrangement using a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe on paraffin-embedded tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):442-6
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix. A case report confirmed by FKHR break-apart rearrangement using a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe on paraffin-embedded tissues.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a very rare malignant soft tissue tumor found in the uterine cervix.
  • Pathologic examination showed multiple leiomyomas in the uterus and ARMS in the cervix.
  • The literature has been reviewed; the histologic differential diagnosis of this rare lesion has been discussed and FISH has been suggested to be useful in differentiating ARMS from other poorly differentiated round cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


26. Aslam MB, Sahasrabudhe N, Kumar SN, Shenjere P, Belloso A, Morar P: Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck region: a case report of a diagnostic dilemma in a head and neck fine needle aspiration clinic. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):849-52
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  • [Title] Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck region: a case report of a diagnostic dilemma in a head and neck fine needle aspiration clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is one of the major categories of rhabdomyosarcomas; it encompasses malignant tumors of striated muscle and occurs more frequently in the extremities.
  • The diagnosis of an undifferentiated malignant small round cell tumor was made from cytologic examination of the aspirated sample, and biopsy of the lesion was advised.
  • On histologic analysis, diagnosis of solid variant of ARMS was made.
  • CONCLUSION: A solid variant of ARMS in an older population has not been published in the literature within the settings of a rapid head and neck clinic.
  • Therefore, the remote possibility of this diagnosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a malignant, round cell tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology in an older patient's neck lump.
  • [MeSH-major] Head / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neck / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 21053554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Henes J, Oberländer Y, Tepe G, Schneider W, Balletshofer B: [Unusual reason for unilateral (corrected) Raynaud's phenomenon with intensification when the arms are elevated]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009;134 Suppl Falldatenbank:F3
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  • [Title] [Unusual reason for unilateral (corrected) Raynaud's phenomenon with intensification when the arms are elevated].
  • [Transliterated title] Einseitiges Raynaud-Phänomen mit Verstärkung bei Elevation des Arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Rib Syndrome / complications. Cervical Rib Syndrome / diagnosis. Raynaud Disease / etiology. Thromboembolism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aneurysm / complications. Aneurysm / surgery. Anticoagulants / administration & dosage. Aspirin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Enoxaparin / administration & dosage. Female. Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Ribs / abnormalities. Ribs / surgery. Subclavian Artery. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / administration & dosage

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:E2
  • (PMID = 19319790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Enoxaparin; 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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28. Kariya S, Cureoglu S, Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Nishizaki K: Histopathological temporal bone study of the metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2009 Apr;36(2):221-3
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  • [Title] Histopathological temporal bone study of the metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • We describe the histopathological temporal bone findings of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in the patient with hearing loss and facial nerve paralysis.
  • Surgical operation was performed and the pathological diagnosis was alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Histopathological examination revealed that hearing loss and facial nerve paralysis of the patient was due to temporal bone metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Ear Neoplasms / secondary. Facial Paralysis / pathology. Hearing Loss, Bilateral / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary. Temporal Bone / pathology. Tibia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18606509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1476
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Gao H, Ou YL, Zhang KR, Zhang ZB, Wang WL: [Expression of fusion gene PAX3/PAX7-FKHR and chromosomal aberration in rhabdomyosarcoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;24(1):42-7
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  • [Title] [Expression of fusion gene PAX3/PAX7-FKHR and chromosomal aberration in rhabdomyosarcoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the PAX3/PAX7-FKHR fusion transcripts to identify genetic alteration in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) tissues.
  • METHODS: One-step reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of the PAX3/PAX7-FKHR fusion transcrips in 16 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (7 cases of ARMS, 9 cases of ERMS) and 16 specimens were compared to the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was employed to detect the genomic imbalance (DNA loss or amplification) in 16 RMS cases.
  • RESULTS: PAX3-FKHR fusion transcripts were positive in 3/7 and PAX 7-FKHR fusion transcripts were positive in 2/7 of ARMS patients, respectively, and were all negative in ERMS and Control tumors.
  • There were different chromosome variations for each RMS, chromosome amplification was frequently seen in 1p36 (69%), 5q32 (56%), 8q21 (63%), 13q14 (69%), 19q (63%), 20q (56%).
  • CONCLUSION: One-step RT-PCR assay for detection specific fusion gene provides a useful tool for confirmation of the diagnosis of RMS in diagnostically difficult cases and in retrospective studies.
  • Chimeric gene transcript resulting from specific chromosomal translocations is a reliable index for the molecular diagnosis of RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. PAX7 Transcription Factor / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17285543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-9406
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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30. Cannon GM Jr, Polsky EG, Bellinger MF: Metastatic intratesticular alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma discovered after induction of systemic chemotherapy. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):982.e13-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic intratesticular alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma discovered after induction of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive cancer that can metastasize to a variety of organs.
  • We present what we believe to be the first reported case of metastatic intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient presenting with testicular pain shortly after the induction of systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Bolger JC, Walsh JC, Hughes RE, Eustace SJ, Harrington P: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma originating between the fourth and fifth metatarsal--case report and literature review. Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Sep;16(3):e51-4
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma originating between the fourth and fifth metatarsal--case report and literature review.
  • We report a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma arising between the fourth and fifth metatarsal.
  • Percutaneous biopsy revealed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Staging scans showed advanced metastatic disease.
  • This highly malignant lesion remains challenging to diagnose, and difficult to treat successfully.
  • [MeSH-major] Metatarsus. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20654999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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32. Mehra S, de la Roza G, Tull J, Shrimpton A, Valente A, Zhang S: Detection of FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart by fluorescence in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and its clinicopathologic correlation. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Mar;17(1):14-20
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  • [Title] Detection of FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart by fluorescence in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and its clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Chromosomal translocations of t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14), resulting in PAX3-FOXO1 (FKHR) and PAX7-FOXO1 (FKHR) gene fusions, have been found to be specific molecular markers for alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS) and can be identified in approximately 80% cases.
  • As the prognosis of ARMS is worse than that of embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (ERMS), it is important to accurately distinguish between these 2 subtypes.
  • To detect the genetic alterations, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or dual-color dual-fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have been used in most studies so far.
  • In this study, we used FOXO1 (FKHR) gene break-apart FISH probe, which can detect both of the translocations involving the FOXO1 gene, and tested 20 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) including 6 cases of ARMS, 8 ERMS, 1 pleomorphic type, 5 not otherwise specified (RMS-NOS), and 10 non-RMS sarcomas.
  • A home-brew RT-PCR that could detect both PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 was also performed.
  • Four pathologists independently reviewed all RMS and a consensus diagnosis was also reached in discrepant cases.
  • FOXO1 break-apart by FISH was positive in 4 of 6 (66%) ARMS and 2 of 5 (40%) RMS-NOS cases.
  • RT-PCR assay confirmed all FISH results.
  • While 2 of 6 (33%) RMS patients with a FOXO1 break-apart died of the disease, there were no deaths among the patients with negative result.
  • The FOXO1 gene break-apart FISH probe is a simple and accurate tool to detect the translocations associated with ARMS.
  • As characteristic genetic alterations of ARMS can be identified in 40% of RMS-NOS cases in our study, the FISH assay would provide an additional useful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of ARMS, and an alternative to RT-PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Breakage. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Formaldehyde / pharmacology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / genetics. Paraffin Embedding. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18303411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-9551
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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33. Ehlers JP, Penne RB, Eagle RC Jr, Carrasco JR: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as an acute orbital mass in the medial rectus muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):149-51
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as an acute orbital mass in the medial rectus muscle.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric primary neoplasm in the orbit, often presenting with rapid proptosis and orbital symptoms.
  • We describe a 15-year-old girl who presented with an acute mass in her medial rectus muscle that was subsequently diagnosed as widely disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case in which an enlarged extraocular muscle was the initial manifestation of disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17413634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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34. Ben Arush MW, Bar Shalom R, Postovsky S, Militianu D, Haimi M, Zaidman I, Israel O: Assessing the use of FDG-PET in the detection of regional and metastatic nodes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of extremities. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Jul;28(7):440-5
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  • [Title] Assessing the use of FDG-PET in the detection of regional and metastatic nodes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of extremities.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARS) accounts for 20% to 30% of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and is known to have a worse prognosis than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Metastatic disease is more frequent in patients with alveolar tumors and these children with metastatic disease fare poorly, with a 5-year survival between 20% and 30%.
  • Therefore, ARS represents a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge that requires techniques to provide better assessment of the disease than provided by traditional means.
  • F18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) depicts the increased metabolism in abnormal tissues, enabling accurate evaluation of suspicious regional and metastatic disease.
  • The new combined PET/CT systems can further improve PET interpretation and affect patient management.
  • All the 3 patients we present had focally increased tracer uptake in nodal stations on a pretherapy PET performed at diagnosis.
  • Metastatic axillary disease was possibly also present in the third patient according to his later course of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Extremities / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16825990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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35. Gallego Melcón S, Sánchez de Toledo Codina J: Molecular biology of rhabdomyosarcoma. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(7):415-9
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  • [Title] Molecular biology of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common extracranial solid tumours in children.
  • Embryonal and alveolar subtypes of RMS present completely different genetic abnormalities.
  • In contrast, the majority (80-85%) of the alveolar RMS (aRMS) have the reciprocal chromosomal translocations 't(2;13)(q35;q14) or t(1;13)(p36;q14).
  • t(2;13) appears in approximately 70% of patients with the alveolar subtype.
  • A less frequent variant translocation t(1;13) involves another PAX family gene, /PAX7/, located in chromosome 1 and /FOXO1/ and is present in 10-15% of cases of the alveolar subtype in RMS.
  • Molecular detection of minimal disease by a sensitive method could contribute to better treatment stratification in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Humans. Models, Biological. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17652054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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36. Zhu L, Wang J: [Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of four cases with review of literature]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Sep;36(9):587-91

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  • [Title] [Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of four cases with review of literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic characteristics of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS) and its distinction from embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).
  • A second spindle cell component was focally found in 2 cases, resembling spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRMS differs from ERMS and ARMS morphologically.
  • Familiarity with its morphologic features and immunophenotype may help to distinguish this peculiar variant of rhabdomyosarcoma from a variety of lesions with abundant sclerosing matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. MyoD Protein / metabolism. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / classification. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / classification. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Sclerosis / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18070445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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37. Püsküllüoglu M, Lukasiewicz E, Miekus K, Jarocha D, Majka M: Differential expression of Snail1 transcription factor and Snail1-related genes in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Dec;48(4):671-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of Snail1 transcription factor and Snail1-related genes in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common sarcoma of soft tissue among children.
  • Two main RMS subtypes are alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS).
  • The major goal of this study was to find differentially expressed genes between RMS subtypes that could explain higher metastatic potential in ARMS and would be useful for the differential diagnosis.
  • Using RQ-PCR analysis we compared expression of Snail1 and Snail-related genes among 7 ARMS and 8 ERMS patients' samples obtained from the primary tumors and among 2 alveolar and 2 embryonal cell lines.
  • Our results show that Snail1 is highly expressed both in ARMS patients' samples and the alveolar cell lines.
  • We also found that the expression of E-Cadherin was downregulated and the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was upregulated in ARMS.
  • Our findings may explain higher ARMS aggressiveness.
  • Moreover, we suggest that further studies should be performed to verify if Snail1 can be considered as a potential target for ARMS therapy.

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  • (PMID = 21478114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / snail family transcription factors; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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38. Ganesan P, Thulkar S, Rajan A, Bakhshi S: Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking non-Hodgkin lymphoma: case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Oct;30(10):772-4
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  • [Title] Solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking non-Hodgkin lymphoma: case report and review of literature.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a high-grade neoplasm, which forms about 30% of rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • A histopathologic diagnosis of solid variant of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapy but had progressive disease.
  • In addition, the importance of biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected lymphomas and the pitfalls of needle aspirations are briefly discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leg. Muscle, Skeletal. Salvage Therapy


39. Odoi AT, Dassah ET, Darkey DE, Owusu-Afriyie O, Valkov AY: Advanced alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: a case report. Afr J Reprod Health; 2009 Mar;13(1):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: a case report.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon malignant soft tissue tumour rarely found in the female genital tract and carries a very poor prognosis especially in adults.
  • The cervical, uterine and omental biopsies were all diagnosed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • While the optimal management of this rare tumour is unknown, early recognition and diagnosis, and a prompt multimodality treatment approach of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy offers the best chance of cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Omentum / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20687274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1118-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of reproductive health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Reprod Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human
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40. Arush MW, Kollender Y, Issakov J, Shalom RB, Arieh YB, Malkin L, Postovsky S: Unusual leptomeningeal dissemination in a child with extracranial metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Sep;26(6):473-8
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  • [Title] Unusual leptomeningeal dissemination in a child with extracranial metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The authors describe a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma located in the thigh, with distal metastases to lungs, bones, and bone marrow.
  • This case demonstrates the rapidity with which leptomeningeal spread of extracranial metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma can occur and underscores the importance of diagnostic lumbar puncture and brain radiological investigations at diagnosis, even when the tumors are not in the parameningeal location.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology


41. Murakami M, Sakai H, Iwatani N, Asakura A, Hoshino Y, Mori T, Yanai T, Maruo K, Masegi T: Cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of maxillofacial alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a juvenile dog. Vet Clin Pathol; 2010 Mar;39(1):113-8
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  • [Title] Cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of maxillofacial alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a juvenile dog.
  • The mass was diagnosed as malignant round cell neoplasia.
  • A diagnosis of solid-pattern alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was made on the basis of morphologic and immunohistochemical results.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors in juvenile dogs, especially when cytologic findings reveal round, undifferentiated cells.

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  • (PMID = 19645742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-165X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Jones AE, Albano EA, Lovell MA, Hunger SP: Metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1213-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, accounts for 3% of childhood malignancies.
  • We describe a previously unreported association of MEN-2A with metastatic alveolar RMS and review the literature on associated hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes and current therapeutic options.
  • The diagnosis of RMS should prompt consideration of screening for familial genetic syndromes in certain patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20533522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA082086
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Meng MV, Grossfeld GD, Sudilovsky D, Baehner FL: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adult perineal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):88-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adult perineal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case report.
  • Below we report a case in which the diagnosis was established preoperatively by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • The diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma was favored on FNA and was corroborated by immunohistochemical stains for desmin, myogenin and CD56.
  • Upon surgical resection, the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was confirmed histologically and immunophenotypically.
  • CONCLUSION: FNA is a useful tool in diagnosing soft tissue lessions of the perineum, including rare primary tumors, such as adult rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Perineum / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16514847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Myogenin
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44. Fara P: Scientific coats of arms. Endeavour; 2005 Sep;29(3):101-3

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  • [Title] Scientific coats of arms.
  • With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science.

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  • (PMID = 16098590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] Endeavour
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endeavour
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Rutherford E
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45. Daramola AO, Banjo AA, Ajekigbe AT, Popoola AO: Metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma to the breast: a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2008 Jun;15(2):137-40
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  • [Title] Metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma to the breast: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the unusual occurrence of a Metastatic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma to the right breast in a young woman, six years after the primary in the right thigh had been surgically excised and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma to the breast is a rare condition and is almost exclusive to adolescent females.
  • Routine breast examinations should be mandatory for long term female survivors of primary Rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Muscle Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 18575488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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46. Fyrmpas G, Wurm J, Athanassiadou F, Papageorgiou T, Beck JD, Iro H, Constantinidis J: Management of paediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Sep;123(9):990-6
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  • [Title] Management of paediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest malignant tumour of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the paediatric population.
  • We present the results of multimodality treatment of paediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma, and we explore the role of surgery in the management of this malignancy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 14 patients (median age 7.5 years) with sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • All patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma had a poor prognosis, with a median survival time of 17 months.
  • Non- or partial responders to initial chemoradiation died within a year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Management of paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma requires a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19393123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Leventhal DD, Spiegel J, Keane W: Laryngeal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the true vocal fold in an adult: Case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Dec;89(12):E8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laryngeal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the true vocal fold in an adult: Case report.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx is extremely rare in adults, as only 17 well-documented cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature.
  • Of these, only 2 cases (both male) involved the alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma, and neither involved the true vocal folds.
  • We report a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the true vocal fold in 54-year-old woman.
  • Management of head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma has evolved from radical surgery to less morbid procedures supplemented with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / therapy. Vocal Cords / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hoarseness / diagnosis. Hoarseness / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laryngectomy / methods. Laryngoscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21174270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Kuroiwa M, Sakamoto J, Shimada A, Suzuki N, Hirato J, Park MJ, Sotomatsu M, Hayashi Y: Manifestation of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma as primary cutaneous lesions in a neonate with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Mar;44(3):e31-5
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  • [Title] Manifestation of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma as primary cutaneous lesions in a neonate with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • We report a rare case of neonatal Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • Alveolar RMS was diagnosed on the basis of excisional biopsy.
  • The patient, who is now 3 years and 11 months of age, is alive 46 months after the initial diagnosis, albeit with disease.
  • Thus, neonatal alveolar RMS with BWS may result from an alternate molecular pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19302842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / KCNQ1OT1 protein, human; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; VAC protocol
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49. Wachtel M, Runge T, Leuschner I, Stegmaier S, Koscielniak E, Treuner J, Odermatt B, Behnke S, Niggli FK, Schäfer BW: Subtype and prognostic classification of rhabdomyosarcoma by immunohistochemistry. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb 10;24(5):816-22
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  • [Title] Subtype and prognostic classification of rhabdomyosarcoma by immunohistochemistry.
  • PURPOSE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is classified into two main subgroups: the embryonal (ERMS) and the alveolar (ARMS) form.
  • The majority of the ARMSs are associated with specific chromosomal translocations (pARMS).
  • Because ARMS is much more aggressive than ERMS, RMS subclassification has clinical relevance.
  • However, diagnosis of RMS subgroups on the basis of histology or molecular biology can be difficult, and supplementing diagnostic methods would be desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology


50. Moon HS, Kwon SW, Lee JH: A case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus invading the orbit in an adult. Korean J Ophthalmol; 2006 Mar;20(1):70-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus invading the orbit in an adult.
  • PURPOSE: A case study and literature review of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in an adult.
  • Endoscopic intranasal biopsy revealed alveolar RMS.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical testing was positive for desmin, S-100, and smooth muscle actin (SMA), supporting the diagnosis of RMS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although rarely found in adults, RMS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis plays an important role in the definitive diagnosis of RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethmoid Sinus. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):794-803 [11241248.001]
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  • (PMID = 16768194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8942
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2908821
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51. Kamioka S, Takahashi T, Kawauchi S, Adachi H, Mori Y, Fujii K, Uekusa H, Doi T: Chiral tetraazamacrocycles having four pendant-arms. Org Lett; 2009 Jun 4;11(11):2289-92
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  • [Title] Chiral tetraazamacrocycles having four pendant-arms.
  • A chiral tetraazamacrocycle 9 having four pendant-arms was synthesized by repeating ring opening of an Ns-aziridine with secondary amines, followed by macrocyclization.

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  • (PMID = 19432409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-7052
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Aziridines; 0 / Macrocyclic Compounds; 54P5FEX9FH / aziridine
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52. Yasuda T, Perry KD, Nelson M, Bui MM, Nasir A, Goldschmidt R, Gnepp DR, Bridge JA: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck region in older adults: genetic characterization and a review of the literature. Hum Pathol; 2009 Mar;40(3):341-8
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck region in older adults: genetic characterization and a review of the literature.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is remarkably rare in adults older than 45 years.
  • Initial immunoprofiling of a small cell neoplasm of the head and neck region in an older adult may not include myogenic markers.
  • A valuable diagnostic aid and important prognostic parameter in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is the identification of PAX3-FOXO1 [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] or PAX7-FOXO1 [t(1;13)(p36;q14)] rearrangements.
  • The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of head/neck alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in older adults.
  • Each neoplasm was composed of undifferentiated, small round cells in a predominantly solid pattern.
  • Definitive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma diagnoses were confirmed genetically.
  • This study illustrates the diagnosis of head/neck alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in older adults is complicated by its rarity, lack of an alveolar pattern, and a potentially misleading immunoprofile (CD56 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity) if myogenic markers are not used.
  • Both PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas were identified in these patients.
  • In children, PAX7-FOXO1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is associated with a significantly longer event-free survival.
  • In contrast, adult alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma behaves more aggressively with a worse overall survival than pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18973919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA036727-249009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA036727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 36727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA036727-249009
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / PAX7 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX7 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96749; NLM/ PMC2753286
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53. Thompson JN: Coevolution: the geographic mosaic of coevolutionary arms races. Curr Biol; 2005 Dec 20;15(24):R992-4
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  • [Title] Coevolution: the geographic mosaic of coevolutionary arms races.
  • Coevolutionary arms races between species can favor exaggeration of traits for attack and defense, but relentless escalation of these arms races does not necessarily occur in all populations.

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  • (PMID = 16360677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9822
  • [Journal-full-title] Current biology : CB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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54. Jha P, Frölich AM, McCarville B, Navarro OM, Babyn P, Goldsby R, Daldrup-Link H: Unusual association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastasis: emerging role of PET-CT in tumor staging. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Aug;40(8):1380-6
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  • [Title] Unusual association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with pancreatic metastasis: emerging role of PET-CT in tumor staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreatic metastases in childhood cancer have been rarely reported in the radiology literature although ample evidence exists in pathology reports for its occurrence in patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS).
  • OBJECTIVE: Assess the occurrence of pancreatic metastases in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, increase awareness of this association and reassess current staging protocols.
  • RESULTS: Pancreatic metastases occurred in eight patients with alveolar RMS.
  • Four of these presented at diagnosis and four with disease recurrence.
  • In recurrent disease, the duration between the diagnosis of the primary tumor and pancreatic metastases varied from 8 months to 6 years (mean +/- SD: 2.38 +/- 2.49 years).
  • Pancreatic metastases were not associated with certain primary tumor locations or presence of other metastases, mandating an evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiologists should be sensitized and actively evaluate the pancreas in patients with alveolar RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Curr Opin Oncol. 2000 Jul;12(4):337-44 [10888419.001]
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  • (PMID = 20180103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895865
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55. Ahmed AA, Tsokos M: Sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma in children and young adults. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;15(2):160-5
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  • [Title] Sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma in children and young adults.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive malignant tumor often developing in the head and neck in children.
  • In the sinonasal region, rhabdomyosarcoma constitutes a clinically important group because of the difficulty of surgical resection and its generally poor prognosis.
  • We reviewed the archival pathology materials of 39 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children and young adults.
  • The diagnosis was made through light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and/or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) molecular testing.
  • Thirteen of the tumors were of the alveolar subtype.
  • In 11 cases, the tumor cells were poorly differentiated, forming a solid alveolar pattern.
  • Only one case was classified as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Four alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma tumors were tested by RT-PCR; all showed PAX3/FKHR chromosomal translocation.
  • We conclude that sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma is predominantly of the alveolar subtype and frequently shows clear cells.
  • A review of the literature shows that these tumors carry a poor prognosis, partly because of their parameningeal location and partly because of their "undifferentiated" alveolar histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17478770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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56. Cil T, Altintas A, Isikdogan A: Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting with destructive large lesion of the face. South Med J; 2008 Jan;101(1):104-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting with destructive large lesion of the face.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents.
  • Alveolar histologic type is more aggressive than the other types and is seen in most patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease.
  • She was diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on histopathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18176304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Byrne RA, Kuba MJ, Meisel DV, Griebel U, Mather JA: Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms? J Comp Psychol; 2006 Aug;120(3):198-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?
  • The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks.
  • However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved.
  • Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms.
  • These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

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  • [Copyright] ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
  • (PMID = 16893257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7036
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comp Psychol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Stevens MJ, Hoh JH: Conformational dynamics of neurofilament side-arms. J Phys Chem B; 2010 Jul 15;114(27):8879-86
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  • [Title] Conformational dynamics of neurofilament side-arms.
  • The side-arms of neurofilaments (NFs) have been proposed to be highly disordered, leading to entropic repulsion that modulates interfilament spacing.
  • To gain further insight into the dynamics and organization of the side-arms, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of neurofilament brushes using a coarse-grained model.
  • Further, we find cross-correlations between neurofilament side-arms within the brush, even for the NF-L polymers.

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  • (PMID = 20557103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5207
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
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59. Kurmasheva RT, Peterson CA, Parham DM, Chen B, McDonald RE, Cooney CA: Upstream CpG island methylation of the PAX3 gene in human rhabdomyosarcomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Apr;44(4):328-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upstream CpG island methylation of the PAX3 gene in human rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • PAX3 is an important gene in muscle development and muscle-producing neoplasms such as rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • PROCEDURES: We examined the methylation status of a PAX3 5'-CpG island in rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes and in normal fetal skeletal muscle.
  • PAX3 methylation was analyzed in 15 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 12 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and in six normal skeletal muscle samples, using semi-quantitative PCR analysis of DNA digested with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes.
  • RESULTS: The CpG island in the upstream region of the human PAX3 gene was hypermethylated in the majority of ERMS examined (13 of 15 tumors, mean of 52% methylation), whereas most ARMS (9 of 12 tumors) and all normal muscle samples showed relative hypomethylation (both 18% mean methylation).
  • Various CpG sites differ in contribution to overall PAX3 CpG island methylation, with methylation at a HaeII site being inversely correlated with PAX3 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PAX3 CpG island methylation appears to distinguish embryonal subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma from alveolar, and methylation at certain sites within this CpG island is inversely correlated with PAX3 expression.
  • In addition to exemplifying developmental dysregulation, methylation of PAX3 has potential in the development of an epigenetic profile for the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Muscle Development / genetics. Muscle, Skeletal / chemistry. Muscle, Skeletal / embryology. Paired Box Transcription Factors. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15602708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG20941
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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60. Grass B, Wachtel M, Behnke S, Leuschner I, Niggli FK, Schäfer BW: Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR, fibrillin-2, P-cadherin and AP2beta as biomarkers for rhabdomyosarcoma diagnostics. Histopathology; 2009 Jun;54(7):873-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR, fibrillin-2, P-cadherin and AP2beta as biomarkers for rhabdomyosarcoma diagnostics.
  • AIMS: Subclassification of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has clinical relevance, as the two major subclasses embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS) rhabdomyosarcoma differ greatly in terms of aggressiveness and prognosis.
  • Furthermore, clinical presentation of ARMS has been reported to mimic other tumour types, specifically lymphoma.
  • The aim was to determine the role of four biomarkers in the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • These included epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibrillin-2 as markers for ERMS, and AP2beta and P-cadherin as markers for translocation-positive ARMS.
  • The combination of AP2beta and P-cadherin detected ARMS with a specificity of 97% and sensitivity of 90%, data very similar to our previous study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These four biomarkers are suitable for clinical implementation in the future diagnosis of RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Protein Complex 2 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / metabolism. Male. Pregnancy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / metabolism. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19469909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 2; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / fibrillin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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66. Zubarev ER, Xu J, Sayyad A, Gibson JD: Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with V-shaped arms. J Am Chem Soc; 2006 Apr 19;128(15):4958-9
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  • [Title] Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with V-shaped arms.
  • Here we describe a very efficient method to produce well-defined amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with an equal number of hydrophobic and hydrophilic arms which are distributed along the surface of a 2-nm gold core in an alternating fashion.

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  • (PMID = 16608322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. John IA: The impact of small arms on health in Nigeria. Med Confl Surviv; 2005 Oct-Dec;21(4):312-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of small arms on health in Nigeria.
  • Nigeria, the most populous Black country in the world, though it has contributed to the welfare of other African countries, is plagued by internal conflicts with small arms.
  • Over a million illegal small arms circulate in Nigeria in the hands of militant groups.
  • Quality health care is unavailable in much of the country, and small arms injuries often overstretch emergency health care.
  • A national committee has been set up to implement the ECOWAS moratorium on small arms and light weapons, but much remains to be done.

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  • (PMID = 16450652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-3699
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine, conflict, and survival
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Confl Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Raney RB, Anderson JR, Brown KL, Huh WW, Maurer HM, Meyer WH, Parham DM, Rodeberg DA, Wolden SL, Donaldson SS, Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group Arcadia California USA: Treatment results for patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols III and IV, 1984-1997: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):612-6
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  • [Title] Treatment results for patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols III and IV, 1984-1997: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: To assess local control, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates in 71 patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ALV RMS) and their relation to radiation therapy (RT) on IRSG Protocols III and IV, 1984-1997.
  • PATIENTS AND TUMORS: Patients were 1-18 years at diagnosis (median, 6 years).
  • Thirty patients received VA +/- C with RT; 41 received VA +/- C alone.
  • RT was assigned, not randomized.
  • Eight-year EFS was 90%, with 100% local control for 17 patients given RT.
  • Eight-year EFS was 88%, with 92% local control for 37 patients without RT; P = 0.52 for EFS comparisons, 0.3 for local control comparisons.
  • In 17 Stage 3 patients (unfavorable site, tumors >5 cm, N0), 8-year EFS was 84% with 100% local control in 13 patients given RT; 8-year EFS was only 25% and local control 50% in 4 patients without RT.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with Stage 1-2 ALV RMS had slightly but statistically insignificantly improved local control, EFS, and OS rates when local RT was given.
  • The need for local RT in Stage 1-2 patients deserves evaluation in a randomized study.
  • Local control, EFS, and OS rates were significantly improved in Stage 3 patients receiving local RT.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20806360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA072989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA029511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA024507
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS263511; NLM/ PMC3128801
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69. Leng M, Besusso D, Jung SY, Wang Y, Qin J: Targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and regulating chromosome compaction by the PICH ATPase. Cell Cycle; 2008 05 15;7(10):1480-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and regulating chromosome compaction by the PICH ATPase.
  • In this study, we report the identification of a putative ATPase that targets Plk1 to chromosome arms during mitosis.
  • PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint "helicase") displays a temporal localization on chromosome arms and kinetochores during early mitosis.
  • Interaction with PICH recruits Plk1 to chromosome arms and disruption of this interaction abolishes Plk1 localization on chromosome arms.
  • Our study provides a mechanism for targeting Plk1 to chromosome arms and suggests that the PICH ATPase activity is important for the regulation of mitotic chromosome architecture.

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  • (PMID = 18418076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA84199
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / polo-like kinase 1; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases; EC 3.6.4.12 / ERCC6L protein, human
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70. Eaker S, Johnson M, Jenkins J, Bauer M, Little S: Detection of CFTR mutations using ARMS and low-density microarrays. Biosens Bioelectron; 2005 Dec 15;21(6):933-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of CFTR mutations using ARMS and low-density microarrays.
  • The amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) is routinely used for the identification of specific mutations within genomes.
  • This PCR-based assay, although simple, is performed at a low-throughput scale, usually requiring gel-electrophoresis for the identification of specific mutations.
  • We have applied the ARMS technology to a low-density microarray system to facilitate the needs of the medical clinic; high-throughput capabilities and ease-of-use.
  • Mutations within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene (DeltaF508, 1717-1G>A, G542X, 621+1G>T, and N1303K) were detected by multiplex-ARMS-PCR, and fragments were post-PCR labeled with Cy5.
  • Amine-modified probes specific for both the wild-type and mutant forms of each mutation site were attached to glass substrates.
  • The novel combination of the ARMS and low-density microarray technologies allows for a high-throughput, simple means to rapidly identify multiple known mutations for many genetic diseases including cystic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Equipment Design. Equipment Failure Analysis. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / instrumentation. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15890513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5663
  • [Journal-full-title] Biosensors & bioelectronics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosens Bioelectron
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 126880-72-6 / Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
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71. Mahmudi-Azer S: Arms trade and its impact on global health. Theor Med Bioeth; 2006;27(1):81-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - International Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Arms trade and its impact on global health.
  • The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts.
  • This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Developed Countries. Developing Countries. Humans. Internationality. Social Environment. United States

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  • (PMID = 16532304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-0980
  • [Journal-full-title] Theoretical medicine and bioethics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Theor Med Bioeth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Li X, Ding X, Chu B, Ding G, Gu S, Qian L, Wang Y, Zhou Q: Molecular authentication of Alisma orientale by PCR-RFLP and ARMS. Planta Med; 2007 Jan;73(1):67-70
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Herbal Medicine.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular authentication of Alisma orientale by PCR-RFLP and ARMS.
  • Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis were applied to the ITS region for the identification of A. orientale.
  • A restriction site for PSTI useful for PCR-RFLP analysis was detected and a pair of diagnostic primers DFZX-JB02S and DFZX-JB02X were designed for ARMS.

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  • (PMID = 17109255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-0943
  • [Journal-full-title] Planta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Planta Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Plant; 0 / DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
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73. Huh WW, Beverly Raney R: Orbital metastasis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma: case series and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Oct;28(10):684-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital metastasis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma: case series and review of the literature.
  • We present 3 cases of children who developed recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma with metastases to the orbit and review the medical literature.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed in 7 cases.
  • All 11 patients had stage 3 or 4 tumors at diagnosis, but none had orbital involvement initially.
  • Ten of the patients died; 7 of them succumbed with progressive disease within 6 months of the orbital recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17023831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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74. Lawrence JM: Energetic costs of loss and regeneration of arms in stellate echinoderms. Integr Comp Biol; 2010 Oct;50(4):506-14
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Energetic costs of loss and regeneration of arms in stellate echinoderms.
  • Loss of arms has energetic consequences for stellate echinoderms (crinoids, ophiuroids, and asteroids).
  • The energetic cost of losing an arm includes loss of investment, decrease in ability to obtain nutrients and allocation of nutrients to regeneration of the lost arms at a cost to other body compartments.
  • Loss of investment is greater in asteroids than in crinoids and ophiuroids because of greater development of the body wall and presence of gonads and pyloric caeca in the arms.
  • The cost of regeneration of organic matter in an arm can be estimated from the amount of organic matter present in intact arms and the cost of anabolism.
  • A major energetic cost of loss of arms that affects regeneration is decrease in food consumption.
  • They are also a good model for the study of the evolutionary significance of regeneration by comparing individuals that have lost arms and are regenerating them to those that have lost arms and are not.
  • The difference in the frequency of loss of arms of species is related to the difference in availability of food and the ability to feed that affect the capacity for re-investment in the lost arm.

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  • [Copyright] © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21558218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7023
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative and comparative biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr. Comp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Lazzarini L, Salviati G, Fabbri F, Zha M, Calestani D, Zappettini A, Sekiguchi T, Dierre B: Unpredicted nucleation of extended zinc blende phases in wurtzite ZnO nanotetrapod arms. ACS Nano; 2009 Oct 27;3(10):3158-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unpredicted nucleation of extended zinc blende phases in wurtzite ZnO nanotetrapod arms.
  • The conventional picture is that ZnO arms are thermodynamically stable only in the wurtzite phase.
  • Here, we provide the first experimental evidence of unpredicted extended zinc blend phases (50-60 nm long) embedded in the arms of ZnO wurtzite tetrapods.

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  • (PMID = 19739604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] ACS nano
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ACS Nano
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Babakhanian AR, Babakhanian RB, Isakov VD: [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms]. Sud Med Ekspert; 2005 Jul-Aug;48(4):5-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms].
  • Special literature (surgical, forensic-medical and criminalistic) is reviewed on classification, mechanisms of a harmful action and characteristics of injuries inflicted by non-lethal arms.
  • Some details of such arms construction and damaging action are given.

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  • (PMID = 16130323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sudebno-meditsinskaia ekspertiza
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sud. Med. Ekspert.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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77. Ishikawa T, Sakakibara H, Oiwa K: The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ. J Mol Biol; 2007 May 18;368(5):1249-58

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The architecture of outer dynein arms in situ.
  • Outer dynein arms, the force generators for axonemal motion, form arrays on microtubule doublets in situ, although they are bouquet-like complexes with separated heads of multiple heavy chains when isolated in vitro.
  • To understand how the three heavy chains are folded in the array, we reconstructed the detailed 3D structure of outer dynein arms of Chlamydomonas flagella in situ by electron cryo-tomography and single-particle averaging.
  • The neighboring outer dynein arms are connected through two filamentous structures: one at the exterior of the axoneme and the other through the alpha-tail.

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  • (PMID = 17391698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2836
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.4.2 / Dyneins
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78. Toju H, Sota T: Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes. Mol Ecol; 2009 Sep;18(18):3940-54
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.
  • Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes.
  • A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations.

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  • (PMID = 19732333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-294X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular ecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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79. Bortoluzzi S, Bisognin A, Romualdi C, Danieli GA: Novel genes, possibly relevant for molecular diagnosis or therapy of human rhabdomyosarcoma, detected by genomic expression profiling. Gene; 2005 Mar 28;348:65-71
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel genes, possibly relevant for molecular diagnosis or therapy of human rhabdomyosarcoma, detected by genomic expression profiling.
  • Transcriptional profiles of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and of a RMS cell line were reconstructed by a computational and statistical approach.
  • Cluster analysis applied to expression data detected a series of genes presumably co-expressed with genes encoding known tumour markers and/or reportedly involved in genesis or development of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Oncogenes / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15777710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1119
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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80. Hanifin CT, Brodie ED, Brodie ED: Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution. PLoS Biol; 2008 Mar 11;6(3):e60
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TETRODOTOXIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.
  • In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed.
  • The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction.
  • This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

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  • [CommentIn] PLoS Biol. 2008 Mar;6(3):e75 [20076705.001]
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  • (PMID = 18336073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-7885
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265764
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81. Bremer AK, Sennwald GR, Favre P, Jacob HA: Moment arms of forearm rotators. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon); 2006 Aug;21(7):683-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moment arms of forearm rotators.
  • This investigation aims at determining the moment arms of muscles that contribute to pronation and supination at three different angles of elbow flexion throughout the entire range of forearm rotation.
  • METHODS: Muscle moment arms were derived from tendon excursions that were recorded on a full-size epoxy model of the radioulnar complex.
  • FINDINGS: Moment arms of all major supinators exhibit peak values in 40-50 degrees of pronation, for all three positions of the elbow.

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  • (PMID = 16678316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-0033
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Xu T, Lu R, Liu X, Chen P, Qiu X, Zhao Y: Porphyrins with four monodisperse oligocarbazole arms: facile synthesis and photophysical properties. J Org Chem; 2008 Mar 7;73(5):1809-17

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Porphyrins with four monodisperse oligocarbazole arms: facile synthesis and photophysical properties.
  • A series of novel monodisperse, well-defined, star-shaped molecules T(OCAn)Ps (n = 2-6) with a central porphyrin core and four oligocarbazole arms are synthesized from the corresponding formyl-substituted oligocarbazoles via Adler reaction.
  • The obtained star-shaped porphyrins are intrinsically two-dimensional nanosized molecules, and the diameter of compound T(OCA6)P is 7.4 nm, representing one of the largest known star-shaped conjugated systems.
  • Their photophysical properties have been investigated by absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, together with the corresponding monodisperse oligocarbazole aldehyde precursors.
  • It is found that the light-harvesting capability of T(OCAn)Ps increases with the increasing length of the arms and reaches the maximum when n = 6.
  • A selective excitation of the oligocarbazole arms leads to the typical emission from the porphyrin cores, indicating occurrence of photoinduced intramolecular energy transfer, and the energy transfer efficiency decreases from T(OCA2)P to T(OCA6)P owing to the Förster energy-transfer process.
  • 3 nm in our system.
  • Notably, the monodisperse oligocarbazole aldehyde precursors give twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) excited states and luminescence in polar solvents with large Stokes shifts.

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  • (PMID = 18229940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of organic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Org. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Dai Y, Grant S: Targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic regulatory machinery. Cancer Res; 2007 Apr 1;67(7):2908-11
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic regulatory machinery.
  • Here, we summarize recent findings indicating that Mcl-1 represents a critical determinant of ABT-737 sensitivity and resistance, and that Mcl-1 down-regulation by various pharmacologic agents or genetic approaches dramatically increases ABT-737 lethality in diverse malignant cell types.
  • Collectively, these findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy targeting multiple arms of the apoptotic machinery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Piperazines / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17409392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 100866; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 93738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63753
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABT-737; 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nitrophenols; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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84. Davicioni E, Anderson MJ, Finckenstein FG, Lynch JC, Qualman SJ, Shimada H, Schofield DE, Buckley JD, Meyer WH, Sorensen PH, Triche TJ: Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Pathol; 2009 Feb;174(2):550-64
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  • [Title] Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in children occurs as two major histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS).
  • ARMS expresses the product of a genomic translocation that fuses FOXO1 (FKHR) with either PAX3 or PAX7 (P-F); however, at least 25% of cases lack these translocations.
  • We found that gene expression profiles and patterns of LOH of ARMS cases lacking P-F translocations are indistinguishable from conventional ERMS cases.
  • These objectively derived molecular classes are based solely on genomic analysis at the time of diagnosis and are highly reproducible.

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  • (PMID = 19147825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA088199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114757; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-88199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA-114757
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / TFAP2B protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630563
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85. Ingle RA, Carstens M, Denby KJ: PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race. Bioessays; 2006 Sep;28(9):880-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PAMP recognition and the plant-pathogen arms race.
  • Plants have evolved systems analogous to animal innate immunity that recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
  • PAMP detection is an important component of non-host resistance in plants and serves as an early warning system for the presence of potential pathogens.
  • Binding of a PAMP to the appropriate pattern recognition receptor leads to downstream signalling events and, ultimately, to the induction of basal defence systems.
  • To overcome non-host resistance, pathogens have evolved effectors that target specific regulatory components of the basal defence system.
  • In turn, this has led to the evolution in plants of cultivar-specific resistance mediated by R proteins, which guard the targets of effectors against pathogen manipulation; the arms race continues.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16937346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-9247
  • [Journal-full-title] BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioessays
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12777-81-0 / Flagellin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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86. Parelho V, Hadjur S, Spivakov M, Leleu M, Sauer S, Gregson HC, Jarmuz A, Canzonetta C, Webster Z, Nesterova T, Cobb BS, Yokomori K, Dillon N, Aragon L, Fisher AG, Merkenschlager M: Cohesins functionally associate with CTCF on mammalian chromosome arms. Cell; 2008 Feb 08;132(3):422-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cohesins functionally associate with CTCF on mammalian chromosome arms.
  • We show that the distribution of cohesins on mammalian chromosome arms is not driven by transcriptional activity, in contrast to S. cerevisiae.
  • Recruitment by CTCF suggests a rationale for noncanonical cohesin functions and, because CTCF binding is sensitive to DNA methylation, allows cohesin positioning to integrate DNA sequence and epigenetic state.

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  • (PMID = 18237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120074328; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120027516; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120036884; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM59150
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCCTC-binding factor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / cohesins; EC 3.1.21.1 / Deoxyribonuclease I
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87. Morocho AM, Karamyshev V, Shcherbinina O, Polushin N: Biotin-labeled oligonucleotides with extraordinarily long tethering arms. Methods Mol Biol; 2005;288:225-40
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  • [Title] Biotin-labeled oligonucleotides with extraordinarily long tethering arms.
  • We describe synthesis of four novel biotin phosphoramidites with tethering arms ranging from 20 to 74 atoms in length.

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  • (PMID = 15333906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin
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88. Caro JJ, Ishak KJ: No head-to-head trial? simulate the missing arms. Pharmacoeconomics; 2010;28(10):957-67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] No head-to-head trial? simulate the missing arms.
  • In this article, we describe the simulated treatment comparison (STC) approach to incorporating 'missing arms' into an existing trial.
  • The simulation is used to add the missing arms to the index trial and estimate the results that would have been obtained in a head-to-head trial.

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  • (PMID = 20831304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-2027
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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89. Birch PR, Rehmany AP, Pritchard L, Kamoun S, Beynon JL: Trafficking arms: oomycete effectors enter host plant cells. Trends Microbiol; 2006 Jan;14(1):8-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trafficking arms: oomycete effectors enter host plant cells.
  • Evidence of diversifying selection in these genes and their cognate plant host resistance genes suggests a molecular "arms race" as plants and oomycetes attempt to achieve and evade detection, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16356717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-842X
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Algal Proteins; 0 / Plant Proteins
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90. Srinivas U, Pillai L, Kar R, Mahapatra M, Gujra S, Pati HP: A case of rhabdomyosarcoma masquerading as acute leukemia at presentation: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):917-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of rhabdomyosarcoma masquerading as acute leukemia at presentation: a case report.
  • Non-hematopoietic malignancies infiltrating bone marrow have always been a source of erroneous diagnosis.
  • Among these, the small round cell tumors like neuroblastomas and rhabdomyosarcomas mimick the hematopoietic blasts.
  • Several case reports of rhabdomyosarcoma mimicking acute leukemia, clinically and morphologically at presentation have been reported in the literature.
  • We report here one such case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma masquerading as acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Antigens, CD45 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. MyoD Protein / analysis. Myogenin / analysis. Peroxidase / analysis. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18306605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Myogenin; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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91. Lappin JM, Morgan KD, Valmaggia LR, Broome MR, Woolley JB, Johns LC, Tabraham P, Bramon E, McGuire PK: Insight in individuals with an At Risk Mental State. Schizophr Res; 2007 Feb;90(1-3):238-44
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  • [Title] Insight in individuals with an At Risk Mental State.
  • PURPOSE: On average, people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis are more willing to seek and accept clinical help than patients with psychotic disorders, suggesting that insight in this group is relatively less impaired.
  • We compared the level and quality of insight in the ARMS and in first episode psychosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insight about illness was assessed in subjects with an ARMS and in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) who were and were not help-seeking, using the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI-E).
  • RESULTS: Insight was impaired in ARMS subjects, but there was considerable variability in the insight displayed between subjects.
  • Compared to FEP subjects, ARMS subjects showed greater insight, particularly with respect to Symptom Relabelling.
  • ARMS subjects were more likely to interpret anomalous experiences as symptoms of illness, and to perceive themselves as needing treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Insight in people at high risk for psychosis is impaired, despite the fact that they are help-seeking.
  • Insight varies between subjects, highlighting the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of insight in those with an ARMS.
  • ARMS subjects are impaired in their ability to appraise anomalous experiences as symptoms of illness, but much less impaired than FEP subjects.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data. Reference Values. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / diagnosis. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / psychology

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  • (PMID = 17215109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-9964
  • [Journal-full-title] Schizophrenia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schizophr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0901310; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / PDA/02/06/016
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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92. Tanyous GH: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasal vestibule in a child. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2006 Dec;6(2):87-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasal vestibule in a child.
  • A case of rhabdomyosarcoma in a 2 year old girl without a pre-existing predisposing factor visited the ENT Department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH).
  • Her clinical condition did not point to the diagnosis, which came as a histological surprise.
  • The histopathology report was alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • [Cites] Am J Otolaryngol. 2003 May-Jun;24(3):174-80 [12761705.001]
  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 1991;19(2):110-4 [2011095.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1993 Mar 1;71(5):1904-22 [8448756.001]
  • (PMID = 21748141.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-051X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3074915
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Case Report / Nasal rhabdomyosarcoma / Oman / pediatric age
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93. Kuntner M, Coddington JA, Schneider JM: Intersexual arms race? Genital coevolution in nephilid spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae). Evolution; 2009 Jun;63(6):1451-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intersexual arms race? Genital coevolution in nephilid spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae).
  • Although the results are compatible with both recently favored sexual selection hypotheses, sexually antagonistic coevolution, and cryptic female choice, the evidence of strong intersexual conflict and genitalic damage in both sexes is more easily explained as sexually antagonistic coevolution due to an evolutionary arms race.

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  • (PMID = 19492993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Evolution
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Sartori F, Alaggio R, Zanazzo G, Garaventa A, Di Cataldo A, Carli M, Rosolen A, AIEOP Comitato Strategico de Studio-Sarcomi: Results of a prospective minimal disseminated disease study in human rhabdomyosarcoma using three different molecular markers. Cancer; 2006 Apr 15;106(8):1766-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a prospective minimal disseminated disease study in human rhabdomyosarcoma using three different molecular markers.
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has 2 major histologic subtypes: alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS).
  • ARMS is more aggressive and prone to distant tumor dissemination, whereas ERMS tends to expand and recur locally.
  • METHODS: We determined the sensitivity and specificity of MyoD1, myogenin, and PAX-FKHR transcripts as RMS markers and used them to study prospectively by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) a series of consecutive unselected RMS patients enrolled in the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology national trial.
  • Prevalence of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) and its response kinetics to chemotherapy were assessed.
  • RESULTS: MyoD1 and myogenin were specifically associated with RMS, independently of histologic subtype, whereas PAX3/7-FKHR transcripts were expressed only in ARMS.
  • Out of a cohort of 40 patients, MDD positivity was limited to ARMS, with the sole exception of 1 ERMS.
  • RT-PCR was more sensitive than microscopic examination of bone marrow biopsies.
  • The study of the response kinetics of MDD showed that in approximately half of the cases, bone marrow was cleared of disease after 1 cycle of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MyoD1 and myogenin transcripts can be used as tumor markers for MDD assessment in virtually all RMS cases, whereas PAX-FKHR is specific for ARMS.
  • Sensitivity of RT-PCR methods was superior compared with standard morphologic assays.
  • Our study suggests that bone marrow involvement is more common in ARMS compared with ERMS, and that MDD can be often cleared by the initial chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Forkhead Transcription Factors / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MyoD Protein / analysis. Myogenin / analysis. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / chemistry. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / chemistry. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / secondary. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16544315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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95. Tian Y, He Y, Ribbe AE, Mao C: Preparation of branched structures with long DNA duplex arms. Org Biomol Chem; 2006 Sep 21;4(18):3404-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preparation of branched structures with long DNA duplex arms.
  • Branched structures with long DNA duplex arms have been constructed through biotin-streptavidin binding and characterized by gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging.

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  • (PMID = 17036131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0520
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic & biomolecular chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Biomol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 9013-20-1 / Streptavidin
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96. Arévalo JC, Wu SH, Takahashi T, Zhang H, Yu T, Yano H, Milner TA, Tessarollo L, Ninan I, Arancio O, Chao MV: The ARMS/Kidins220 scaffold protein modulates synaptic transmission. Mol Cell Neurosci; 2010 Oct;45(2):92-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The ARMS/Kidins220 scaffold protein modulates synaptic transmission.
  • Here we report that basal synaptic transmission is regulated in an unexpected manner by the ankyrin repeat-rich membrane-spanning (ARMS/Kidins220) scaffold protein.
  • In particular, decreases in the levels of ARMS/Kidins220 in vivo led to an increase in basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, without affecting paired pulse facilitation.
  • One explanation to account for the effects of ARMS/Kidins220 is an interaction with the AMPA receptor subunit, GluA1, which could be observed after immunoprecipitation.
  • Importantly, shRNA and cell surface biotinylation experiments indicate that ARMS/Kidins220 levels have an impact on GluA1 phosphorylation and localization.
  • Moreover, ARMS/Kidins220 is a negative regulator of AMPAR function, which was confirmed by inward rectification assays.
  • These results provide evidence that modulation of ARMS/Kidins220 levels can regulate basal synaptic strength in a specific manner in hippocampal neurons.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20547223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA08259; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL18974; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD023315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS21072; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021072; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA008259; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL018974; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS049442; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD23315; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS049442; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R56 NS021072
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kidins220 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213926; NLM/ PMC2923264
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97. Borgwardt SJ, Riecher-Rössler A, Dazzan P, Chitnis X, Aston J, Drewe M, Gschwandtner U, Haller S, Pflüger M, Rechsteiner E, D'Souza M, Stieglitz RD, Radü EW, McGuire PK: Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state. Biol Psychiatry; 2007 May 15;61(10):1148-56
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Schizophrenia.

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  • [Title] Regional gray matter volume abnormalities in the at risk mental state.
  • BACKGROUND: Individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) have a very high risk of developing a psychotic disorder but the basis of this risk is unclear.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five individuals with an ARMS, 25 patients with first episode schizophrenia, and 22 healthy volunteers were studied using a 1.5T MRI scanner.
  • Twelve (34%) of the ARMS group developed schizophrenia in the 2 years subsequent to scanning.
  • In these regions, the volume in the ARMS group was smaller than in volunteers but not significantly different from that in the first episode (FE) group.
  • Direct comparison of the ARMS and control groups revealed additional areas of reduced volume in the left medial temporal cortex.
  • Within the ARMS group, those subjects who later developed psychosis had less gray matter than subjects who did not in the right insula, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyrus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ARMS was associated with reductions in gray matter volume in areas that are also reduced in schizophrenia, suggesting that these are a correlate of an increased vulnerability to psychosis.
  • Volumetric differences within the ARMS group may be related to the subsequent onset of schizophrenia in a subset of those at high risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Schizophrenia / genetics. Schizophrenic Psychology. Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Early Diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gyrus Cinguli / pathology. Humans. Male. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Reference Values. Risk

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  • (PMID = 17098213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Liao YH, Hsu SM, Huang PH: ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma. Cancer Res; 2007 Dec 15;67(24):11547-56
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  • [Title] ARMS depletion facilitates UV irradiation induced apoptotic cell death in melanoma.
  • Here, we report that ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), a transmembrane protein abundant in the developing and adult neural tissues, is overexpressed in melanoma, a tumor ontogenetically originating from neural crest.
  • Immunohistochemical study of 79 melanocytic lesions showed significantly increased expression of ARMS in primary malignant melanomas (92.9%) and metastatic melanoma (60.0%) in comparison with benign nevocellular nevi (26.7%).
  • To investigate the role of ARMS in melanoma formation, murine B16F0 melanoma cells with stable knockdown of ARMS were established by RNA interference.
  • Down-regulation of ARMS resulted in significant inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and restrictive growth of melanoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice.
  • Importantly, depletion of ARMS facilitated UVB-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells through inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK.
  • Addition of MEK inhibitor PD98059 further sensitized ARMS-depleted melanoma cells to UVB-induced apoptosis, whereas constitutively active MEK rescued ARMS-depleted cells from apoptosis.
  • We further showed that BRAF, a downstream signaling molecule of ARMS in ERK pathway, is not mutated as a constitutively active form in acral lentiginous melanoma; in contrast, BRAF(T1799A) mutation, which leads to constitutive activation of ERK signaling, was detected in 57.1% of superficial spreading melanoma.
  • Our study suggests that overexpression of ARMS per se serves as one mechanism to promote melanoma formation by preventing stress-induced apoptotic death mediated by the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, especially in acral lentiginous melanoma, most of which does not harbor BRAF mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / physiopathology. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Foreskin. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Melanocytes / cytology. Melanocytes / physiology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. RNA Interference. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 18089783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KIDINS220 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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99. López-Menéndez C, Gascón S, Sobrado M, Vidaurre OG, Higuero AM, Rodríguez-Peña A, Iglesias T, Díaz-Guerra M: Kidins220/ARMS downregulation by excitotoxic activation of NMDARs reveals its involvement in neuronal survival and death pathways. J Cell Sci; 2009 Oct 1;122(Pt 19):3554-65
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  • [Title] Kidins220/ARMS downregulation by excitotoxic activation of NMDARs reveals its involvement in neuronal survival and death pathways.
  • A shared downstream effector for neurotrophin- and ephrin-receptor signaling is kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS).
  • Because this molecule is obligatory for neurotrophin-induced differentiation, we investigated whether Kidins220/ARMS and NMDAR functions were related.
  • Here, we identify an association between these proteins and discover that excitotoxicity, a specific form of neuronal death induced by NMDAR overstimulation, dramatically decreases Kidins220/ARMS levels in cortical neurons and in a model of cerebral ischemia.
  • Kidins220/ARMS downregulation is triggered by overactivation of NMDARs containing NR2B subunits and subsequent Ca(2+) influx, and involves a dual mechanism: rapid cleavage by the Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain and calpain-independent silencing of Kidins220/Arms gene transcription.
  • Additionally, Kidins220/ARMS knockdown decreases ERK activation and basal neuronal viability, and enhances neuronal death under excitotoxic conditions.
  • Our results demonstrate Kidins220/ARMS participation in neuronal life and death pathways, and constitute the first report of its regulation under pathological conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Down-Regulation. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neurons / cytology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Death. Cell Survival. Cells, Cultured. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Male. Protein Binding. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19759287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kidins220 protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
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100. Abel SM: Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2008 Jun;79(6):591-8
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  • [Title] Barriers to hearing conservation programs in combat arms occupations.
  • A focus group study involving four combat arms occupations was carried out to probe individuals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to hearing loss prevention to find ways to improve compliance.

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  • (PMID = 18581943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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