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1. Jacobson IM, Davis GL, El-Serag H, Negro F, Trépo C: Prevalence and challenges of liver diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Nov;8(11):924-33; quiz e117
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  • Although chronic HCV infection begins as an asymptomatic condition with few short-term effects, it can progress to cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and death.
  • Progression of fibrosis can be accelerated by factors such as older age, duration of HCV infection, sex, and alcohol intake.
  • If more effective therapies are not adopted for HCV, more than 1 million patients could develop HCV-related cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, or HCC by 2020, which will impact the US health care system.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / diagnosis. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20713178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Pekow JR, Bhan AK, Zheng H, Chung RT: Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis. Cancer; 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2490-6
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  • [Title] Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.
  • Previous studies have suggested that hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
  • The authors sought to determine whether hepatic steatosis is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a cohort of patients with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.
  • Steatosis, age, sex, body mass index, HCV RNA, HCV genotype, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, chronic alcohol use, and diabetes were examined in univariate and multivariate analyses for association with HCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, the presence of hepatic steatosis is independently associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Fatty Liver / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology. Liver Cirrhosis / virology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology


3. Derambure C, Coulouarn C, Caillot F, Daveau R, Hiron M, Scotte M, Francois A, Duclos C, Goria O, Gueudin M, Cavard C, Terris B, Daveau M, Salier JP: Genome-wide differences in hepatitis C- vs alcoholism-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar 21;14(11):1749-58
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  • [Title] Genome-wide differences in hepatitis C- vs alcoholism-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • AIM: To look at a comprehensive picture of etiology-dependent gene abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma in Western Europe.
  • METHODS: With a liver-oriented microarray, transcript levels were compared in nodules and cirrhosis from a training set of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (alcoholism, 12; hepatitis C, 10) and 5 controls.
  • CONCLUSION: Etiology-specific abnormalities (chromo-some preference; differences in transcriptomes and related functions) have been identified in hepatocellular carcinoma driven by alcoholism or hepatitis C.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hepatitis C / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / complications. Liver Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18350606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2695915
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4. Stout MD, Herbert RA, Kissling GE, Suarez F, Roycroft JH, Chhabra RS, Bucher JR: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure. Toxicology; 2008 Feb 28;244(2-3):209-19
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  • Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol.
  • There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium.
  • In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to alpha2micro-globulin.
  • Hepatocellular adenomas, and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were increased in male and female mice exposed to 1800ppm.
  • There were also treatment-related increases in multiple adenomas in both sexes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Inhalation Exposure. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Survival Analysis. Weight Gain / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18178301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 6QDY60NH6N / Methyl n-Butyl Ketone; U5T7B88CNP / methyl isobutyl ketone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41357; NLM/ PMC2683681
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5. Polesel J, Talamini R, Montella M, Maso LD, Crovatto M, Parpinel M, Izzo F, Tommasi LG, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S: Nutrients intake and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Nov;43(16):2381-7
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  • [Title] Nutrients intake and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy.
  • Although hepatitis C and B viruses and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dietary habits may also be relevant.
  • In conclusion, a diet rich in linoleic acid containing foods (e.g. white meats and fish) and beta-carotene was inversely related to HCC risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Diet / adverse effects. Liver Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17719221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene; 9KJL21T0QJ / Linoleic Acid
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6. Nagaya T, Tanaka N, Komatsu M, Ichijo T, Sano K, Horiuchi A, Joshita S, Umemura T, Matsumoto A, Yoshizawa K, Aoyama T, Kiyosawa K, Tanaka E: Development from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: a 27-year follow-up case. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2008 Oct;1(3):116-121
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  • [Title] Development from simple steatosis to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: a 27-year follow-up case.
  • It is well recognized that NASH may develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), both with unfavorable prognoses.
  • He had no history of alcohol intake and was negative for hepatitis virus markers and autoantibodies.
  • The patient's serum aminotransferase levels did not normalize despite repeated dietary instruction, and in 2001, liver histology demonstrated cirrhosis with mild steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, leading to the diagnosis of NASH-related cirrhosis.

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  • (PMID = 26193649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatocellular carcinoma / Hyaluronic acid / Liver cirrhosis / Simple steatosis
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7. McDonald SA, Hutchinson SJ, Bird SM, Robertson C, Mills PR, Dillon JF, Goldberg DJ: A record-linkage study of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in persons with hepatitis C infection in Scotland. Br J Cancer; 2008 Sep 02;99(5):805-10
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  • [Title] A record-linkage study of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in persons with hepatitis C infection in Scotland.
  • We investigated trends in first-time hospital admissions and deaths attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a large population-based cohort of 22 073 individuals diagnosed with hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection through laboratory testing in Scotland in 1991-2006.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence increased between 1996 and 2006 (average annual change of 6.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-11.6%, P=0.021).
  • The adjusted relative risk of HCC was greater for males (hazard ratio=2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.2), for those aged 60 years or older (hazard ratio=2.7, 95% CI: 1.9-4.1) compared with 50-59 years, and for those with a previous alcohol-related hospital admission (hazard ratio=2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.7).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Hepatitis C / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Medical Record Linkage

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  • (PMID = 18728670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105260794; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U 1052 00 002 00001.01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2528155
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8. Kim SR, Ikawa H, Ando K, Mita K, Fuki S, Sakamoto M, Kanbara Y, Matsuoka T, Kudo M, Hayashi Y: Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Feb 28;13(8):1271-4
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  • [Title] Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.
  • We describe a rare case of the transformation of a dysplastic nodule into well-differentiated hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 56-year-old man with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.
  • This is the first case of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated HCC within one year in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17451213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4147007
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9. Lu SC, Ramani K, Ou X, Lin M, Yu V, Ko K, Park R, Bottiglieri T, Tsukamoto H, Kanel G, French SW, Mato JM, Moats R, Grant E: S-adenosylmethionine in the chemoprevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rat model. Hepatology; 2009 Aug;50(2):462-71
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  • [Title] S-adenosylmethionine in the chemoprevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rat model.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a common cancer worldwide that lacks effective chemoprevention or treatment.
  • SAMe's chemopreventive effect may be related to its proapoptotic action and its ability to inhibit angiogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 19444874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32 AA007578; None / None / / R01 DK051719-12; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50AA11999; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R01 AT001576; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK051719; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK051719-12; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / AT1576; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R21 AT002311; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / AT002311; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32AA07578; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK51719; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30DK48522; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK048522; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50 AA011999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7LP2MPO46S / S-Adenosylmethionine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS117036; NLM/ PMC2754739
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10. Stefos A, Gatselis N, Zachou K, Rigopoulou E, Hadjichristodoulou C, Dalekos GN: Descriptive epidemiology of chronic hepatitis B by using data from a hepatitis registry in Central Greece. Eur J Intern Med; 2009 Jan;20(1):35-43
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  • RESULTS: 187/303 patients (61.7%) classified as chronic inactive HBV carriers, 78/303 (25.7%) had chronic hepatitis B, 29/303 (9.6%) had HBV-related cirrhosis and 9/303 (3%) HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Alcohol abuse was the only independent factor (OR: 2.5; p=0.01) associated with the progression to cirrhosis-HCC.
  • Alcohol abuse is frequent among HBV patients and is acting as an effect modificator risk factor for the development of HBV-related cirrhosis and HCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Child. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Medicine, Traditional. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19237090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0828
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Hill-Baskin AE, Markiewski MM, Buchner DA, Shao H, DeSantis D, Hsiao G, Subramaniam S, Berger NA, Croniger C, Lambris JD, Nadeau JH: Diet-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in genetically predisposed mice. Hum Mol Genet; 2009 Aug 15;18(16):2975-88
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  • [Title] Diet-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in genetically predisposed mice.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, with approximately 70% of cases resulting from hepatitis B and C viral infections, aflatoxin exposure, chronic alcohol use or genetic liver diseases.
  • The remaining approximately 30% of cases are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases, although a direct link between these pathologies and HCCs has not been established.

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  • (PMID = 19454484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2083
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / P40 RR012305-07; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075040-04; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR012305-07; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI068730; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR012305-09; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR012305; None / None / / P40 RR012305-09; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR12305; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075040-04; None / None / / P40 RR012305-08; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR012305-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54CA116867; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2714725
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12. Sehonou J, Kodjoh N, Sake K, Mouala C: [Liver cirrhosis in Cotonou, Republic of Benin: clinical aspects and factors related to death]. Med Trop (Mars); 2010 Aug;70(4):375-8
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  • [Title] [Liver cirrhosis in Cotonou, Republic of Benin: clinical aspects and factors related to death].
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features as well as factors related to death in cirrhosis patients admitted to the National University Hospital in Cotonou, Benin.
  • Hepatitis B and alcohol consumption were the main etiological factors: 53.3% and 23.2% respectively.
  • The revealing manifestations were ascitis (75%), jaundice (71.7%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (42.3%).
  • Higher risk for in-hospital death (42.3%) was correlated with male gender, salaried employment, and presentation with jaundice, ascitis, or hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The risk of death during hospitalization was higher for patients who were of male gender, working as salaried employees and admitted for the first time with jaundice, ascitis, or hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A program for mass vaccination of children against hepatitis B virus is needed to prevent cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • A campaign against alcohol abuse could reduce cirrhosis due to alcohol consumption.

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  • (PMID = 22368937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Médecine tropicale : revue du Corps de santé colonial
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Trop (Mars)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Pol S: [Natural history of hepatitis B infection]. Presse Med; 2006 Feb;35(2 Pt 2):308-16
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  • Cirrhosis may be complicated by portal hypertension, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma, which together explain 80% of the morbidity and mortality associated with HBV.
  • The 5-year survival rate for HBV-related cirrhosis ranges from 52 to 82%.
  • Immunosuppression, hepatitis D virus superinfection, and chronic alcohol consumption are the principal factors that modify this natural history.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Carrier State. Child. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis. Hepatitis B Vaccines / administration & dosage. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Hepatitis B virus / physiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Infant, Newborn. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Liver Cirrhosis / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Vaccination. Viral Load. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 16493335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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14. Zhang YJ: Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Hepatol; 2010 Mar 27;2(3):94-102
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  • [Title] Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • In the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in addition to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections, chemical carcinogens also play important roles.
  • In HCC, the tumor suppressor gene p53 codon 249 mutation is associated with AFB(1) exposure and mutations in the K-ras oncogene are related to vinyl chloride exposure.

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  • (PMID = 21160980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES009089; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES005116
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999273
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 4-aminobiphenyl / Aflatoxin B1 / Chemical carcinogens / Cytochrome p450 enzymes / Genetic variation / Glutathione S-transferase / Hepatitis B virus / Hepatitis C virus / Hepatocellular carcinoma / Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
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15. Kanazir M, Boricic I, Delic D, Tepavcevic DK, Knezevic A, Jovanovic T, Pekmezovic T: Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia). Tumori; 2010 Nov-Dec;96(6):911-7
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  • [Title] Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia).
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The objective of this case-control study was to test the existing hypotheses about factors related to the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the population of Belgrade (Serbia).
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The investigation was conducted between 2004 and 2007 and consisted of 45 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 90 individually gender- and age-matched hospital controls.
  • RESULTS: A highly statistically significant association (P = 0.001) was demonstrated between hepatocellular carcinoma and HBsAg positivity and the presence of hepatitis C virus antibodies.
  • Diabetes mellitus was significantly (P = 0.018) associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • A statistically significant inverse association was shown between low parity and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (P = 0.033).
  • A weekly intake of fish (P = 0.003) and yogurt (P = 0.003) and daily intake of boiled vegetables (P = 0.001) were reported more frequently by controls than hepatocellular carcinoma cases.
  • In the current study, a high intake of salty food also significantly increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (P = 0.027).
  • Based on multivariate analysis, the presence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (OR = 24.6, P = 0.001) and duration of smoking > or =25 years (OR = 3.8, P = 0.020) were significantly related to hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the daily consumption of boiled vegetables (OR = 0.1, P = 0.011) was inversely associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in the current study support the hypotheses that non-viral factors, such as lifestyle factors, reproductive factors, and a history of diabetes, might be involved in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Case-Control Studies. Coffee / adverse effects. Comorbidity. Feeding Behavior. Female. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Risk Factors. Serbia / epidemiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21388051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coffee
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16. Singh R, Kaul R, Kaul A, Khan K: A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Mar 28;13(12):1770-87
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  • Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment.
  • HLA associations of chronic HBV or HCV development with confounding host factors including alcohol, drug abuse, insulin resistance, age and gender are lacking and warrant detailed investigation across global populations.

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  • (PMID = 17465466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 159
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4149952
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17. Fracanzani AL, Piperno A, Valenti L, Fraquelli M, Coletti S, Maraschi A, Consonni D, Coviello E, Conte D, Fargion S: Hemochromatosis in Italy in the last 30 years: role of genetic and acquired factors. Hepatology; 2010 Feb;51(2):501-10
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  • A cohort of 452 Italian patients with iron overload-338 HFE-related (C282Y homozygotes or compound C82Y/H63D heterozygotes) and 114 non-HFE-related-were followed prospectively for a median of 112 months.
  • Alcohol intake, smoking habits, and iron removed to depletion were similar in patients with and without HFE-related iron overload.
  • Hepatitis B virus (4% and 9%; P = 0.04) and hepatitis C virus (6% and 19%; P = 0.002) infections were more frequent in patients with non-HFE-related iron overload.
  • Seventy-three percent of patients with HFE and 61% of patients with non-HFE-related disease had no acquired risk factor.
  • Sex, alcohol intake, prevalence of smoking, hepatitis C virus infection, glucose, lipids, iron-related parameters, and prevalence of C282Y/H63D differed significantly over the years.
  • Survival did not differ across the decades in cirrhotic patients; hepatocellular carcinoma occurred similarly in HFE and non-HFE patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with HFE and non-HFE-related iron overload have comparable iron overload and similar clinical history.

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  • [CommentIn] Hepatology. 2010 Apr;51(4):1473-4; author reply 1474 [20373380.001]
  • (PMID = 20101754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Wright TL: Introduction to chronic hepatitis B infection. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006;101 Suppl 1:S1-6
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  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects over 350 million people worldwide and over 1 million die annually of HBV-related chronic liver disease.
  • Although many individuals eventually achieve a state of nonreplicative infection, the prolonged immunologic response to infection leads to the development of cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in up to 40% of patients.
  • A variety of host (age at infection, gender, immune status); viral (viral load, genotype, mutation); and external (concurrent viral infections, alcohol consumption, chemotherapy) factors influence disease progression.

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  • (PMID = 16448446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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19. Kirchner G, Kirovski G, Hebestreit A, Schölmerich J, Schlitt HJ, Stoeltzing O, Hellerbrand C: Epidemiology and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern Germany. Int J Clin Exp Med; 2010;3(2):169-79
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  • [Title] Epidemiology and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern Germany.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) belongs to the most frequent tumors worldwide with an incidence still rising.
  • The results indicate that chronic alcohol abuse was the most common risk factor (57.2%), followed by infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV: 10.9% and HCV: 20.5%).
  • We conclude that chronic alcohol abuse is frequently associated with HCC in low hepatitis virus endemic areas, such as Germany.
  • Our study suggests the CLIP score as a valuable prognostic marker for patients' survival, particularly of patients with alcohol related HCC.

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  • (PMID = 20607043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-5901
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2894652
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CLIP score / HCC / epidemiology / hepatocellular carcinoma / survival
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20. Alberti A, Vario A, Ferrari A, Pistis R: Review article: chronic hepatitis C--natural history and cofactors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Nov;22 Suppl 2:74-8
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  • This heterogeneity is largely related to host factors that have been clearly proven to affect the severity and rapidity of disease progression.
  • The most relevant factors that have been shown to accelerate progression to cirrhosis include age at infection, alcohol abuse and the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, obesity and hepatic steatosis.
  • Co-infection with HIV and/or HBV also increases the risk of progression to cirrhosis and to hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Surprisingly enough, viral related factors appear as less important and neither the virus genotype and load have been found to exert a clear influence on disease severity and progression, although more data in this field, and particularly on the role of different viral proteins in causing cytopathic effects, are awaited and may change this view in the near future.

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  • (PMID = 16225479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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21. Goya L, Mateos R, Bravo L: Effect of the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Protection against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Eur J Nutr; 2007 Mar;46(2):70-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence suggests that olive oil's beneficial effects are related to the high level of antioxidants, including phenolic compounds such as hydroxytyrosol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Phenylethyl Alcohol / analogs & derivatives. Plant Oils / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Availability. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Glutathione / metabolism. Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism. Glutathione Reductase / metabolism. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Olive Oil. Oxidation-Reduction. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Time Factors. tert-Butylhydroperoxide / pharmacology

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MALONALDEHYDE .
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  • (PMID = 17200875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-6207
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Olive Oil; 0 / Plant Oils; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 10597-60-1 / 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 955VYL842B / tert-Butylhydroperoxide; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.8.1.7 / Glutathione Reductase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; ML9LGA7468 / Phenylethyl Alcohol
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22. Leone N, Rizzetto M: Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, to hepatocellular carcinoma. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2005 Mar;51(1):31-46
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  • [Title] Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, to hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Acquired infection after age 40, male sex, excessive alcohol-consumption, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HIV co-infection, steatosis, and immunosuppressed state have been identified as co-factors associated with progression of fibrosis and development of cirrhosis.
  • In patients with cirrhosis, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is 2-5% per year.
  • At present, HCV-related end-stage cirrhosis is the first cause of liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Adult. Clinical Enzyme Tests. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genotype. Hepacivirus / genetics. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Liver Transplantation. Male. RNA, Viral / analysis. Time Factors. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 15756144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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23. Schacherer D, Schoelmerich J, Zuber-Jerger I: [The diagnostic approach to hepatocellular carcinoma]. Z Gastroenterol; 2007 Oct;45(10):1067-74
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  • [Title] [The diagnostic approach to hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • Risk factors and symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): The main risk factors of HCC include infection with hepatitis B or C virus, as well as alcohol consumption.
  • Among the various staging systems used in the context of HCC, the Barcelona-Clinic-Liver-Cancer (BCLC) staging system is currently the only staging system that takes into account tumour stage, liver function, physical status and cancer-related symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17924305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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24. Ikeda K, Marusawa H, Osaki Y, Nakamura T, Kitajima N, Yamashita Y, Kudo M, Sato T, Chiba T: Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and risk for hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study. Ann Intern Med; 2007 May 1;146(9):649-56
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  • [Title] Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and risk for hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and occult HBV infection may have an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease related to hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the association between antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and clinical outcomes in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in 237 of 846 patients (28.0%) during follow-up.
  • Among patients with cirrhosis, HCC was diagnosed in 85 of 141 patients (60.3%) with anti-HBc and 58 of 129 patients (45.0%) without HBV-related serologic markers.
  • LIMITATIONS: The study included only 1 assessment of smoking and alcohol consumption at study entry and did not precisely determine the duration of smoking or alcohol use.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HBc-positive results on serologic testing are a marker of high risk for HCC among patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. Hepatitis B Antibodies / blood. Hepatitis B Core Antigens / immunology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / immunology. Liver Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Jan 15;148(2):166-7; author reply 167 [18195343.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2007 May 1;146(9):I59 [17470828.001]
  • (PMID = 17470833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B Antibodies; 0 / Hepatitis B Core Antigens; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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25. Beyazit Y, Kekilli M, Purnak T, Kurt M: Possible role of adipocytokines in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology; 2010 Sep;52(3):1172
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  • [Title] Possible role of adipocytokines in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipokines / physiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / physiopathology. Fatty Liver / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentOn] Hepatology. 2010 Jun;51(6):1972-8 [20209604.001]
  • (PMID = 20683933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines
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26. Pol S: [Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis B]. Rev Prat; 2005 Mar 31;55(6):599-606
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  • Cirrhosis may result in complications of portal hypertension and liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma which explain 80% of morbidity and mortality of HBV: the 5-year survival of HBV-related cirrhosis ranges from 52 to 82%.
  • Immunosuppression, delta virus superinfection or chronic alcohol consumption are the main factors which modify the natural history of HBV infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Liver Cirrhosis / virology. Liver Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15913111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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27. Marcellin P, Pequignot F, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Zarski JP, Ganne N, Hillon P, Antona D, Bovet M, Mechain M, Asselah T, Desenclos JC, Jougla E: Mortality related to chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in France: evidence for the role of HIV coinfection and alcohol consumption. J Hepatol; 2008 Feb;48(2):200-7
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  • [Title] Mortality related to chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C in France: evidence for the role of HIV coinfection and alcohol consumption.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mortality related to HCV and HBV infections was estimated in France.
  • Physicians who reported the deaths were sent a questionnaire to identify how many deaths were related to HBV/HCV infection.
  • In the HCV infection group, 95 percent had cirrhosis; 33 percent had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Deaths related to HBV or HCV infection occurred at an earlier age in patients with a history of excessive alcohol consumption.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In France, 4000-5000 deaths related to HCV and HBV infection occurred in 2001.
  • Alcohol consumption and HIV infection were important co-factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking. HIV Infections / mortality. Hepatitis B, Chronic / mortality. Hepatitis C, Chronic / mortality


28. Gelatti U, Covolo L, Talamini R, Tagger A, Barbone F, Martelli C, Cremaschini F, Franceschi S, Ribero ML, Garte S, Nardi G, Donadon V, Donato F: N-Acetyltransferase-2, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jun 10;115(2):301-6
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  • [Title] N-Acetyltransferase-2, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the role of N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to cigarette smoking, taking into account hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viral infection as well as alcohol consumption.
  • Cases (n = 200) were patients hospitalized for HCC, and controls (n = 400) were patients admitted for reasons other than liver disease, neoplasms and tobacco- and alcohol-related diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15688397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.1.5 / Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.5 / NAT2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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29. Bhala N, Bhopal R, Brock A, Griffiths C, Wild S: Alcohol-related and hepatocellular cancer deaths by country of birth in England and Wales: analysis of mortality and census data. J Public Health (Oxf); 2009 Jun;31(2):250-7
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  • [Title] Alcohol-related and hepatocellular cancer deaths by country of birth in England and Wales: analysis of mortality and census data.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of and mortality from alcohol-related conditions, liver disease and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are increasing in the UK.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for alcohol-related deaths and HCC.
  • RESULTS: Mortality from alcohol-related deaths (23 502 deaths) was particularly high for people born in Ireland (SMR for men [M]: 236, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 219-254; SMR for women [F]: 212, 95% CI: 191-235) and Scotland (SMR-M: 187, CI: 173-213; SMR-F 182, CI: 163-205) and men born in India (SMR-M: 161, CI: 144-181).
  • Low alcohol-related mortality was found in women born in other countries and men born in Bangladesh, Middle East, West Africa, Pakistan, China and Hong Kong, and the West Indies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show persistent differences in mortality by country of birth for both alcohol-related and HCC deaths and have important clinical and public health implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcoholism / complications. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Censuses. Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19297455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-3850
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of public health (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Public Health (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Saneto H, Kobayashi M, Kawamura Y, Yatsuji H, Sezaki H, Hosaka T, Akuta N, Suzuki F, Suzuki Y, Arase Y, Ikeda K, Kumada H: Clinicopathological features, background liver disease, and survival analysis of HCV-positive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: differences between young and elderly patients. J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(12):975-81
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features, background liver disease, and survival analysis of HCV-positive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: differences between young and elderly patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody-positive elderly patients with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed distinct differences in HCV-related HCC between elderly and young patients and suggested that elderly patients (especially women) could develop HCC even when liver histology shows chronic hepatitis and lack of cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19107342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9001-26-7 / Prothrombin; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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31. Seitz HK, Stickel F: Risk factors and mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with special emphasis on alcohol and oxidative stress. Biol Chem; 2006 Apr;387(4):349-60
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  • [Title] Risk factors and mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with special emphasis on alcohol and oxidative stress.
  • Hepatocellular cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer in men and the eighth in women worldwide.
  • Established risk factors are chronic hepatitis B and C infection, chronic heavy alcohol consumption, obesity and type 2 diabetes, tobacco use, use of oral contraceptives, and aflatoxin-contaminated food.
  • Almost 90% of all hepatocellular carcinomas develop in cirrhotic livers.
  • In Western countries, attributable risks are highest for cirrhosis due to chronic alcohol abuse and viral hepatitis B and C infection.
  • Among those with alcoholic cirrhosis, the annual incidence of hepatocellular cancer is 1-2%.
  • An important mechanism implicated in alcohol-related hepatocarcinogenesis is oxidative stress from alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and increased iron storage.
  • Furthermore, alcohol impairs the antioxidant defense system, resulting in mitochondrial damage and apoptosis.
  • Chronic alcohol exposure elicits hepatocyte hyperregeneration due to the activation of survival factors and interference with retinoid metabolism.
  • Finally, chronic alcohol abuse interferes with methyl group transfer and may thereby alter gene expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 16606331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1431-6730
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoids; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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32. Liu J, Cheng ML, Shi JZ, Yang Q, Wu J, Li CX, Waalkes MP: Differential effects between maotai and ethanol on hepatic gene expression in mice: Possible role of metallothionein and heme oxygenase-1 induction by maotai. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2006 Oct;231(9):1535-41
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  • Alcohol is a risk factor for liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • On the other hand, light alcoholic beverage consumption is believed to be beneficial because of the effects of both alcohol and nonalcoholic components of the beverage.
  • Maotai is a commonly consumed beverage in China containing 53% alcohol.
  • An induction of metallothionein and heme oxygenase-1 occurred with Maotai, which could not be explained by alcohol consumption alone, whereas the attenuation of ethanol responsive genes such as quinone dehydrogenase, DNA-ligase 1, IGFBP1, and IL-1beta suggests less liver injury occurred with Maotai.
  • The expression of genes related to liver fibrosis, such as cytokeratin-18, was slightly increased by the high dose of ethanol, but was unchanged in the Maotai group.

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  • (PMID = 17018877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
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33. Wursthorn K, Manns MP, Wedemeyer H: Natural history: the importance of viral load, liver damage and HCC. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2008;22(6):1063-79
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  • Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections are the major causes of liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related mortality worldwide.
  • Among factors known to influence the natural history of viral hepatitis are age at the time of infection, duration of infection, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, male sex, alcohol consumption, and coinfections.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Causality. Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Fatty Liver / blood. Fatty Liver / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Insulin Resistance. Liver Cirrhosis / blood. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19187867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1916
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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34. Powell EE, Jonsson JR, Clouston AD: Steatosis: co-factor in other liver diseases. Hepatology; 2005 Jul;42(1):5-13
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  • Steatosis, obesity, and associated metabolic factors may also modulate the response to alcohol- and drug-induced liver disease and may be risk factors for the development of hepatocellular cancer.
  • The pathogenesis of injury in obesity-related fatty liver disease involves a number of pathways, which are currently under investigation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Liver Cirrhosis / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications. Metabolic Syndrome X / physiopathology. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 15962320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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35. Sagnelli E, Stroffolini T, Mele A, Almasio P, Coppola N, Ferrigno L, Scolastico C, Onofrio M, Imparato M, Filippini P: The importance of HCV on the burden of chronic liver disease in Italy: a multicenter prevalence study of 9,997 cases. J Med Virol; 2005 Apr;75(4):522-7
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  • A total of 9,997 patients were recruited, of whom 939 (9.4%) had normal liver biochemistry, 6,210 (62.1%) had chronic hepatitis, 1,940 (19.4%) had liver cirrhosis, and 341 (3.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • A history of alcohol abuse was found in 23% of the cases (9.4% without viral infection).
  • The prevalence of HCV-related cases was significantly lower in incident than in prevalent cases (44.9% vs. 59.9%, P < 0.0001), while the proportion of patients with alcohol abuse was much higher in incident than in prevalent cases (18.1% vs. 6.6%, P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alcoholism / complications. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Chronic Disease / epidemiology. Female. Hepacivirus. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Hepatitis B virus. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15714480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Ladeiro Y, Couchy G, Balabaud C, Bioulac-Sage P, Pelletier L, Rebouissou S, Zucman-Rossi J: MicroRNA profiling in hepatocellular tumors is associated with clinical features and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene mutations. Hepatology; 2008 Jun;47(6):1955-63
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling in hepatocellular tumors is associated with clinical features and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene mutations.
  • Molecular classifications defining new tumor subtypes have been recently refined with genetic and transcriptomic analyses of benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors.
  • Expression levels of 250 miRNAs in 46 benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors were compared to those of 4 normal liver samples with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. miRNAs associated with genetic and clinical characteristics were validated in a second series of 43 liver tumor samples and 16 nontumor samples. miRNA profiling unsupervised analysis classified samples in unique clusters characterized by histological features (tumor/nontumor, P < 0.001; benign/malignant tumors, P < 0.01; inflammatory adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia, P < 0.01), clinical characteristics [hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, P < 0.001; alcohol consumption, P < 0.05], and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene mutations [beta-catenin, P < 0.01; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1alpha), P < 0.01].
  • Moreover, miR-96 was overexpressed in HBV tumors, and miR-126* was down-regulated in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Hepatocellular tumors may have a distinct miRNA expression fingerprint according to malignancy, risk factors, and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Mutation / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Hepatology. 2008 Jun;47(6):1807-9 [18506877.001]
  • (PMID = 18433021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / beta Catenin
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37. Méndez-Sánchez N, Villa AR, Chávez-Tapia NC, Ponciano-Rodriguez G, Almeda-Valdés P, González D, Uribe M: Trends in liver disease prevalence in Mexico from 2005 to 2050 through mortality data. Ann Hepatol; 2005 Jan-Mar;4(1):52-5
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  • Alcohol-related liver diseases remain the most important causes of chronic liver disease, accounting for 996,255 cases in 2050.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma will be the third leading cause of liver disease.
  • Preventive strategies are necessary, particularly those related to obesity and alcohol consumption, to avoid catastrophic consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology


38. Saunders D, Seidel D, Allison M, Lyratzopoulos G: Systematic review: the association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma - epidemiological evidence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2010 May;31(10):1051-63
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  • [Title] Systematic review: the association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma - epidemiological evidence.
  • We examined such evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • AIM: To review the effect of increased levels of body mass index on hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
  • METHODS: We reviewed systematically the literature examining the association between increased body mass index and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
  • Of the cohort studies, 75% of person-years related to North Americans, 15% to East Asians, and 10% to Europeans.
  • Three cohort studies adjusted for alcohol consumption, only one cohort study adjusted for hepatitis infection status.
  • Seven cohort studies found a positive association between obesity (body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2)) and hepatocellular carcinoma risk (relative risks ranging from 1.4 to 4.1); two reported no association; and one reported a significant inverse association for a population subgroup (relative risk = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9).
  • CONCLUSION: Although most studies did not adjust for confounders and most data relate to a single world region, the overall evidence is suggestive of an increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in obese and overweight individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Obesity / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jul;32(2):304-5 [20636625.001]
  • (PMID = 20175765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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39. Gomaa AI, Khan SA, Toledano MB, Waked I, Taylor-Robinson SD: Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 21;14(27):4300-8
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world.
  • Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future.
  • This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

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  • (PMID = 18666317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aflatoxins
  • [Number-of-references] 134
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2731180
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40. Guiltinan AM, Kaidarova Z, Custer B, Orland J, Strollo A, Cyrus S, Busch MP, Murphy EL: Increased all-cause, liver, and cardiac mortality among hepatitis C virus-seropositive blood donors. Am J Epidemiol; 2008 Mar 15;167(6):743-50
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  • Hospital-based studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes frequent cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and mortality, but epidemiologic studies have shown less morbidity and mortality.
  • Excess mortality in the HCV+ group was greatest in liver-related (HR = 45.99, 95% CI: 11.32, 186.74), drug- or alcohol-related (HR = 10.81, 95% CI: 4.68, 24.96), and trauma/suicide (HR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.05, 4.36) causes.
  • High rates of mortality from drug/alcohol and trauma/suicide causes are likely due to lifestyle factors and may be at least partially preventable.

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  • (PMID = 18203734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-6256
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076902-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K24 HL075036; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01-HL-076902; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K24-HL-75036; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL076902; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K24 HL075036-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL076902-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL075036-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180412; NLM/ PMC2858006
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41. Neuman MG, Monteiro M, Rehm J: Drug interactions between psychoactive substances and antiretroviral therapy in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency and hepatitis viruses. Subst Use Misuse; 2006;41(10-12):1395-463
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  • The liver disease characteristic of alcohol dependence encompasses three main related entities: steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis.
  • Alcohol intake among injecting drug users is a major contributor to transmission of viral infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C viruses (HCV).
  • HIV and HCV coinfected patients develop liver diseases earlier and more severely than the monoinfected individuals, including hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Interactions exist between the therapeutic drugs used to minimize and control the drug and alcohol dependence.
  • Furthermore, drug-drug interactions occur between the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and alcohol, different HAART components and methadone, or each one of the therapies with the other, thus contributing to a higher toxicity level.
  • Drug-drug interactions may appear between alcohol and anti-HBV or anti-HCV, therapy in the presence or absence of anti-HIV therapy.
  • Several other medical-, social-, and drug-related factors of this population have to be considered when providing HAART.


42. Shin A, Cho ER, Kim J, Sung J, Park KW, Lim MK, Shin HR: Factors associated with awareness of infection status among chronic hepatitis B and C carriers in Korea. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Jun;18(6):1894-8
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  • Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections are the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is responsible for 17.5% of cancer deaths in Korea.
  • The objectives of this study were to identify demographic characteristics that may affect hepatitis carriers' awareness of their infection status, and to assess whether health-related behaviors differed by awareness of the infection.
  • No demographic characteristics were related to awareness of HCV infection status among HCV carriers.
  • In conclusion, two thirds of HCV carriers and one fourth of HBV carriers in this study population were not aware of their infection status, and awareness of hepatitis infection status was significantly associated with other risk behaviors, such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.

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  • (PMID = 19454614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Capocaccia R, Sant M, Berrino F, Simonetti A, Santi V, Trevisani F, EUROCARE Working Group: Hepatocellular carcinoma: trends of incidence and survival in Europe and the United States at the end of the 20th century. Am J Gastroenterol; 2007 Aug;102(8):1661-70; quiz 1660, 1671
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma: trends of incidence and survival in Europe and the United States at the end of the 20th century.
  • OBJECTIVES: There is large geographic variation in incidence levels and time trends of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Since comparisons based on cancer registry data are problematic because of variations in liver cancer definition and coding, we considered a subset of cases likely to be mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, suitable for international comparison.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increasing incidence in southern Europe is probably related to hepatitis B and C infection and increasing alcohol intake, while improving survival may be due to greater surveillance for cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17555459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11700
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Marelli L, Stigliano R, Triantos C, Senzolo M, Cholongitas E, Davies N, Tibballs J, Meyer T, Patch DW, Burroughs AK: Transarterial therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: which technique is more effective? A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):6-25
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  • [Title] Transarterial therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: which technique is more effective? A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemoembolization (TACE) improves survival in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Embolizing agents used were: gelatin sponge particles (71%), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (8%), degradable starch microspheres (DSM) (4%), and embospheres (4%).
  • Treatment-related mortality was 2.4% (0-9.5%), mainly due to acute liver failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17103105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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46. Romeo R, Del Ninno E, Rumi M, Russo A, Sangiovanni A, de Franchis R, Ronchi G, Colombo M: A 28-year study of the course of hepatitis Delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology; 2009 May;136(5):1629-38
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  • [Title] A 28-year study of the course of hepatitis Delta infection: a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); predictors of disease outcome are, however, poorly defined.
  • Female sex, alcohol abuse, and HDV replication were associated with liver decompensation; HBV replication and interferon were associated with HCC development.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Persistent HDV replication leads to cirrhosis and HCC at annual rates of 4% and 2.8%, respectively, and is the only predictor of liver-related mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. Hepatitis D / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / virology. Liver Neoplasms / virology


47. Gramenzi A, Conti F, Felline F, Cursaro C, Riili A, Salerno M, Gitto S, Micco L, Scuteri A, Andreone P, Bernardi M: Hepatitis C Virus-related chronic liver disease in elderly patients: an Italian cross-sectional study. J Viral Hepat; 2010 May;17(5):360-6
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  • [Title] Hepatitis C Virus-related chronic liver disease in elderly patients: an Italian cross-sectional study.
  • Comparison of younger and older groups showed that 51% patients > or =65 years had advanced liver disease (liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma) compared with 26% younger patients (P < 0.0001).
  • By multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, alcohol consumption and diabetes were independently associated with advanced liver disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Hepatitis C Antibodies / blood. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. RNA, Viral / blood. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19758274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of viral hepatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Viral Hepat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis C Antibodies; 0 / RNA, Viral
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48. Petta S, Craxì A: Hepatocellular carcinoma and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: from a clinical to a molecular association. Curr Pharm Des; 2010;16(6):741-52
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: from a clinical to a molecular association.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary neoplasm of the liver, and is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide.
  • It is also the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths.
  • Most cases of HCC develop on a pre-existing chronic liver disease, usually due to hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or alcohol.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Fatty Liver / metabolism. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism


49. Jeng JE, Chuang LY, Chuang WL, Chang JG, Tsai JF: Insulin-like growth factor II in hepatocellular carcinoma. Biomark Med; 2007 Aug;1(2):261-71
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor II in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant human tumors.
  • Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection, alcohol drinking and cirrhosis of any etiology are the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Growth factors, their receptors and related proteins are involved in the process of malignant transformation.
  • Increased IGF-II bioavailability, protease activity of IGF-binding proteins and IGF-I receptor expression, decreased expression of IGF-II receptor and IGF-binding proteins are thought to contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma genesis.
  • In the second part it will emphasize circulating IGF-II levels in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, and diagnostic application of serum IGF-II level in both small and larger hepatocellular carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20477401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-0371
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomarkers in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomark Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Fracanzani AL, Fargion S, Stazi MA, Valenti L, Amoroso P, Cariani E, Sangiovanni A, Tommasini M, Rossini A, Bertelli C, Fatta E, Patriarca V, Brescianini S, Stroffolini T: Association between heterozygosity for HFE gene mutations and hepatitis viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma. Blood Cells Mol Dis; 2005 Jul-Aug;35(1):27-32
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  • [Title] Association between heterozygosity for HFE gene mutations and hepatitis viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are strong and independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development.
  • In all subjects, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and HFE gene mutations were assayed; alcohol intake was recorded by history.
  • The interaction between HFE genotypes and hepatitis viruses for HCC was estimated by multivariate analysis adjusting for the confounding effect of alcohol intake, area of residence and months of follow-up.
  • In conclusion, given the association between C282Y mutation and HBV infection in male patients with HCC, a careful evaluation and follow-up should be considered in the C282Y-positive subjects with hepatitis B virus related liver disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. Hepatitis Viruses / isolation & purification. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 15894495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9796
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood cells, molecules & diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / HFE protein, human; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Membrane Proteins; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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51. Ohishi W, Fujiwara S, Cologne JB, Suzuki G, Akahoshi M, Nishi N, Takahashi I, Chayama K: Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Apr;17(4):846-54
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  • [Title] Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: a nested case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown effects of lifestyle-related factors on risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using sera stored before hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis in the longitudinal cohort of atomic bomb survivors.
  • The study included 224 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 644 controls that were matched to the cases on gender, age, city, time of serum storage, and method of serum storage, and countermatched on radiation dose.
  • RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that HBV and HCV infections, alcohol consumption, smoking habit, body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus were associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk, whereas coffee drinking was associated with decreased hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
  • Multivariate relative risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (95% confidence interval) were 45.8 (15.2-138), 101 (38.7-263), 70.7 (8.3-601), 4.36 (1.48-13.0), and 4.57 (1.85-11.3), for HBV infection alone, HCV infection alone, both HBV and HCV infections, alcohol consumption of > or =40 g of ethanol per day, and BMI of >25.0 kg/m(2) 10 years before diagnosis, respectively.
  • Among HCV-infected individuals, the relative risk of hepatocellular carcinoma for a 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was 1.39 (P = 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: To limit the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, control of excess weight may be crucial for individuals with chronic liver disease, especially those with chronic hepatitis C.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification. Liver Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18398026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Kane RC, Farrell AT, Madabushi R, Booth B, Chattopadhyay S, Sridhara R, Justice R, Pazdur R: Sorafenib for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncologist; 2009 Jan;14(1):95-100
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  • [Title] Sorafenib for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review and approval of sorafenib (Nexavar; Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corp., Montville, NJ, and Onyx Pharmaceuticals Corp., Emeryville, CA), an oral kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Underlying liver diseases included hepatitis B (18%), hepatitis C (28%), and alcohol-related (26%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Oncologist. 2009 Jan;14(1):92-4 [19144679.001]
  • (PMID = 19144678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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53. Manekeller S, Sauerbruch T, Fischer HP, Propping P, Hirner A: [Heterozygous alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiMZ): risk factor in the development of primary liver carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver?]. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct;48(10):1211-4
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  • [Title] [Heterozygous alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiMZ): risk factor in the development of primary liver carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver?].
  • Here we report on a patient with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver, in whom heterozygosity for an AAT-deficiency allele was found (PiMZ).
  • Based on this observation and the current literature, the possible mechanisms for an eventual contribution of a heterozygosity of a heterozygous AAT-deficiency for a hepatocellular carcinoma are discussed.
  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)-deficiency (Laurell-Eriksson syndrome) is a genetic disorder, in which individuals who are homozygous for a deficiency allele are at an increased lifetime risk for pulmonary emphysema, liver cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Since not all patients with precipitates of AAT-aggregates are develop a hepatocellular carcinoma related comorbidities such as chronic hepatitis B, C, chronic alcohol abuse, or so far unknown genetic and environmental factors may be crucial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. alpha 1-Antitrypsin / genetics


54. Nwokediuko SC, Ibegbulam O: Quantitative Platelet Abnormalities in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Disease. Gastroenterology Res; 2009 Dec;2(6):344-349
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  • [Title] Quantitative Platelet Abnormalities in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Disease.
  • The study was carried out to determine the abnormalities of platelet count in various forms of Hepatitis B virus-related liver disease.
  • RESULTS: There were 142 patients with various forms of HBV-related liver disease (asymptomatic infection 29.6%, chronic hepatitis 8.4%, cirrhosis 27.5%, and hepatocellular carcinoma 34.5%).
  • There was no statistically significant difference between the mean platelet count in the patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver disease as a whole and control subjects (p = 0.4655).
  • Conversely, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had a higher platelet count than control subjects (p < 0.0001), and cirrhotic patients (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of platelet count occur in HBV-related liver disease.

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  • (PMID = 27990204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatitis B virus / Liver disease / Paraneoplastic syndrome / Platelet
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55. Gao C, Yao SK: Diabetes mellitus: a "true" independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma? Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Oct;8(5):465-73
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  • [Title] Diabetes mellitus: a "true" independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is thought to be associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in some published studies.
  • DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PubMed searches were conducted for published studies (between January 1966 and June 2009) to identify relevant articles using the keywords "diabetes", "insulin resistance" and "hepatocellular carcinoma", including "primary liver cancer".
  • (1) the significant synergy between DM, hepatitis virus infection, and heavy alcohol consumption in HCC;.
  • Related issues should be clarified by more research.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Diabetes Complications / complications. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19822488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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56. Kim SO, Choi YH: The ethyl alcohol extract of Hizikia fusiforme inhibits matrix metalloproteinase activity and regulates tight junction related protein expression in Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cells. J Med Food; 2010 Feb;13(1):31-8
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  • [Title] The ethyl alcohol extract of Hizikia fusiforme inhibits matrix metalloproteinase activity and regulates tight junction related protein expression in Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cells.
  • We tested the correlation between the tightness of tight junctions (TJs) and the anti-invasive activity of the ethyl alcohol extract of Hizikia fusiforme (EHF) in Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Phaeophyta. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Tight Junctions / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20136433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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57. Solà R, Alvarez MA, Ballesté B, Montoliu S, Rivera M, Miquel M, Cirera I, Morillas RM, Coll S, Planas R: Probability of liver cancer and survival in HCV-related or alcoholic-decompensated cirrhosis. A study of 377 patients. Liver Int; 2006 Feb;26(1):62-72
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  • [Title] Probability of liver cancer and survival in HCV-related or alcoholic-decompensated cirrhosis. A study of 377 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Although chronic alcohol intake and chronic hepatitis C may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), few data are available about survival and probability of developing HCC in decompensated cirrhosis of both aetiologies.
  • METHODS: This study identified factors related with probability of developing HCC and survival in a cohort of 377 consecutive patients with decompensated HCV-related cirrhosis (200 cases) or alcoholic cirrhosis (177 cases) without known HCC, hospitalized for their first hepatic decompensation, as well as to evaluate differences between both aetiologies.
  • RESULTS: During follow-up, 42 patients (11.1%) developed HCC (16.5% vs 5.1%) in groups HCV and alcohol, respectively; p = 0.0008), and 131 patients (34.7%) died (42% vs 26.6% in groups HCV and alcohol, respectively; p = 0.002).
  • Age and HCV-cirrhosis were independently related to HCC development, while baseline age and Child-Turcotte-Pugh score were independently correlated with survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival in decompensated HCV-related or alcoholic cirrhosis is influenced by age and baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, without differences in cirrhosis aetiology.
  • The risk of developing HCC is greater in HCV-related cirrhosis than in alcoholic cirrhosis.

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  • (PMID = 16420511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Toshikuni N, Izumi A, Nishino K, Inada N, Sakanoue R, Yamato R, Suehiro M, Kawanaka M, Yamada G: Comparison of outcomes between patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and those with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Jul;24(7):1276-83
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  • [Title] Comparison of outcomes between patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and those with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.
  • The cumulative rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development were significantly lower in the alcoholic patients than in the HCV-infected patients (6.8% vs 50.3% at 10 years, P = 0.0003), while the cumulative rates of hepatic decompensation (37.4% vs 51.7% at 10 years) and survival (53.8% vs 47.4% at 10 years) did not significantly differ between the two groups (Kaplan-Meir analysis).
  • Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the risk of HCC was lower in alcoholic cirrhosis than in HCV-related cirrhosis (hazard ratio (HR), 0.46), while the risk of hepatic decompensation and mortality was the same.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis was similar to that of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • The risk of HCC development was lower in alcoholic cirrhosis than in HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • Abstinence from alcohol was important for improving the survival of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Hepatitis C / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / virology. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / complications. Liver Failure / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19486451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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59. Caillot F, Derambure C, Bioulac-Sage P, Francois A, Scotte M, Goria O, Hiron M, Daveau M, Salier JP: Transient and etiology-related transcription regulation in cirrhosis prior to hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan 21;15(3):300-9
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  • [Title] Transient and etiology-related transcription regulation in cirrhosis prior to hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence.
  • AIM: To search for transcription dysregulation that could (1) differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-free from HCC-related cirrhosis (2) differentiate HCC-free cirrhosis related to HCV from that related to alcohol intake.
  • RESULTS: In HCC-free livers, we identified 70 transcripts which differentiated between alcoholic-related cirrhosis, HCV-related cirrhosis and control livers.
  • Dysregulation of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT-3) was found along with related changes in STAT-3 targets which occurred in an etiology-dependent fashion in HCC-free cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Liver Cirrhosis / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19140229.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653326
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60. Kojima H, Sakurai S, Matsumura M, Umemoto N, Uemura M, Morimoto H, Tamagawa Y, Fukui H: Cryptogenic cirrhosis in the region where obesity is not prevalent. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 7;12(13):2080-5
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  • METHODS: The clinical features, and the liver-related morbidity and mortality of CC were analyzed in Japan where the prevalence of obesity is low.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate in the CC than in the controls in contrast to the similar cumulative probability of liver-related morbidity between those groups.
  • The lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate may indicate an indolent clinical course in CC as compared with viral cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Fatty Liver / complications. Humans. Japan. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Middle Aged. Obesity

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  • (PMID = 16610061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4087689
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61. Gelatti U, Covolo L, Franceschini M, Pirali F, Tagger A, Ribero ML, Trevisi P, Martelli C, Nardi G, Donato F, Brescia HCC Study Group: Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of its aetiology: a case-control study. J Hepatol; 2005 Apr;42(4):528-34
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  • [Title] Coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independently of its aetiology: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of coffee in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is debated.
  • We recruited 250 HCC cases and 500 controls hospitalized for any reasons other than neoplasms, and liver and alcohol-related diseases.
  • The ORs for HCC decreased for drinking >2, compared to 0-2 cups/day of coffee, for an alcohol intake >80 g/day (OR from 5.7 to 3.3), for presence of hepatitis B virus infection (OR from 16.4 to 7.3) or hepatitis C virus infection (OR from 38.2 to 9.0).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology. Coffee. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Case-Control Studies. Female. Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Risk Reduction Behavior

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  • [CommentIn] J Hepatol. 2005 Apr;42(4):444-6 [15763323.001]
  • (PMID = 15868652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coffee
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62. Takahashi H, Mizuta T, Kawazoe S, Eguchi Y, Kawaguchi Y, Otuka T, Oeda S, Ario K, Iwane S, Akiyama T, Ozaki I, Fujimoto K: Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for elderly hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Hepatol Res; 2010 Oct;40(10):997-1005
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for elderly hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
  • AIM:   This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy in elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • RESULTS:   In the elderly group, the proportion of men, alcohol consumption, serum alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were significantly lower compared with those in the non-elderly group.
  • In multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh grade and tumor-related factors were significant factors associated with survival, but age was not.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
  • (PMID = 20887335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-034X
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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63. Rosenthal E, Pialoux G, Bernard N, Pradier C, Rey D, Bentata M, Michelet C, Pol S, Perronne C, Cacoub P, GERMIVIC Joint Study Group: Liver-related mortality in human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected patients between 1995 and 2003 in the French GERMIVIC Joint Study Group Network (MORTAVIC 2003 Study). J Viral Hepat; 2007 Mar;14(3):183-8
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  • [Title] Liver-related mortality in human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected patients between 1995 and 2003 in the French GERMIVIC Joint Study Group Network (MORTAVIC 2003 Study).
  • Among 215 deaths observed during 2003, 101 (46.9%) were related to AIDS, 27 (12.6%) to ESLD and 87 (40.5%) to other causes.
  • Mortality because of ESLD represented 23.7% of non-AIDS-related deaths.
  • Patients dying from ESLD had chronic hepatitis because of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 92.6% of cases and moderate (30-60 g) or high (>60 g) alcohol consumption (43.5% and 26.0%, respectively).
  • The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma as a cause of death remained high in 2003 but stable when compared with 2001 (25%vs 14.8%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Female. France. Hepatitis C, Chronic / mortality. Humans. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17305884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1352-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of viral hepatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Viral Hepat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Asia-Pacific Working Party on Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: consensus statements. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Apr;25(4):657-63
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  • [Title] Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: consensus statements.
  • Among approximately 650,000 people who die from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) each year, at least two-thirds live in Asia.
  • Separate reviews have summarized epidemiology of HCC, preventive approaches related to hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and non-viral liver diseases, and the role of surveillance to detect HCC at a curative stage.
  • There is currently insufficient evidence to give firm recommendations on alcohol, obesity/metabolic risk factors and other liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / prevention & control. Hepatitis B, Chronic / prevention & control. Hepatitis C, Chronic / prevention & control. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mass Screening. Primary Prevention

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  • (PMID = 20492323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • [Investigator] Farrell GC; Chan HL; Yuen MF; Amarapurkar DN; Chutaputti A; Fan JG; Hou JL; Han KH; Kao JH; Lim SG; Mohamed R; Sollano J; Ueno Y
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65. Girlanda R, Rela M, Williams R, O'Grady JG, Heaton ND: Long-term outcome of immunosuppression withdrawal after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2005 May;37(4):1708-9
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  • The indications for liver transplantation (LT) (August 1983-December 1988) were as follows: primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 3), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 3), Budd-Chiari syndrome (n = 3), acute liver failure (n = 3), hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis (n = 1), HCV and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), HCV and alcohol-related cirrhosis (n = 1), HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 1), cystic fibrosis (n = 1), and liver metastases from testicular teratoma (n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 15919439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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66. Hassan MM, Kaseb A, Li D, Patt YZ, Vauthey JN, Thomas MB, Curley SA, Spitz MR, Sherman SI, Abdalla EK, Davila M, Lozano RD, Hassan DM, Chan W, Brown TD, Abbruzzese JL: Association between hypothyroidism and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States. Hepatology; 2009 May;49(5):1563-70
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  • [Title] Association between hypothyroidism and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States.
  • Hypothyroidism has been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, the association between thyroid diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in men and women has not been well established.
  • A long-term history of hypothyroidism (>10 years) was associated with a statistically significant high risk of HCC in women; after adjusting for demographic factors, diabetes, hepatitis, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and family history of cancer, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.3).
  • A history of hyperthyroidism was not significantly related to HCC (OR = 1.7; CI = 0.6-5.1).

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  • (PMID = 19399911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106458-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106458; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106458-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R03 ES11481; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106458-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS115593; NLM/ PMC3715879
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67. Vince A: [Hepatitis B and C: natural course of disease]. Acta Med Croatica; 2005;59(5):389-92
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  • The natural course of HBV infection is variable, ranging from inactive HBsAg carrier state to progressive chronic hepatitis that can evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The morbidity and mortality in chronic hepatitis B are linked to the evolution to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide, 75% of which are related to chronic HBV infection.
  • The major factors known to be associated with fibrosis progression are older age, male gender and alcohol consumption.

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  • (PMID = 16381232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-0164
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Croatica : c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Croatica
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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68. Merion RM: Current status and future of liver transplantation. Semin Liver Dis; 2010 Nov;30(4):411-21
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  • Indications for liver transplant have evolved to include previously contraindicated conditions such as hepatocellular carcinoma and alcohol-related liver disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Dysmorphic Disorders. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. End Stage Liver Disease / surgery. Hepatitis C, Chronic / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Living Donors. Patient Selection. Severity of Illness Index. Tissue and Organ Procurement. Treatment Outcome. Waiting Lists


69. Monica F, Lirussi F, Pregun I, Vasile F, Fabris L, Okolicsanyi L: Hepatitis C virus infection in a resident elderly population: a 10-year follow-up study. Dig Liver Dis; 2006 May;38(5):336-40
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  • RESULTS: Out of 35 patients with a 10-year follow-up, 12 patients died: only 2 (5.7%) from liver-related disease (hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure), whilst 10 (28.5%) from extrahepatic causes.
  • Out of the two patients dying from liver-related causes, one was hepatitis C virus-RNA positive and one hepatitis C virus-RNA negative.
  • None of the hepatitis C virus-RNA positive individuals had excessive alcohol intake.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the presumably long duration of infection in our cohort, the liver-related mortality was five-fold lower than that from extrahepatic causes (five-fold higher).
  • Lack of hepatic co-morbidity factors, such as alcohol consumption, seems to be relevant for the limited severity of liver disease.

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  • (PMID = 16627021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Nair J, Srivatanakul P, Haas C, Jedpiyawongse A, Khuhaprema T, Seitz HK, Bartsch H: High urinary excretion of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage in patients with cancer-prone liver diseases. Mutat Res; 2010 Jan 5;683(1-2):23-8
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  • Subjects with inflammatory cancer-prone liver diseases caused by viral infection or alcohol abuse excreted massively increased and highly variable epsilondA-levels.
  • Groups of Thai subjects (N=21) with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to HBV infection had 20, 73 and 39 times higher urinary epsilondA levels, respectively when compared to asymptomatic HBsAg carriers.
  • In over two thirds of European patients (N=38) with HBV-, HCV- and alcohol-related liver disease, urinary epsilondA levels were increased 7-10-fold compared to healthy controls.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alcohol Drinking. Aldehydes / urine. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / urine. Case-Control Studies. DNA Adducts / urine. Europe. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 19822158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine; 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Deoxyadenosines; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
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71. Yokoi Y, Suzuki S, Baba S, Inaba K, Konno H, Nakamura S: Clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arising in patients without chronic viral infection or alcohol abuse: a retrospective study of patients undergoing hepatic resection. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;40(3):274-82
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arising in patients without chronic viral infection or alcohol abuse: a retrospective study of patients undergoing hepatic resection.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to clarify the etiology and clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) arising in patients without chronic viral infection or alcohol abuse.
  • METHODS: HCC patients who underwent resection were divided into three groups: a non-B non-C (NBNC) group (n = 13), who were seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) and anti-hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab), excluding a history of alcohol abuse; a B group (n = 25), who were seropositive for HBs Ag only; and a C group (n = 116), who were seropositive for HCV Ab only.
  • We analyzed the features of tumor- and host-related factors and the outcome of the NBNC group.
  • There were no significant differences in tumor-related factors, except for higher serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein in the NBNC group.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Hepatectomy. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15830287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis C Antibodies; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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72. Beckebaum S, Cicinnati VR, Broelsch CE, Gerken G: [Recurrent disease after liver transplantation. A therapeutic dilemma or treatable?]. Med Klin (Munich); 2006 Dec 15;101(12):939-50
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  • New molecular techniques as well as genotyping of hepatocellular carcinoma gain increasing importance for estimation of recurrence-free survival.
  • Psychiatric evaluation and careful validation of compliance are important issues for estimation of the risk of disease recurrence in patients with alcohol-related liver disease.
  • During long-term course, up to one half of patients die of transplant-related causes; 30-70% of these cases are attributed to relapse of primary disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatitis B / drug therapy. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Hepatitis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Hepatitis, Autoimmune / therapy. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Incidence. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Prognosis. Recurrence. Ribavirin / therapeutic use. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17171317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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73. Das K, Das K, Datta S, Pal S, Hembram JR, Dhali GK, Santra A, Chowdhury A: Course of disease and survival after onset of decompensation in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Liver Int; 2010 Aug;30(7):1033-42
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  • [Title] Course of disease and survival after onset of decompensation in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Data regarding the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis after the onset of decompensation is scanty.
  • METHOD: From January 1998 to December 2008, a retrospective-prospective inception cohort study involving HBV-related decompensated cirrhotics was performed.
  • Patients with co-infection with hepatitis C virus and/or human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol consumption to any degree and diabetes diagnosed before the detection of liver disease were excluded.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ascites / mortality. Ascites / virology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Progression. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / mortality. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / virology. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / virology. Hepatorenal Syndrome / mortality. Hepatorenal Syndrome / virology. Humans. India. Jaundice / mortality. Jaundice / virology. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / mortality. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / virology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20492502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3231
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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74. Lam B, Younossi ZM: Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;3(2):121-37
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  • Although most patients with NAFLD have nonprogressive bland steatosis, a minority of patients develop the histological subtype of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related death.

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  • (PMID = 21180596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-2848
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Therap Adv Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002571
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; NAFLD / NASH / treatment
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75. Fujishima T, Ishikawa T, Shiratori Y, Kanda M, Tateishi R, Akamatsu M, Koike Y, Sato S, Obi S, Hamamura K, Teratani T, Shiina S, Yoshida H, Kawabe T, Omata M: Age-related comparison of the profiles of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Nov-Dec;53(72):913-8
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  • [Title] Age-related comparison of the profiles of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is not known whether the putative etiologic factors and clinical and pathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma differ between young adults and older patients.
  • Younger patients also had a higher ratio of alcohol consumption compared to elderly patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There were age-related differences in the clinicopathological characteristics of HCC patients.
  • Of the HCV-related HCC patients, heavy drinking may accelerate the progression from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis and HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17153452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. El-Serag HB: Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in USA. Hepatol Res; 2007 Sep;37 Suppl 2:S88-94
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in USA.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in frequency the USA.
  • There are striking differences in the incidence of HCC related to age, gender, race, and geographic region.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection acquired 2-4 decades ago explains at least half of the observed increase in HCC; HCV-related HCC is likely tocontinue to increase for the next decade.
  • A variable but significant proportion of cases (15-50%) do not have evidence for the risk factors of either viral hepatitis or heavy alcohol consumption.

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  • (PMID = 17877502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6346
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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77. Lata J: Chronic liver diseases as liver tumor precursors. Dig Dis; 2010;28(4-5):596-9
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  • Liver cancer is a major global health problem and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75% of all liver carcinoma.
  • Worldwide, liver carcinoma is the 5th most common cancer and 3rd most common cause of cancer mortality (behind only lung and colorectal cancer) with approximately 680,000 annual deaths.
  • Unlike most of the other malignancies, HCC almost entirely develops in the context of inflammation and organ injury and is related to cirrhosis in about 85% of the cases.
  • Among underlying etiologies of liver cirrhosis, most frequent are viral infection and toxic substances, mostly alcohol.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21088408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9875
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aflatoxins
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78. Gundling F, Seidl H, Löffler N, Strassen I, Schepp W: [Metabolic disturbances in liver cirrhosis (part 2), hepatogenous diabetes: diagnostic aspects and treatment]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2010 Jan;135(1-2):22-4
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  • Uip to 20% of patients with liver cirrhosis develop hepatogenous diabetesdue to the hepatocellular functional loss and insulin resistance.
  • Optimizing diabetic metabolic conditions is not only important to avoid typical late complications of diabetes, but also cirrhosis-associated complications e.g. gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy or the occurence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The risk of hypoglycemia must be considered carefully during drug treatment, especially in patients with chronic alcohol abuse.
  • Suitable oral antidiabetics are glinides and short-acting sulfonylureas or possibly meal-related insulin administration with short-acting insulins or rapid-acting insulin analogues.

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010 Apr;135(14):716; author reply 716 [20358503.001]
  • (PMID = 20024879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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79. Xue KX: [Molecular genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jun;24(6):757-68
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  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major type of primary liver cancer and one of the most frequent human malignant neoplasms.
  • Common risk factors of human HCC include chronic hepatitis virus (HBV and HCV) infection, dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ingestion, chronic alcohol abuse, and cirrhosis associated with genetic liver diseases.
  • The roles of some important genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA repair, drug metabolism, and tumor metastasis in hepatocarcinogenesis had been discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism


80. Hussain SP, Schwank J, Staib F, Wang XW, Harris CC: TP53 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma: insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of liver cancer. Oncogene; 2007 Apr 2;26(15):2166-76
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  • [Title] TP53 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma: insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of liver cancer.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the major risk factors include chronic infections with the hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus, and exposure to dietary aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) or alcohol consumption.
  • Chronic infection with HBV and HCV viruses, and oxyradical disorders including hemochromatosis, also generate reactive oxygen/nitrogen species that can both damage DNA and mutate cancer-related genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17401425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9N2N2Y55MH / Aflatoxin B1
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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81. Federico A, D'Aiuto E, Borriello F, Barra G, Gravina AG, Romano M, De Palma R: Fat: a matter of disturbance for the immune system. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct 14;16(38):4762-72
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  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease includes a wide spectrum of diseases, from pure steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption.
  • Although steatosis is considered a non-progressive disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis may deteriorate in advanced chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • An important parallel between obesity-related pathology of adipose tissue and liver pertains to the emerging role of macrophages, and growing evidence suggests that Kupffer cells critically contribute to progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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  • (PMID = 20939104.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955245
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82. Nahon P, Sutton A, Rufat P, Faisant C, Simon C, Barget N, Trinchet JC, Beaugrand M, Gattegno L, Charnaux N: Lack of association of some chemokine system polymorphisms with the risks of death and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: a prospective study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 May;19(5):425-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of association of some chemokine system polymorphisms with the risks of death and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: a prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in genes encoding for the chemokines stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2, or for the chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) have been associated with the progression of hepatitis C virus-related liver injury and with various cancer development.
  • The occurrence of death (75/222; 33.7%) or hepatocellular carcinoma (67/222; 30.1%) during follow-up was similar among carriers and noncarriers of each polymorphism.
  • Baseline RANTES, SDF-1alpha and MCP-1 sera levels were associated neither with the risk of death nor with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the lack of association of SDF-1 3'A, MCP-1(-2518), CCR5-Delta32 and CCR2-64I polymorphisms with death and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in cirrhotic alcoholic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Chemokines / genetics. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alcohol Drinking. Chemokine CCL2 / blood. Chemokine CCL2 / genetics. Chemokine CCL5 / blood. Chemokine CXCL12. Chemokines, CXC / blood. Chemokines, CXC / genetics. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, CCR2. Receptors, CCR5 / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics. Temperance

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  • (PMID = 17413295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCL2 protein, human; 0 / CCR2 protein, human; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Chemokine CCL5; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Receptors, CCR2; 0 / Receptors, CCR5; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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83. El-Serag HB, Hampel H, Javadi F: The association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Mar;4(3):369-80
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  • [Title] The association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the magnitude and determinants of association between diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • The significant association between HCC and diabetes was independent of alcohol use or viral hepatitis in the 10 studies that examined these factors.
  • However, more research is required to examine issues related to the duration and treatment of diabetes, and confounding by diet and obesity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Liver Neoplasms / etiology


84. Lim YS: Current status of liver disease in Korea: hepatitis C. Korean J Hepatol; 2009 Dec;15 Suppl 6:S25-8
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  • Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the third most common cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea, following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol.
  • The mean age of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and HCC was consistently about 10 years above that of patients associated with HBV.

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  • (PMID = 20037276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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85. Baillargeon J, Snyder N, Soloway RD, Paar D, Baillargeon G, Spaulding AC, Pollock BH, Arcari CM, Williams BA, Raimer BG: Hepatocellular carcinoma prevalence and mortality in a male state prison population. Public Health Rep; 2009 Jan-Feb;124(1):120-6
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma prevalence and mortality in a male state prison population.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States has increased dramatically over the last two decades, largely because of an increase in the number of people with advanced hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. U.S. prisoners are at high risk for HCC, given their elevated rates of HCV infection, comorbid hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and alcoholic liver disease.
  • These findings likely reflect the high concentration of HCC-related risk factors, particularly HCV, among prisoners.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Prisoners

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  • (PMID = 19413034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Public Health Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2602937
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86. Tarantino G, Citro V, Conca P, Riccio A, Tarantino M, Capone D, Cirillo M, Lobello R, Iaccarino V: What are the implications of the spontaneous spleno-renal shunts in liver cirrhosis? BMC Gastroenterol; 2009;9:89
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  • BACKGROUND: Although significant advances are expected to be made in the assessment of the portal hypertension-related complications, the prognostic role of spleno-renal shunts has not been fully explored so far.
  • Chronic liver damage in these patients was caused by HCV (66), HBV (2), alcohol abuse (2) or unknown etiology, likely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (11).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: grading of esofageal varices; detection of ascites: assessment of hepatic encephalopathy; evaluation of liver cirrhosis severity; tracking hepatocellular carcinoma; doppler features of spleno-renal shunts and splenic flow velocity; spleen longitudinal diameter at sonography.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of spleno-renal shunts was 18.5%, without no difference concerning the etiology (HCV versus non-HCV, p = 0.870); the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with spleno-renal shunts was superior to that of patients without them (Pearson Chi-square, p = 0.006, power of sample size 74%), also after adjustment for liver decompensation (p = 0.024).
  • CONCLUSION: Taking into consideration the relatively small sample size, patients with spleno-renal shunts are burdened by an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19930687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785828
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87. Ha HL, Shin HJ, Feitelson MA, Yu DY: Oxidative stress and antioxidants in hepatic pathogenesis. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec 28;16(48):6035-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Long term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor in pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Chronic alcohol use is another important factor that contributes to oxidative stress in the liver.
  • Previous studies reported that treatment with antioxidants, such as curcumin, silymarin, green tea, and vitamins C and E, can protect DNA from damage and regulate liver pathogenesis-related cascades by reducing reactive oxygen species.
  • This review summarizes some of the relationships between oxidative stress and liver pathogenesis, focusing upon HBV and alcohol, and suggests antioxidant therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Hepatitis B / complications. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Oxidative Stress
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Animals. Chronic Disease. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Liver Diseases / drug therapy. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Diseases / physiopathology. Risk Factors. Trans-Activators / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21182217.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / hepatitis B virus X protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3012582
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88. Stroffolini T, Almasio PL, Persico M, Bollani S, Benvegnù L, Di Costanzo G, Pastore G, Aghemo A, Stornaiuolo G, Mangia A, Andreone P, Stanzione M, Mazzella G, Saracco G, Del Poggio P, Bruno S, Italian Association of the Study of the Liver Disease (AISF): Lack of correlation between serum anti-HBcore detectability and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol; 2008 Aug;103(8):1966-72
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  • [Title] Lack of correlation between serum anti-HBcore detectability and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • BACKGROUND: While the likelihood of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients coinfected with both HBV and HCV is increased, the role of previous exposure to HBV as a risk factor associated with tumor occurrence in subjects with HCV-related cirrhosis has not been fully investigated.
  • AIM: To assess whether serum anti-HBc positivity, as a marker of previous HBV exposure, is associated with HCC development in HCV-related positive, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative patients with cirrhosis treated with alfa-interferon (IFN) monotherapy.
  • Anti-HBc positive patients were more often men (67.0%vs 58.7%, P= 0.03), had lower transaminase levels (3.3 +/- 2.0 vs 3.8 +/- 2.5 u.l.n., P= 0.004), and had higher rate of alcohol intake (38.3%vs 22.5%, P < 0.001) than anti-HBc negative patients.
  • By Cox multiple regression, there was no association of serum anti-HBc with HCC development (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.52) or liver-related deaths incidence (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.76-1.95).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with anti-HBc negative subjects, serum anti-HBc positive patients with HCV-related/HBsAg negative cirrhosis treated with IFN monotherapy did not show a greater risk of HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood. Hepatitis B Core Antigens / immunology. Hepatitis B virus / immunology. Hepatitis C / blood. Liver Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 18637087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B Core Antigens
  • [Investigator] Boccia S; Di Marco V; Giannini E; Morisco F; Picciotto A; Fagiuoli S; Mazzaro C
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89. Delhem N, Carpentier A, Moralès O, Miroux C, Groux H, Auriault C, Pancré V: [Regulatory T-cells and hepatocellular carcinoma: implication of the regulatory T lymphocytes in the control of the immune response]. Bull Cancer; 2008 Dec;95(12):1219-25
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  • [Title] [Regulatory T-cells and hepatocellular carcinoma: implication of the regulatory T lymphocytes in the control of the immune response].
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and also the third most common cause of cancer-related death.
  • HCC arises most frequently in males with cirrhosis, which is most often a consequence of chronic hepatitis infection (HBV and HCV) or alcohol abuse.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / immunology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / immunology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / immunology. Liver Neoplasms / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19091657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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90. Horton PJ, Tchervenkov J, Barkun JS, Rochon C, Chaudhury PK, Znajda TL, Martinie JB, Metrakos P: Antithymocyte globulin induction therapy in hepatitis C-positive liver transplant recipients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2005 Sep-Oct;9(7):896-902
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  • Second, third, and fourth grafts were excluded, as were patients with stage III or IV hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • ATG induction did not influence the risk of graft loss from HCV-related disease (P=.75).
  • When only HCV-related graft loss was considered, 10-year graft survival for HCV-positive recipients was 74% (ATG induction) versus 68.2% (no ATG induction).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alcohol Drinking. Cadaver. Cause of Death. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Rejection / etiology. Graft Survival. Hepatitis B / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16137581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Hassan MM, Spitz MR, Thomas MB, El-Deeb AS, Glover KY, Nguyen NT, Chan W, Kaseb A, Curley SA, Vauthey JN, Ellis LM, Abdalla E, Lozano RD, Patt YZ, Brown TD, Abbruzzese JL, Li D: Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study. Int J Cancer; 2008 Oct 15;123(8):1883-91
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  • [Title] Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study.
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer has declared smoking to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff), cigars, pipes and passive smoking exposure were not related to HCC among noncigarette smokers.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with HCC in women: AOR, 7.7 (95% CI, 2.3-25.1).
  • Cigarette smoking interacted synergistically with chronic infection of hepatitis C virus in men: AOR, 136.3 (95% CI, 43.2-429.6) and with heavy alcohol consumption in women: AOR, 13.7 (95% CI, 3.2-57.9).
  • We conclude that sex differences were observed in HCC relationship with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

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  • (PMID = 18688864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106458-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA106458; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106458-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R03 ES11481; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106458-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R03 ES011481
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS93249; NLM/ PMC2673571
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92. McMahon BJ, Bruden D, Bruce MG, Livingston S, Christensen C, Homan C, Hennessy TW, Williams J, Sullivan D, Rosen HR, Gretch D: Adverse outcomes in Alaska natives who recovered from or have chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology; 2010 Mar;138(3):922-31.e1
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  • To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and liver-related death (LRD), we conducted a retrospective/prospective population-based study in a cohort of Alaska Native persons chronically infected with HCV from 1994 to 2005.
  • We compared data from subjects that were chronically infected with those who recovered from HCV infection, stratified by alcohol use.
  • In examining incidence per 100 person-years, no difference was found among heavy alcohol users in the incidence of LRD (2.28 versus 3.50; P = .34) or ESLD (3.21 versus 5.69; P = .13) in persons with chronic HCV compared with those recovered from HCV infection.
  • In subjects that consumed <50 g alcohol/d, the incidences of LRD were 0.77 and 0.09 (P = .01) and of ESLD were 1.58 versus 0.36 (P = .002), respectively, in subjects with chronic infection versus those that recovered.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that older age, heavy alcohol use, and HCV genotype 3 were associated with ESLD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A history of heavy alcohol use is associated with the highest incidence of LRD and ESLD, regardless of whether patients are chronically infected or recover from HCV infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Alaska / epidemiology. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / ethnology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ethnology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Disease Progression. Female. Genotype. Hepacivirus / genetics. Humans. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / ethnology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19909749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 48214; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 66209
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Craxì A, Cammà C: Does chemotherapy prevent HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma? Cons. Dig Liver Dis; 2010 Jul;42 Suppl 3:S287-92
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  • [Title] Does chemotherapy prevent HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma? Cons.
  • The accuracy and the reliability of well-recognized clinical, virologic, histologic, and molecular risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still insufficient.
  • A strategy aiming at preventing chronic liver disease of any etiology (HCV and HBV infection, alcohol, obesity, others) may be required to prevent HCC in low and intermediate incidence areas, and hence, worldwide.
  • In the setting of secondary chemoprevention, literature data pooling suggests a slight preventive effect of interferon (IFN) on HCC development in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • So, there is no sound evidence to support a recommendation for widespread use of IFN to prevent HCC in HCV-related cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / prevention & control. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentOn] Dig Liver Dis. 2010 Jul;42 Suppl 3:S281-6 [20547315.001]
  • (PMID = 20547316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2a; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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94. Teramoto R, Minagawa H, Honda M, Miyazaki K, Tabuse Y, Kamijo K, Ueda T, Kaneko S: Protein expression profile characteristic to hepatocellular carcinoma revealed by 2D-DIGE with supervised learning. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2008 May;1784(5):764-72
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  • [Title] Protein expression profile characteristic to hepatocellular carcinoma revealed by 2D-DIGE with supervised learning.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive human malignancies.
  • Although several major risks related to HCC, e.g., hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus infection, aflatoxin B1 exposure, alcohol drinking and genetic defects have been revealed, the molecular mechanisms leading to the initiation and progression of HCC have not been clarified.
  • We confirmed that SGB is able to identify the known HCC-related proteins, e.g., heat shock proteins, carbonic anhydrase 2.
  • Moreover, we identified the differentially expressed proteins associated with histological grade of HCC and AFP level and found that aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) is related to well differentiated HCC, keratin 8 (KRT8) is related to both histological grade and AFP level and protein disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (PDIA3) is associated with both HCC and AFP level.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 18359300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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95. Homann N, Stickel F, König IR, Jacobs A, Junghanns K, Benesova M, Schuppan D, Himsel S, Zuber-Jerger I, Hellerbrand C, Ludwig D, Caselmann WH, Seitz HK: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers. Int J Cancer; 2006 Apr 15;118(8):1998-2002
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  • [Title] Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers.
  • Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Increased acetaldehyde production via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been implicated in the pathogenesis.
  • So far, the association between the ADH1C*1 allele and alcohol-related cancers among heavy drinkers is controversial.
  • ADH1C genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in a total of 818 patients with alcohol-associated esophageal (n=123), head and neck (n=84) and hepatocellular cancer (n=86) as well as in patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (n=117), alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n=217), combined liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis (n=17) and in alcoholics without gastrointestinal organ damage (n=174).
  • The ADH1C*1 allele and genotype ADH1C*1/1 were significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol-related cancers than that in individuals with nonmalignant alcohol-related organ damage.
  • Using multivariate analysis, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity were significantly associated with an increased risk for alcohol-related cancers (p<0.001 in all instances).
  • The odds ratio for genotype ADH1C*1/1 regarding the development of esophageal, hepatocellular and head and neck cancer were 2.93 (CI, 1.84-4.67), 3.56 (CI, 1.33-9.53) and 2.2 (CI, 1.11-4.36), respectively.
  • The data identify genotype ADH1C*1/1 as an independent risk factor for the development of alcohol-associated tumors among heavy drinkers, indicating a genetic predisposition of individuals carrying this genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Alcohol Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / genetics. Genetic Markers. Genetic Predisposition to Disease

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16287084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase
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96. Takamatsu S, Noguchi N, Kudoh A, Nakamura N, Kawamura T, Teramoto K, Igari T, Arii S: Influence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on the progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Mar-Apr;55(82-83):609-14
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  • [Title] Influence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on the progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated a relationship between the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and the pathogenesis and outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • The preoperative laboratory data, risk factors for metabolic syndrome, history of alcohol abuse, and outcome after surgery were investigated.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and alcohol abuse, and the serum level of triglyceride were significantly higher in group NBNC than in groups B or C.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the pathogenesis of non-B non-C HCC may be more closely associated with the risk factors for metabolic syndrome than that of hepatitis virus related HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Fatty Liver / complications. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications


97. Chen J, Raymond K: Identification of CYP2C9*2 allele in HepG2 cell line. Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2006;37(2-3):79-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatoma is caused by many factors including alcohol, chemicals, viral infection, and chronic inflammation.
  • CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP1A1 have been identified to be related with hepatic carcinogenesis and tumor size and stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Exons / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics

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