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1. Lee CH, Wu DC, Lee JM, Wu IC, Goan YG, Kao EL, Huang HL, Chan TF, Chou SH, Chou YP, Ho CK, Wu MT: Anatomical subsite discrepancy in relation to the impact of the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid on esophageal cancer. Int J Cancer; 2007 Apr 15;120(8):1755-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomical subsite discrepancy in relation to the impact of the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid on esophageal cancer.
  • The carcinogenetic impact of risk factors on esophageal cancer (EC) may differ according to the portion of the esophagus where the tumor occurs.
  • It is unclear why more esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) developed in the middle location.
  • We carried out a multicenter case-control study in Taiwan to assess anatomical subsite risk discrepancy for this neoplasm in regard to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid.
  • All consumption of the three substances was related to the development of each subsite of EC, with a heterogeneously higher risk for current smokers (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.2) found in M/3-EC and for current chewers, in U/3-EC (AOR = 4.9).
  • In conclusion, tumor subsite discrepancy risk is related to prolonged exposure to tobacco and betel quid with inflorescence.
  • Alcohol interacts with tobacco in a stronger supra-multiplicative way in the middle portion of the esophagus, probably explaining why esophageal SCC occurs more commonly at this anatomical location.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Areca / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17230518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations
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2. Lin CS, Chang SC, Wang LS, Chou TY, Hsu WH, Wu YC, Wei YH: The role of mitochondrial DNA alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Jan;139(1):189-197.e4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of mitochondrial DNA alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to evaluate the roles of mitochondrial DNA alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with emphasis on the changes in the copy number and D310 variants of mitochondrial DNA.
  • METHODS: Paired samples microdissected from esophageal muscles, noncancerous esophageal mucosa, cancerous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma nests, and metastatic lymph nodes of 72 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were subjected to DNA extraction.
  • From noncancerous esophageal mucosa to cancerous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma nests and metastatic lymph nodes, the D310 variants were decreased from 2.2 to 1.7 and 1.5, respectively, with a trend to homoplasmy (P = .0009).
  • Notably, a decrease in D310 variants (1.5, P < .001) and an increase in the incidence of the homoplasmic D310 pattern (P = .005) were observed in the matched esophageal muscle tissues.
  • Among the 56 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cancer nests with somatic D310 mutations, 51 (91.1%) had D310 variants in association with their corresponding noncancerous esophageal mucosa, including 36 (64.3%) fully related and 15 (26.8%) partially related pairs.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that somatic D310 mutations and increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA are of clinical importance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We also propose a model of DNA instability and clonal expansion during the carcinogenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the viewpoint of mitochondrial DNA transmission.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / genetics. Base Sequence. DNA Copy Number Variations. Esophagus / chemistry. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / chemistry. Mutation. Prognosis. Smoking / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19660406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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3. Trivers KF, Sabatino SA, Stewart SL: Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003. Int J Cancer; 2008 Sep 15;123(6):1422-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003.
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma rates may be increasing, whereas, squamous cell carcinoma rates appear to be decreasing in the United States.
  • Previous population-based research on esophageal cancer has only covered up to 68% of the country.
  • Additional, updated research on a larger percentage of the country is needed to describe racial, ethnic and regional trends in histologic subtypes of esophageal cancer.
  • Invasive esophageal cancer cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 (n = 65,926), collected by the National Program of Cancer Registries or the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, were included.
  • Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma incidence fell by 3.6%/year, whereas esophageal adenocarcinoma increased by 2.1%/year.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma rates decreased among both sexes in most racial or ethnic groups, whereas adenocarcinoma rates increased primarily among white or non-Hispanic men.
  • Except for white or non-Hispanic men, squamous cell carcinoma rates were similar to, or greater than, adenocarcinoma rates for men and women of all other races and ethnicities.
  • The largest decrease in squamous cell carcinoma rates occurred in the West census region, which also exhibited no increase in adenocarcinoma rates.
  • This is the first article to characterize esophageal cancer trends using data covering the majority of the US.
  • Substantial racial, ethnic and regional variation in esophageal cancer is present in the US.
  • Our work may inform interventions related to tobacco and alcohol use, and overweight/obesity prevention, and provide avenues for further research.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18546259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Hu HM, Kuo CH, Lee CH, Wu IC, Lee KW, Lee JM, Goan YG, Chou SH, Kao EL, Wu MT, Wu DC: Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study. BMC Gastroenterol; 2009;9:37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
  • Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19463183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693118
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5. Lundell LR: Etiology and risk factors for esophageal carcinoma. Dig Dis; 2010;28(4-5):641-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Etiology and risk factors for esophageal carcinoma.
  • Trends toward increasing incidence rates were observed for esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in Western countries and were associated with trends toward stabilizing or declining incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting that these tumors might be associated with distinct risk factors.
  • Overweight and obesity have been consistently related to esophageal adenocarcinoma, but not to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Body mass index seems to be inversely related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The influence of obesity on esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma may be related to higher incidence of gastroesophageal reflux in obese persons since the risk of gastroesophageal reflux is strongly related to the risk for Barrett's esophagus.
  • Tobacco smoking is a strong risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but is only a weak risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Alcohol consumption is a strong risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but is not consistently related to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Male gender seems to be a risk factor for both types of tumors in the region, while infection with human papillomavirus does not seem to play a major part in the development of esophageal cancers.
  • It has been suggested that infection with H. pylori is protective to adenocarcinoma, but might be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, although the role of H. pylori in the etiology of these cancers remains somewhat unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21088416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9875
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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6. Homann N, Stickel F, König IR, Jacobs A, Junghanns K, Benesova M, Schuppan D, Himsel S, Zuber-Jerger I, Hellerbrand C, Ludwig D, Caselmann WH, Seitz HK: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers. Int J Cancer; 2006 Apr 15;118(8):1998-2002
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers.
  • Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Increased acetaldehyde production via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been implicated in the pathogenesis.
  • So far, the association between the ADH1C*1 allele and alcohol-related cancers among heavy drinkers is controversial.
  • ADH1C genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in a total of 818 patients with alcohol-associated esophageal (n=123), head and neck (n=84) and hepatocellular cancer (n=86) as well as in patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (n=117), alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n=217), combined liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis (n=17) and in alcoholics without gastrointestinal organ damage (n=174).
  • The ADH1C*1 allele and genotype ADH1C*1/1 were significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol-related cancers than that in individuals with nonmalignant alcohol-related organ damage.
  • Using multivariate analysis, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity were significantly associated with an increased risk for alcohol-related cancers (p<0.001 in all instances).
  • The odds ratio for genotype ADH1C*1/1 regarding the development of esophageal, hepatocellular and head and neck cancer were 2.93 (CI, 1.84-4.67), 3.56 (CI, 1.33-9.53) and 2.2 (CI, 1.11-4.36), respectively.
  • The data identify genotype ADH1C*1/1 as an independent risk factor for the development of alcohol-associated tumors among heavy drinkers, indicating a genetic predisposition of individuals carrying this genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Alcohol Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / genetics. Genetic Markers. Genetic Predisposition to Disease

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16287084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase
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7. Akbari MR, Malekzadeh R, Shakeri R, Nasrollahzadeh D, Foumani M, Sun Y, Pourshams A, Sadjadi A, Jafari E, Sotoudeh M, Kamangar F, Boffetta P, Dawsey SM, Ghadirian P, Narod SA: Candidate gene association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk region in Iran. Cancer Res; 2009 Oct 15;69(20):7994-8000
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Candidate gene association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk region in Iran.
  • There is a region with a high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the northeast of Iran.
  • We selected 22 functional variants (and 130 related tagSNPs) from 15 genes that have been associated previously with the risk of ESCC.

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  • (PMID = 19826048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CP000185-07; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.1.1.1 / ADH1B protein, human; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS416486; NLM/ PMC3505030
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8. Yu X, Zhang T, Zhang H, Hu A, Hu Y, Guo W, Wang Y: Comparison of lifestyle and living environment among high risk immigrant and low risk host residents: implications for esophageal cancer etiology. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(6):1827-31
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of lifestyle and living environment among high risk immigrant and low risk host residents: implications for esophageal cancer etiology.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the high prevalence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China is associated with specific environments and lifestyles.
  • RESULTS: The IR were found to have a higher consumption of hot food (P<0.05), pickled vegetables (P<0.05) and a lower consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, and alcohol (P<0.05), compared with the HR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided some epidemiological evidence indicating that dietary factors, such as hot food, pickled vegetables, salt, and low fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a poor living environment, are possibly related to the higher prevalence of ESCC in IR.
  • However, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and income were not shown to be risk factors for immigrant susceptibility to ESCC in our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Life Style. Transients and Migrants / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alcohol Drinking. Diet. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Socioeconomic Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21338241.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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9. Yoshikawa M, Kato H, Miyazaki T, Nakajima M, Kamiyama Y, Fukai Y, Tajima K, Masuda N, Ojima H, Tsukada K, Kuwano H: Expression of p53 in esophageal carcinoma with multiple areas unstained by iodine. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Sep-Oct;52(65):1444-7
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  • [Title] Expression of p53 in esophageal carcinoma with multiple areas unstained by iodine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is occasionally associated with multiple areas in the surrounding mucosa unstained with iodine.
  • METHODOLOGY: We examined 21 male patients with superficial esophageal carcinoma.
  • Group 1 consisted of 4 cases of superficial esophageal carcinoma associated with multiple lesions that did not stain with iodine.
  • We assessed the correlation between clinicopathological factors, a history of tobacco and alcohol consumption, and p53 expression in the two groups.
  • RESULTS: We found four cases (group 1) of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma where there were a total of 10 satellite tumors in addition to the main tumor.
  • These patients tended to have a higher daily consumption of tobacco and alcohol than those in group 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have found that higher tobacco and alcohol consumption are closely related to multiple lesions unstained by iodine and abnormal expression of the p53 gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Coloring Agents. Esophagus / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iodides. Male. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Risk Factors. Smoking / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16201092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; T66M6Y3KSA / Lugol's solution
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10. Rota M, Bellocco R, Scotti L, Tramacere I, Jenab M, Corrao G, La Vecchia C, Boffetta P, Bagnardi V: Random-effects meta-regression models for studying nonlinear dose-response relationship, with an application to alcohol and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Stat Med; 2010 Nov 20;29(26):2679-87
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  • [Title] Random-effects meta-regression models for studying nonlinear dose-response relationship, with an application to alcohol and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This method is illustrated by a meta-analysis aimed to estimate the shape of the dose-response curve between alcohol consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Overall, 14 case-control studies and one cohort study, including 3000 cases of esophageal SCC, were included.
  • The meta-analysis provided evidence that ethanol intake was related to esophageal SCC risk in a nonlinear fashion.
  • High levels of alcohol consumption resulted in a substantial risk of esophageal SCC as compared to nondrinkers.
  • However, a statistically significant excess risk for moderate and intermediate doses of alcohol was also observed, with no evidence of a threshold effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Regression Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20809481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0258
  • [Journal-full-title] Statistics in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Cui R, Kamatani Y, Takahashi A, Usami M, Hosono N, Kawaguchi T, Tsunoda T, Kamatani N, Kubo M, Nakamura Y, Matsuda K: Functional variants in ADH1B and ALDH2 coupled with alcohol and smoking synergistically enhance esophageal cancer risk. Gastroenterology; 2009 Nov;137(5):1768-75
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  • [Title] Functional variants in ADH1B and ALDH2 coupled with alcohol and smoking synergistically enhance esophageal cancer risk.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent among Asian populations, with marked regional variations in incidence and mortality.
  • Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed SNP rs671, rs1229984, alcohol drinking, and smoking as the independent risk factors for ESCC (odds ratios of 1.66, 1.85, 1.92, and 1.79, respectively).
  • Moreover, individuals who had both genetic and lifestyle-related risk factors had a nearly 190 times higher risk of ESCC than those who had neither of these.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found 2 known functional variants involved in the metabolism of alcohol and tobacco by-products as the most significant risk factors for the development of ESCC in a Japanese population.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Alcohol Drinking. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Smoking

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  • [CommentIn] Gastroenterology. 2009 Nov;137(5):1573-6 [19789091.001]
  • (PMID = 19698717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.1 / ADH1B protein, human; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.3 / ALDH2 protein, human; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
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12. Hu JL, Li ZY, Liu W, Zhang RG, Li GL, Wang T, Ren JH, Wu G: Polymorphism in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promoter and alcohol are related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on Chinese males. Neoplasma; 2010;57(1):86-92
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  • [Title] Polymorphism in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promoter and alcohol are related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma on Chinese males.
  • Chronic alcohol drinking is astrong risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
  • In this study, the correlation between the HO-1 gene promoter polymorphism and alcohol, along with the risk of ESCC on Chinese males, was analyzed.The case-control study was performed in 143 ESCC patients and 264 cancer-free controls.
  • Reducing alcohol intake might be most protective among L-allele carriers of this polymorphism.
  • KEYWORDS: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; heme oxygenase-1 promoter polymorphism; alcohol drinking.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Heme Oxygenase-1 / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19895178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1
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13. Stebbing J, Krown SE, Bower M, Batra A, Slater S, Serraino D, Dezube BJ, Dhir AA, Pantanowitz L: Primary esophageal carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Jan 25;170(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Primary esophageal carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Primary esophageal tumors in people living with HIV have seldom been reported.
  • METHODS: International physicians involved in the care of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers accrued cases of primary esophageal malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected individuals.
  • Patient demographics, HIV status, cancer risk factors, esophageal tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 19 patients with primary adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were identified.
  • The majority of patients were men with a history of smoking or considerable alcohol consumption.
  • Prior esophageal disease (reflux, peptic ulcers, and achalasia) was reported in almost half of all patients.
  • While the majority of patients died, only 5 deaths (26%) were attributed to progression of esophageal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary esophageal carcinoma is another non-AIDS-defining cancer associated with moderate immunosuppression and lifestyle habits including tobacco and alcohol use.
  • The biological behavior, treatment, and outcome of HIV-related esophageal cancer appear similar to the general population with this disease; the same screening and risk moderation strategies are likely to apply.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Esophageal Neoplasms / complications. HIV Infections / complications


14. Li D, Diao Y, Li H, Fang X, Li H: Association of the polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, VDR C352T, and MPO G463A with risk for esophageal squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma. Arch Med Res; 2008 Aug;39(6):594-600
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  • [Title] Association of the polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, VDR C352T, and MPO G463A with risk for esophageal squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: From January 2004 to December 2006 a program of endoscopic screening for esophageal lesions was carried out in the high incidence area of esophageal cancer in Feicheng County, China.
  • It provided the samples to evaluate the association of polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, vitamin D receptor (VDR) C352T, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) G463A genotypes with esophageal squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The subjects in the study were divided into 127 dysplasia cases, 126 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 169 normal controls.
  • Analyses of the MTHFR C677T, VDR C352T, and MPO G463A genotypes were performed using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method, whereas the multinomial logistic regression model was used in the data analysis to assess the odds ratios (ORs) related to dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Compared with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, the TT/TC of the genotype significantly increased the risk of the esophageal squamous cells dysplasia [OR, 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-4.31]; the OR of esophageal squamous cancer was 1.58 (95% CI, 0.85-2.97) after adjustments for age, sex, and years of education.
  • There was an interaction between the TT/TC genotype and alcohol drinking, smoking, and family history of esophageal cancer in the risk of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neither the VDR C352T nor the MPO G463A genotype had manifested association with the dysplasia and carcinoma of the disease, whereas the MTHFR 677TT genotype may be a genetic risk factor for esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / genetics. Peroxidase / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18662591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; EC 1.5.1.20 / Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
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15. Yokoyama A, Omori T, Yokoyama T, Kawakubo H, Mori S, Matsui T, Maruyama K: Chronic atrophic gastritis and metachronous gastric cancer in Japanese alcoholic men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2009 May;33(5):898-905
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  • [Title] Chronic atrophic gastritis and metachronous gastric cancer in Japanese alcoholic men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The risk of metachronous gastric cancer is high in Japanese with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), especially in alcoholic men, suggesting a common background underlying the gastric and esophageal cancers.
  • METHODS: Endoscopic follow-up ranging from 7 to 160 months (median, 47 months) after the initial diagnosis was performed in 99 Japanese gastric-cancer-free alcoholic men (56.8 +/- 6.4 years) with esophageal SCC detected by an endoscopic screening examination.
  • Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) assessed by the serum pepsinogen test and Helicobacter pylori status was compared between 90 of the 99 esophageal SCC cases and 180 age-matched Japanese gastric- and esophageal-cancer-free alcoholic men.
  • The accelerated progression of severe CAG observed in the Japanese alcoholic men with esophageal SCC suggests the existence of common mechanisms by which both esophageal SCC and H. pylori-related severe CAG develop in this population.
  • Inactive heterozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, a very strong risk factor for esophageal SCC in the alcoholics, was not associated with an increased risk of metachronous gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcoholism / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastritis, Atrophic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis


16. Polednak AP: Recent trends in incidence rates for selected alcohol-related cancers in the United States. Alcohol Alcohol; 2005 May-Jun;40(3):234-8
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  • [Title] Recent trends in incidence rates for selected alcohol-related cancers in the United States.
  • AIMS: To examine recent trends in incidence rates for cancer types most strongly associated with alcohol use, using data from US cancer registries.
  • METHODS: Age-standardized annual incidence rates (ASIRs) for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus and larynx diagnosed in the most recent 10-year period (1992-2001) were examined for geographic areas included in the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of high-quality cancer registries.
  • The declines in ASIRs were consistent with temporal declines in apparent alcohol consumption by state, although the prevalence of binge and heavy drinking in adults increased in some states.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Alcoholism / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15797879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-0414
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol Alcohol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Li HQ, Diao YT, Li H, Zhou YZ, Yang YF, Fang XQ, Wang Y, Wu K, Zhao DL, Zhou RX, Lei FH: [The risk factors related to esophageal squamous cell cancer in Feicheng county, China]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;41 Suppl:56-61
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  • [Title] [The risk factors related to esophageal squamous cell cancer in Feicheng county, China].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors related to the esophageal squamous cell cancer in Feicheng county in Shandong province.
  • The biopsies were taken from the screen and underwent pathologic evaluation by two pathologists; A self-administrative questionnaire survey was conducted in all the subjects to collect information about smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary.
  • RESULTS: There were 235 esophageal cancers cases (70 identified in screening program, 183 were hospitalized patients) and 8159 controls in the case-control study.
  • After adjusted the three confounders, age, sex and education, we found, smoking, alcohol drinking were the top ranked risk factors for esophageal cancer.
  • When combing smoking and alcohol drinking, the or was 2.73 (95% CI: 1.54 - 4.82) for male, and the proportional attribute relative risk was 51.47%.
  • CONCLUSION: Smoking and alcohol drinking could increase the risk of esophageal cancer, and taking more dietary cellulose and vitamin C might decrease the risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17767859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9624
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Xue HC, Wang JM, Xu B, Guo GP, Hua ZL, Zhou Q, Zhu ZH, Ma ZK, Gao J: [Correlation of aberrant methylation of MGMT gene to MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphisms in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Dec;27(12):1256-62
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  • [Title] [Correlation of aberrant methylation of MGMT gene to MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphisms in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: As one of the principal causes of gene inactivation, aberrant hypermethylation in the promoter of cancer-related genes has attracted more and more attention.
  • However, such studies on esophageal cancer are still limited.
  • This study was to investigate the association between aberrant hypermethylation of MGMT gene and clinical characteristics as well as MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphisms in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
  • METHODS: A molecular epidemiologic study was conducted at Yangzhong County, Jiangsu Province of China, on histologically confirmed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who were operated in the People's Hospital of Yangzhong County between January 2005 and March 2006.
  • Peripheral blood samples, esophageal cancer tissues and paracancerous normal tissues were collected.
  • RESULTS: Among 125 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, the aberrant hypermethylation rate of MGMT gene was 27.2% in cancer tissues and 11.2% in paracancerous normal tissues.
  • No hypermethylation was found in normal esophageal tissues from 10 healthy adult subjects.
  • No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and green tea drinking.
  • CONCLUSION: Aberrant CpG island hypermethylation of MGMT gene is closely related with the genesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. CpG Islands / genetics. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 19079989.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.5.1.20 / Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2); EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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19. Gledovic Z, Grgurevic A, Pekmezovic T, Pantelic S, Kisic D: Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Serbia. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):265-8
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  • [Title] Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Serbia.
  • AIM: To establish the role of specified risk factors in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in Serbia.
  • METHODS: The hospital based case-control study included 102 newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell esophageal cancer and the same number of age and sex matched hospital controls.
  • RESULTS: The factors significantly related to cancer of esophagus were: smoking (OR=2.0, 95%CI 1.0-4.2), daily consumption of hard liquor (OR=7.5, 95%CI 2.8-20.0), low educational level (OR=4.7, 95%CI 2.2-10.0), occupational exposure to chemicals (OR=3.7, 95%CI 1.6-9.0), malignant tumors in family history (OR=3.6, 95%CI 1.6-9.0), consumption of wine (OR=0.1, 95%CI 0.1-0.3,) and non-carbonated beverages (OR=0.3, 95%CI 0.2-0.7).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hard liquor and tobacco appear to be the important risk factors for development of squamous cell esophageal cancer in Serbia, whereas wine and non-carbonated beverages may play a protective role.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Case-Control Studies. Female. History, 18th Century. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Yugoslavia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18431008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
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20. Verschuur EM, Siersema PD: [Diagnostics and treatment of esophageal cancers]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2010 Sep;117(9):427-31
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  • [Title] [Diagnostics and treatment of esophageal cancers].
  • The incidence of esophageal cancer has increased markedly during the past 3 decades, especially due to an increase of the incidence of adenocarcinoma.
  • The prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of 10-25%.
  • The important risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are smoking and alcohol intake.
  • Esophageal adenocarcinomas are related to gastro-esophageal reflux disease.
  • The improvement or maintenance of the quality of life and symptom-control are important goals of both curative and palliative treatment of esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20968101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Rossini A, de Almeida Simão T, Marques CB, Soares-Lima SC, Herbster S, Rapozo DC, Andreollo NA, Ferreira MA, El-Jaick KB, Teixeira R, Guimarães DP, Albano RM, Ribeiro Pinto LF: TP53 mutation profile of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas of patients from Southeastern Brazil. Mutat Res; 2010 Feb;696(1):10-5
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  • [Title] TP53 mutation profile of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas of patients from Southeastern Brazil.
  • Esophageal cancer (EC) is among the 10 most common and fatal malignacies in the world, presenting a marked geographic variation in incidence rates between and within different countries.
  • The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is highly mutated in esophageal tumors and its mutation pattern can offer clues to the etiopathology of the tumor.
  • As Brazil presents one of the highest incidence areas in the West, a deeper knowledge of the molecular mechanisms related to EC development in the Brazilian population is needed.
  • We analyzed the mutation profile of 110 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) of patients from Southeastern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) and collected data regarding alcohol intake and tobacco smoking.
  • There was no association between mutation frequency and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alcohol Drinking. Brazil / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Smoking

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19944185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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22. Hagiwara A, Kitajima Y, Sato S, Miyazaki K: Allelic loss of the DNA repair gene OGG1 against oxidative damage in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2005 Jun;13(6):1009-16
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  • [Title] Allelic loss of the DNA repair gene OGG1 against oxidative damage in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Esophageal tissue often undergoes oxidative damage from exposure to cigarettes and alcohol.
  • Although deletion in the 3p region is frequently found in cases of esophageal cancer, few reports have focused on the allelic loss of the OGG1 gene.
  • Using 24 samples of surgically-resected esophageal cancer tissue, we assessed the allelic loss of the OGG1 gene with a set of three microsatellite markers that flank the OGG1 gene.
  • Thus, OGG1 allelic loss is related to carcinogenesis by oxidative stress rather than cancer progression in esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. DNA Glycosylases / genetics. DNA Repair / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Oxidative Stress
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. DNA Damage. Esophagus / enzymology. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Guanine / metabolism. Homozygote. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15870915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5614-64-2 / 8-hydroxyguanine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
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23. Díaz de Liaño A, Artieda C, Yárnoz C, Garde C, Flores L, Ortiz H: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after liver transplantation. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Dec;7(11):518-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after liver transplantation.
  • The occurrence of an oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma following liver transplantation is very infrequent.
  • Such an event has been related to a history of alcohol-induced cirrhosis, as in other squamous cell tumours of the oropharynx.
  • We report the case of a 64-year-old male patient diagnosed as having oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma six years after having had a liver transplant due to alcohol-induced cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcoholism / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cardia / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / etiology. Tacrolimus / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Esophageal Stenosis / etiology. Esophagectomy. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction


24. Morita M, Kumashiro R, Kubo N, Nakashima Y, Yoshida R, Yoshinaga K, Saeki H, Emi Y, Kakeji Y, Sakaguchi Y, Toh Y, Maehara Y: Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prevention. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr;15(2):126-34
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  • [Title] Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prevention.
  • Both cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are well-established risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and the relationship of dose to cancer risk has already been described.
  • Heavy smoking and heavy drinking are closely related to such multicentric carcinogenesis events in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), including the esophagus and head andneck region.
  • Patients with inactive ALDH2, in whom facial flushing is usually observed after the drinking of alcohol, are at high risk for ESCC as well as multiple UADT cancers.
  • For the early detection of the disease, effective follow up using endoscopy with Lugol staining or narrow band imaging endoscopy is strongly recommended for high-risk populations, such as smokers, heavy drinkers, people with experience of flushing after the drinking of alcohol, and patients with UADT cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20224884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.2.1.3 / ALDH2 protein, human; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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25. Sun L, König IR, Jacobs A, Seitz HK, Junghanns K, Wagner T, Ludwig D, Jacrobs A, Homann N: Mean corpuscular volume and ADH1C genotype in white patients with alcohol-associated diseases. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2005 May;29(5):788-93

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  • [Title] Mean corpuscular volume and ADH1C genotype in white patients with alcohol-associated diseases.
  • BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, such as esophageal carcinoma, chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, and liver cirrhosis.
  • Increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) has been recognized as a biomarker for alcohol abuse and heavy drinkers.
  • Recent studies from Japan revealed that macrocytosis is related to ALDH-2/2 genotype, leading to increased acetaldehyde accumulation.
  • It has also demonstrated that increased MCV values could also be an independent biomarker for esophageal cancer in Asians.
  • Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate possible associations of MCV value with polymorphisms of ADH1C in white patients with alcohol-associated esophageal carcinoma, chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis as well as in heavy drinkers without organ damage.
  • METHODS: In this study, a total of 510 alcoholic patients were enrolled with esophageal cancer (n = 98), chronic pancreatitis (n = 98), alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n = 151), and alcohol abuse without gastrointestinal disease (n = 163).
  • RESULTS: In univariate analysis, higher alcohol consumption was associated with increased MCV.
  • In multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustment for age and smoking, higher alcohol consumption and female sex were independently associated with higher MCV values.
  • No other variables, including which alcohol-associated disease the patient had, had an independent effect.
  • In contrast to findings in Asians, macrocytosis does not seem to be an independent biomarker for esophageal cancer.
  • The role of ADH1C polymorphism in increasing MCV and the potential use of MCV as a marker for esophageal carcinoma are still pending.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Alcohol-Induced Disorders / blood. Alcohol-Induced Disorders / genetics. Erythrocyte Indices / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. DNA / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Genotype. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatitis, Alcoholic / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Characteristics. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 15897724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 1.1.1.1 / ADH1C protein, human; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase
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26. Lyronis ID, Baritaki S, Bizakis I, Tsardi M, Spandidos DA: Evaluation of the prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Int J Biol Markers; 2005 Jan-Mar;20(1):5-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of the prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the possible involvement of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) carcinogenesis in the Greek population.
  • DNA was extracted from 30 ESCC and 27 normal esophageal specimens and screened for HPV type-specific or EBV infection by PCR-based assay.
  • Six of the 27 normal esophageal specimens (22.2%) were positive for HPV infection, five typed as HPV-18 (83.3%) and one as HPV-16 (16.7%).
  • No statistically significant correlation was found between the HPV status of the tumor samples and clinical parameters including sex, age of the patients, tobacco or alcohol use, differentiation grade of the lesions and stage of the disease.
  • In conclusion, our findings indicate a statistically significant (p<0.001) overall association between ESCC and HPV infection, mostly related to the HPV-18 subtype, in the Greek population.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / complications. Esophageal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15832767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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27. Hidaka H, Hotokezaka M, Nakashima S, Uchiyama S, Maehara N, Chijiiwa K: Sex difference in survival of patients treated by surgical resection for esophageal cancer. World J Surg; 2007 Oct;31(10):1982-7
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  • [Title] Sex difference in survival of patients treated by surgical resection for esophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for most of the esophageal cancers in Japan and is often related to excessive smoking and drinking.
  • Although esophageal cancer occurs far more frequently in men than in women, it is not certain whether there are sex-specific differences in morbidity and mortality after surgical resection of the esophagus.
  • We conducted a study to determine the influence of sex on the short- and long-term results of surgical resection in patients with esophageal cancer.
  • There were 185 patients (166 men, 19 women; age range 39-86 years) who underwent surgical resection for primary esophageal malignant neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: The cumulative amount of alcohol consumed and number of cigarettes smoked were significantly higher in men than in women.
  • CONCLUSION: Postoperative morbidity and mortality do not appear to differ between men and women with esophageal cancer treated by surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alcohol Drinking. Esophagectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17676426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Siegmund SV, Singer MV: [Effects of alcohol on the upper gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas--an up-to-date overview]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Aug;43(8):723-36
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  • [Title] [Effects of alcohol on the upper gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas--an up-to-date overview].
  • The oesophagus, stomach and pancreas are primary target organs for ethanol-related diseases.
  • Chronic consumption of alcohol causes a significant increase in the risk for squamous carcinoma of the oesophagus.
  • All of these effects are mainly caused by direct contact of alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde with the mucosa.
  • In the exocrine pancreas, alcohol induces secretory alterations that are mainly affected by the manner and duration of alcohol exposure, the additional administration of food, the type of beverage or the basal secretory state of the gland.
  • Chronic alcohol abuse may cause chronic alcoholic pancreatitis after recurrent subclinical inflammatory episodes.
  • Future research needs to define the exact molecular mechanisms and the role of different genetic predispositions for alcohol-induced diseases as well as the effects of the non-alcoholic components of alcoholic beverages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Gastric Acid / secretion. Gastritis / etiology. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16088770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 192
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29. Hu L, Liu J, Chen X, Zhang Y, Liu L, Zhu J, Chen J, Shen H, Qiang F, Hu Z: CTLA-4 gene polymorphism +49 A/G contributes to genetic susceptibility to two infection-related cancers-hepatocellular carcinoma and cervical cancer. Hum Immunol; 2010 Sep;71(9):888-91
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  • [Title] CTLA-4 gene polymorphism +49 A/G contributes to genetic susceptibility to two infection-related cancers-hepatocellular carcinoma and cervical cancer.
  • Accumulated evidence suggested that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) plays an important role in the negative regulation of T-cell proliferation and activation, and thus participates in antitumor immunity and cancer surveillance.
  • Previously we reported that the CTLA4 49A/G (rs231775) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a candidate cancer susceptibility marker for breast, lung, esophageal, and gastric cancers.
  • In the present study, we expanded our study to two infection-related cancers, namely, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. CTLA-4 Antigen. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. China. Female. Gene Frequency / genetics. Genotype. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Menarche. Middle Aged. Parity. Parturition. Pregnancy. Premenopause. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Smoking / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human
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30. Hashibe M, Boffetta P, Zaridze D, Shangina O, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Janout V, Fabiánová E, Bencko V, Moullan N, Chabrier A, Hung R, Hall J, Canzian F, Brennan P: Evidence for an important role of alcohol- and aldehyde-metabolizing genes in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Apr;15(4):696-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for an important role of alcohol- and aldehyde-metabolizing genes in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • This increase is likely to be due to patterns of alcohol and tobacco consumption.
  • We analyzed six SNPs in three genes related to ethanol metabolism: alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and 1C (ADH1B, ADH1C) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2).
  • When results were analyzed by subsite, strong main effects were observed for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus for all six variants.
  • Among the 30% of the population who were carriers of at least one ALDH2 variant, the attributable fraction among carriers (AF(c)) was 24.2% (5.7-38.3%) for all upper aerodigestive tract cancers, increasing to 58.7% (41.2-71.0%) for esophageal cancer.
  • Among carriers who drank alcohol at least thrice to four times a week, the AF(c) for having at least one ALDH2 variant was 49% (21.3-66.8%) for all upper aerodigestive tract cancers, increasing to 68.9% (42.9-83.1%) for esophageal cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes are associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Central European populations and interact substantially with alcohol consumption.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16614111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA92039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.1 / ADH1C protein, human; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.3 / ALDH2 protein, human; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
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31. Dítĕ P, Novotný I, Precechtĕlová M, Růzicka M, Záková A, Hermanová M, Trna J, Nechutová H: Incidence of pancreatic carcinoma in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jul-Aug;57(101):957-60
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  • [Title] Incidence of pancreatic carcinoma in patients with chronic pancreatitis.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic carcinoma belongs to the area of conditions with late diagnosis and there is no effective screening method.
  • In this 14-year period we performed classical biochemical tests, endoscopic ultrasound, CT scans and ERCP, we asked about the number of cigarettes smoked per year and classified individuals consuming regularly more than 80 g of alcohol per day for 5 years for men and 50 g of alcohol per day for 5 years for women as having the alcoholic form of chronic pancreatitis.
  • RESULTS: Alcohol-related etiology was detected in 73.1% of patients, 21.5% had the chronic obstructive form and only 5.4% were classified as idiopathic pancreatitis.
  • Pancreatic carcinoma was detected in 13 patients with chronic pancreatitis (5.8%), three patients were diagnosed with gastric carcinoma and one with esophageal carcinoma.
  • In the 14 year period 11 subjects died, out of which eight cases were related to pancreatic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21033259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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32. Marjani HA, Biramijamal F, Hossein-Nezhad A, Islami F, Pourshmas A, Semnani S: Prevalence of esophageal cancer risk factors among Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnic groups in a high incidence area in Iran. Arch Iran Med; 2010 Mar;13(2):111-5
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  • [Title] Prevalence of esophageal cancer risk factors among Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnic groups in a high incidence area in Iran.
  • BACKGROUND: Golestan Province in north-eastern Iran has one of the highest incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Educational Status. Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Opioid-Related Disorders / complications. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20187664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-3947
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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33. Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C: Folate intake and squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in Italian and Swiss men. Ann Oncol; 2006 Mar;17(3):521-5
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  • [Title] Folate intake and squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in Italian and Swiss men.
  • BACKGROUND: Dietary folate has been inversely related to the risk of several cancers.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from a multicentric case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 1999, we investigated the association between dietary folate intake and oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) among 351 men with incident, histologically confirmed OSCC and 875 hospital controls admitted for acute, non-neoplastic conditions, unrelated to alcohol and smoking consumption.
  • The inverse relation was somewhat stronger in strata of high methionine, vitamin B6 and alcohol intake, and did not vary substantially according to age and smoking habits.
  • CONCLUSION: Dietary folate was inversely related to OSCC risk in this population with high alcohol consumption and infrequent use of supplements and multivitamins.

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  • (PMID = 16344275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8059-24-3 / Vitamin B 6; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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34. Kozlowski M, Kowalczuk O, Sulewska A, Dziegielewski P, Lapuc G, Laudanski W, Niklinska W, Chyczewski L, Niklinski J, Laudanski J: Serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(3):199-204
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  • [Title] Serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Esophageal carcinomas have been shown to express Fas ligand (FasL) and down-regulate Fas to escape from host immune surveillance.
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum sFasL levels in esophageal cancer.
  • The pretreatment levels of sFasL in the serum of 100 patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer and 41 healthy volunteers were determined by ELISA.
  • The mean serum level of sFasL in patients with esophageal cancer was significantly higher than that in healthy donors (1.567+/-1.786 vs 0.261+/-0.435, p<0.0001).
  • The serum levels of soluble FasL were not related to gender, age, tumor size, T-stage, tobacco smoking and history of chronic alcohol intake.
  • Our results indicate that elevated serum sFasL levels might be associated with a disease progression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17951168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fas Ligand Protein
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35. Joshi SC, Saxena SR, Satyawali VN, Joshi A, Nigam P, Singh VK, Rai SP: Oesophageal carcinoma--a study of risk factors (emphasis on nutrition) in a teaching hospital of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. J Assoc Physicians India; 2009 Sep;57:631-5
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  • [Title] Oesophageal carcinoma--a study of risk factors (emphasis on nutrition) in a teaching hospital of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand.
  • Information regarding consumption of alcohol, smoking and tobacco chewing with or without betel leaf was taken in detail.
  • RESULTS: Seven hundred and eighty upper GI endoscopy revealed 94 (12.05%) cases of oesophageal carcinoma.
  • Histopathology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 87 cases (92.50%), adenocarcinoma in 6 cases (6.30%) and one with mixed picture of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Increased risk was seen more often with consumption of alcohol (neat and without or less salad and snacks), smoking beedi and cigarette, and tobacco chewing with or without betel leaf.
  • It is directly related to amount, frequency, mode and duration of use.
  • One factor cannot be blamed but combination of factors increases the risk of oesophageal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Diet / adverse effects. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Tobacco, Smokeless / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20213999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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36. De Stefani E, Ronco AL, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Acosta G, Correa P, Mendilaharsu M: Nutrient intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer; 2006;56(2):149-57
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  • [Title] Nutrient intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.
  • In 1996-2004 a case-control study on nutrient intake, dietary constituents and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay.
  • The controls were hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic disease, which was not related to tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, and without recent changes in their diets.
  • The possible role of these and other dietary constituents in esophageal carcinogenesis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carotenoids / administration & dosage. Diet. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Linoleic Acid / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17474860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-5581
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Vitamins; 36-88-4 / Carotenoids; 9KJL21T0QJ / Linoleic Acid; SB0N2N0WV6 / lycopene
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37. Li D, Dandara C, Parker MI: Association of cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphisms with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2005;43(4):370-5
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  • [Title] Association of cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphisms with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus is one of the most common cancers among black males in South Africa.
  • Genetic polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) gene, coding for one of the main enzymes involved in the bioactivation of tobacco- and alcohol-related substances, was investigated for its role in the development of oesophageal cancer.
  • In comparing patients with controls, the heterozygous CYP2E1*6 genotype was associated with increased risk of the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (odds ratio, 5.90; p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption.

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  • (PMID = 15899651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
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38. Das K, Das K, Datta S, Pal S, Hembram JR, Dhali GK, Santra A, Chowdhury A: Course of disease and survival after onset of decompensation in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Liver Int; 2010 Aug;30(7):1033-42
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  • [Title] Course of disease and survival after onset of decompensation in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Data regarding the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis after the onset of decompensation is scanty.
  • METHOD: From January 1998 to December 2008, a retrospective-prospective inception cohort study involving HBV-related decompensated cirrhotics was performed.
  • Patients with co-infection with hepatitis C virus and/or human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol consumption to any degree and diabetes diagnosed before the detection of liver disease were excluded.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ascites / mortality. Ascites / virology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / virology. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Progression. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / mortality. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / virology. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / virology. Hepatorenal Syndrome / mortality. Hepatorenal Syndrome / virology. Humans. India. Jaundice / mortality. Jaundice / virology. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / mortality. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / virology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20492502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3231
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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39. Dandara C, Li DP, Walther G, Parker MI: Gene-environment interaction: the role of SULT1A1 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms as risk modifiers for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Carcinogenesis; 2006 Apr;27(4):791-7
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  • [Title] Gene-environment interaction: the role of SULT1A1 and CYP3A5 polymorphisms as risk modifiers for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
  • Among the Mixed Ancestry group, tobacco smoking combined with alcohol consumption were significantly associated with higher risk for OC (AOR, 5.18; P=0.0005).
  • The above findings confirm the association between alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking with increased risk for OC.
  • The genotype results show that SULT1A1*2/*2 genotype is associated with increased risk for OC among subjects exposed to tobacco-smoke-related carcinogens.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylsulfotransferase / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Aged. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Case-Control Studies. Cooking. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Point Mutation. Polymorphism, Genetic. Risk Factors. Smoke. Smoking / adverse effects. South Africa

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  • (PMID = 16272171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Smoke; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP3A protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP3A5 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; EC 2.8.2.1 / Arylsulfotransferase; EC 2.8.2.1 / SULT1A1 protein, human
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40. Paget V, Lechevrel M, Sichel F: Acetaldehyde-induced mutational pattern in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 analysed by use of a functional assay, the FASAY (functional analysis of separated alleles in yeast). Mutat Res; 2008 Mar 29;652(1):12-9
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  • Chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for upper aero-digestive tract cancers, including cancer of the esophagus.
  • Whereas alcohol as such is not thought to be directly carcinogenic, acetaldehyde, its first metabolite, has been proven genotoxic and mutagenic in the HPRT gene.
  • As mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are the most common genetic alterations involved in human cancers, especially esophageal tumours, the aim of this work was to establish the mutational pattern induced by acetaldehyde in vitro on the TP53 gene, and to compare this pattern with that found in human alcohol-related tumours.
  • Finally, we compared this pattern with that found for esophageal cancers in humans.
  • These results support the notion that acetaldehyde plays a role in TP53 mutations in esophageal cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alleles. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Esophageal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Mutagenicity Tests / methods. Mutant Proteins / analysis. Recombination, Genetic / drug effects. Sequence Homology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18242117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutant Proteins; GO1N1ZPR3B / Acetaldehyde
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41. Islami F, Kamangar F, Nasrollahzadeh D, Møller H, Boffetta P, Malekzadeh R: Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Dec;45(18):3156-65
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  • Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan.
  • Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Asia / epidemiology. Female. Hot Temperature / adverse effects. Humans. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Malnutrition / complications. Opioid-Related Disorders / complications. Opioid-Related Disorders / epidemiology. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Risk Factors. Tobacco, Smokeless / adverse effects. Turkmenistan / ethnology. Water Supply

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  • (PMID = 19800783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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42. Vasavi M, Vedicherala B, Vattam KK, Ahuja YR, Hasan Q: Assessment of genetic damage in inflammatory, precancerous, and cancerous pathologies of the esophagus using the comet assay. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers; 2010 Aug;14(4):477-82
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  • Results from the comet assay performed on esophageal tissue cells and blood from the same patients showed good correlation of damage in the paired samples; subsequent assays were performed in blood.
  • The interindividual variation observed was independent of confounding factors such as tobacco and alcohol.
  • We suggest that the damage seen in the esophageal tissue is likely to be disease-related, whereas that seen in blood may be a reflection of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Comet Assay / methods. DNA Damage. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophagitis / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20632893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-0257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA: Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2006;20(3):589-603
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  • In contrast, the roles of alcohol consumption and overweight on risk of gastrointestinal cancer have become much clearer.
  • Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for adenocarcinoma (but not squamous carcinoma) of the esophagus, gastric cardia carcinoma (but not noncardia carcinoma), and colorectal cancer, the latter in particular among men.
  • Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for squamous carcinoma (but not adenocarcinoma) of the esophagus, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
  • Selenium may be inversely related to esophageal and gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Body Mass Index. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16782531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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44. Macfarlane TV, Macfarlane GJ, Oliver RJ, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Ahrens W, Pohlabeln H, Lagiou P, Lagiou A, Castellsague X, Agudo A, Merletti F, Richiardi L, Kjaerheim K, Slamova A, Schejbalova M, Canova C, Simonato L, Talamini R, Barzan L, Conway DI, McKinney PA, Znaor A, Lowry RJ, Thomson P, Healy CM, McCartan BE, Marron M, Hashibe M, Brennan P: The aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among young adults in Europe: the ARCAGE study. Cancer Causes Control; 2010 Dec;21(12):2213-21
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  • Several reports have suggested that they often do not have a history of tobacco smoking or heavy alcohol consumption.
  • Risk was strongly related to current smoking [odds ratio (OR) 5.5 95%; confidence interval (CI) (3.3, 9.2)], and risk increased with number of pack-years smoked.
  • Risk was also related to alcohol consumption for both current (OR 1.8; 0.97, 3.3) and past (OR 3.4; 1.6, 7.4) drinkers, and risk increased with number of drink-years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / etiology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Case-Control Studies. Europe / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Smoking / adverse effects. Smoking / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20835759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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45. Willem P, Brown J, Schouten J: A novel approach to simultaneously scan genes at fragile sites. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:205
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  • A FHIT/WWOX MLPA assay was designed, applied and validated in five esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ESCC, cell lines established in South Africa where this cancer is of high prevalence.
  • RESULTS: Both homozygous and hemizygous deletions were detected in FHIT, in four of the cell lines with a preferential deletion of exons 5 and 4.
  • In contrast WWOX was not altered in any cell lines.
  • Simultaneous scanning of FHIT and WWOX exons in the context of early tumorigenesis and tumor progression, may help clarify the mechanistic events related to cancer development which are not revealed by immuno histochemistry assays.
  • The presence of site specific deletions of FHIT in these cell lines and primary tumors support its possible role in South African ESCC and justifies a wider screening.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. DNA Probes. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Gene Dosage. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16895604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.1.- / WWOX protein, human; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1569856
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46. Pissaia A Jr, Bernard D, Scatton O, Soubrane O, Conti F, Calmus Y: Significance of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9, CA 125, and CA 15-3 in pre-orthotopic liver transplantation evaluation. Transplant Proc; 2009 Mar;41(2):682-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CA 125 was also elevated among patients with ascites, esophageal varices, or alcohol-related cirrhosis.
  • CA 15-3 levels were also increased among patients with elevated alkaline phosphatase, while elevated CEA was related to ascites, bilirubin, and prothrombin time (PT) levels, as well as alcohol-related cirrhosis.
  • There was no association between hepatocellular carcinoma and tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / blood. Ascites / epidemiology. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / blood. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / epidemiology. Humans. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19328956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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47. Harth V, Brüning T, Bolt HM: Renal carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene: update, mode of action, and fundamentals for occupational standard setting. Rev Environ Health; 2005 Apr-Jun;20(2):103-18
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Trichloroethylene .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Earlier exposures were related to a slight increase in risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal carcinoma, and esophageal carcinoma.
  • Such confounders as coexposure to other industrial solvents (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and alcohol drinking (esophageal cancer) must be discussed.
  • In Germany, a new consecutive case-control study on kidney cancer confirmed that the risk of renal cell cancer is significantly elevated in persons reporting long-term (several years) exposure to trichloroethylene.
  • Clear-cell renal carcinoma, preferentially induced by trichloroethylene, is linked with the homozygous inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene.
  • In highly exposed subjects, the local genotoxic effect of trichloroethylene results from bioactivation pathways leading to renal VHL gene damage and renal cell carcinomas.
  • The view that renal cell cancer development after long-term (several years) and high (with prenarcotic episodes) occupational exposure to trichloroethylene is due to chronic damage of the proximal tubule of the kidney as a key step argues for the existence of a practical threshold.
  • Prolonged and unusually high-dose exposure to trichloroethylene is deemed a strong risk factor for the development of renal cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / chemically induced. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Occupational Exposure / standards. Solvents / adverse effects. Trichloroethylene / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16121833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7554
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews on environmental health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Environ Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 290YE8AR51 / Trichloroethylene
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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48. Santibañez M, Vioque J, Alguacil J, Barber X, García de la Hera M, Kauppinen T, PANESOES Study Group: Occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type: a case-control study in eastern Spain. Occup Environ Med; 2008 Nov;65(11):774-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Occupational Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Occupational, sociodemographic and lifestyle information was collected from 185 newly diagnosed male oesophageal cancer patients (147 squamous cell, 38 adenocarcinoma) and 285 frequency matched controls.
  • Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking.
  • RESULTS: For the squamous cell variety, statistically significant associations were found for waiters and bartenders (OR 8.18, 95% CI 1.98 to 33.75) and miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers (OR 10.78, 95% CI 1.24 to 93.7) in relation to other occupations.
  • For the adenocarcinoma variety, statistically significant associations were observed for carpenters and joiners (OR 9.69), animal producers and related workers (OR 5.61) and building and related electricians (OR 8.26), although these observations were based on a low number of cases.
  • Regarding specific exposures, the study found a statistically significant increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma for ionising radiation, and of adenocarcinoma for high exposure to volatile sulphur compounds (OR 3.12) and lead (OR 5.30).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that some occupational exposures may specifically increase the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, while other exposures such as asbestos may increase the overall risk of OC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Occupational Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18614460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7926
  • [Journal-full-title] Occupational and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Occup Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hazardous Substances
  • [Investigator] Vioquea J; Ponce E; Guillén M; Santibáñez M; Barber X; García de la Hera M; Hernández M; Bixquert M; Alonso J; Cervera V; Giner R; Ruiz J; Sanchos-Aldás C; Arenas J; Berenguer J; Sala T; Pascual S; Argüello L; Bustamante M; Sancho S; Herranz C; Aparicio J; Baixauli; Mir J; Sendrá P; Medina E; Tomé A; Ferrer L; Truyenque R; Olabarrieta L; Fabra R; Camps C; Vicent JM; Moreno-Osset E; Añón R; Ballester J; Alfonso V; Martínez-Abad; Blanes F; Molins C; Almenar D; Olmos S; Fenollosa; Benages-Martinez A; Peña-Aldea A; Pascual I; Conde G; Cervantes A; Azagra P; Lledó; Flor B; Martí V; Pérez-Mateos M; Casellas JA; Girona E; Aparicio JR; López M; Arroyo A; Camuñas F; de Anta J; Custardoy J; Martínez C; Gaspar E; Muñoz E; Carrato A; Gozálvez ML; Calpena R; Gassent; Pérez; Sillero CC; Medrano J; Mauri F; Corona M; Minguel J
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49. Aragonés N, Ramis R, Pollán M, Pérez-Gómez B, Gómez-Barroso D, Lope V, Boldo EI, García-Pérez J, López-Abente G: Oesophageal cancer mortality in Spain: a spatial analysis. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide.
  • CONCLUSION: These major gender- and area-related geographical differences in risk would seem to reflect differences in the prevalence of some well-established and modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and diet.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17201909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1781461
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50. Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B: Association of ECRG2 TCA short tandem repeat polymorphism with the risk of oesophageal cancer in a North Indian population. Clin Exp Med; 2008 Jun;8(2):73-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Oesophageal cancer-related gene (ECRG2) is a tumour suppressor gene and it has been suggested that a triplet TCA short tandem repeat (STR) in the noncoding region of exon 4 plays a role in genetic susceptibility to oesophageal cancer.
  • The association of the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype with clinical characteristics showed an increased risk for squamous cell histology (2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, p = 0.03), while no association with tumor location or lymph node involvement was observed.
  • Interaction of tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposure with the ECRG2 genotypes did not show modulation of risk.
  • In conclusion, the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype is associated with the risk of oesophageal carcinoma in a North Indian population.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Microsatellite Repeats. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18618216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1591-8890
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory; 0 / SPINK7 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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51. Tarantino G, Citro V, Conca P, Riccio A, Tarantino M, Capone D, Cirillo M, Lobello R, Iaccarino V: What are the implications of the spontaneous spleno-renal shunts in liver cirrhosis? BMC Gastroenterol; 2009;9:89
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Although significant advances are expected to be made in the assessment of the portal hypertension-related complications, the prognostic role of spleno-renal shunts has not been fully explored so far.
  • Chronic liver damage in these patients was caused by HCV (66), HBV (2), alcohol abuse (2) or unknown etiology, likely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (11).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: grading of esofageal varices; detection of ascites: assessment of hepatic encephalopathy; evaluation of liver cirrhosis severity; tracking hepatocellular carcinoma; doppler features of spleno-renal shunts and splenic flow velocity; spleen longitudinal diameter at sonography.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of spleno-renal shunts was 18.5%, without no difference concerning the etiology (HCV versus non-HCV, p = 0.870); the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with spleno-renal shunts was superior to that of patients without them (Pearson Chi-square, p = 0.006, power of sample size 74%), also after adjustment for liver decompensation (p = 0.024).
  • By far the largest percentage of large esophageal varices was in patients without spleno-renal shunts (p = 0.005).
  • CONCLUSION: Taking into consideration the relatively small sample size, patients with spleno-renal shunts are burdened by an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19930687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785828
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