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6. Issa MC, Piñeiro-Maceira J, Vieira MT, Olej B, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA, Luiz RR, Manela-Azulay M: Photorejuvenation with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: a randomized, prospective, clinical, histopathologic, and morphometric study. Dermatol Surg; 2010;36(1):39-48
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  • CONCLUSION: Clinical improvement with regard to texture, firmness, wrinkle depth, skin coloration, and clearance of actinic keratoses was observed.

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2010;36(1):49-51 [20002645.001]
  • (PMID = 20002646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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7. Schäfer T, Merkl J, Klemm E, Wichmann HE, Ring J, KORA Study Group: The epidemiology of nevi and signs of skin aging in the adult general population: Results of the KORA-survey 2000. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Jul;126(7):1490-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ephelides were seen in 16%, lentigines solaris in 62.4%, and lentigines seniles in 33.2%.
  • All signs of skin aging increased significantly with age and so did lentigines solaris, seniles, and actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cross-Sectional Studies. Data Collection. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome / epidemiology. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Keratosis / epidemiology. Keratosis / pathology. Lentigo / epidemiology. Lentigo / pathology. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / epidemiology. Melanosis / pathology. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution


8. Park MY, Sohn S, Lee ES, Kim YC: Photorejuvenation induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in patients with actinic keratosis: a histologic analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):85-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photorejuvenation induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in patients with actinic keratosis: a histologic analysis.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients with one to three actinic keratoses on the face were treated twice with ALA-PDT by using a 1200 W metal halogen lamp at 1-month intervals.
  • RESULTS: After ALA-PDT, the mean epidermal thickness and dermal inflammatory infiltrate were reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19926165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tropoelastin; 0 / fibrillin; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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9. Nakano A, Tamada Y, Watanabe D, Ishida N, Yamashita N, Kuhara T, Yanagishita T, Kawamura C, Akita Y, Matsumoto Y: A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2009 Feb;25(1):37-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for actinic keratosis (AK); few studies have examined Oriental patients.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of PDT for the treatment of Japanese AK patients classified by lesion size and histological severity.
  • METHODS: Thirty patients with solitary AK lesions were divided into two groups according to diameter: a small lesion group (SL), diameter < or =10 mm and a larger lesion group (LL), diameter >10 mm, and histological severity: Group I (mild and moderate) and Group II (severe).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that ALA-PDT might be useful for treatment of Japanese AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19152514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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10. Dixon A: Treating actinic keratoses with imiquimod. Aust Fam Physician; 2007 May;36(5):341-2
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  • [Title] Treating actinic keratoses with imiquimod.
  • Mr KC, 61 years of age, has extensive actinic damage including squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and actinic keratoses (AKs) on his face and forehead.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17492069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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11. Miteva L, Broshtilova V, Schwartz RA: Verrucous systemic lupus erythematosus. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2009;17(4):301-4
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  • This verrucous variant of lupus erythematosus, sometimes clinically resembling actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is reviewed.


12. Kazi TG, Arain MB, Baig JA, Jamali MK, Afridi HI, Jalbani N, Sarfraz RA, Shah AQ, Niaz A: The correlation of arsenic levels in drinking water with the biological samples of skin disorders. Sci Total Environ; 2009 Jan 15;407(3):1019-26
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  • In 2005-2007, a survey was carried out on surface and groundwater arsenic contamination and relationships between As exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects (melanosis and keratosis) on villagers resides on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan.

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  • (PMID = 19027142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-9697
  • [Journal-full-title] The Science of the total environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. Total Environ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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13. Faghihi G, Radan M: Xeroderma pigmentosum and lentigo maligna in identical twins. J Dermatolog Treat; 2006;17(4):241-3
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  • Clinically, XP presents with early onset cutaneous changes (severe photosensitivity, actinic keratoses, and telangiectasias) and an increase of developing cutaneous malignancies beginning in early childhood, but lentigo maligna and melanomas are relatively rare.

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  • (PMID = 16971321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, Sánchez-Ronco M, Pérez-García B, Marquet A, Jaén P: [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Dec;99(10):779-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional del tratamiento de queratosis actínicas múltiples con metilaminolevulinato tópico y luz roja: resultados en la práctica clínica y correlación con la imagen de fluorescencia.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is one of the most common skin diseases seen in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19091216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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15. Li HY, Xu W, Han DM, Hu R, Hu HY, Hou LZ, Zhang L, Ye JY, Wang J: [Self-assessment characteristics of voice handicap index for voice disorders and its influencing factors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;44(2):109-13
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  • VHI scores were descending in order among spasmodic dysphonia, vocal fold paralysis, functional dysphonia, sulcus vocalis, benign and malignant tumor of vocal fold, vocal fold cyst, Reinke's edema, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold keratosis and chronic laryngitis, vocal nodule.
  • CONCLUSION: As a useful supplementary instrument to measure the voice disorder severity and the treatment's effect, VHI can comprehensively assess the voice handicap's affect to the life quality and the difference after the treatment, especially in physical, functional and emotional aspects, but it is somehow subject to the educational degree and age.

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  • (PMID = 19558882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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16. Skiveren J, Haedersdal M, Philipsen PA, Wiegell SR, Wulf HC: Morphine gel 0.3% does not relieve pain during topical photodynamic therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Derm Venereol; 2006;86(5):409-11
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  • The study involved 28 patients with actinic keratoses or basal cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Double-Blind Method. Gels. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Receptors, Opioid / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16955184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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17. Downs AM, Bower CB, Oliver DA, Stone CA: Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial basal cell carcinoma employing a square wave intense pulsed light device for photoactivation. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jul;161(1):189-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial basal cell carcinoma employing a square wave intense pulsed light device for photoactivation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19416229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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18. Wolfe CM, Hatfield K, Cognetta AB Jr: Cellulitis as a postprocedural complication of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 May;6(5):544-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellulitis as a postprocedural complication of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common premalignant tumor of the skin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Face / pathology. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / microbiology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17679192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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19. Bartels PH, Krouse RS, Prasad AR, Yozwiak M, Liu Y, Bartels HG, Alberts DS: Actinic damage in histopathologically normal skin. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Dec;30(6):316-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic damage in histopathologically normal skin.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Biopsies were taken from the upper inner arm, representing skin with presumably minimum sun exposure, from skin of the forearm with no visible sun damage, from skin of the forearm with visible sun damage and from normal-appearing skin from the forearm of individuals who had sun exposure that had resulted in actinic keratosis (AK) lesions.
  • RESULTS: In histopathologically normal skin, monotonically increasing damage was observed in individuals with increased exposure to solar radiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Karyometry can detect and statistically secure changes in skin due to solar exposure at a stage at which the skin is histopathologically determined to be normal.

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  • [Cites] Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2001 Aug;23(4):300-12 [11531145.001]
  • [Cites] Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2003 Dec;25(6):353-61 [14714302.001]
  • [Cites] Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 1998 Feb;20(1):21-8 [9513688.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Dec;13(12):1996-2002 [15598753.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jul;17(7):1689-95 [18583468.001]
  • (PMID = 19160696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS584881; NLM/ PMC4033610
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20. Ferran M, Bussaglia E, Matias-Guiu X, Pujol RM: Bilateral and symmetrical palmoplantar punctate keratoses in childhood: a possible clinical clue for an early diagnosis of PTEN hamartoma-tumour syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jul;34(5):e28-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral and symmetrical palmoplantar punctate keratoses in childhood: a possible clinical clue for an early diagnosis of PTEN hamartoma-tumour syndrome.
  • Palmoplantar punctate keratoses may be the main cutaneous sign of various diseases (porokeratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris, keratosis punctata of the palmar creases, familial punctate palmoplantar keratoderma) or represent a secondary feature [Cowden's syndrome (CS) and Darier's disease].
  • In CS, such keratoses usually appear during the second and third decades of life, together with other mucocutaneous features.
  • We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with palmoplantar punctate keratoses in whom diagnosis of new-onset CS was suspected only after the development of other cutaneous lesions.
  • Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis.
  • This case highlights the necessity to consider CS in the differential diagnosis when palmoplantar punctate keratoses are found, even in paediatric patients.
  • A prompt diagnosis is important in order to monitor the development of possible underlying associated neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Codon, Nonsense. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Point Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19508470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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21. Guha Mazumder DN: Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng; 2007 Oct;42(12):1859-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease.
  • Characteristic skin lesions (pigmentation, depigmentation and keratosis) are the hallmark signs of chronic arsenic toxicity.
  • Results show evidences of restrictive, obstructive and combined obstructive and restrictive lung disease in different people having chronic lung disease associated with chronic arsenic toxicity.
  • On the basis of clinical study, chest X-ray and HRCT done in Arsenicosis patients with features of chronic lung disease, the abnormalities observed were varied.
  • Evidences of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and bronchiectasis were found in some of the cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bangladesh / epidemiology. Bronchiectasis / chemically induced. Bronchiectasis / epidemiology. Bronchiectasis / pathology. Bronchitis, Chronic / chemically induced. Bronchitis, Chronic / epidemiology. Bronchitis, Chronic / pathology. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Environmental Exposure / analysis. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / chemically induced. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / epidemiology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Prevalence. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / chemically induced. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / pathology. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / epidemiology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17952787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-4529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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22. Lee WJ, Park GH, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: Keratosis follicularis and dermatomyositis: is there a common pathogenesis? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;23(8):977-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Keratosis follicularis and dermatomyositis: is there a common pathogenesis?
  • [MeSH-major] Darier Disease / etiology. Dermatomyositis / etiology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19210696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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23. Krawtchenko N, Roewert-Huber J, Ulrich M, Mann I, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: A randomised study of topical 5% imiquimod vs. topical 5-fluorouracil vs. cryosurgery in immunocompetent patients with actinic keratoses: a comparison of clinical and histological outcomes including 1-year follow-up. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:34-40
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  • [Title] A randomised study of topical 5% imiquimod vs. topical 5-fluorouracil vs. cryosurgery in immunocompetent patients with actinic keratoses: a comparison of clinical and histological outcomes including 1-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) frequently occur on sun-exposed skin and are considered as in situ squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study compared the initial and 12-month clinical clearance, histological clearance, and cosmetic outcomes of topically applied 5% imiquimod (IMIQ) cream, 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ointment and cryosurgery for the treatment of AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Imiquimod treatment of AK resulted in superior sustained clearance and cosmetic outcomes compared with cryosurgery and 5-FU.
  • It should be considered as a first line therapy for sustained treatment of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cryosurgery. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. West DA, Aires DJ: Treatment of actinic keratoses with topical fluorouracil. Am Fam Physician; 2010 May 15;81(10):1186
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  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses with topical fluorouracil.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20507040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0650
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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25. Resnick L, Rabinovitz H, Binninger D, Marchetti M, Weissbach H: Topical sulindac combined with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2009 Jan;8(1):29-32
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  • [Title] Topical sulindac combined with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a precancerous condition of the skin that have the potential to become squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • METHODS: Cell culture studies were performed using a skin SCC cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes.
  • A clinical trial using the combination of sulindac and hydrogen peroxide therapy in 5 patients with AKs revealed that 60% of the treated AKs responded and 50% showed no residual AK on histopathology specimens after skin biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hydrogen Peroxide / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Oxidants / therapeutic use. Sulindac / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19180893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R15 CA122001-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gels; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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26. King SC, Chen S: Analyzing the cost of preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol; 2009 Dec;129(12):2745-6
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  • In this issue, Gordon et al. report a novel study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of promoting sunscreen use to prevent actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

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  • [CommentOn] J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Dec;129(12):2766-71 [19536149.001]
  • (PMID = 19901945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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27. Arai E, Shimizu M, Tsuchida T, Izaki S, Ogawa F, Hirose T: Lymphomatoid keratosis: an epidermotropic type of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological study of 6 cases. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Jan;143(1):53-9
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  • [Title] Lymphomatoid keratosis: an epidermotropic type of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological study of 6 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence that lymphomatoid keratosis should be categorized as an epidermotropic subtype of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia.
  • DESIGN: Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological studies of epidermotropic and dermal bandlike infiltrates of lymphocytes without necrotic keratinocytes, Civatte bodies, or Max-Joseph spaces and solar lentigo or seborrheic keratosis adjacent to the lesion, but with epidermal hyperplastic change (clinically scaly plaque) in cases of lymphomatoid keratosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that lymphomatoid keratosis is a clinically benign keratotic lesion but histologically malignant, simulating mycosis fungoides.
  • Therefore, "lymphomatoid" keratosis should be classed as a pseudolymphoma, namely, a subtype of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia with epidermotropism.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement. Keratosis / pathology. Pseudolymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD20. Antigens, CD79. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta. Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Japan. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17224542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD79
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28. Fernandez-Flores A: Irritated seborrheic keratosis with coarse keratohyalin granules. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2009;50(4):583-7
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  • [Title] Irritated seborrheic keratosis with coarse keratohyalin granules.
  • AIMS: The viral etiology of certain types of seborrheic keratosis (SK) has been a controversial subject in literature, with different molecular results.
  • On the contrary, to the molecular approach, some have suggested that certain types of SK are indeed warts, due to their morphologic features.
  • We decided to investigate the presence of coarse keratohyalin granules in cases of irritated SK.
  • MATERIAL, METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the last 60 cases with such a diagnosis in our Service of Anatomic Pathology and found these granules in eight cases (7.5%).
  • In these eight cases, we also looked for other morphologic signs suggesting a viral origin, such as papilated, exo-endophytic configuration, parakeratosis at the tips of digitations, dilated vessels in the papillae and koilocytes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the meaning of such a finding as described in literature, and conclude that it should be a specific feature to look out for, in cases of irritated SK, in order to exclude a diagnosis of verruca vulgaris.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Epidermis / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parakeratosis / metabolism. Parakeratosis / pathology. Parakeratosis / virology. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 19942951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / keratohyalin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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29. Ortiz-Policarpio B, Lui H: Methyl aminolevulinate-PDT for actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers. Skin Therapy Lett; 2009 Jul-Aug;14(6):1-3
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  • [Title] Methyl aminolevulinate-PDT for actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Methyl aminolevulinate-hydrochloride cream (Metvix [in Canada] and Metvixia [in the US], Galderma) in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides an effective treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs), superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and Bowen's disease (BD).
  • Complete responses (CRs) in AK range from 69% to 93% at 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 19609473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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30. Fanti PA, Dika E, Vaccari S, Miscial C, Varotti C: Generalized psoriasis induced by topical treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;45(12):1464-5
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  • [Title] Generalized psoriasis induced by topical treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Keratosis / drug therapy. Psoriasis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 17184267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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31. Heal CF, Weedon D, Raasch BA, Hill BT, Buettner PG: Agreement between histological diagnosis of skin lesions by histopathologists and a dermato-histopathologist. Int J Dermatol; 2009 Dec;48(12):1366-9
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  • [Title] Agreement between histological diagnosis of skin lesions by histopathologists and a dermato-histopathologist.
  • It is important that doctors are able to diagnose skin lesions accurately, and this is supported by accurate histological diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare agreement for histological diagnosis between local histopathologists with a dermato-histopathologist from a stratified random sample of excised skin lesions derived from a set of epidemiological data.
  • Results Positive predictive values (PPVs) for the primary histological diagnosis were above 90% for basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, and common naevus.
  • DISCUSSION: Lack of agreement between histopathologists regarding the diagnosis of SCC and actinic keratosis has been previously recognized in the literature and this is again reflected in our study.
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology. Diagnostic Errors / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Pathology, Clinical. Predictive Value of Tests


32. Wu Y, Liu H, Li J: Expression of p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 and their correlation in skin tumors. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2007 Apr;27(2):206-8
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  • To study the expression of p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) in skin tumors and evaluate the correlation between p63 and cox-2, the expressions of cox-2 and p63 were measured by streptavidin-peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique in 17 cases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19 cases of Bowen's disease(Bowen), 11 cases of actinic keratosis(AK), 12 cases of seborreic keratosis(SK) and 13 specimens of normal skin.
  • Our results showed that the expression of p63 in skin squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while the expression of p63 in seborreic keratosis was significantly higher than that in normal skin.
  • The expression of cox-2 in skin squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while no statistical difference was noted in the expression of cox-2 between seborreic keratosis and normal skin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis / metabolism. Keratosis / pathology. Male. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17497299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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33. Engel F, Ellero B, Woehl-Jaegle ML, Cribier B: [Diffuse sebaceous hyperplasia of the face induced by cyclosporine]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Apr;132(4):342-5
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  • Hypertrichosis, follicular keratosis, acne and folliculitis are very common.
  • The histological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of sebaceous hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 15886561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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34. Borenstein M, Mirzabeigi M, Vincek V: Pityrosporum and seborrheic keratosis: an association. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):3
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  • [Title] Pityrosporum and seborrheic keratosis: an association.
  • Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are one of the most common benign tumors of the skin.
  • Studies have suggested that human papillomavirus or a benign clonal proliferation of epidermal cells is involved in the pathogenesis of some SK's, however, this issue remains to be resolved.
  • Pityrosporum ovale has been implicated in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis, however, its potential role in association with SK's has not been evaluated as evidenced by the fact that there are no publications in the English-language literature regarding this issue.
  • We observed a common occurrence of Pityrosporum organisms in the stratum corneum of SK on routine histopathologic sections and decided to investigate whether there was an association between these two common entities.
  • We found that in a majority of the SK studied Pityrosporum was present, which was significantly different from controls (verruca vulgaris and basal cell carcinoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatomycoses / complications. Keratosis, Seborrheic / etiology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / microbiology. Malassezia / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 16150211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Heppt W: [Skin tumors in facial plastic surgery]. HNO; 2009 Apr;57(4):324-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common histologic findings are actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / trends. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / trends. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19347378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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41. Liu H, Chen S, Zhang F, Shi B, Shi Z, Zhang D, Yu M, Tian H, Yang B: Seborrheic keratosis or verruca plana? A pilot study with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Skin Res Technol; 2010 Nov;16(4):408-12
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  • [Title] Seborrheic keratosis or verruca plana? A pilot study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiation of some seborrheic keratosis (SK) and verruca plana (VP) lesions is a challenge.
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has been proved to be useful in the diagnosis of skin diseases; however, to date, there is no report on the differential study of the two diseases with CLSM.
  • OBJECTIVES: To obtain the CLSM image characteristics of SK and VP, and then test the differential ability of CLSM imaging.
  • METHODS: We recruited 10 patients with typical lesions of SK under CLSM images to validate the features reported.
  • All the cases with lesions suggestive of SK or VP were advised to undergo imaging with CLSM, and if CLSM imaging reflected discordantly with the clinical diagnosis, a biopsy was suggested for the exact lesion imaged.
  • Finally, two clinical dermatologists, who had no previous experience with CLSM, were tested with the simplified features of CLSM images to differentiate the suspected lesions of SK and VP among the cases collected.
  • RESULTS: In total, there were 58 cases with CLSM images and histology results collected, in which, 40 cases were diagnosed as SK and 18 cases as VP by histology.
  • CONCLUSION: CLSM proved to be valuable in the differential diagnosis of SK and VP.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Warts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 21039905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0846
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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42. Wollina U, Abdel-Naser MB, Verma S: Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions. Curr Probl Dermatol; 2006;33:1-16
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  • Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis.

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  • (PMID = 16766877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-5721
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Probl. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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43. Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Rahman MM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Dulta SK, Palit SK, Kaies I, Barua AK, Asad KA: Murshidabad--one of the nine groundwater arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: dermatological, neurological, and obstetric findings. Clin Toxicol (Phila); 2005;43(7):835-48
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  • Out of 2595 children we examined for arsenical skin lesions, 122 (4%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions, melanosis with or without keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 16440511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-3650
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Toxicol (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical
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44. Patel KS, Shrivas K, Brandt R, Jakubowski N, Corns W, Hoffmann P: Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India. Environ Geochem Health; 2005 Apr;27(2):131-45
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  • The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.).

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  • (PMID = 16003581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental geochemistry and health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Geochem Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals; 0 / Soil Pollutants; 0 / Water Pollutants; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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45. Ntomouchtsis A, Karakinaris G, Poulolpoulos A, Kechagias N, Kittikidou K, Tsompanidou C, Vahtsevanos K, Antoniades K: Benign lip lesions. A 10-year retrospective study. Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Jun;14(2):115-8
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  • A total of 24 cases of actinic keratosis were added in the latter group.
  • RESULTS: Of the benign lesions, the commonest were haemangiomas (19.28%), actinic keratosis (17.14%), intradermal naevus (14.28%), fibroma (9.28%), papilloma (7.85%), mild and moderate dysplasia (7.85%) and mucocele (7.14%).
  • Accurate auditing and detailed statistical analysis aid in disease prevention and help avoid errors in diagnosis and management.

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  • (PMID = 20112123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Goldberg LH, Kaplan B, Vergilis-Kalner I, Landau J: Liquid nitrogen: temperature control in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Dec;36(12):1956-61
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  • [Title] Liquid nitrogen: temperature control in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are in situ epidermal tumors that may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • No recurrence of AK, scarring, or hypopigmentation was noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryosurgery / methods. Keratosis, Actinic / surgery. Nitrogen / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21070460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N762921K75 / Nitrogen
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47. Woodmansee C, Pillow J, Skinner RB Jr: The role of topical immune response modifiers in skin cancer. Drugs; 2006;66(13):1657-64
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  • Imiquimod is approved for the treatment of actinic keratoses, superficial basal cell carcinomas and warts; it has also been documented to successfully treat other forms of skin cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, melanoma and extramammary Paget's disease.

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  • (PMID = 16978032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; P1QW714R7M / imiquimod; V3DMU7PVXF / resiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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48. Hofbauer GF, Anliker M, Arnold A, Binet I, Hunger R, Kempf W, Laffitte E, Lapointe AC, Pascual M, Pelloni F, Serra A, SGDV working group for organ transplant recipients: Swiss clinical practice guidelines for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Swiss Med Wkly; 2009 Jul 25;139(29-30):407-15
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  • Once transplanted, SOTRs should be seen by a dermatologist yearly for repeat education as well as early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of skin cancer.
  • Cumulative sun damage results in field cancerisation with numerous in-situ SCC such as actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease which should be treated proactively.


49. Deprez M, Uffer S: Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):256-62
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  • Benign tumors largely predominated over malignant ones, representing 84% of cases in this series, and the 5 most frequent subtypes were squamous cell papilloma (26%), seborrheic keratosis (21%), melanocytic nevus (20%), hidrocystoma (8%), and xanthoma/xanthelasma (6%).
  • For several tumor subtypes, there was a poor correlation between clinical and histological diagnosis, stressing the numerous pitfalls in the diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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50. Carrera C, Segura S, Palou J, Puig S, Segura J, Martí RM, Malvehy J: Seborrheic keratosislike melanoma with folliculotropism. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Mar;143(3):373-6
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  • OBSERVATIONS: A 34-year-old man was seen for a conspicuous pigmented lesion on his back that clinically resembled a seborrheic keratosis because of the presence of multiple comedolike openings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17372102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Eberle J, Fecker LF, Forschner T, Ulrich C, Röwert-Huber J, Stockfleth E: Apoptosis pathways as promising targets for skin cancer therapy. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:18-24
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  • Also, topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK), such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (e.g. diclofenac 3% gel), have been shown to trigger pro-apoptotic pathways.

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  • (PMID = 17488402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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52. Zaballos P, Salsench E, Serrano P, Cuellar F, Puig S, Malvehy J: Studying regression of seborrheic keratosis in lichenoid keratosis with sequential dermoscopy imaging. Dermatology; 2010;220(2):103-9
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  • [Title] Studying regression of seborrheic keratosis in lichenoid keratosis with sequential dermoscopy imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Lichenoid keratosis (LK) is a well-described entity that has been proposed to represent a regressive response to a pre-existent epidermal lesion.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the natural evolution of a series of cases showing the intermediate stage of the regression of seborrheic keratosis in LK using sequential dermoscopy imaging over time.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of lesions with dermoscopic areas of seborrheic keratosis and LK in the same tumor were consecutively collected for over 3 years at the Dermatology Department of the Hospital de Sant Pau i Santa Tecla, Tarragona, Spain.
  • In 11 cases (50%), the seborrheic keratosis part disappeared completely, and in another 5 cases (22.7%), seborrheic keratosis comprised only 10% of the remaining area.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These dermoscopic study findings support the proposal that LK represents a regressive response to a pre-existent epidermal lesion, in this case seborrheic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Lichen Planus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 19996577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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53. de Leeuw J, van der Beek N, Neugebauer WD, Bjerring P, Neumann HA: Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage. Lasers Surg Med; 2009 Feb;41(2):96-103
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  • [Title] Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage.
  • BACKGROUND: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing all over the world.
  • The detection and diagnosis of NMSC is not optimal in clinical practice.
  • After histological examination the positive fluorescence appeared to be correlated to benign lesions in 28 patients (sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 22 patients) and to (pre-) malignant lesions in 33 patients (actinic keratosis in 29, BCC in 3 and SCC in 1 patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Early Detection of Cancer. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19226578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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54. Prior SL, Griffiths AP, Lewis PD: A study of mitochondrial DNA D-loop mutations and p53 status in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161(5):1067-71
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  • However, they have not been examined in the SCC precursor lesions, Bowen disease or actinic keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 19624548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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55. Situm M, Bulat V, Buljan M, Puljiz Z, Situm V, Bolanca Z: Senile lentigo--cosmetic or medical issue of the elderly population. Coll Antropol; 2010 Apr;34 Suppl 2:85-8
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  • [Title] Senile lentigo--cosmetic or medical issue of the elderly population.
  • Senile lentigo or age spots are hyperpigmented macules of skin that occur in irregular shapes, appearing most commonly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin such as on the face and back of the hands.
  • Senile lentigo is a common component of photoaged skin and is seen most commonly after the age of 50.
  • There are many disscusions on whether senile lentigo represents a melanoma precursor, namely lentigo maligna melanoma and, if there is a need for a regular follow up in cases of multiple lesions.
  • On contrary, some authors believe that senile lentigo represents a precursor of seborrheic keratosis, which does not require a serious medical treatment.
  • However, the observation of the possible association of senile lentigo with the melanoma development makes us cautious in the assessment of this lesion.
  • If the lesion becomes inflammed it may evolve into benign lichenoid keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 21302707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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56. Logié A, Dunois-Lardé C, Rosty C, Levrel O, Blanche M, Ribeiro A, Gasc JM, Jorcano J, Werner S, Sastre-Garau X, Thiery JP, Radvanyi F: Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 May 1;14(9):1153-60
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  • Mice expressing the transgene developed benign epidermal tumors with no sign of malignancy.
  • These skin lesions had features in common with acanthosis nigricans and other benign human skin tumors, including seborrheic keratosis, one of the most common benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • We therefore screened a series of 62 cases of seborrheic keratosis for FGFR3 mutations.
  • Our findings directly implicate FGFR3 activation as a major cause of benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15772091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Fgfr3 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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57. Pribuisiene R, Uloza V, Kupcinskas L: Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(4):280-7
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  • Presence of mucosal lesions of the interarytenoid notch (roughness, hypertrophy, keratosis, granuloma) increases the odds ratio to attribute the patient to the reflux laryngitis patient group 21 times (OR=21.32, 95% CI 4.38-103.93; P<0.001).
  • Mucosal lesions (hypertrophy, keratosis, granuloma) and edema of vocal cords were determined as the most sensitive and rather specific laryngoscopic signs.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Laryngitis / diagnosis. Laryngoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Edema / diagnosis. Laryngeal Mucosa. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Stroboscopy. Video Recording. Vocal Cords

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  • (PMID = 18469504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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58. Bäckvall H, Asplund A, Gustafsson A, Sivertsson A, Lundeberg J, Ponten F: Genetic tumor archeology: microdissection and genetic heterogeneity in squamous and basal cell carcinoma. Mutat Res; 2005 Apr 1;571(1-2):65-79
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  • A high frequency of epidermal p53 clones has been detected in chronically sun-exposed skin.
  • Studies using p53 mutations as a clonality marker have suggested a direct link between actinic keratosis, SCC in situ and invasive SCC.


59. Neuhaus IM, LeBoit PE, McCalmont TM: Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells: a distinctive microscopic mimic of melanoma in situ. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Jan;54(1):132-5
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  • [Title] Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells: a distinctive microscopic mimic of melanoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: We observed seborrheic keratoses with many basilar clear cells, creating a microscopic pattern that mimicked a seborrheic keratosis involved by melanoma in situ.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to report a series of these seborrheic keratoses and the immunohistochemical stains used to reach a proper diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 9 cases of seborrheic keratosis that had a distinctive pattern of basal clear cells with ample cytoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe a previously uncharacterized pattern of seborrheic keratosis that can microscopically mimic melanoma in situ.
  • Careful conventional microscopy coupled with a panel of immunostains can allow the proper diagnosis to be reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immune Sera. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Keratins / immunology. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / immunology. Staining and Labeling

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2017 Jun;44(6):600-602 [28401581.001]
  • (PMID = 16384768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Immune Sera; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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60. Cardoso CL, Freitas P, Taveira LA, Consolaro A: Darier disease: case report with oral manifestations. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Aug;11(5):E404-6
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  • [Title] Darier disease: case report with oral manifestations.
  • Darier disease, also known as keratosis follicularis or dyskeratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis.
  • This paper reports a case of an adult male patient presenting clinical signs of Darier disease in the palatal mucosa and skin on the neck and upper limbs.
  • Intraoral biopsy of the affected area, analysis of family history and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team led to the diagnosis of Darier disease.
  • Dental professionals and pathologists should be aware of these lesions to allow correct diagnosis and proper management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Darier Disease / pathology. Mouth Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16878056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Ross AH, Kennedy CT, Collins C, Harrad RA: The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours. Orbit; 2010 Apr;29(2):83-7
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  • Two patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, one patient with actinic keratosis, one with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen's disease) and one patient had concomitant squamous cell carcinoma and intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In our experience, it is a safe and effective treatment for periocular lesions, including actinic keratosis, intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20394545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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62. Newman MD, Weinberg JM: Topical therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Cutis; 2007 Apr;79(4 Suppl):18-28
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  • [Title] Topical therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is an evolving malignant cutaneous neoplasm.
  • AK also is known as solar keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, either solar keratotic type or keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17508492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / Tubulin Modulators
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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63. Bugatti L, Filosa G: Dermoscopy of lichen planus-like keratosis: a model of inflammatory regression. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Nov;21(10):1392-7
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of lichen planus-like keratosis: a model of inflammatory regression.
  • BACKGROUND: Lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) or benign lichenoid keratosis is an involuting cutaneous entity where regressing features are the histologic hallmark.
  • Most authors consider LPLK as an heterogeneous spectrum of intraepithelial epidermal or melanocytic lesions, mainly pigmented, involuting by inflammatory regression.
  • All cases were excised and submitted to histopathologic examination and subdivided into three groups according to the early, classic and atrophic subtypes.
  • FE correlates mainly with early/atrophic types, while the FP nearly exclusively with the late atrophic type.
  • The classic dermoscopic features of regressing lesion for LPLK (pigmented granular pattern) apply to the most frequent encountered pigmented atrophic flat type or classic pigmented type, where sometimes regression is advanced or almost complete and no clear diagnosis of a previous benign/malignant - epithelial or melanocytic lesion can often be given.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Lichen Planus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dermoscopy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17958847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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64. Lipozenčić J, Bukvić Mokos Z: Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2010;18(3):176-80
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  • The major clinical features of aging skin include xerosis, laxity, wrinkles, slackness, and the occurrence of benign neoplasms such as seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas.
  • Photoaging is characterized by dryness (roughness), actinic keratoses, irregular pigmentation (freckling, lentigines, guttate hypomelanosis, persistent hyperpigmentation), wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis (fine nodularity and/or coarseness), inelasticity, telangiectasia, venous lakes, purpura (easy bruising), comedones (maladie de Favre et Racouchot) and sebaceous hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20887699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1847-6538
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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65. Pivarcsi A, Müller A, Hippe A, Rieker J, van Lierop A, Steinhoff M, Seeliger S, Kubitza R, Pippirs U, Meller S, Gerber PA, Liersch R, Buenemann E, Sonkoly E, Wiesner U, Hoffmann TK, Schneider L, Piekorz R, Enderlein E, Reifenberger J, Rohr UP, Haas R, Boukamp P, Haase I, Nürnberg B, Ruzicka T, Zlotnik A, Homey B: Tumor immune escape by the loss of homeostatic chemokine expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Nov 27;104(48):19055-60
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  • Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte-derived skin tumors may evade T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses by down-regulating the expression of CCL27 through the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-MAPK-signaling pathways.
  • Compared with healthy skin, CCL27 mRNA and protein expression was progressively lost in transformed keratinocytes of actinic keratoses and basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Down-Regulation. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Melanoma, Experimental / genetics. Melanoma, Experimental / immunology. Melanoma, Experimental / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Photosensitivity Disorders / immunology. Photosensitivity Disorders / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / immunology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / physiology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18025475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CCL27 protein, human; 0 / Ccl27 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL27; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2141907
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66. Muston D, Downs A, Rives V: An economic evaluation of topical treatments for actinic keratosis. J Dermatolog Treat; 2009;20(5):266-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An economic evaluation of topical treatments for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) commonly occur as lesions, in sun-exposed areas.
  • We assessed the cost-effectiveness in 2007 of topical treatments (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod) and photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) for AK under the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales over two lines of treatment.
  • Based on this model, the costs and effectiveness of MAL-PDT in the UK NHS compare well with other treatments for AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Photochemotherapy / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / economics

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  • [CommentIn] J Dermatolog Treat. 2011 Oct;22(5):298-301 [20666679.001]
  • (PMID = 19421918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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67. Proweller A, Tu L, Lepore JJ, Cheng L, Lu MM, Seykora J, Millar SE, Pear WS, Parmacek MS: Impaired notch signaling promotes de novo squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7438-44
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  • Here, we report that DNMAML1 mice display hyperplastic epidermis and spontaneously develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as dysplastic precursor lesions, actinic keratoses.
  • Mice expressing epidermal DNMAML1 display enhanced accumulation of nuclear beta-catenin and cyclin D1 in suprabasilar keratinocytes and in lesional cells from SCCs, which was also observed in human cutaneous SCC.
  • The demonstration that inhibition of canonical Notch signaling in mice leads to spontaneous formation of SCC and recapitulates the disease in humans yields fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of SCC and provides a unique in vivo animal model to examine the pathobiology of cutaneous SCC and for evaluating novel therapies.


68. Cowen EW, Nguyen JC, Miller DD, McShane D, Arron ST, Prose NS, Turner ML, Fox LP: Chronic phototoxicity and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in children and adults during treatment with voriconazole. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):31-7
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  • Underlying diagnoses included graft-versus-host disease, HIV, and Wegener granulomatosis.
  • Signs of chronic phototoxicity and accelerated photoaging included erythema, actinic keratoses, and lentigo formation.


69. Fatmi Z, Azam I, Ahmed F, Kazi A, Gill AB, Kadir MM, Ahmed M, Ara N, Janjua NZ, Core Group for Arsenic Mitigation in Pakistan: Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source? Environ Res; 2009 Jul;109(5):575-81
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  • The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district.

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  • (PMID = 19419713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0953
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • [Investigator] Panhwar SA; Tahir A; Ahmad T; Dil A; Shahbaz A; Ahmed S
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70. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Spandidos DA: Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):325-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established precancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: HPV, CMV, HSV and EBV detection was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin biopsies (26 AK, 12 SCC and 15 BCC samples) that were collected from immunocompetent patients.
  • The HPV incidence was eight of 26 (31%) in AK and eight of 53 (15%) in normal skin tissue.
  • The CMV incidence was two of 26 (8%) in AK and four of 12 (33%) in SCC.
  • Only three samples, one AK (4%), one BCC (6%) and one SCC (8%), were found to carry a G>T transversion at the second position of HRAS codon 12.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA is detected in NMSC, AK and normal skin biopsies.
  • Moreover, we suggest that the HRAS codon 12 mutation is not a very common event in AK or NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19849697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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71. Scheinfeld NS: Actinic keratoses. Skinmed; 2007 Jul-Aug;6(4):188-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lentigo / diagnosis. Male. Precancerous Conditions. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17618171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Zane C, Capezzera R, Sala R, Venturini M, Calzavara-Pinton P: Clinical and echographic analysis of photodynamic therapy using methylaminolevulinate as sensitizer in the treatment of photodamaged facial skin. Lasers Surg Med; 2007 Mar;39(3):203-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim was to assess efficacy and tolerability of methylaminolevulinate (MAL) as a substitute for ALA in PDT treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) and photoaging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Skin / ultrasonography. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17311325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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73. Corbalán-Vélez R, Ruiz-Macia JA, Brufau C, López-Lozano JM, Martínez-Barba E, Carapeto FJ: [Clear cells in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 May;100(4):307-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Advanced or established SCCs and SCCs associated with Bowen disease contained a larger proportion of clear cells.
  • We defined 2 histological patterns: a) clear cells around the keratin pearls of SCCs arising from pre-existing actinic keratosis and with indirect signs of human papilloma virus infection in hair follicles; and b) clear cells that simulate adnexal differentiation in lesions arising on pre-existing Bowen disease lesions.
  • The presence of clear cells is suggestive of adnexal differentiation; however, in the majority of cases, their presence is due to infiltration of normal adnexal structures by the cells of pagetoid Bowen disease.


74. Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R: Noncalcemic actions of vitamin D receptor ligands. Endocr Rev; 2005 Aug;26(5):662-87
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  • Physiological and pharmacological actions of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in various systems, along with the detection of VDR in target cells, have indicated potential therapeutic applications of VDR ligands in inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), dermatological indications (psoriasis, actinic keratosis, seborrheic dermatitis, photoaging), osteoporosis (postmenopausal and steroid-induced osteoporosis), cancers (prostate, colon, breast, myelodysplasia, leukemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma), secondary hyperparathyroidism, and autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and organ transplantation).

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  • (PMID = 15798098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 284
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75. Benatiya AI, Bouayed MA, Touiza E, Daoudi K, Bhalil S, Elmesbahi I, Tahri H: [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol; 2005;(296):57-61
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  • Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.
  • We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.
  • Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase.
  • The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites.
  • This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Tyrosinemias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16050420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0081-0746
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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76. Gupta AK, Cooper EA, Abramovits W: Zyclara (imiquimod) cream, 3.75%. Skinmed; 2010 Jul-Aug;8(4):227-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21137610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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77. Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Dinotta F, Massimino D, Nasca MR: Treating skin cancer with topical cream. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 Jun;11(9):1515-27
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  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Topical pharmacotherapy represents an option for treatment of actinic keratoses and selected basal cell carcinomas.
  • Moreover, preliminary reports indicate imiquimod to be effective for skin or mucosal cancers such as Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and lentigo maligna.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20408746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoids; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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78. Korde VR, Bonnema GT, Xu W, Krishnamurthy C, Ranger-Moore J, Saboda K, Slayton LD, Salasche SJ, Warneke JA, Alberts DS, Barton JK: Using optical coherence tomography to evaluate skin sun damage and precancer. Lasers Surg Med; 2007 Oct;39(9):687-95
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a depth resolved imaging modality that may aid in identifying sun damaged skin and the precancerous condition actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Each site received a dermatological evaluation, a histological diagnosis, and a solar elastosis (SE) score.
  • RESULTS: Characteristic OCT image features were identified of sun protected, undiseased, sun damaged, and AK skin.
  • A statistically significant difference (P<0.0001) between the average attenuation values of skin with minimal and severe solar elastosis was observed.
  • Significant differences (P<0.0001) were also found between undiseased skin and AK using a gradient analysis.
  • Using image features, AK could be distinguished from undiseased skin with 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: OCT has the potential to guide biopsies and provide non-invasive measures of skin sun damage and disease state, possibly increasing efficiency of chemopreventive agent trials.

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
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  • (PMID = 17960754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-24S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-25; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809-04; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-20S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809-05; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000809-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA27502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-20S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000809-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-24S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-24; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-25S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-19; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000809-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027502-23A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000809-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB000809-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-25S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000809-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA027502-23A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS48080; NLM/ PMC2397550
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79. Jainkittivong A, Aneksuk V, Langlais RP: Oral mucosal lesions in denture wearers. Gerodontology; 2010 Mar;27(1):26-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • When analysed by type, traumatic ulcer, denture hyperplasia, frictional keratosis and candidiasis were more common in complete denture wearers, whereas denture-induced stomatitis was more common in partial denture wearers.
  • Frictional keratosis was more common in men than in women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Atrophy. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Cheilitis / epidemiology. Denture, Complete / statistics & numerical data. Denture, Partial / statistics & numerical data. Disease. Female. Friction. Humans. Hyperplasia. Leukoedema, Oral / epidemiology. Leukoplakia, Oral / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Oral Ulcer / epidemiology. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Stomatitis, Denture / epidemiology. Thailand / epidemiology. Tongue / pathology. Tongue, Fissured / epidemiology


80. Mann M, Berk DR, Petersen J: Chemowraps as an adjuvant to surgery for patients with diffuse squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jul;7(7):685-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Managing patients with diffuse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic damage on their extremities is challenging because SCCs may be ill-defined, confluent, and only amenable to radical surgery.
  • Diffuse actinic keratoses put patients at risk for further malignancies and may be difficult to distinguish from SCCs.
  • An experience using chemowraps, a novel approach involving weekly 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 5% cream under Unna wraps to reduce actinic keratoses, as an adjuvant to surgery is described.
  • Before chemowraps were applied, biopsies and clinical lymph node examinations were performed to confirm the diagnosis of SCC.
  • Patients were informed that chemowraps represent an off-label use of 5-FU to reduce actinic keratoses as an adjuvant to definitive surgery for SCCs.
  • RESULTS: Three patients were referred for diffuse actinic damage and biopsy-proven SCCs on the legs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemowraps may be useful in managing patients with diffuse SCCs in fields of severe actinic damage on the extremities.
  • As an adjuvant to surgery, chemowraps may treat surrounding actinic keratoses, help define tumor borders, and minimize the extent of surgery required.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Leg


81. Gerster JF, Lindstrom KJ, Miller RL, Tomai MA, Birmachu W, Bomersine SN, Gibson SJ, Imbertson LM, Jacobson JR, Knafla RT, Maye PV, Nikolaides N, Oneyemi FY, Parkhurst GJ, Pecore SE, Reiter MJ, Scribner LS, Testerman TL, Thompson NJ, Wagner TL, Weeks CE, Andre JD, Lagain D, Bastard Y, Lupu M: Synthesis and structure-activity-relationships of 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines that induce interferon production. J Med Chem; 2005 May 19;48(10):3481-91
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  • The in vitro results reported herein and the in vivo results reported previously led to the discovery of imiquimod, 26, which was developed as a topical agent and has been approved for the treatment of genital warts, actinic keratosis, and superficial basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15887957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Quinolines; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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82. Pastar Z, Lipozencić J, Rados J, Stajminger G: Regressing seborrheic keratosis - clinically and dermoscopically mimicking a regressing melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(1):24-6
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  • [Title] Regressing seborrheic keratosis - clinically and dermoscopically mimicking a regressing melanoma.
  • The diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis is a clinical diagnosis.
  • In a certain percentage of cases, differential diagnosis between seborrheic keratosis and malignant melanoma is difficult.
  • We describe a case of regressing seborrheic keratosis simulating malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17433176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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83. Terushkin V, Braga JC, Dusza SW, Scope A, Busam K, Marghoob AA, Gill M, Halpern AC: Agreement on the clinical diagnosis and management of cutaneous squamous neoplasms. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Oct;36(10):1514-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Agreement on the clinical diagnosis and management of cutaneous squamous neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Diagnostic accuracy and preferred therapeutic strategies for actinic keratoses (AKs) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have significant public health implications.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical-pathologic agreement on the diagnosis of AKs and early SCCs and to characterize the effect of diagnosis on therapeutic decisions.
  • Clinical-pathologic agreement, inter- and intraobserver reliability for clinical diagnosis, and frequencies of therapies according to pathologic diagnosis were assessed.
  • Participating clinicians treated most lesions histologically diagnosed as SCC in situ arising within AK using surgery, whereas pathologists selected cryotherapy or curettage and electrodesiccation for these lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We found poor clinical-pathologic agreement and reproducibility for clinically distinguishing between AK and early SCC even between skin cancer specialists from a single academic group practice.
  • Nomenclature used in the pathologic diagnosis of AK and SCC affects clinicians' therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Biopsy / utilization. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cryosurgery / utilization. Curettage / utilization. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Mohs Surgery / utilization. Photochemotherapy. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Terminology as Topic. United States

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20698872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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84. Kwon EJ, Kish LS, Jaworsky C: The histologic spectrum of epithelial neoplasms induced by sorafenib. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Sep;61(3):522-7
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  • Three lesions showed keratin-filled endophytic epithelial-lined invaginations, one with a coexistent actinic keratosis.
  • To our knowledge, diffuse eruptions of epidermal invaginations, ectatic follicular infundibula, and follicular infundibular cysts have not been reported previously with sorafenib, although they are well known to occur with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19700018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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85. Ming M, Han W, Maddox J, Soltani K, Shea CR, Freeman DM, He YY: UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes. Oncogene; 2010 Jan 28;29(4):492-502
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  • [Title] UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes.
  • As compared with normal skin, PTEN levels are reduced in human actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin lesion caused by solar UV.

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  • (PMID = 19881543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES016936-01A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-32
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS147984; NLM/ PMC2813408
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86. Smith SR, Morhenn VB, Piacquadio DJ: Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):156-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common precancerous condition and are said to account for 14% of visits to dermatologists in the US each year.
  • Additionally, topical therapies have a perceived benefit of treating subclinical lesions along with clinically evident keratoses.
  • We conducted a bilateral comparison study of the efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac 3% gel used for 90 days and 5% fluorouracil cream used for 28 days in thirty patients with AK of the face and scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16485883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Butani AK, Arbesfeld DM, Schwartz RA: Premalignant and early squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Plast Surg; 2005 Apr;32(2):223-35
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  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common sun-induced precancerous neoplasm confined to the epidermis.
  • The AK is the initial manifestation of a continuum of clinical and histologic abnormalities that progresses to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Bowen's disease, also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, represents early SCC confined to the epidermis.
  • Like SCCs, the vast majority of AKs and Bowen's disease lesions are asymptomatic.
  • Each AK and suspicious lesion should be treated before it progresses to invasive SCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / therapy. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy


88. Degen A, Satzger I, Voelker B, Kapp A, Hauschild A, Gutzmer R: Does basal cell carcinoma belong to the spectrum of sorafenib-induced epithelial skin cancers? Dermatology; 2010;221(3):193-6
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  • To our knowledge, few cases of actinic keratoses and variants of squamous cell carcinomas associated with sorafenib have been published.

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  • (PMID = 20720388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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89. Melnikova VO, Ananthaswamy HN: Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer. Mutat Res; 2005 Apr 1;571(1-2):91-106
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  • Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Genes, p53. Humans. Mice. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15748641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5 P30 ES07784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 46523; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105345
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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90. Caekelbergh K, Annemans L, Lambert J, Roelandts R: Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):784-90
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  • [Title] Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Various effective therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but none is perfect.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a recent approach, methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT; Metvix; Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland) in AK and BCC.
  • The time horizon was 1 year for AK and 5 years for BCC.
  • The comparators were cryotherapy in AK and excision surgery in BCC.
  • RESULTS: MAL-PDT is a more expensive treatment compared with cryotherapy for AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MAL-PDT is a cost-effective intervention in AK taking a 1-year time horizon, if society is willing to pay euro1.50 per day of response, and that MAL-PDT is better value for money than excision in BCC, taking a 5-year time horizon.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1393-4 [17535242.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1392; author reply 1393 [17535240.001]
  • (PMID = 16965429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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91. Quaedvlieg PJ, Tirsi E, Thissen MR, Krekels GA: Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones? Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):335-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
  • Our objective was to obtain practical clinical parameters to indicate those actinic keratoses (AK) that are at risk of becoming invasive.
  • The main outcome measure was the rates and clinical features of AK that transformed into SCC.
  • This study reviewed randomized and retrospective studies and reviews of AK and their risk of becoming SCC.
  • The only longitudinal study looking at the incidence of malignant transformation of AK to SCC dates from 1988.
  • Besides the known risk factors (skin type, photodamage, immunosuppression etc), based on this review we found clinical features that provide a practical guide to practitioners in the treatment of AK.
  • Although not prospectively studied, clinical parameters indicating those AK with an increased risk of malignancy are IDRBEU.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16935787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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92. Greenberg HL, Cohen JL, Rosen T, Orengo I: Severe reaction to 5% imiquimod cream with excellent clinical and cosmetic outcomes. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Apr;6(4):452-8
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  • Imiquimod, an immune response modifier approved for the treatment of external genital warts, actinic keratoses, and superficial basal cell carcinoma, can induce a severe local inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry. Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cheilitis / chemically induced. Cheilitis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Keratosis / chemically induced. Keratosis / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Ointments. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17668546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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93. Choi MJ, Kim HS, Kim HO, Song KY, Park YM: A case of lymphomatoid keratosis. Ann Dermatol; 2010 May;22(2):219-22
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  • [Title] A case of lymphomatoid keratosis.
  • Lymphomatoid keratosis (LK) is considered to be a rare variant of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, with epidermotropism.
  • Histopathologically, the specimen showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis and Pautrier's micro-abscess in the epidermis, and a lichenoid infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermis, which expressed both B cell and T cell lineage on the immune-histochemical staining.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2007 Jan;143(1):53-9 [17224542.001]
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  • (PMID = 20548920.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883432
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia / Epidermotropism / Lymphomatoid keratosis
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94. Latonen L, Järvinen PM, Suomela S, Moore HM, Saarialho-Kere U, Laiho M: Ultraviolet B radiation regulates cysteine-rich protein 1 in human keratinocytes. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2010 Apr;26(2):70-7
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  • Expression of CRP1 in human skin in vivo was studied by immunohistochemistry in samples of normal skin, actinic keratosis (AK) representing UV-damaged skin and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a UV-induced skin cancer.
  • CRP1 expression was elevated in basal cells in AK but not in SCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


95. Raasch BA, Buettner PG: Knowledge and perceptions about sunburn and solar keratoses in Australia. Australas J Dermatol; 2008 Aug;49(3):142-7
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  • [Title] Knowledge and perceptions about sunburn and solar keratoses in Australia.
  • An omnibus telephone survey of 1200 adult Australians determined self-reported prevalence of and attitudes to sunburn and sunspots, knowledge of the term solar keratosis and prevalence of skin checks.
  • While 29% reported currently having sunspots, 69% had never heard of the term solar keratosis, 30% had never had a skin check and 28% had their last skin check more than 12 months ago.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Keratosis / epidemiology. Sunburn / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18638221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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96. Kopera D, Kerl H: Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Sep;8(9):693-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20561117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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97. Anderson L, Schmieder GJ, Werschler WP, Tschen EH, Ling MR, Stough DB, Katsamas J: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jun;60(6):934-43
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved medical approaches to the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Ingenol mebutate, a diterpene ester extracted and purified from the plant Euphorbia peplus, is being evaluated as a topical therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy and safety of ingenol mebutate (formerly PEP005) gel at 3 dosing regimens for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • METHODS: Patients with non-facial actinic keratoses applied vehicle gel for 3 days, ingenol mebutate gel, 0.025% for 3 days, or ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05% for 2 or 3 days, with an 8-week follow-up period.
  • RESULTS: All 3 active treatments were significantly more effective than vehicle at clearing actinic keratosis lesions, with a dose response observed.
  • The median percentage reduction in baseline actinic keratosis lesions for patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel ranged from 75% to 100% compared with 0% for vehicle gel (P < .0001 vs vehicle).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short-course, field-directed therapy with ingenol mebutate gel for actinic keratoses on non-facial sites seems to be effective with a favorable safety profile and potential benefits over topical agents that require a more prolonged course of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diterpenes / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19467365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-ingenyl angelate; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Gels; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Plant Extracts
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98. da Silva TA, Coelho G, Lorenzetti Bocca A, Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto F: Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):315-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a premalignant lesion caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations.
  • However, little is known about the link between connective and UV-damaged epithelial tissues in AK.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To examine the potential relationship between connective tissue degeneration and molecular alterations in epithelial cells without evident morphologic changes, 30 cases of AK (8, grade I; 10, grade II; 12, grade III), divided into three grades according to the proportion of dermal elastosis (in grade I, up to 30% of collagen degeneration; in grade II, 30-60%; in grade III, more than 60%), were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of Ki67, p53, p63, bcl-2, E-cadherin, 34-betaE12, and CD99.
  • RESULTS: The increase in the solar elastosis grade was associated with an increase in positive cell numbers for all analyzed markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the epithelial expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation, and structural proteins is augmented with the increase of the solar elastosis grade.
  • Thus, the grade of solar elastosis could be a helpful morphologic marker in the assessment of neoplastic changes in sun-damaged skin.

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  • (PMID = 17381802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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99. Saraceno R, Teoli M, Chimenti S: Hydroxyurea associated with concomitant occurrence of diffuse longitudinal melanonychia and multiple squamous cell carcinomas in an elderly subject. Clin Ther; 2008 Jul;30(7):1324-9
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  • His current medication regimen was hydroxyurea (500 mg BID), iron (525 mg QD), and folic acid (15 mg QD) for the myeloproliferative disease and the associated anemia; spironolactone (25 mg BID) and furosemide (20 mg BID) for the complications of cirrhosis; allopurinol (100 mg QD) to treat gout; and theophylline (250 mg QD) for chronic bronchitis.
  • The patient presented with several actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, and multiple keratoacanthomas, one of which was pigmented.
  • Based on the Naranjo algorithm, the adverse reaction observed was probably related to the hydroxyurea treatment (score = 6); however, the hydroxyurea chemotherapy could not be discontinued because of the myeloproliferative disorder.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROXYUREA .
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  • (PMID = 18691992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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100. Giuffrè G, Barresi V, Catalano A, Cappiello A, Stagno d'Alcontres F, Tuccari G: Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis. Eur J Histochem; 2008 Jan-Mar;52(1):53-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis.
  • In an attempt to investigate the neoplastic progression in different stages of actinic keratosis (AK), a standardized AgNOR analysis was performed in 94 cases of AK, 35 of which were associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and in 31 cases of SCC and 22 cases of BCC.
  • The cases were subdivided into low- and high-AgNOR-expressing (AgNOR status) AK by using the mean area of AgNORs per cell (NORA) value (3.996 micro(2)) as the cut-off.
  • In AK samples, a progressive increase of the mean NORA value from Stage I to Stage IV was encountered.
  • In addition, a significantly higher mean NORA value was found in the AK cases associated with SCC, in comparison to those without SCC; by contrast, no significant differences in the mean NORA value were noted between AK cases with or without BCC.
  • A highly significant association between a high AgNOR quantity and the coexistence of SCC was encountered in AK; no association was appreciable between the AgNOR quantity and the co-occurrence of BCC.
  • Moreover, when the co-existence of SCC in AK was considered as the reference point, the AK cases associated with SCC mostly (95.5%) presented a high AgNOR quantity (high sensitivity), but only 57.6% of cases without SCC displayed a low AgNOR quantity (low specificity).
  • Additionally, our data document that the standardised AgNOR analysis represents a strong negative predictor for the association between SCC and AK.
  • Indeed, a low AgNOR quantity mostly is associated with AK cases without SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Nuclear / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Keratosis / metabolism. Nucleolus Organizer Region / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Silver Staining

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  • (PMID = 18502723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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