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1. Gunderson LL, Jessup JM, Sargent DJ, Greene FL, Stewart A: Revised tumor and node categorization for rectal cancer based on surveillance, epidemiology, and end results and rectal pooled analysis outcomes. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 10;28(2):256-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Revised tumor and node categorization for rectal cancer based on surveillance, epidemiology, and end results and rectal pooled analysis outcomes.
  • PURPOSE: The sixth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) rectal cancer staging subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0).
  • Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III as a result of improved survival with T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and survival of T4N1 more similar to T3-4N2 than T3N1.
  • The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion interacts with nodal status to affect survival.
  • METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 35,829 patients with rectal cancer were compared with rectal pooled analysis data (3,791 patients).
  • RESULTS: SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2, T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2a have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a).
  • CONCLUSION: This SEER population-based rectal cancer analysis validates the rectal pooled analyses and supports the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA or IIIB and T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC.
  • SEER outcomes support subdividing T4, N1, and N2 and revised substaging of stages II and III.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 10;28(23):e397-8; author reply e399-400 [20547986.001]
  • (PMID = 19949015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815714
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2. Gunderson LL, Jessup JM, Sargent DJ, Greene FL, Stewart AK: Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 10;28(2):264-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data.
  • PURPOSE: The sixth edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for colon cancer subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0).
  • Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III because of improved survival for T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and T4N1 survival was more similar to T3-4N2 than to T3N1.
  • The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion and nodal status interact to affect survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 109,953 colon cancer patients were compared with National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) data on 134,206 patients.
  • RESULTS: SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2,T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2ahave similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a).
  • CONCLUSION: This SEER population-based colon cancer analysis is highly consistent with rectal cancer pooled analysis and SEER rectal cancer analyses, supporting the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA/IIIB, shifting T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC, subdividing T4/N1/N2, and revising substaging of stages II/III.
  • Survival outcomes by TN category for colon and rectal cancer are strikingly similar.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2000 Apr 1;88(7):1739-57 [10738234.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):256-63 [19949015.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Apr 1;20(7):1744-50 [11919230.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 2002 May 1;94(9):2511-6 [12015777.001]
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  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 2002 Oct;236(4):416-21; discussion 421 [12368669.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Apr;10(3):213-8 [12679304.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 2003 May;56(5):327-35 [12719450.001]
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  • [Cites] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Oct 6;96(19):1420-5 [15467030.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 1968 Dec;116(6):875-81 [5723866.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1974 Oct;34(4):1278-92 [4424091.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1976 Jun;37(6):2861-5 [949706.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1978 Sep-Oct;4(9-10):801-7 [711549.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1983 Oct 1;52(7):1317-29 [6192900.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1985 Jan 1;55(1):61-71 [3965086.001]
  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1985 Dec;9(12):1319-27 [3830856.001]
  • [Cites] Lancet. 1986 Nov 1;2(8514):996-9 [2430152.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987 Jan;13(1):5-10 [3804816.001]
  • [Cites] J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988 Mar 2;80(1):21-9 [3276900.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1989 Jul;17(1):55-62 [2745208.001]
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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jan 1;19(1):157-63 [11134208.001]
  • [Cites] Lancet Oncol. 2007 Jul;8(7):651-7 [17613427.001]
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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 10;28(23):e397-8; author reply e399-400 [20547986.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):e469; author reply e470 [20585093.001]
  • (PMID = 19949014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815715
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3. Prosnitz RG, Patwardhan MB, Samsa GP, Mantyh CR, Fisher DA, McCrory DC, Cline KE, Gray RN, Morse MA: Quality measures for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Cancer; 2006 Nov 15;107(10):2352-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality measures for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT) are essential components of adjuvant (preoperative or postoperative) therapy for many patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, quality measures (QMs) of these critical aspects of CRC treatment have not been characterized well.
  • The most useful QMs identified were 1) the percentage of patients with AJCC Stage III colon cancer who received postoperative CT and 2) the percentage of patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 17039499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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4. Unsal D, Akyurek N, Uner A, Erpolat OP, Han U, Akmansu M, Mentes BB, Dursun A: Gelatinase B expression as a prognostic factor in patients with stage II/III rectal carcinoma treated by postoperative adjuvant therapy. Am J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;31(1):55-63
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  • [Title] Gelatinase B expression as a prognostic factor in patients with stage II/III rectal carcinoma treated by postoperative adjuvant therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to be critically involved in tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • This retrospective study was aimed both to examine the gelatinase expression status in patients with rectal cancer and to investigate their prognostic value on survival.
  • METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for Stage II and III rectal carcinoma were included.
  • Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary rectal cancers and graded for the intensity and the percentage of cells stained.
  • The ratio of tumors with positive MMP-9 expression was increased according to N stage (P = 0.005), AJCC stage (P = 0.005), and tumor differentiation (P = 0.017).
  • CONCLUSION: MMP-9 expression was observed in the tumors of patients with Stage II and III rectal carcinoma in comparable values and was characterized by poor overall survival and disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Rectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18376229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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5. Di Fabio F, Shrier I, B├ęgin LR, Gordon PH: Absence of prognostic value of nuclear shape factor analysis in colorectal carcinoma: relevance of interobserver and intraobserver variability. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Dec;51(12):1781-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Absence of prognostic value of nuclear shape factor analysis in colorectal carcinoma: relevance of interobserver and intraobserver variability.
  • METHODS: Ninety-eight patients who underwent colorectal carcinoma resection were prospectively enrolled.
  • RESULTS: The nuclear shape factor mean values by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage were: 0.73 (0.07) in Stage I, 0.74 (0.06) in Stage II, and 0.75 (0.05) in Stage III carcinomas (P = 0.78, ANOVA).
  • We failed to confirm a prognostic value for nuclear shape factor in colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus Shape. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2009 Aug;52(8):1523; author reply 1524 [19617771.001]
  • (PMID = 18581174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Chen CC, Yang SH, Lin JK, Lin TC, Chen WS, Jiang JK, Wang HS, Chang SC: Is it reasonable to add preoperative serum level of CEA and CA19-9 to staging for colorectal cancer? J Surg Res; 2005 Apr;124(2):169-74
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  • [Title] Is it reasonable to add preoperative serum level of CEA and CA19-9 to staging for colorectal cancer?
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) are the most common tumor markers for colorectal cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of adding them into the current staging system by analyzing their prognostic significance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was patients (n = 574, 67.1 +/- 11.3 years old, 397 males) who received potentially curative resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma (stage I-III) between January 1994 and August 2002, including preoperative measurements of CEA and CA19-9.
  • Survival was analyzed for AJCC staging, CEA (+) versus (-), CA19-9 (+) versus (-), and four groups.
  • However, the combined use of the two markers revealed a significant survival benefit (P = 0.035) of group 1 ("-" for both markers) over 4 ("+" for both) in stage II.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an elevated level of both CEA and CA19-9 in stage II of colorectal cancer have a significantly poorer prognosis than those with normal levels of these markers.
  • We recommend adding both CEA and CA19-9 to the current staging system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Preoperative Care. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15820244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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7. Rades D, Kuhn H, Schultze J, Homann N, Brandenburg B, Schulte R, Krull A, Schild SE, Dunst J: Prognostic factors affecting locally recurrent rectal cancer and clinical significance of hemoglobin. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 15;70(4):1087-93
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors affecting locally recurrent rectal cancer and clinical significance of hemoglobin.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age (<or=68 vs. >or=69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (<or=II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: <or=50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. >or=12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. >or=12 g/dL) radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p<0.001), lower AJCC stage (p=0.023), surgery (p=0.011), chemotherapy (p=0.003), and hemoglobin levels>or=12 g/dL both before (p=0.031) and during (p<0.001) radiotherapy.
  • On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance.
  • Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p=0.040), lower AJCC stage (p=0.010), lower grading (p=0.012), surgery (p<0.001), chemotherapy (p<0.001), and hemoglobin levels>or=12 g/dL before (p<0.001) and during (p<0.001) radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer were performance status, AJCC stage, chemotherapy, surgery, extent of resection, histologic grading, and hemoglobin levels both before and during radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemoglobins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 17892921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
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8. Lu PY, Turner R, Roberts V, Ho YH: Colorectal carcinoma among Indigenous people: a public hospital-based study in Townsville and Cairns, North Queensland, Australia. ANZ J Surg; 2005 Nov;75(11):972-6
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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma among Indigenous people: a public hospital-based study in Townsville and Cairns, North Queensland, Australia.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are very little clinical and pathological data on colorectal cancer among Indigenous people in Australia.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study on Indigenous patients treated for colorectal cancer at the Townsville and Cairns Base Hospitals from 1999 to 2004 was carried out in order to better characterise this disease in the Indigenous population.
  • The majority (56%) of the tumours were left-sided, being in the sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction and rectum.
  • Of the patients, 60% had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system Stage I and II disease at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons were made with available data on colorectal cancer in the general Australian population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Queensland / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16336390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. de Maat MF, van de Velde CJ, van der Werff MP, Putter H, Umetani N, Klein-Kranenbarg EM, Turner RR, van Krieken JH, Bilchik A, Tollenaar RA, Hoon DS: Quantitative analysis of methylation of genomic loci in early-stage rectal cancer predicts distant recurrence. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 10;26(14):2327-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of methylation of genomic loci in early-stage rectal cancer predicts distant recurrence.
  • PURPOSE: There are no accurate prognostic biomarkers specific for rectal cancer.
  • Epigenetic aberrations, in the form of DNA methylation, accumulate early during rectal tumor formation.
  • In a preliminary study, we investigated absolute quantitative methylation changes associated with tumor progression of rectal tissue at multiple genomic methylated-in-tumor (MINT) loci sequences.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Absolute quantitative assessment of methylated alleles was used to assay methylation changes at MINT 1, 2, 3, 12, 17, 25, and 31 in sets of normal, adenomatous, and malignant tissues from 46 patients with rectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Methylation at MINT 2, 3, and 31 increased 11-fold (P = .005), 15-fold (P < .001), and two-fold (P = .02), respectively, during adenomatous transformation in normal rectal epithelium.
  • In multivariate analysis of node-negative patients, this subclassification was the only predictor for distant recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 4.17; 95% CI, 1.72 to 10.10; P = .002), cancer-specific survival (HR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.4 to 9.43; P = .003), and overall survival (HR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.11; P = .005).
  • CONCLUSION: Methylation levels of specific MINT loci can be used as prognostic variables in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I and II rectal cancer.
  • Quantitative epigenetic classification of rectal cancer merits evaluation as a stratification factor for adjuvant treatment in early disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Rectal Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Multigene Family. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18467724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Chan AK, Wong A, Jenken D, Heine J, Buie D, Johnson D: Posttreatment TNM staging is a prognostic indicator of survival and recurrence in tethered or fixed rectal carcinoma after preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 1;61(3):665-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Posttreatment TNM staging is a prognostic indicator of survival and recurrence in tethered or fixed rectal carcinoma after preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of the posttreatment TNM stage as a predictor of outcome in locally advanced rectal cancers treated with preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 2000, 128 patients with tethered (103) or fixed (25) rectal cancers were treated with 50 Gy preoperative pelvic radiotherapy and two cycles of concurrent 5-fluorouracil infusion (20 mg/kg/d) and leucovorin (200 mg/m(2)/d) chemotherapy on Days 1-4 and 22-25 and a single bolus mitomycin C injection (8 mg/m(2)) on Day 1.
  • Of the 128 patients, 111 had Stage T3 and 17 Stage T4 according to the rectal ultrasound or CT findings and clinical evaluation.
  • Postoperatively, the disease stage was determined according to the surgical and pathologic findings using the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system.
  • RESULTS: Of the 128 patients, 32 had postchemoradiotherapy (pCR) Stage 0 (T0N0M0), 37 pCR Stage I, 26 pCR Stage II, 28 pCR Stage III, and 5 pCR Stage IV disease.
  • Of the 128 patients, 79 had pCR Stage T0-T2, 35 pCR Stage T3, and 14 pCR Stage T4.
  • The rate of T stage downstaging was 66% (84 of 128).
  • The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 97% for pCR Stage 0, 88% for pCR Stage I, 74% for pCR Stage II, 44% for pCR Stage III, and 0% for pCR Stage IV (p = 0.0000059).
  • The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 97% for pCR Stage 0, 80% for pCR Stage I, 72% for pCR Stage II, 42% for pCR Stage III, and 0% for pCR Stage IV (p < 0.000001).
  • In univariate analysis, the pretreatment tumor status (fixed vs. tethered tumors), the pCR TNM stage, T stage downstaging, pathologic T4 tumors, node-positive disease after chemoradiotherapy, and lymphovascular or perineural invasion were statistically significant prognosticators of disease-specific survival and relapse-free survival. pCR Stage T4 disease was a strong predictor of local recurrence.
  • In multivariate analysis, the pCR TNM stage was the most statistically significant independent predictor of survival (p = 0.003) and relapse-free survival (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: For patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer, the pCR TNM stage was a strong prognosticator of recurrence and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Eng C, Chang GJ, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Skibber JM, Qiao W, Rosner GL, Ukegbu LT, Wolff RA, Crane CH: Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4116

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • : 4116 Background: Definitive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal consists of external beam radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C or cisplatin.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of XELOX-XRT as definitive treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven SCC of the anal canal, AJCC Stage II-IIIB (T<sub>2-4</sub> or N+M<sub>0</sub>), ECOG PS 0-1, HIV<sup>-</sup>, and no prior therapy were eligible for XELOX-based chemoradiotherapy.
  • Response was determined by CT/MRI, digital rectal examination, and proctoscopy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) is effective for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27961220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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