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1. Wu TI, Lee CL, Liao PJ, Huang KG, Chang TC, Chou HH, Wang CJ, Soong YK, Hsueh S, Lai CH: Survival impact of initial surgical approach in stage I ovarian cancer. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Sep-Oct;33(5):558-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival impact of initial surgical approach in stage I ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on survival of initial laparoscopic surgery compared with conventional laparotomy in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study which enrolled all consecutive patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer between January 1984 and December 2006.
  • Patients with a histological diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent laparoscopy were recruited if their cases were compatible with stage I (clinical or surgical) at initial exploration.
  • In multivariate analysis, the initial laparoscopy approach posted significant adverse impacts on the OS (laparoscopy vs laparotomy, the hazard ratio [HR]: 3.52, p=0.009) and the RFS (laparoscopy vs laparotomy, HR: 2.58, p=0.024), while a higher substage (stage IB-IC vs IA, HR: 8.29, p=0.040) was associated with only a worse OS, and its impact on the RFS was marginal.
  • CONCLUSION: An initial laparoscopy intervention and higher substage posted significant adverse effects on the prognosis in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20979707.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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2. Goodheart MJ, Ritchie JM, Rose SL, Fruehauf JP, De Young BR, Buller RE: The relationship of molecular markers of p53 function and angiogenesis to prognosis of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 15;11(10):3733-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship of molecular markers of p53 function and angiogenesis to prognosis of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • We sought to identify molecular markers for high-risk stage I epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-seven consecutive stage I epithelial ovarian cancers were evaluated for p53, CD31 microvessel density, thrombospondin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p21 immunohistochemical staining, and p53 gene mutations.
  • Stage (P = 0.0004), grade (P = 0.008), histology (P = 0.0025), p53 dysfunction (positive stain and/or mutation; P = 0.048), and microvessel density (P = 0.04) were significant in bivariate models with relationship to time to recurrence.
  • In multivariate analyses among stage IC patients, failure to receive chemotherapy and microvessel density were associated with disease-specific survival, time to recurrence, and time to distant recurrence with hazard ratios of 4.8 to 44.1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The p53-dependent molecular markers of angiogenesis are of limited utility in developing a clinical strategy for postoperative management of stage I ovarian carcinoma.
  • Microvessel density impacts survival and metastasis for high-risk stage IC disease.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary, but not sufficient, for cure of high-risk stage I epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology


3. Zhang Z, Yu Y, Xu F, Berchuck A, van Haaften-Day C, Havrilesky LJ, de Bruijn HW, van der Zee AG, Woolas RP, Jacobs IJ, Skates S, Chan DW, Bast RC Jr: Combining multiple serum tumor markers improves detection of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Dec;107(3):526-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combining multiple serum tumor markers improves detection of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Currently available tumor markers for ovarian cancer are still inadequate in both sensitivity and specificity to be used for population-based screening.
  • In this paper, an ANN model was evaluated for its performance in detecting early stage epithelial ovarian cancer using multiple serum markers.
  • The four tumor marker values were then used as inputs to an ANN derived using a training set from 100 apparently healthy women, 45 women with benign conditions arising from the ovary and 55 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer patients (including 27 stage I/II cases).
  • An independent test data set from 98 apparently healthy women and 52 early stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients (38 stage I and 4 stage II invasive cases and 10 stage I borderline ovarian tumor cases) was used to evaluate the ANN.
  • At a fixed specificity of 98%, the sensitivities for ANN and CA 125II alone were 71% (37/52) and 46% (24/52) (p=0.047), respectively, for detecting early stage epithelial ovarian cancer, and 71% (30/42) and 43% (18/42) (p=0.040), respectively, for detecting invasive early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of multiple tumor markers through an ANN improves the overall accuracy to discern healthy women from patients with early stage ovarian cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17920110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA83639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA083639-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA115102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115102-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA083639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA115102-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA080459-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA080459-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-72-4 antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS35835; NLM/ PMC2171045
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4. Marchini S, Mariani P, Chiorino G, Marrazzo E, Bonomi R, Fruscio R, Clivio L, Garbi A, Torri V, Cinquini M, Dell'Anna T, Apolone G, Broggini M, D'Incalci M: Analysis of gene expression in early-stage ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7850-60
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  • [Title] Analysis of gene expression in early-stage ovarian cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Gene expression profile was analyzed in 68 stage I and 15 borderline ovarian cancers to determine if different clinical features of stage I ovarian cancer such as histotype, grade, and survival are related to differential gene expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Specific molecular signatures define different histotypes and prognosis of stage I ovarian cancer.
  • Cyclin E and minichromosome maintenance protein 5, whose expression was found previously to be related to a bad prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer, appear to be potential prognostic markers in stage I ovarian cancer too, independent of other pathologic and clinical variables.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19047114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Nomelini RS, de Abreu Ribeiro LC, Tavares-Murta BM, Adad SJ, Murta EF: Production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in ovarian cystic tumors. Mediators Inflamm; 2008;2008:186584
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  • [Title] Production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in ovarian cystic tumors.
  • Tumor sections from nonneoplastic (n = 15), benign (n = 28), and malignant ovarian tumors (n = 20) were obtained from 63 women.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the tumor sections demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was increased in ovarian cancer samples compared to nonneoplastic or benign tumor samples.
  • For stage I ovarian cancer, intracystic NO levels >80 microM were more frequent than NO levels <80 microM, and iNOS expression in well-differentiated carcinomas was greater than in moderately/poorly differentiated carcinomas (P < .05).
  • These data suggest an important role for NO in ovarian carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nitrates / metabolism. Nitrites / metabolism. Ovarian Cysts / metabolism. Ovarian Cysts / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19132106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-1861
  • [Journal-full-title] Mediators of inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mediators Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Nitrites; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613969
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6. Medeiros LR, Rosa DD, Bozzetti MC, Rosa MI, Edelweiss MI, Stein AT, Zelmanowicz A, Ethur AB, Zanini RR: Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for FIGO Stage I ovarian cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008;(4):CD005344
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  • [Title] Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for FIGO Stage I ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past ten years laparoscopy has become an increasingly common approach for the surgical removal of early stage ovarian tumours.
  • This review has been undertaken to assess the available evidence of the benefits and harms of laparoscopic surgery for the management of early stage ovarian cancer compared to laparotomy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of laparoscopy in the surgical treatment of FIGO stage I ovarian cancer (stages Ia, Ib and Ic) when compared with laparotomy.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007, MEDLINE (January 1990 to November 2007), EMBASE (1990 to November 2007), LILACS (1990 to November 2007), BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS (1990 to November 2007) and Cancerlit (1990 to November 2007).
  • Reference lists of identified studies, gynaecological cancer handbooks and conference abstract were also scanned.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies including patients with histologically proven stage I ovarian cancer according to the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO).Studies comparing laparoscopic surgery with laparotomy for early stage ovarian cancer were only available from 1990.
  • It was anticipated that a very small number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted studying the management of early stage ovarian cancer.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review has found no evidence to help quantify the value of laparoscopy for the management of early stage ovarian cancer as routine clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Laparotomy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD005344 [23450560.001]
  • (PMID = 18843688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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7. Seidman JD, Yemelyanova AV, Khedmati F, Bidus MA, Dainty L, Boice CR, Cosin JA: Prognostic factors for stage I ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):1-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for stage I ovarian carcinoma.
  • Stage I ovarian carcinoma is relatively uncommon, and data on prognostic factors are conflicting.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of 51 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I ovarian carcinomas were analyzed.
  • There were 22 stage IA, 1 stage IB, and 28 stage IC cases.
  • All patients who died of disease were stage IC.
  • Significant adverse prognostic factors were serous histology [relative risk (RR) 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-22.0] and stage IC (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5).
  • Among factors associated with stage IC, only positive washings or ascites affected survival (RR 9.25, 95% CI 1.9-44.4).
  • Serous histology and positive washings or ascites are adverse prognostic factors in stage I.
  • Patients who are International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I on the basis of comprehensive surgical staging have an excellent prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19952945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Lécuru F, Desfeux P, Camatte S, Bissery A, Blanc B, Querleu D: Impact of initial surgical access on staging and survival of patients with stage I ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):87-94
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  • [Title] Impact of initial surgical access on staging and survival of patients with stage I ovarian cancer.
  • We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with stage I ovarian cancer treated surgically between 1985 and 2001, and we included those patients with stage I epithelial cancer for whom follow-up data were available.
  • Despite of inaccurate radicality and staging during initial laparoscopy, this study found no harmful influence of laparoscopy as first initial access on outcomes of patients with stage I ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16445616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Bakkum-Gamez JN, Richardson DL, Seamon LG, Aletti GD, Powless CA, Keeney GL, O'Malley DM, Cliby WA: Influence of intraoperative capsule rupture on outcomes in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Jan;113(1):11-7
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  • [Title] Influence of intraoperative capsule rupture on outcomes in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tumor capsule rupture on disease prognosis in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: All patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I epithelial ovarian cancer operated on at the Mayo Clinic and The Ohio State University between January 1991 and December 2007 were identified.
  • Disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were shortest for stage IC cases with positive cytology, surface involvement, or both, that also had intraoperative rupture.
  • CONCLUSION: In stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, intraoperative capsule rupture portends a higher risk of disease recurrence and death from disease.
  • Careful intraoperative removal of ovarian masses is important, and recognizing the higher-risk nature of such cases is imperative.
  • [MeSH-major] Intraoperative Complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery


10. Park JY, Bae J, Lim MC, Lim SY, Seo SS, Kang S, Park SY: Laparoscopic and laparotomic staging in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a comparison of feasibility and safety. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):1202-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and laparotomic staging in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a comparison of feasibility and safety.
  • The aim of this study was to compare laparoscopic and laparotomic surgical staging in patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer in terms of feasibility and safety.
  • A retrospective chart review was undertaken of all patients with apparent stage I epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent laparoscopic (laparoscopy group) or laparotomic (laparotomy group) surgical staging at the Center for Uterine Cancer, National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2001 and August 2006.
  • However, two patients with stage IA grade 1 and 2 disease in laparoscopy group had recurrence with one patient dying of disease.
  • This is the first report on the possible hazards of laparoscopic staging in early-stage ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparotomy / statistics & numerical data. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18284455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Chan JK, Munro EG, Cheung MK, Husain A, Teng NN, Berek JS, Osann K: Association of lymphadenectomy and survival in stage I ovarian cancer patients. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Jan;109(1):12-9
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  • [Title] Association of lymphadenectomy and survival in stage I ovarian cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the survival impact of lymphadenectomy in women diagnosed with clinical stage I ovarian cancer.
  • RESULTS: A total of 6,686 women had clinical stage I ovarian cancer (median age 54 years, range 1-99).
  • Epithelial tumors were present in 85.8% of the women, and 2,862 (42.8%) patients underwent lymphadenectomy.
  • More specifically, lymphadenectomy improved the survival in those with non-clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer (85.9% to 93.3%, P<.001) but not in those with clear cell carcinoma, germ cell tumors, sex cord stromal tumors, and sarcomas.
  • On multivariable analysis, the extent of lymphadenectomy was a significant prognostic factor for improved survival, independently of other factors such as age, stage, histology, and grade of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that women with stage I non-clear cell ovarian cancers who underwent lymphadenectomy had a significant improvement in survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1000; author reply 1000-1 [17400870.001]
  • (PMID = 17197582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Petri AL, Høgdall E, Christensen IJ, Kjaer SK, Blaakaer J, Høgdall CK: Preoperative CA125 as a prognostic factor in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):359-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative CA125 as a prognostic factor in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate preoperative CA125 as a prognostic factor in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • Preoperative serum CA125 levels from 118 women with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) stage I EOC were analysed and the prognostic value was evaluated and compared with other prognostic factors (age, grade, substages, histologic type).
  • By the Kaplan-Meier estimate we demonstrated that patients with stage I EOC and preoperative serum CA125 levels <65 U/mL had a significantly longer survival compared to stage I EOC patients with preoperative serum CA125 > or = 65 U/mL (p=0.01).
  • The results from the present study may be useful for decision making respecting postoperative chemotherapy in stage I EOC patients.
  • Serum CA125 levels might therefore be included as a prognostic factor in future clinical trials of stage I EOC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16725012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 61107
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
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13. Paramasivam S, Tripcony L, Crandon A, Quinn M, Hammond I, Marsden D, Proietto A, Davy M, Carter J, Nicklin J, Perrin L, Obermair A: Prognostic importance of preoperative CA-125 in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: an Australian multicenter study. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5938-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic importance of preoperative CA-125 in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: an Australian multicenter study.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative CA-125 levels on overall survival of patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 518 patients with FIGO stage I EOC treated in seven gynecologic oncology centers throughout Australia between 1990 and 2002 were analyzed.
  • Patients with borderline tumors and nonepithelial ovarian carcinomas were excluded, as were women in whom CA-125 had not been determined preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5862-4 [16087955.001]
  • (PMID = 16087942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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14. Naik R, Cross P, Lopes A, Godfrey K, Hatem MH: "True" versus "apparent" stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: value of frozen section analysis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:41-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "True" versus "apparent" stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: value of frozen section analysis.
  • The aim of this prospective study was to determine the clinical benefits of introducing peroperative frozen section analysis into the surgical management policy of women referred with an adnexal mass suspicious of ovarian cancer.
  • Paraffin section diagnoses included 74 benign tumors, 11 borderline tumors, 34 primary epithelial cancers, 5 nonepithelial cancers, and 6 metastatic tumors.
  • All primary epithelial ovarian cancers were correctly identified as requiring a staging procedure based on the frozen section result.
  • Four of seventy-four cases reported as benign on frozen section analysis were underdiagnosed; two were later diagnosed on paraffin section as borderline tumors and a further two as malignant (one low-grade adenosarcoma and one primary peritoneal cancer).
  • The clinical benefits of introducing frozen section analysis in the surgical staging policy of women with an adnexal mass suspicious of ovarian malignancy included avoidance of a surgical staging procedure in 95% of cases identified on paraffin section analysis to be benign.
  • This benefit was without compromising the avoidance of chemotherapy in true stage I epithelial ovarian cancer cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Frozen Sections. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16515566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Oksefjell H, Sandstad B, Tropé C: Is the watch and wait approach adequate after comprehensive surgical staging in invasive stage I epithelial ovarian cancer? The Norwegian Radium Hospital experience. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(6):583-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is the watch and wait approach adequate after comprehensive surgical staging in invasive stage I epithelial ovarian cancer? The Norwegian Radium Hospital experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study on stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was to see if our different treatment policies after 1995, when lymph node staging and paclitaxel were introduced, have affected the survival, try to define risk groups for relapse and who should get adjuvant chemotherapy (AC).
  • METHODS: A retrospective study based on record information from all patients with invasive EOC stage I operated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) 1984-2001, in total 252 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Stage I low and medium risk EOC do not need AC if properly staged.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19115683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Deligdisch L, Pénault-Llorca F, Schlosshauer P, Altchek A, Peiretti M, Nezhat F: Stage I ovarian carcinoma: different clinical pathologic patterns. Fertil Steril; 2007 Oct;88(4):906-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stage I ovarian carcinoma: different clinical pathologic patterns.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinicopathologic patterns of early ovarian carcinoma.
  • PATIENT(S): Seventy-six consecutive cases of Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage I ovarian carcinoma.
  • Ninety-eight percent of ovarian endometriosis, 95% of endometrial carcinomas, and 83% of endometrial polyps and hyperplasias were associated with nonserous carcinomas.
  • Most patients with serous papillary carcinoma presented with asymptomatic pelvic masses; patients with nonserous carcinomas presented with pelvic pain or abnormal vaginal bleeding with or without pelvic mass.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Over two thirds of stage I ovarian carcinomas were nonserous, and were diagnosed because of associated symptoms: pelvic pain with endometriosis and/or adnexal masses, or vaginal bleeding from endometrial pathology.
  • Serous papillary carcinomas were often asymptomatic and diagnosed during follow-up evaluations in breast cancer patients.
  • Stage I ovarian carcinoma has different clinical and pathologic patterns than advanced ovarian carcinoma.
  • The risk of ovarian and endometrial malignancy should be taken into consideration during evaluation of patients with endometriosis and breast cancer histories.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17920404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Kaku S, Takeshima N, Umayahara K, Furuta R, Akiyama F, Takizawa K: Clinical features of 215 stage I ovarian tumors in Japanese women. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features of 215 stage I ovarian tumors in Japanese women.
  • PURPOSE: Differences of the clinical features of Stage I borderline ovarian tumors and Stage I ovarian cancer need to be clarified.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 215 patients with Stage I ovarian tumors (67 with borderline tumors and 148 with ovarian cancer) treated between 1988 and 2001.
  • RESULTS: Only one patient with a borderline tumor developed recurrence, while recurrence was found in 20 patients with Stage I ovarian cancer.
  • There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate between patients with Stage Ia or Ib ovarian cancer and those with Stage Ic cancer (p = 0.007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the low aggressiveness of Stage I borderline ovarian tumors and high aggressiveness of Stage Ic ovarian cancer or clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. Yemelyanova AV, Cosin JA, Bidus MA, Boice CR, Seidman JD: Pathology of stage I versus stage III ovarian carcinoma with implications for pathogenesis and screening. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 May-Jun;18(3):465-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology of stage I versus stage III ovarian carcinoma with implications for pathogenesis and screening.
  • The progression of ovarian carcinoma from stage I when it is confined to the ovaries and curable to disseminated abdominal disease, which is usually fatal, is poorly understood.
  • An accurate understanding of this process is fundamental to designing, testing, and implementing an effective screening program for ovarian cancer.
  • Pathologic features of the primary ovarian tumors in 41 FIGO stage I ovarian carcinomas were compared with those in 40 stage III carcinomas.
  • The primary ovarian tumors in stage I cases, when compared with stage III, respectively, were significantly larger (15.4 versus 9.8 cm), were less frequently bilateral (12% versus 75%), more frequently contained a noninvasive component (88% versus 30%), had a higher proportion of a noninvasive component (42% versus 8%), and were more often nonserous (83% versus 20%) (P < 0.001 for all five comparisons).
  • There are significant pathologic differences between the primary ovarian tumors in stage I and III ovarian carcinomas that are very difficult to explain by a simple temporal progression.
  • These findings along with the growing body of literature suggest that early- and advanced-stage ovarian cancers are in many instances biologically different entities.
  • This knowledge may have significant implications for our understanding of the biology of early- and advanced-stage ovarian cancer and therefore on the development of screening strategies for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17868343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Satoh T, Hatae M, Watanabe Y, Yaegashi N, Ishiko O, Kodama S, Yamaguchi S, Ochiai K, Takano M, Yokota H, Kawakami Y, Nishimura S, Ogishima D, Nakagawa S, Kobayashi H, Shiozawa T, Nakanishi T, Kamura T, Konishi I, Yoshikawa H: Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposal for patient selection. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr 1;28(10):1727-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposal for patient selection.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes and fertility in patients treated conservatively for unilateral stage I invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective investigation was undertaken to identify patients with unilateral stage I EOC treated with fertility-sparing surgery.
  • RESULTS: A total of 211 patients (stage IA, n = 126; stage IC, n = 85) were identified from 30 institutions.
  • Five-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 100% [corrected] and 97.8% for stage IA and favorable histology (n = 108), 100% and 100% for stage IA and clear cell histology (n = 15), 100% and 33.3% for stage IA and grade 3 (n = 3), 96.9% and 92.1% for stage IC and favorable histology (n = 67), 93.3% and 66.0% for stage IC and clear cell histology (n = 15), and 66.7% and 66.7% for stage IC and grade 3 (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data confirm that fertility-sparing surgery is a safe treatment for stage IA patients with favorable histology and suggest that stage IA patients with clear cell histology and stage IC patients with favorable histology can be candidates for fertility-sparing surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery


20. Chang KH, Lee JP, Ryu HS: Rare case of stage IA epithelial ovarian cancer with bone as the first site of recurrent metastasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:322-6
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  • [Title] Rare case of stage IA epithelial ovarian cancer with bone as the first site of recurrent metastasis.
  • Ovarian cancer is one of the main gynecological malignancies including cervical cancer and endometrial cancer.
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer generally presents with already advanced disease at the time of diagnosis and is accompanied by poor prognosis.
  • However, stage I ovarian cancer defined as lesions confined to the ovary is usually considered to have a good prognosis, illustrated by a 5-year survival rate of greater than 70-80%.
  • We report a rare case of early stage IA ovarian cancer, in which the first recurrent lesion was bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology


21. Hefler LA, Zeillinger R, Grimm C, Sood AK, Cheng WF, Gadducci A, Tempfer CB, Reinthaller A: Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic parameter in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):512-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic parameter in ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels have been shown to be associated with an adverse outcome in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: In the present study, we ascertained preoperative serum VEGF in a series of 314 patients with ovarian cancer: 45 new cases and 269 from four previously published studies.
  • In a univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, FIGO stage, residual tumor mass, tumor grade, patients' age, serum CA 125, and preoperative serum VEGF were associated with overall survival.
  • In a multivariate Cox regression model, higher FIGO stage, presence of residual tumor mass after primary surgery, and higher serum VEGF were independently associated with a shortened overall survival.
  • Planned subgroup analysis was performed for patients with ovarian cancer FIGO stage I.
  • Patients with FIGO stage I ovarian cancer and a serum VEGF > or = 380 pg/mL had an 8-fold increased risk for experiencing cancer-related death.
  • CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF is an independent prognostic parameter in patients with all stages of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16750560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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22. Chang KH, Albarracin C, Luthra R, Wang L, Zheng W, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Liu J: Discordant genetic changes in ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas: a potential pitfall in molecular diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):178-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discordant genetic changes in ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas: a potential pitfall in molecular diagnosis.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma simultaneously involving ovaries as well as the uterine corpus may present a diagnostic dilemma because of the difficulty in determining whether the lesions are separate primary tumors or metastases.
  • To determine the usefulness of this technique, we compared the genetic alterations in microsatellite markers present in matched pairs of ovarian tumors from 12 patients.
  • The study includes four ovarian cancer FIGO stage I and eight stage III/IV patients, and four patients also with independent endometrial carcinoma of the uterus.
  • In the four patients with stage I ovarian cancer, four microsatellite markers were identical in one patient and three were identical in the remaining three patients.
  • In high-stage patients, three markers were identical in at least 4/8 cases.
  • In three of four patients with uterine involvement, three of the four markers were identical in the uterine tumor and one of the corresponding ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Sequence, Unstable. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16445630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 64602-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / beta Catenin
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23. Kolwijck E, Thomas CM, Bulten J, Massuger LF: Preoperative CA-125 levels in 123 patients with borderline ovarian tumors: a retrospective analysis and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Nov;19(8):1335-8
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  • [Title] Preoperative CA-125 levels in 123 patients with borderline ovarian tumors: a retrospective analysis and review of the literature.
  • We studied preoperative CA-125 levels of 123 patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and performed an analysis with data of earlier published studies.
  • CA-125 levels were compared according to histology and stage of disease.
  • Preoperative serum CA-125 levels were significantly higher for patients with advanced stage (median, 181 U/mL; range, 413 U/mL) compared with patients with stage I (median, 28 U/mL; range, 1123 U/mL) BOTs and for patients with serous (median, 59 U/mL; range, 1119 U/mL) compared with patients with mucinous (median, 25 U/mL; range, 371 U/mL) BOTs (both P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test).
  • Positive rates were more often found in patients with serous (67%) compared with patients with mucinous BOTs (39%) and in patients with advanced stage (83%) compared with patients with stage I BOTs (47%) (both P < 0.001, Pearson chi(2) test).
  • From a clinical perspective, we believe, on base of the results of this study and the literature, that preoperative discrimination using CA-125 level is especially difficult between patients with stage I ovarian cancer and the group of patients with serous and/or advanced-stage BOTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 20009886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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24. Lopez MF, Mikulskis A, Kuzdzal S, Golenko E, Petricoin EF 3rd, Liotta LA, Patton WF, Whiteley GR, Rosenblatt K, Gurnani P, Nandi A, Neill S, Cullen S, O'Gorman M, Sarracino D, Lynch C, Johnson A, Mckenzie W, Fishman D: A novel, high-throughput workflow for discovery and identification of serum carrier protein-bound peptide biomarker candidates in ovarian cancer samples. Clin Chem; 2007 Jun;53(6):1067-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel, high-throughput workflow for discovery and identification of serum carrier protein-bound peptide biomarker candidates in ovarian cancer samples.
  • BACKGROUND: Most cases of ovarian cancer are detected at later stages when the 5-year survival is approximately 15%, but 5-year survival approaches 90% when the cancer is detected early (stage I).
  • RESULTS: We discovered several biomarker panels that enabled differentiation of stage I ovarian cancer from unaffected (age-matched) patients with no evidence of ovarian cancer, with positive results in >93% of samples from patients with disease-negative results and in 97% of disease-free controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptides / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1004-6 [17517585.001]
  • (PMID = 17463175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Peptides
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25. Bakkum-Gamez JN, Richardson DL, Seamon LG, Aletti GD, Powless CA, Keeney GL, O'Malley DM, Cliby WA: Is there a high-risk subgroup of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer that is most likely to benefit from 6 versus 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Oct;20(7):1125-31
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  • [Title] Is there a high-risk subgroup of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer that is most likely to benefit from 6 versus 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy?
  • OBJECTIVE: Despite results from Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 157 showing no statistically significant survival differences in patients treated with 3 versus 6 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel, further analysis of GOG 157 data suggested that certain early-stage epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) might benefit from extended chemotherapy.
  • We sought to determine those stage I EOC cases at highest risk of failing 3 cycles of therapy.
  • METHODS: All patients with surgical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I EOC operated on at the Mayo Clinic and The Ohio State University between January 1991 and December 2007 were identified through retrospective chart review.
  • Among all stage I EOCs, the number of cycles did not influence disease-free survival or disease-specific survival.
  • The highest recurrence rate (7 [46.7%] of 15 cases) was among stage IC cases with fixed tumors and positive cytology and/or surface involvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with stage IC cancer and with fixed tumors and positive cytology and/or tumor surface involvement appear to have a higher risk of recurrence after 3 cycles (compared with 6) of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The clinical behavior of this highest risk cohort implies a more aggressive tumor biology, and further understanding of such stage I EOCs is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21495213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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26. Draghici S, Chatterjee M, Tainsky MA: Epitomics: serum screening for the early detection of cancer on microarrays using complex panels of tumor antigens. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2005 Sep;5(5):735-43
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  • [Title] Epitomics: serum screening for the early detection of cancer on microarrays using complex panels of tumor antigens.
  • Using a high-throughput cloning method, a panel of epitopes/antigens that react with autoantibodies to tumor proteins in the serum of patients with ovarian cancer have been isolated.
  • The sequences that were identified using this new technology will lead to the discovery of novel disease-related proteins that have diagnostic value for the presymptomatic detection of cancer.
  • It has been demonstrated that this approach can detect these autoantibodies in the sera of Stage I ovarian cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 16149876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100740
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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27. Rzymski P, Opala T, Wilczak M, Woźniak J, Sajdak S: Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors p55/p75 ratio and ovarian cancer detection. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2005 Mar;88(3):292-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors p55/p75 ratio and ovarian cancer detection.
  • OBJECTIVE: Early ovarian cancer detection is still very difficult and patients are mostly in advanced stages, with obvious influence on poor prognosis.
  • METHOD: Fifty-one ovarian cancer patients and 16 healthy controls had the serum concentrations of TNF alpha receptor p55, p75 and CA-125 measured prospectively and preoperatively.
  • RESULT: Mean concentrations of TNF alpha receptor p55, p75 and CA-125 in patients with ovarian cancer were higher than in controls.
  • The ratios of p55 and p75 receptor in ovarian cancer and controls were 0.73+/-0.38 and 0.55+/-0.06 respectively.
  • The areas under ROC curve in detecting malignancy (all FIGO stages) were 0.73, 0.65, 0.88 and 0.85 for p55, p75, p55/p75 ratio and CA-125 respectively.
  • The areas under ROC curve in detecting stage I of ovarian cancer were 0.52, 0.60, 0.84 and 0.66 for p55, p75, p55/p75 ratio and CA-125 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Serum TNF alpha p55/p75 ratio showed promising value in ovarian cancer detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 15733884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
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28. Chien J, Fan JB, Bell DA, April C, Klotzle B, Ota T, Lingle WL, Gonzalez Bosquet J, Shridhar V, Hartmann LC: Analysis of gene expression in stage I serous tumors identifies critical pathways altered in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jul;114(1):3-11
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  • [Title] Analysis of gene expression in stage I serous tumors identifies critical pathways altered in ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Despite recent advances in the conceptual understanding of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, it remains the foremost cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in developed countries.
  • The main reason for such a high rate of mortality is the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers and imaging techniques for early detection of ovarian cancer.
  • Additional biological insights into early-stage ovarian carcinogenesis are needed to help speed the development of markers for early detection of ovarian cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to characterize differentially expressed genes in high-grade stage I serous carcinoma of the ovary.
  • METHODS: We analyzed gene expression in macrodissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 5 high-grade stage I serous carcinomas and 5 stage I borderline tumors of the ovary using the Illumina Whole Genome DASL assay (cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation) corresponding to 24,000 genes.
  • Significance Analysis of Microarrays was performed to determine differentially expressed genes in stage I serous carcinoma, and class prediction analysis was performed to determine the predictive value of differentially expressed gene sets to correctly classify serous carcinoma from borderline tumors in 3 independent data sets.
  • Altered transcription factor pathways and biological pathways unique to stage I serous carcinoma were identified through class comparison of differentially expressed genes.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised cluster analysis of gene expression correctly classified stage I serous carcinomas from serous borderline tumors.
  • Supervised analysis identified several known, as well as novel, genes differentially expressed in stage I ovarian cancer.
  • Pathway analysis demonstrated the significance of p53 and E2F pathways in serous carcinogenesis and significant involvements of cell cycle and immune response pathways in stage I serous epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: We have identified differentially expressed genes associated with the carcinogenesis of high-grade stage I serous EOC.
  • Furthermore, integrative analysis of biological and transcription pathway data contributed to the confirmation of important biological pathways and discovery of additional unique genes and pathways that may have potential importance in ovarian pathogenesis and biomarker development.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2009 Jul;114(1):1-2 [19497432.001]
  • (PMID = 19410283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA136393
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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29. Kobayashi H, Yamada Y, Sado T, Sakata M, Yoshida S, Kawaguchi R, Kanayama S, Shigetomi H, Haruta S, Tsuji Y, Ueda S, Kitanaka T: A randomized study of screening for ovarian cancer: a multicenter study in Japan. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 May-Jun;18(3):414-20
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  • [Title] A randomized study of screening for ovarian cancer: a multicenter study in Japan.
  • Ovarian cancer is common in women from developed countries.
  • We designed a prospective randomized controlled trial of ovarian cancer screening to establish an improved strategy for the early detection of cancers.
  • Asymptomatic postmenopausal women were randomly assigned between 1985 and 1999 to either an intervention group (n = 41,688) or a control group (n = 40,799) in a ratio of 1:1, with follow-up of mean 9.2 years, in Shizuoka district, Japan.
  • In December 2002, the code was broken and the Shizuoka Cohort Study of Ovarian Cancer Screening and Shizuoka Cancer Registry were searched to determine both malignant and nonmalignant diagnoses.
  • Detection rates of ovarian cancer were 0.31 per 1000 at the prevalent screen and 0.38-0.74 per 1000 at subsequent screens; they increased with successive screening rounds.
  • Among the 40,779 control women, 32 women developed ovarian cancer.
  • The proportion of stage I ovarian cancer was higher in the screened group (63%) than in the control group (38%), which did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.2285).
  • This is to our knowledge the first prospective randomized report of the ovarian cancer screening.
  • The rise in the detection of early-stage ovarian cancer in asymptomatic postmenopausal women is not significant, but future decisions on screening policy should be informed by further follow-up from this trial.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Endosonography. Mass Screening / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17645503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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30. Chen F, Shen K, Lang JH, Huang HF, Wu M: [Clinical features and prognostic of double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus and the ovary]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 May 18;85(18):1257-60
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  • [Title] [Clinical features and prognostic of double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus and the ovary].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of patients with double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus and ovary.
  • METHODS: The clinical features, operation findings, treatment and prognosis of 36 patients with double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus diagnosed and treated in the last 20 years, 25 with typical endometrial adenocarcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary (group A) 11 with non-endometrioid carcinoma in uterine corpus and/or ovary (group B) were respectively analyzed.
  • The 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of these 36 patients were 89%, 83%, and 75% respectively, all equal to those of the patients with stage I ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus and ovary is rather good.
  • It is necessary to distinguish double primary carcinoma of uterine corpus and ovary from stage II ovarian cancer and stage III endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16029611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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31. Bristow RE, Palis BE, Chi DS, Cliby WA: The National Cancer Database report on advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: impact of hospital surgical case volume on overall survival and surgical treatment paradigm. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Sep;118(3):262-7
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  • [Title] The National Cancer Database report on advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: impact of hospital surgical case volume on overall survival and surgical treatment paradigm.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of hospital procedure volume and other prognostic variables on overall survival outcome and likelihood of receiving standard recommended care among patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was searched for patients undergoing primary treatment for FIGO Stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer from 1996 to 2005.
  • Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the impact on overall survival of hospital surgical volume adjusted for treatment, FIGO/AJCC stage, ethnicity, age, payer status, household income, and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hospital ovarian cancer surgical volume >or=21 cases/year is associated with a higher likelihood of patients with Stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer receiving standard treatment (surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy).
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals / statistics & numerical data. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery


32. Kurjak A, Prka M, Arenas JM, Sparac V, Merce LT, Corusic A, Ivancic-Kosuta M: Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler in ovarian cancer screening of asymptomatic peri- and postmenopausal women. Croat Med J; 2005 Oct;46(5):757-64
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler in ovarian cancer screening of asymptomatic peri- and postmenopausal women.
  • AIM: To determine whether introducing three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography with power Doppler facilities as a secondary screening test, preceded by annual transvaginal grayscale ultrasonography (TVUS) (followed by transvaginal color Doppler (TVCD) in selected cases) as a primary screening test for ovarian cancer improves the accuracy of ovarian cancer screening studies.
  • Cystic ovarian lesions in perimenopausal women were routinely reevaluated by TVUS and TVCD at 4-6 week intervals to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention for physiological cysts.
  • Any multiloculated, complex or solid ovarian mass, as well as persistently cystic mass >5 cm in diameter, in which the echo architecture and/or blood flow pattern was not highly suggestive of a benign histology, was categorized malignant.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (0.8%) with persisting ultrasonographic abnormalities after primary and secondary screening underwent surgery to remove the ovarian tumor.
  • Five epithelial ovarian cancers were detected: 3 stage IA, 1 stage IB, and 1 stage IC.
  • Three stage I patients had a palpable abnormality on clinical examination.
  • Furthermore, in three patients with stage I disease, CA 125 serum value was elevated (> or =35 U/mL).
  • Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler, as well as TVUS findings were indicative of malignancy in all 5 patients with stage I ovarian cancer, whereas TVCD finding was false-negative in 2 patients with stage I disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Application of 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler imaging in patients with "positive" standard ultrasound tests (annual TVUS, followed by TVCD in selected cases) represents a novel approach for the early and accurate detection of ovarian cancer through screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Perimenopause. Postmenopause. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 16158468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9504
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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33. Lin CK, Chao TK, Yu CP, Yu MH, Jin JS: The expression of six biomarkers in the four most common ovarian cancers: correlation with clinicopathological parameters. APMIS; 2009 Mar;117(3):162-75
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  • [Title] The expression of six biomarkers in the four most common ovarian cancers: correlation with clinicopathological parameters.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of fascin-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, cortactin, survivin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression with clinicopathological parameters for the four most common ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas.
  • The four most common ovarian carcinomas showed significant expression of fascin-1, cortactin, survivin, and EGFR, but not of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
  • In addition, higher immunostaining scores for fascin-1 in mucinous cystadenocarcinomas correlated with T stage, N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer AJCC clinical stage, and a poorer survival rate; for cortactin in serous cystadenocarcinomas correlated with T stage; for cortactin in clear cell carcinomas correlated with T and clinical AJCC stages; and for survivin in clear cell carcinomas correlated with T stage and AJCC clinical stage.
  • Thus, the expression of fascin-1, cortactin, and survivin may be helpful in evaluating the aggressiveness of ovarian mucinous, serous, and clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19245589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cortactin; 0 / FSCN1 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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34. Schlaerth AC, Chi DS, Poynor EA, Barakat RR, Brown CL: Long-term survival after fertility-sparing surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Oct;19(7):1199-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival after fertility-sparing surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term results of fertility-sparing surgery in the treatment of early-stage invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 123 patients who underwent surgical staging for FIGO stage I epithelial ovarian cancer from November 1982 to July 2002.
  • Demographics, stage, histopathology, adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and survival were compared for patients who had fertility-sparing surgery and for those having standard surgical staging.
  • RESULTS: Twenty patients, with a median age of 27 years, had preservation of the uterus and contralateral ovary at the time of surgical staging.
  • Three patients (15%) recurred in the retained ovary at 9, 20, and 22 months, and all died of their disease.
  • One patient was diagnosed with primary endometrial cancer at 15 months and was salvaged with hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery is a reasonable alternative treatment for young women with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer desiring fertility preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Survivors / statistics & numerical data


35. van Dalen A, Favier J, Hallensleben E, Burges A, Stieber P, de Bruijn HW, Fink D, Ferrero A, McGing P, Harlozinska A, Kainz Ch, Markowska J, Molina R, Sturgeon C, Bowman A, Einarsson R, Goike H: Significance of serum CA125 and TPS antigen levels for determination of overall survival after three chemotherapy courses in ovarian cancer patients during long-term follow-up. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(6):609-15
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  • [Title] Significance of serum CA125 and TPS antigen levels for determination of overall survival after three chemotherapy courses in ovarian cancer patients during long-term follow-up.
  • PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To evaluate the prognostic significance for overall survival rate for the marker combination TPS and CA125 in ovarian cancer patients after three chemotherapy courses during long-term clinical follow-up.
  • METHODS: The overall survival of 212 (out of 213) ovarian cancer patients (FIGO Stages I-IV) was analyzed in a prospective multicenter study during a 10-year clinical follow-up by univariate and multivariate analysis.
  • RESULTS: In patients with ovarian cancer FIGO Stage I (34 patients) or FIGO Stage II (30 patients) disease, the univariate and multivariate analysis of the 10-year overall survival data showed that CA125 and TPS serum levels were not independent prognostic factors.
  • In the FIGO Stage III group (112 patients), the 10-year overall survival was 15.2%; while in the FIGO Stage IV group (36 patients) a 10-year overall survival of 5.6% was seen.
  • In a combined FIGO Stage III + FIGO Stage IV group (60 patients with optimal debulking surgery), multivariate analysis demonstrated that CA125 and TPS levels were independent prognostic factors.
  • For patients in this combined FIGO Stage III + IV group having both markers below respective discrimination level, 35.3% survived for more than ten years, as opposed to patients having one marker above the discrimination level where the 10-year survival was reduced to 10% of the patients.
  • CONCLUSION: In FIGO III and IV ovarian cancer patients, only patients with CA 125 and TPS markers below the discrimination level after three chemotherapy courses indicated a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peptides / blood

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  • (PMID = 20099488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Peptides; 0 / tissue polypeptide specific antigen
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36. Zanagnolo V, Sartori E, Trussardi E, Pasinetti B, Maggino T: Preservation of ovarian function, reproductive ability and emotional attitudes in patients with malignant ovarian tumors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):235-43
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  • [Title] Preservation of ovarian function, reproductive ability and emotional attitudes in patients with malignant ovarian tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although cancer is predominantly a disease of aging, an increasing number of women survive malignancies before or during their reproductive years, which may interfere with their fertility potential.
  • Although a variety of studies have tried to document the impact of conservative treatment aimed at preserving ovarian function and reproductive ability, little information has been available regarding survivors' attitudes, emotions, and choices to have children.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproductive history, experiences, attitudes, and emotions with regard to having children in conservatively treated patients with Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, any stage LMP tumors, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) and Stage I sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Between 1986 and 2000, a total of 75 patients with primary malignant ovarian tumors underwent conservative treatment.
  • Out of 75 patients in the study, 14 women (19%) presented Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, 23 (31%) LMP tumors, 33 (43%) MOGCTs, and five (7%) SCSTs.
  • Whereas 51% (21/41) fear that their ovarian disease could have damaged their reproductive potential, 76% (31/41) are not concerned about the effects of the treatment they received on offspring.
  • CONCLUSION: The results from our study, in agreement with the data from the literature, confirm that management of Stage I (grade 1, grade 2) epithelial ovarian cancer, any stage LMP tumors, MOGCTs and Stage I SCSTs with fertility-sparing surgery is a safe, practicable treatment option.
  • Though preliminary, this survey provides insight into the attitudes and experiences of young women ovarian cancer survivors regarding fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Infertility, Female / psychology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Reproductive Behavior / psychology

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  • (PMID = 15921842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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37. Soussan M, Wartski M, Cherel P, Fourme E, Goupil A, Le Stanc E, Callet N, Alexandre J, Pecking AP, Alberini JL: Impact of FDG PET-CT imaging on the decision making in the biologic suspicion of ovarian carcinoma recurrence. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):160-5
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  • [Title] Impact of FDG PET-CT imaging on the decision making in the biologic suspicion of ovarian carcinoma recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of integrated PET-CT on treatment management in ovarian carcinoma recurrence suspicion because of increased CA-125.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (mean age=61 years), initially treated for ovarian carcinoma (FIGO stage I n=2, stage II n=3, stage III n=21 and stage IV n=3), presenting with increased CA-125 (mean=160 IU/ml, range 33-1930), underwent subsequently a CT and a PET-CT scans.
  • CONCLUSION: This questionnaire-based study showed that PET-CT imaging allows a better restaging than CT and induces a change in clinical management in over one third of patients with suspected ovarian carcinoma recurrence on increased CA-125.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17961640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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38. Cvelbar M, Ursic-Vrscaj M, Rakar S: Risk factors and prognostic factors in patients with double primary cancer: epithelial ovarian cancer and breast cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(1):59-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors and prognostic factors in patients with double primary cancer: epithelial ovarian cancer and breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The most important known risk factor for ovarian cancer is the BRCA1-2 mutation, which is clinically often manifested through a positive family history of cancer of the breast and/or ovary.
  • Whether other risk factors and prognostic factors in women with a positive family history of cancer of the breast and/or ovary and/or with BRCA1-2 mutation are important remains to be elucidated.
  • Recent studies have shown that in the double primary breast and ovarian cancer (DPBOC), BRCA1-2 mutation is present in at least 86% of cases.
  • Therefore, the group of patients with DPBOC, especially with epithelial ovarian cancer and breast cancer, is the most suitable for such an analysis.
  • The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that, in this group, some other risk factors, in addition to a specific family history of cancer, as well as unfavourable pathomorphological prognostic factors, are more expressed than in a control group of patients with sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer only.
  • METHODS: We compared the study group of 31 patients with DPBOC (epithelial ovarian cancer) to a control group of 62 patients with a single, sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer and negative specific family history.
  • The data were obtained from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia and from clinical records.
  • There was a higher percentage of borderline significance of women from the study group that developed ovarian cancer between 45 and 59 years of age.
  • In the study group, ovarian cancer was significantly more often found at Stage I, although the groups did not differ in detection procedures.
  • CONCLUSION: The results did not confirm our hypothesis, yet they indicated some differences between the groups regarding the risk factors for ovarian cancer.
  • Regarding the prognostic factors, we even found a significantly higher percentage of Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer in the study group, with no difference in the mode of detection.
  • Considering the results that are not typical of BRCA-related cancer (what double primary cancer of the ovary and breast is supposed to be) and previous reports, we find it more likely that the patients with BRCA1-2 mutations represent only a subgroup within the group of patients with double primary breast and ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics


39. Goudge CS, Li Z, Downs LS Jr: The influence of intraoperative tumor rupture on recurrence risk in Stage Ic epithelial ovarian cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):25-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The influence of intraoperative tumor rupture on recurrence risk in Stage Ic epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the outcomes of patients with Stage Ic epithelial ovarian carcinoma, taking into consideration the criteria that were used to assign staging.
  • We hypothesized that tumor rupture is a less ominous prognosticator in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer than malignant washings or ovarian surface invasion.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with Stage I epithelial ovarian carcinoma at the University of Minnesota between 1990 and 2005 was carried out.
  • Information was collected about demographics, diagnosis date, stage, grade, adjuvant treatment, last contact date and status at last contact.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients with Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer were identified and included in this review.
  • 1) patients with Stage Ic cancers, so-assigned because of intraoperative tumor rupture only, 2) patients with Stage Ic cancers, so-assigned for any other reason(s) than rupture alone, and 3) patients with Stages Ia and Ib cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients, the risk of tumor recurrence in patients with Stage Ic epithelial ovarian cancer, so-assigned because of intraoperative rupture alone, is not significantly different from the two other groups of patients with Stage I disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19317252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. D'Antonio A, De Dominicis G, Addesso M, Caleo A, Boscaino A: Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):765-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of ovary is a rare type of epithelial tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells with abundant acidophilic cytoplasm, histologically indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report a previously unrecognized case of HC of ovary concurrent with a Sertoli cell tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman patient with a long-term history of hepatitis C presented with a mass of left ovary without evidence of hepatic tumor.
  • After initial diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinoma (FIGO Stage I), she had experienced a first recurrence in upper abdomen.
  • A diagnosis of ovarian metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma is easy in patients with known primary tumor of liver and should be always excluded in these cases as an hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19856182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Deligdisch L: [Stage I ovarian carcinoma: two distinct malignancies?]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2007 Nov;191(8):1695-700; discussion 1700-1
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Stage I ovarian carcinoma: two distinct malignancies?].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancers ovariens au stade I: deux carcinogenèses différentes?
  • Ovarian cancers are the most lethal gynecologic malignancies and are rarely diagnosed in their early stages.
  • The most common of these tumors--serous papillary carcinoma--is generally asymptomatic in the early stages.
  • Serous papillary carcinomas potentially arise from dysplastic epithelial cells lining the ovarian surface and inclusion cysts, while the substrate of non serous papillary tumors is atypical endometriotic tissue.
  • Tumor markers also tend to differ between the two forms of ovarian cancer.
  • Pelvic laparoscopy and prophylactic oophorectomy have offered new insights into the mechanisms and early stages of ovarian malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18666467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Moore RG, Brown AK, Miller MC, Skates S, Allard WJ, Verch T, Steinhoff M, Messerlian G, DiSilvestro P, Granai CO, Bast RC Jr: The use of multiple novel tumor biomarkers for the detection of ovarian carcinoma in patients with a pelvic mass. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Feb;108(2):402-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of multiple novel tumor biomarkers for the detection of ovarian carcinoma in patients with a pelvic mass.
  • OBJECTIVES: The CA125 tumor marker is used to help predict the presence of ovarian cancer in patients with an adnexal mass.
  • Of these, 233 patients were eligible for analysis with 67 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers and 166 benign ovarian neoplasms.
  • Mean values for all marker levels except Her2 differed significantly between patients with benign masses and cancer.
  • HE4 was the best single marker for Stage I disease, with no increase in sensitivity when combined with CA125 or any other marker.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As a single tumor marker, HE4 had the highest sensitivity for detecting ovarian cancer, especially Stage I disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / urine. Pelvic Neoplasms / blood. Pelvic Neoplasms / urine


43. Seidman JD, Cosin JA, Wang BG, Alsop S, Yemelyanova A, Fields A, Boice CR, Zaino RJ: Upstaging pathologic stage I ovarian carcinoma based on dense adhesions is not warranted: a clinicopathologic study of 84 patients originally classified as FIGO stage II. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Nov;119(2):250-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upstaging pathologic stage I ovarian carcinoma based on dense adhesions is not warranted: a clinicopathologic study of 84 patients originally classified as FIGO stage II.
  • BACKGROUND: FIGO stage II ovarian cancer comprises 8% of ovarian cancers.
  • It is a common but not universal practice to upstage densely adherent pathologic stage I tumors to stage II.
  • FIGO guidelines are not clear, and data supporting this practice are sparse.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with stage II ovarian cancer and grouped them based upon histologic evidence of extraovarian extension.
  • Tumors densely adherent to extraovarian structures but without histologic tumor outside the ovary were considered pathologic stage I.
  • All others were considered surgical-pathologic stage II.
  • Twenty-four patients had pathologic stage I disease and 60 had histologic evidence of extraovarian pelvic spread and were surgical-pathologic stage II.
  • The 5-year survival for stage I was 100%, and the median survival was not reached.
  • The 5-year survival for those with surgical-pathologic stage II disease was 56.8% and the median survival was 73 months.
  • The survival difference between pathologic stage I and surgical-pathologic stage II was significant (p<0.001).
  • There were no differences seen in 5-year survival among surgical-pathologic stage II patients with serous, endometrioid or clear cell histologies (64.5%, 64.8% and 64.3% respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: These retrospective data suggest that the practice of upstaging densely adherent pathologic stage I tumors to stage II may not be warranted.
  • Cell type is not a prognostic factor in stage II.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20673974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Lowenthal MS, Mehta AI, Frogale K, Bandle RW, Araujo RP, Hood BL, Veenstra TD, Conrads TP, Goldsmith P, Fishman D, Petricoin EF 3rd, Liotta LA: Analysis of albumin-associated peptides and proteins from ovarian cancer patients. Clin Chem; 2005 Oct;51(10):1933-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of albumin-associated peptides and proteins from ovarian cancer patients.
  • We used this method to analyze pooled sera from a human disease study set (high-risk persons without cancer, n = 40; stage I ovarian cancer, n = 30; stage III ovarian cancer, n = 40) to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a discovery method.
  • Several proteolytic fragments of larger molecules that may be cancer-related were confirmed immunologically in blood by Western blotting and peptide immunocompetition.
  • BRCA2, a 390-kDa low-abundance nuclear protein linked to cancer susceptibility, was represented in sera as a series of specific fragments bound to albumin.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptides / chemistry. Proteins / chemistry


45. Desteli GA, Gultekin M, Usubutun A, Yuce K, Ayhan A: Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent clinical stage Ia epithelial ovarian cancer: Hacettepe experience and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent clinical stage Ia epithelial ovarian cancer: Hacettepe experience and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of the staging system of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • However, the extent of lymphadenectomy in the early stages of ovarian cancer is controversial.
  • The objective of this study was to identify the lymph node involvement in unilateral epithelial ovarian cancer apparently confined to the one ovary (clinical stage Ia).
  • METHODS: A prospective study of clinical stage I ovarian cancer patients is presented.
  • RESULTS: Thirty three ovarian cancer patients with intact ovarian capsule were evaluated.
  • Intraoperatively, neither of the patients had surface involvement, adhesions, ascites or palpable lymph nodes (supposed to be clinical stage Ia).
  • Final surgicopathologic reports revealed capsular involvement in seven patients (21.2%), contralateral ovarian involvement in two (6%) and omental metastasis in one (3%) patient.
  • Ovarian capsule was intact in all of the patients with lymph node involvement and the tumor was grade 3.
  • CONCLUSION: In clinical stage Ia ovarian cancer patients, there may be a risk of paraaortic and pelvic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pelvis / pathology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21114870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Ovarian epithelial cancer
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002346
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46. Demirci U, Coskun U, Sancak B, Ozturk B, Bahar B, Benekli M, Buyukberber S: Serum granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor: a tumor marker in colorectal carcinoma? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009;10(6):1021-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor: a tumor marker in colorectal carcinoma?
  • The levels of GM-CSF and its role in the pathophysiology of several cancers such as ovarian, breast have been investigated.
  • METHODOLOGY: Plasma levels of GM-CSF were measured in 51 patients with previously untreated colorectal cancer patients and 21 healthy adults as normal controls.
  • The clinicopathological features of colorectal carcinoma were determined at the time of blood collection.
  • Patient staging was done according to tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) by American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC).
  • RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of GM-CSF in colorectal cancer patients (42.0 pg/ml) were statistically significant higher than normal controls (23.2 pg/ml) (p= 0.001).
  • On the other hand, stage of disease, carcinoembryogenic antigen and peripheral leukocyte counts were not correlated with GM-CSF levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report in which serum levels of GM-CSF, carcinoembriyogenic and peripheral leukocyte counts have been simultaneously evaluated in colorectal cancer patients.
  • We found significantly elevated GM-CSF but the results suggested that serum GM-CSF may not be useful for clinical information in prognosis as a tumor marker in colorectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20192576.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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47. Cartwright B, Papachalarabous E, Tailor A: Unusual presentation of stage I ovarian cancer associated with 20 litres of ascites. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Jan;28(1):123-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual presentation of stage I ovarian cancer associated with 20 litres of ascites.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18259927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Rich WM: Association of lymphadenectomy and survival in stage I ovarian cancer patients. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Apr;109(4):1000; author reply 1000-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of lymphadenectomy and survival in stage I ovarian cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;109(1):12-9 [17197582.001]
  • (PMID = 17400870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Farghaly SA: Influence of intraoperative capsule rupture on outcomes in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Jul;114(1):171-2; author 172
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of intraoperative capsule rupture on outcomes in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan;113(1):11-7 [19104354.001]
  • (PMID = 19546785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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