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1. Samowitz WS, Sweeney C, Herrick J, Albertsen H, Levin TR, Murtaugh MA, Wolff RK, Slattery ML: Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers. Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 15;65(14):6063-9
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  • [Title] Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers.
  • The BRAF V600E mutation has been associated with microsatellite instability and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer.
  • We evaluated a large population-based sample of individuals with colon cancer to determine its relationship to survival and other clinicopathologic variables.
  • In microsatellite-stable tumors, this mutation was related to poor survival, CIMP high, advanced American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and family history of colorectal cancer [odds ratio, 4.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.65-10.84].
  • The poor survival was observed in a univariate analysis of 5-year survival (16.7% versus 60.0%; P < 0.01); in an analysis adjusted for age, stage, and tumor site [hazard rate ratio (HRR), 2.97; 95% CI, 2.05-4.32]; in stage-specific, age-adjusted analyses for AJCC stages 2 to 4 (HRR, 4.88, 3.60, and 2.04, respectively); and in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for AJCC stages 2 to 4 (P < 0.01 for all three stages).
  • We conclude that the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancer is associated with a significantly poorer survival in stages 2 to 4 colon cancer but has no effect on the excellent prognosis of microsatellite-unstable tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16024606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA048998-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048998; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA061757-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA061757-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048998-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA61757; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-67000; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA48998; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA061757
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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2. Gunderson LL, Jessup JM, Sargent DJ, Greene FL, Stewart A: Revised tumor and node categorization for rectal cancer based on surveillance, epidemiology, and end results and rectal pooled analysis outcomes. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 10;28(2):256-63
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  • [Title] Revised tumor and node categorization for rectal cancer based on surveillance, epidemiology, and end results and rectal pooled analysis outcomes.
  • PURPOSE: The sixth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) rectal cancer staging subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0).
  • Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III as a result of improved survival with T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and survival of T4N1 more similar to T3-4N2 than T3N1.
  • The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion interacts with nodal status to affect survival.
  • METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 35,829 patients with rectal cancer were compared with rectal pooled analysis data (3,791 patients).
  • RESULTS: SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2, T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2a have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a).
  • CONCLUSION: This SEER population-based rectal cancer analysis validates the rectal pooled analyses and supports the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA or IIIB and T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1983 Oct 1;52(7):1317-29 [6192900.001]
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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 10;28(23):e397-8; author reply e399-400 [20547986.001]
  • (PMID = 19949015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815714
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3. Prosnitz RG, Patwardhan MB, Samsa GP, Mantyh CR, Fisher DA, McCrory DC, Cline KE, Gray RN, Morse MA: Quality measures for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Cancer; 2006 Nov 15;107(10):2352-60
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  • [Title] Quality measures for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT) are essential components of adjuvant (preoperative or postoperative) therapy for many patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, quality measures (QMs) of these critical aspects of CRC treatment have not been characterized well.
  • The most useful QMs identified were 1) the percentage of patients with AJCC Stage III colon cancer who received postoperative CT and 2) the percentage of patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 17039499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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4. Tanoue Y, Tanaka N, Nomura Y: Primary site resection is superior for incurable metastatic colorectal cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jul 28;16(28):3561-6
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  • [Title] Primary site resection is superior for incurable metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • AIM: To investigate survival in patients treated with FOLFOX followed by primary site resection or palliative surgery for incurable metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • Primary site resection was carried out in 38 patients, creation of a colostomy or bypass without resection was carried out in 36 patients, and 23 were not operated on because of advanced disease.
  • RESULTS: There were no differences between the patients regarding their general condition, concurrent disease, or tumor stage according to AJCC classification.
  • CONCLUSION: The results indicate that there are benefits from primary site resection for incurable metastatic colorectal cancer with systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20653065.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2909556
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5. Beck DE, Reickert CA, Margolin DA, Whitlow CB, Timmcke AE, Hicks TC: Local recurrence, distant recurrence and survival of rectal cancer. Ochsner J; 2006;6(2):59-63
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  • [Title] Local recurrence, distant recurrence and survival of rectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess our institution's ability to minimize local and distant recurrence with a preference for sphincter preserving surgery in the management of rectal cancer.
  • Patients with Stage 0 (AJCC) disease and those treated for palliation were not included.
  • Clinical and pathologic stage, operation type, adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and survival were compared.
  • RESULTS: Rectal cancer was identified in 332 patients (mean follow-up: 5.5 years).
  • Cancer specific 5-year survival was 77% overall.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In rectal cancer, the therapeutic objectives are to control disease, limit recurrence, and preserve sphincter function; these goals were met for many patients at this institution.

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  • (PMID = 21765795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-5012
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ochsner journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ochsner J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3121568
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Rectal cancer / adjuvant therapy / local recurrence / survival
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6. Gunderson LL, Jessup JM, Sargent DJ, Greene FL, Stewart AK: Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 10;28(2):264-71
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  • [Title] Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data.
  • PURPOSE: The sixth edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for colon cancer subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0).
  • Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III because of improved survival for T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and T4N1 survival was more similar to T3-4N2 than to T3N1.
  • The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion and nodal status interact to affect survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 109,953 colon cancer patients were compared with National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) data on 134,206 patients.
  • RESULTS: SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2,T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2ahave similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a).
  • CONCLUSION: This SEER population-based colon cancer analysis is highly consistent with rectal cancer pooled analysis and SEER rectal cancer analyses, supporting the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA/IIIB, shifting T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC, subdividing T4/N1/N2, and revising substaging of stages II/III.
  • Survival outcomes by TN category for colon and rectal cancer are strikingly similar.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2000 Apr 1;88(7):1739-57 [10738234.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):256-63 [19949015.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Apr 1;20(7):1744-50 [11919230.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 2002 May 1;94(9):2511-6 [12015777.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Oct 1;54(2):386-96 [12243812.001]
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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1978 Sep-Oct;4(9-10):801-7 [711549.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1983 Oct 1;52(7):1317-29 [6192900.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1985 Jan 1;55(1):61-71 [3965086.001]
  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1985 Dec;9(12):1319-27 [3830856.001]
  • [Cites] Lancet. 1986 Nov 1;2(8514):996-9 [2430152.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987 Jan;13(1):5-10 [3804816.001]
  • [Cites] J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988 Mar 2;80(1):21-9 [3276900.001]
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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1997 May;15(5):2030-9 [9164215.001]
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  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1954 Jun;139(6):846-52 [13159135.001]
  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 Nov-Dec;54(6):295-308 [15537574.001]
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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 10;28(23):e397-8; author reply e399-400 [20547986.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20;28(27):e469; author reply e470 [20585093.001]
  • (PMID = 19949014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815715
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7. Mukai M, Nakamura M, Kishima K, Ninomiya H, Nomura N, Sato H, Kato N, Machida T, Nakasaki H, Makuuchi H: Local recurrence and occult neoplastic cells in the extranodal fat of dissected lymph nodes in patients with curatively resected primary colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jun;17(6):1365-9
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  • [Title] Local recurrence and occult neoplastic cells in the extranodal fat of dissected lymph nodes in patients with curatively resected primary colorectal cancer.
  • This study was designed to examine the relationship between occult neoplastic cells (ONCs) inside and outside harvested lymph nodes (intranodal/extranodal ONCs) and local recurrence in 30 patients who underwent curative resection of primary colorectal cancer.
  • Among 10 patients with colon cancer (Dukes' A=1, Dukes' B=6 and Dukes' C=3), intranodal ONCs were positive in 1 patient (10.0%) and negative in 9 patients (90.0%), while extranodal ONCs were negative in all 10 patients (100.0%).
  • Among 20 patients with rectal cancer (Dukes' A=4, Dukes' B=2 and Dukes' C=14), intranodal ONCs were positive in 5 (25.0%) and negative in 15 (75.0%), while extranodal ONCs were positive in 3 (15.0%) and negative in 17 (85.0%).
  • These results suggest that patients with rectal cancer and extranodal ONCs should be followed-up carefully as a high-risk group for pelvic local recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 17487392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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8. Inomata M, Yasuda K, Shiraishi N, Kitano S: Clinical evidences of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug;39(8):471-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical evidences of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colorectal cancer.
  • Laparoscopic surgery has widely spread in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
  • In Japan, a nation-wide survey has shown that a rate of advanced colorectal cancer has increased gradually and reached 65% of the total cases for colorectal cancer in 2007.
  • For colon cancer, many randomized controlled trials regarding short-term outcome demonstrate that laparoscopic surgery is feasible, safe and has many benefits including reduction in a peri-operative mortality.
  • However, there are still more important issues including long-term oncological outcome for advanced colon cancer, cost effectiveness and the impact on quality of life of patients.
  • Meanwhile, for rectal cancer, a controversy persists with regard to the appropriateness of laparoscopic surgery because of concerns over the safety of the procedure and a necessity of lateral lymph node dissection for lower rectal cancer.
  • At present, laparoscopic surgery is acceptable for Stage I colon cancer, whereas there are controversies for Stage II/III colon cancer and each staged rectal cancer because of inadequate clinical evidences.
  • Whether laparoscopic surgery further spreads to be applied for colorectal cancer or not, it would be confirmed by Japanese large-scale phase III trial (JCOG0404) estimating oncological outcome for Stage II/III colon cancer and a Phase II trial estimating the feasibility for Stage 0/I rectal cancer in near future.

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  • (PMID = 19556338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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9. Yamaguchi S, Morita H, Ishii M, Saito S: [Informed consent for colorectal cancer surgery]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Jan;108(1):15-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Informed consent for colorectal cancer surgery].
  • There are two issues in informed consent for colorectal cancer surgery.
  • Lateral lymphadenectomy for lower rectal cancer was standard procedure; however, its indications became limited due to urinary and sexual dysfunction.
  • Preoperative radiotherapy is considered instead of lateral lymphadenectomy, as in the Western concept of the local recurrence of rectal cancer.
  • Now laparoscopic surgery is accepted for stage I colon cancer according to the guidelines of the Japan Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.
  • Frequent bowel movements and urinary and sexual dysfunction should also be explained before rectal cancer surgery.

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  • (PMID = 17304952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Phipps E, Braitman LE, Stites S, Leighton JC: Quality of life and symptom attribution in long-term colon cancer survivors. J Eval Clin Pract; 2008 Apr;14(2):254-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of life and symptom attribution in long-term colon cancer survivors.
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how long-term colon cancer survivors evaluate their health, functional status and quality of life, and whether there are differences based on age, gender or ethnicity.
  • METHODS: Thirty long-term survivors of at least stage I colon cancer were interviewed in person between December 2004 and May 2005.
  • The interview protocol included the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, Quality of Life--Cancer Survivor, and study-specific questions that asked about physical and non-physical problems they attributed to colon cancer.
  • RESULTS: Substantial percentages of survivors attributed their problems with lack of energy (83%), sexual functioning (67%), bowel problems (63%), poor body image (47%) and emotional problems (40%) to having had colon cancer.
  • Of those problems attributed to colon cancer, sexual functioning and pain were given the highest severity rankings by survivors.
  • The majority of long-term colon cancer survivors reported distress regarding future diagnostic tests, a second cancer, and spread of cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of long-term colon cancer survivors with resected colon cancer and disease-free for 5 years reported problems with low energy, sexual functioning and bowel problems.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / physiopathology. Quality of Life / psychology. Survivors / psychology

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  • (PMID = 18284521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2753
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of evaluation in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eval Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Papagiorgis P, Oikonomakis I, Karapanagiotou I, Wexner SD, Nikiteas N: The impact of tumor location on the histopathologic expression of colorectal cancer. J BUON; 2006 Jul-Sep;11(3):317-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of tumor location on the histopathologic expression of colorectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Cancer of the colon and rectum has been classically viewed as the same disease entity.
  • However, there are some differences both in the clinical features and gross macroscopic pathology between right and left sided colonic malignancies.
  • Since tumor pathology and staging is the major determinant of the disease outcome, comparison of these parameters between right and left colon cancer is reasonably expected to contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the adenocarcinoma of the colon.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the charts of patients with colorectal cancer operated on at the Cleveland Clinic Florida from March 1996 to April 2000 was conducted.
  • Patients were divided into two groups according to the location of the tumor (right or left colon) and pathology between the two groups was compared.
  • Sixty individuals had right colon cancer, while 124 subjects had left colon lesions.
  • Dukes' A (stage I) colon cancer had statistically significant higher incidence in left colon lesions (p=0.0084).
  • Conversely, Dukes' C(stage III) tumors presented more often in the right colon (p=0.029).
  • Grade III lesions showed a clear superiority for the right colon (p=0.0014), while grade II lesions were more commonly found in the left colon (p=0.0201).
  • Grade III lesions were more common in the right colon (p=0.0200) when early colonic cancers (stage 0,I and II pooled together) were compared.
  • CONCLUSION: A shift in severity towards the right colon has been documented both in terms of stage and grade.
  • These results should be viewed in the light of recent research data suggesting a different molecular biology pattern between right and left colonic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colon / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17309156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Chen JM, Li WH, Wang JD, Feng YD, Wu JH, Gong JP: [Cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis]. Ai Zheng; 2005 May;24(5):554-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis].
  • This study was to investigate cell balance (ratio of apoptosis index to proliferation index, AI/PI) in colon cancer and its correlation with prognosis.
  • METHODS: The apoptotic population and the proliferating population of colon cancer cells were quantitatively analyzed by Sub-G1 method and Ki-67/DNA bivariate analysis of flow cytometry.
  • RESULTS: AI/PI ratio of cells was significantly higher in normal colon tissue than in colon adenoma tissue, Dukes' A colon cancer, Dukes' B colon cancer, and Dukes' C and D colon cancer (0.45+/-0.19 vs. 0.30+/-0.07, 0.29+/-0.11, 0.28+/-0.10, and 0.26+/-0.07, respectively, P < 0.01).
  • AI/PI ratio showed a down-regulating trend in variables tested including tumor size, pathologic type, differentiation grade, Dukes' stage, and nodal involvement.
  • AI/PI ratio of peripheral lymphocytes was significantly higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy people (0.64+/-0.11 vs. 0.49+/-0.12, P < 0.01).
  • The expression of Ki-67 was observed in normal colon tissue, colon adenoma, and colon cancer under confocal microscope.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation (down-regulation or up-regulation) of cell balance between apoptosis and proliferation in colon cancer cells and lymphocytes might play an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
  • AI/PI ratio can' t be used as a prognostic factor of colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15890096.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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13. Chen CC, Yang SH, Lin JK, Lin TC, Chen WS, Jiang JK, Wang HS, Chang SC: Is it reasonable to add preoperative serum level of CEA and CA19-9 to staging for colorectal cancer? J Surg Res; 2005 Apr;124(2):169-74
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  • [Title] Is it reasonable to add preoperative serum level of CEA and CA19-9 to staging for colorectal cancer?
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) are the most common tumor markers for colorectal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was patients (n = 574, 67.1 +/- 11.3 years old, 397 males) who received potentially curative resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma (stage I-III) between January 1994 and August 2002, including preoperative measurements of CEA and CA19-9.
  • Survival was analyzed for AJCC staging, CEA (+) versus (-), CA19-9 (+) versus (-), and four groups.
  • However, the combined use of the two markers revealed a significant survival benefit (P = 0.035) of group 1 ("-" for both markers) over 4 ("+" for both) in stage II.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an elevated level of both CEA and CA19-9 in stage II of colorectal cancer have a significantly poorer prognosis than those with normal levels of these markers.

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  • (PMID = 15820244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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14. Cheong O, Oh ST, Kim BS, Yook JH, Kim JH, Im JT, Park GC: Large metastatic lymph node size, especially more than 2 cm: independent predictor of poor prognosis in node-positive gastric carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 Feb;32(2):262-6
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  • [Title] Large metastatic lymph node size, especially more than 2 cm: independent predictor of poor prognosis in node-positive gastric carcinoma.
  • The presence of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) is the most important prognostic factor for gastric carcinoma, with the number of MLNs thought to be predictive of the prognosis.
  • Recent findings in patients with colon and esophageal cancer have suggested that MLN size, more than MLN number, is an important prognostic factor; but less is known about the impact of MLN size on the prognosis of patients with gastric carcinoma.
  • We therefore assessed the prognostic impact of large MLNs, especially those>or=2 cm, in patients with gastric carcinoma.
  • A total of 1190 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric carcinoma between 2001 and 2003 and had lymph node metastases were divided into two groups according to the size of the largest MLN:>or=2 cm (n=51) vs. <2 cm (n=1139).
  • The depth of invasion did correlate with MLN size (T1-2 vs. T3-4, p=0.045) but not with the number of MLNs (N stage, p=0.311).
  • The two groups showed similar distribution of stage according to the UICC/AJCC TNM staging system.
  • Univariate analysis with the log-rank test showed that MLN>or=2 cm, type of surgery, T stage, N stage, and histologic classification had a significant impact on overall survival.
  • Multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazard model showed that MLN>or=2 cm was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 1.76, p=0.006), along with T stage and N stage.
  • MLN>or=2 cm is an independent additional predictor of poor prognosis in patients with node-positive gastric carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18064519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Tanaka M, Sethi S, Li D, Bland G, Hamilton SR, Abbruzzese JL, Eng C: CHFR methylation as an epigenetic marker for recurrence of colon cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4043

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CHFR methylation as an epigenetic marker for recurrence of colon cancer.
  • : 4043 Background: Currently, no definitive epigenetic markers exist to predict recurrence and overall survival (OS) of colorectal cancer patients after surgical resection.
  • Promoter hypermethylation of the ID4 (inhibitor of DNA binding), RECK (reversion-inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs), and CHFR (checkpoint with forkhead-associated and RING finger domains) genes have been associated with reduced mRNA and protein expression in colorectal cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the association of methylation of these genes and also MINT1 (methylated in tumor loci) with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and OS in colon cancer patients.
  • METHODS: DNA methylation was quantitatively evaluated using pyrosequencing in tissue samples from 64 patients with AJCC stage II and III colon cancer without HNPCC seen at M.D.
  • RESULTS: There were 19 stage II (30%) and 45 stage III (70%) patients.
  • Methylation of the CHFR promoter is a potential epigenetic marker for colon cancer recurrence and overall survival.

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  • (PMID = 27961567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. André T, Tuvignon N, Taieb J, Vaillant JC, Hannoun L, de Gramont A: [Operable colon cancer: initial strategy]. Rev Prat; 2010 Oct 20;60(8):1089-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Operable colon cancer: initial strategy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du côlon opérable: quelle stratégie de prise en charge initiale?
  • Individual screening of patients with personal or family history of colon cancer or polyps, or patients with an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract, combined with the generalization of mass screening using Hemoccult, have modified the way colon cancer is diagnosed.
  • The optimization of colon surgery, together with adjuvant chemotherapy, has improved the 5- and 10-year survival.
  • The five-year survival rate is now comprised between 90 percent in patients with stage-I colon cancer, and 65-70 percent in patients with stage-III colon cancer.
  • More than half patients suffer from stage-II (T3-T4 N0) or stage-III (TxN+) cancer, and 30 to 40 percent of these patients experience cancer recurrence without adjuvant therapy within 5 years following surgery.
  • In patients with surgically-resected colon cancer, these recurrences are mostly metastatic (liver, lungs, peritoneum), local recurrences remain uncommon.
  • An adjuvant therapy combining oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine is clearly indicated in patients with stage-III colon tumor (20-percent improvement of survival without recurrence), and can be considered in stage-III patients.
  • This treatment is not indicated in patients with stage-I tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21197740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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17. Georgescu SO, Neacşu CN, Vintilă D, Popa P, Forţu L, Nistor A, Ferariu D, Târcoveanu E: [Long-term results after surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma, stage I-III. Problems of prognosis]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2007 Oct-Dec;111(4):932-9
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  • [Title] [Long-term results after surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma, stage I-III. Problems of prognosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Rezultate la distanţă după tratamentul chirurgical al adenocarcinomului colo-rectal stadiile I-III. Probleme de prognostic.
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study on 142 consecutively cases with stage I to III colorectal adenocarcinomas (TNM AJCC/UICC) in which patients underwent potentially curative surgery in one single public health service (1st Surgical Clinic Iaşi, Romania) between 2004 and 2005.
  • The surgical procedures performed were the following: right colectomy (n = 54; 30%); transverse colectomy (n = 2; 1.4%); left colectomy (n = 19; 13.4%); segmental colon resection with anastomosis (n = 5 ; 3.5%); Hartmann procedure (n = 18; 12.7%); anterior rectal resection (n = 11; 7.7%) and abdominoperineal resection (n = 33; 23.2%).
  • RESULTS: The factors with a significant negative influence in overall survival and 42-months survival rates were: the age over 70 years, the emergency surgery related to cancer's complications, the advanced AJCC/ UICC stage, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, the recurrence of disease, the moderate and lower differentiated adenocarcinoma and incomplete or not performed chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Even with a radical surgical approach the advanced stage of colorectal adenocarcinoma has a low prognostic, but some other factors have also a high significance in postoperative outcome.

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  • (PMID = 18389783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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18. Rivera CA, Ahlberg NC, Taglia L, Kumar M, Blunier A, Benya RV: Expression of GRP and its receptor is associated with improved survival in patients with colon cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2009;26(7):663-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of GRP and its receptor is associated with improved survival in patients with colon cancer.
  • Epithelial cells lining the adult human colon do not normally express gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) or its receptor (GRPR), but both can be up regulated post malignant transformation.
  • Since GRPR activation promotes proliferation, it has been assumed that their aberrant expression promotes colon cancer (CC) growth and progression.
  • To do this we identified all CC diagnosed at a single institution from 1998 to 2002 that were classified as AJCC stage II or III (n = 88); of these 50 (57%) had sufficient tissues remaining for study.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide / metabolism. Receptors, Bombesin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19430935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-094346
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Bombesin; 80043-53-4 / Gastrin-Releasing Peptide
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19. Weiser MR, Landmann RG, Kattan MW, Gonen M, Shia J, Chou J, Paty PB, Guillem JG, Temple LK, Schrag D, Saltz LB, Wong WD: Individualized prediction of colon cancer recurrence using a nomogram. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 20;26(3):380-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Individualized prediction of colon cancer recurrence using a nomogram.
  • PURPOSE: Estimates of recurrence after curative colon cancer surgery are integral to patient care, forming the basis of cancer staging and treatment planning.
  • The categoric staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is commonly used to convey risk by grouping patients based on anatomic elements.
  • Although easy to implement, there remains significant heterogeneity within each stage grouping.
  • METHODS: An institutional database of 1,320 patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer was used to develop a nomogram to estimate recurrence after curative surgery.
  • RESULTS: The colon cancer recurrence nomogram predicted relapse with a concordance index of 0.77, improving on the stratification provided by either the AJCC fifth or sixth staging scheme.
  • Factors in the model included patient age, tumor location, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, T stage, numbers of positive and negative lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and use of postoperative chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Using common clinicopathologic factors, the recurrence nomogram is better able to account for tumor and patient heterogeneity, thereby providing a more individualized outcome prognostication than that afforded by the AJCC categoric system.
  • By identifying both the high- and low-risk patients within any particular stage, the nomogram is expected to aid in treatment planning and future trial design.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Nomograms

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  • (PMID = 18202413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Paik SS, Jang SM, Jang KS, Lee KH, Choi D, Jang SJ: Leptin expression correlates with favorable clinicopathologic phenotype and better prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;16(2):297-303
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  • Some studies have suggested that leptin has growth-factor-like functions in epithelial cells and its abnormal expression may be involved in cancer development and progression.
  • Leptin expression was evaluated on the tissue microarray of 44 normal colon mucosal tissues, 44 adenomatous polyps, and 437 colorectal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • Frequency of leptin expression was dramatically increased from normal colonic mucosa (2/44, 4.5%) to adenomas (13/44, 29.5%) and adenocarcinomas (321/437, 73.5%) as neoplastic progression.
  • Interestingly, leptin expression was correlated with favorable tumor features in depth of invasion (p = 0.033), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and Dukes' stage (p = 0.021 and p = 0.005, respectively), differentiation (p = 0.010), and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.003).
  • In addition, high leptin expression was an indicator of favorable tumor features and better survival of colorectal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Colon / metabolism. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phenotype. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19050975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Leptin
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21. Kanna B, Schori M, Azeez S, Kumar S, Soni A: Colorectal tumors within an urban minority population in New York City. J Gen Intern Med; 2007 Jun;22(6):835-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Data on gender- and age-specific predisposition to colorectal tumors and colorectal tumor location and stage among the urban minority population in Northeastern United States is limited.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the age and gender distribution of colorectal tumor type, location, and stage of colorectal tumors among urban minorities.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a database of 4,043 consecutive colonoscopies performed over a 2-year period.
  • RESULTS: Colonoscopies, 2,394 (63.4%), were performed for cancer screening.
  • Individuals, 960 (23.7%), had adenomas, and 82 (2.0%) had colorectal cancer.
  • Although cancers were outnumbered by adenomas in the colon proximal to splenic flexure (OR 0.48; CI 0.29-0.80 P = .002), 51% of all abnormalities and 35.4% of cancers were found in this region.
  • Of cancers, 75% belonged to AJCC stage 0 to 2.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study of colonoscopies demonstrates lower odds of colonoscopy after adjusting for visit volume and greater predilection for colorectal cancer among urban minority men.
  • Although older individuals were more likely to have colorectal cancer, a high percentage of colorectal tumors were noted at a younger age.
  • A large proportion of colorectal tumors were found proximal to splenic flexure, which supports colonoscopy as the preferred method for colorectal cancer screening in the urban minority population in New York City.

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  • [Cites] Med J Aust. 2000 May 1;172(9):428-30 [10870535.001]
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  • (PMID = 17370031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of general internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gen Intern Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2219849
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22. Wang J, Hassett JM, Dayton MT, Kulaylat MN: Lymph node ratio: role in the staging of node-positive colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun;15(6):1600-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph node ratio: role in the staging of node-positive colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent literature has shown that lymph node ratio (LNR) is superior to the number of positive lymph nodes (pLNs) in predicting the prognosis in several malignances other than colon cancer.
  • We hypothesize that LNR may play a similar role in stage III colon cancer.
  • METHODS: We included 24,477 stage III colon cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year survival for patients with stage IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC was 71.3%, 51.7%, and 34.0%, respectively (P < .0001).
  • There was no survival difference among LNR1 to LNR4 for stage IIIA patients.
  • In stage IIIB patients, the 5-year survival for those with LNR1 to LNR4 was 63.5%, 54.7%, 44.4%, and 34.2%, respectively (P < .0001).
  • In stage IIIC patients, the 5-year survival for those with LNR2 to LNR4 was 49.6%, 41.7%, and 25.2%, respectively (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with stage IIIB and IIIC colon cancer represent a heterogeneous group of patients with the majority either overstaged or understaged.
  • LNR is a more accurate prognostic method for stage III colon cancer patients.
  • We propose an algorithm to incorporate LNR into current AJCC staging system.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Jun;15(6):1557-8 [18363073.001]
  • (PMID = 18327530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Chan KK, Dassanayake B, Deen R, Wickramarachchi RE, Kumarage SK, Samita S, Deen KI: Young patients with colorectal cancer have poor survival in the first twenty months after operation and predictable survival in the medium and long-term: analysis of survival and prognostic markers. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:82
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  • [Title] Young patients with colorectal cancer have poor survival in the first twenty months after operation and predictable survival in the medium and long-term: analysis of survival and prognostic markers.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study compares clinico-pathological features in young (<40 years) and older patients (>50 years) with colorectal cancer, survival in the young and the influence of pre-operative clinical and histological factors on survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A twelve year prospective database of colorectal cancer was analysed.
  • RESULTS: Young patients comprised 13.4 percent of 397 with colorectal cancer.
  • Cancer proximal to the splenic flexure was present more in young than in older patients.
  • Ninety four percent of young cancer deaths were within 20 months of operation.
  • American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 4 and use of pre-operative chemoradiation in rectal cancer was associated with poor survival in the young.
  • CONCLUSION: If patients, who are less than 40 years old with colorectal cancer, survive twenty months after operation, the prognosis improves and their survival becomes predictable.

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  • (PMID = 20840793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2954852
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24. Lin A, Weiser MR, Klimstra DS, Paty PB, Tang LH, Al-Ahmadie H, Hoo Park S, Guillem JG, Temple L, Wong WD, Gerald WL, Shia J: Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in colorectal carcinoma bears clinical and pathologic significance. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jun;38(6):850-6
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  • [Title] Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in colorectal carcinoma bears clinical and pathologic significance.
  • alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) is a recently discovered biomarker that is shown to be overexpressed in some prostatic carcinomas and associated with prostatic cancer progression.
  • Given that AMACR plays an important role in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids from red meat and dairy products, and that consumption of red meat may increase risk of developing colon cancer as suggested by epidemiological studies, it is plausible to explore the function of AMACR in colorectal carcinoma.
  • In this study, the immunohistochemical expression pattern of AMACR of 163 patients with primary colorectal carcinoma treated primarily with surgical resection was analyzed and correlated with tumor pathologic features (tumor location, histologic type, grade, pathologic stage, lymph node and distant metastasis) and patient outcome (disease-specific survival).
  • Patients whose tumors showed lack of staining or low-intensity staining also had a significantly worse 5-year disease-specific survival (P < .012), as did patients whose tumors had lymphovascular invasion, or were of high American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage.
  • On multivariate analysis, AMACR staining and AJCC staging remained independent predictors for patient outcome.
  • Thus, our data suggest that AMACR expression in colorectal carcinoma correlates with certain tumor pathologic characteristics (histologic type, differentiation, and lymphovascular invasion) and patient outcome.
  • Additional confirmatory studies are needed to establish the significance of AMACR as a prognostic marker for colorectal carcinoma.
  • Further investigation on interaction between AMACR and other known colorectal cancer development pathways may provide new insights on colorectal carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17442371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 P01 CA65930-05A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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25. Cheng Y, Li J, Martinka M, Li G: The expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is increased along with NF-kappaB p105/p50 in human cutaneous melanomas. Oncol Rep; 2010 Apr;23(4):973-9
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  • Recent studies demonstrated that NQO1 is overexpressed in many types of tumors, including the lung, ovary, adrenal gland, thyroid, liver, colon, breast, and pancreas.
  • Our results also revealed that the increase of NQO1 was not associated with patient age, tumor thickness, ulceration, tumor site, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and 5-year patient survival.
  • Our findings suggest that NQO1 may play an important role in the initiation stage of melanoma development.

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  • (PMID = 20204281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-84559; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-93810
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; EC 1.6.5.2 / NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone); EC 1.6.5.2 / NQO1 protein, human
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26. Paik SS, Jang KS, Song YS, Jang SH, Min KW, Han HX, Na W, Lee KH, Choi D, Jang SJ: Reduced expression of Apaf-1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma correlates with tumor progression and aggressive phenotype. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3453-9
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  • RESULTS: Normal colonic mucosa tissues and adenomas were positive for Apaf-1 with no exceptions (100%).
  • In the analyses between Apaf-1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters, reduced expression of Apaf-1 correlated with left colon location (p < 0.001), deeper tumor invasion (p < 0.001), frequent lymph node metastasis (p = 0.021), higher American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and Dukes' stage (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively) and poorer differentiation (p < 0.001).
  • The patient survival was significantly associated with age, histological grade, AJCC stage, and lymphovascular invasion, but not Apaf-1 expression (p = 0.478).

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  • (PMID = 17882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APAF1 protein, human; 0 / Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Jung SH, Kim HC, Yu CS, Chang HM, Ryu MH, Lee JL, Kim JS, Kim JC: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine tumor]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Aug;48(2):97-103
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare neoplasm exhibiting fulminant progression and having poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study is to verify the clinicopathologic characteristics of colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS: From June 1997 to December 2004 at Asan Medical Center, ten patients were originally identified as colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma on the basis of H&E and immunohistochemical staining (IHC).
  • RESULTS: Ten patients (0.2%) with colorectal neuroendocrine tumors were identified from 4,512 patients with colorectal cancer; ten neuroendocrine carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Nine tumors were located in the rectum, two in the sigmoid, and each one in the transverse colon and cecum, respectively.
  • All patients were advanced at the time of diagnosis, with AJCC TNM staging: stage IIIB (n=2), stage IIIC (n=3), and stage IV (n=8).
  • Five patients who received chemotherapy showed median survival of 32 months (stage III) and 17.5 months (stage IV), whereas other five patients without chemotherapy died with a median survival of 6.2 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16929153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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28. Li W, Zhang W, Luo J, Cao A, Zhang Y, Huang D, Sheng W, Cai S, Li J: Alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase VII plays a role in colorectal carcinoma metastases by promoting the carbohydration of glycoprotein CD24. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jun;23(6):1609-17
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  • [Title] Alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase VII plays a role in colorectal carcinoma metastases by promoting the carbohydration of glycoprotein CD24.
  • However, the specific role of FucT-VII in human colorectal carcinoma is still not clear.
  • We evaluated the expression of FucT-VII in tumor specimens from 30 colorectal carcinoma patients by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
  • There was a positive correlation between alpha1,3 FucT-VII mRNA expression and lymph node status (p=0.009) and AJCC stage (p=0.007), similar correlation was also observed at protein level (p=0.042 and 0.022, respectively).
  • Our findings suggest that alpha1,3 FucT-VII might play a role in colorectal carcinoma metastases by promoting the carbohydration of glycoprotein CD24.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Colon / metabolism. Colon / pathology. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rectum / metabolism. Rectum / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20428816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-acetylneuraminyl-(2-3)-galactosyl-(1-4)-(fucopyranosyl-(1-3))-N-acetylglucosamine; 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.4.1.- / Fucosyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.152 / galactoside 3-fucosyltransferase
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29. Weiswald LB, Richon S, Validire P, Briffod M, Lai-Kuen R, Cordelières FP, Bertrand F, Dargere D, Massonnet G, Marangoni E, Gayet B, Pocard M, Bieche I, Poupon MF, Bellet D, Dangles-Marie V: Newly characterised ex vivo colospheres as a three-dimensional colon cancer cell model of tumour aggressiveness. Br J Cancer; 2009 Aug 4;101(3):473-82
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  • [Title] Newly characterised ex vivo colospheres as a three-dimensional colon cancer cell model of tumour aggressiveness.
  • BACKGROUND: New models continue to be required to improve our understanding of colorectal cancer progression.
  • To this aim, we characterised in this study a three-dimensional multicellular tumour model that we named colospheres, directly obtained from mechanically dissociated colonic primary tumours and correlated with metastatic potential.
  • METHODS: Colorectal primary tumours (n=203) and 120 paired non-tumoral colon mucosa were mechanically disaggregated into small fragments for short-term cultures.
  • Further characterisation was performed using colospheres, generated from a human colon cancer xenograft, and spheroids, formed on agarose by the paired cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Colospheres, exclusively formed by viable cancer cells, were obtained in only 1 day from 98 tumours (47%).
  • Inversely, non-tumoral colonic mucosa never generated colospheres.
  • Colosphere-forming capacity was statistically significantly associated with tumour aggressiveness, according to AJCC stage analysis.

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  • (PMID = 19603013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2720229
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30. Miao Y, Everly JJ, Gross TG, Tevar AD, First MR, Alloway RR, Woodle ES: De novo cancers arising in organ transplant recipients are associated with adverse outcomes compared with the general population. Transplantation; 2009 May 15;87(9):1347-59
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  • [Title] De novo cancers arising in organ transplant recipients are associated with adverse outcomes compared with the general population.
  • BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are at increased risk of malignancy; however, the influence of transplantation on cancer outcomes has not been rigorously defined.
  • METHODS: De novo nonsmall cell lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, renal cell cancer (RCC), and malignant melanoma data in 635 adult (>18 years of age) transplant recipients (from the Israel Penn International Transplant Tumor Registry) were compared with data from 1,282,984 adults in the general population (from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database).
  • RESULTS: Compared with the general population, transplant patients were more likely to have early stage (AJCC stage 0-II) RCC, but more advanced (AJCC stage >II) colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, and malignant melanoma.
  • Compared with the general population, disease-specific survival was worse in the transplant population for colon cancer (all stages), nonsmall cell lung cancer (stage II), breast cancer (stage III), prostate cancer (stage II, III, and IV), bladder cancer (stage III), and RCC (stage IV).
  • Multivariate analyses demonstrated transplantation to be a negative risk factor for survival for each cancer studied, and transplantation and cancer stage at diagnosis to be the most profound negative survival predictors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Registries. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19424035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Stewart D, Yan Y, Kodner IJ, Birnbaum E, Fleshman J, Myerson R, Dietz D: Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors? J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Dec;11(12):1744-51
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors?
  • It is common belief that patients failing chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCCA) can be salvaged with subsequent surgery.
  • Initial tumors were AJCC stage 2 (16 cases), 3A (3 cases), and 4 (1 case).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy


32. Childs AJ, Burke JJ 2nd, Perry MY, Check WE, Gallup DG: Recurrent colorectal carcinoma detected by routine cervicovaginal papanicolaou smear testing. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Oct;9(4):236-8
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  • [Title] Recurrent colorectal carcinoma detected by routine cervicovaginal papanicolaou smear testing.
  • BACKGROUND: We present a case of recurrent colon cancer detected by routine, annual Papanicolaou screening.
  • CASE: A 59-year-old African American woman who had been treated for T2N0M0 (stage II, Dukes A) colon cancer 2 years before to presentation had a Pap smear showing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with a normal cervical biopsy result.
  • Subsequent colonoscopy showed recurrent adenocarcinoma of the colon.
  • The patient underwent an en-block total abdominal hysterectomy and anterior-perineal resection showing invasion of recurrent colon cancer into the uterus and cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with a history of extrauterine adenocarcinoma, abnormal Pap screening may indicate recurrent or metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


33. Ieta K, Tanaka F, Yokobori T, Kita Y, Haraguchi N, Mimori K, Kato H, Asao T, Inoue H, Kuwano H, Mori M: Clinicopathological significance of stanniocalcin 2 gene expression in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer; 2009 Aug 15;125(4):926-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological significance of stanniocalcin 2 gene expression in colorectal cancer.
  • Laser microdissection (LMD) and microarray were used to identify genes associated with colorectal cancer.
  • Stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression and clinicopathological significance in 139 clinical colorectal cancer samples were specifically investigated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
  • A number of genes upregulated in colorectal cancer cells compared to normal colorectal epithelial cells were identified including STC2.
  • STC2 gene expression in cancer tissue was higher than in corresponding normal colorectal epithelial tissue in 124 of 139 cases (89.2%, p < 0.01).
  • Tumors with high STC2 expression showed higher frequencies of lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, tumor depth, tumor size and AJCC Stage classification (p < 0.01).
  • Furthermore, STC2 gene appeared to be associated with colorectal cancer progression and may be a useful prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcium / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Colon / metabolism. Colon / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lasers. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Microdissection. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rectum / metabolism. Rectum / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19415750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / STC2 protein, human; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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34. Lu PY, Turner R, Roberts V, Ho YH: Colorectal carcinoma among Indigenous people: a public hospital-based study in Townsville and Cairns, North Queensland, Australia. ANZ J Surg; 2005 Nov;75(11):972-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma among Indigenous people: a public hospital-based study in Townsville and Cairns, North Queensland, Australia.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are very little clinical and pathological data on colorectal cancer among Indigenous people in Australia.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study on Indigenous patients treated for colorectal cancer at the Townsville and Cairns Base Hospitals from 1999 to 2004 was carried out in order to better characterise this disease in the Indigenous population.
  • The majority (56%) of the tumours were left-sided, being in the sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction and rectum.
  • Of the patients, 60% had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system Stage I and II disease at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons were made with available data on colorectal cancer in the general Australian population.

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  • (PMID = 16336390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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35. Piepoli A, Cotugno R, Merla G, Gentile A, Augello B, Quitadamo M, Merla A, Panza A, Carella M, Maglietta R, D'Addabbo A, Ancona N, Fusilli S, Perri F, Andriulli A: Promoter methylation correlates with reduced NDRG2 expression in advanced colon tumour. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Promoter methylation correlates with reduced NDRG2 expression in advanced colon tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG islands of cancer-related genes is among the earliest and most frequent alterations in cancerogenesis and might be of value for either diagnosing cancer or evaluating recurrent disease.
  • METHODS: The validation assay was performed in a different set of 8 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) by means quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • Among them, the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) promoter was found methylated in all CRC cell lines.
  • NDRG2 hypermethylation was also detected in 8 out of 30 (27%) primary CRC tissues and was significantly associated with advanced AJCC stage IV.
  • Normal colon tissues were not methylated.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the usefulness of combining gene expression patterns and epigenetic data to identify tumour biomarkers, and suggest that NDRG2 silencing might bear influence on tumour invasiveness, being associated with a more advanced stage.

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  • (PMID = 19257893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-8794
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2660908
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