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1. Wong AK, Chan RC, Aggarwal N, Singh MK, Nichols WS, Bose S: Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):144-50
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection strongly correlates with the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas; however, few studies have characterized the distribution of the specific subtypes of the virus in the varying grades of dysplasia.
  • This report characterizes the distribution of HPV 16/18 in surgical specimens with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I-III and histological variants of anal carcinoma.
  • A total of 111 anal surgical specimens with no dysplasia (10), AIN I-III (53), and anal carcinomas (48) were evaluated for the presence of high-risk HPV infection and subtyped by nested PCR or the Invader Assay.
  • High-risk virus types were detected in progressively greater number of anal intraepithelial lesions from 56% in low grade to 88% in high grade.
  • Most (89%) squamous carcinomas were associated with high-risk viruses, 68% with type 16, a prevalence similar to that noted in high-grade dysplasia.
  • Non-16/18 subtypes were encountered more frequently in squamous carcinomas from immunodeficient individuals (57% cases) as compared with immunocompetent individuals (18% cases).
  • The similarity in the prevalence of type 16 in high-grade dysplasia and squamous carcinomas suggests that anal intraepithelial lesion III is the true precursor of squamous carcinoma and warrants aggressive management.
  • Anal intraepithelial lesions II showed a virus distribution that was similar to low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 19838162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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2. Walts AE, Lechago J, Hu B, Shwayder M, Sandweiss L, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN). Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:7-13

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  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 Immunostains Decrease Intra- and Interobserver Variability in the Diagnosis and Grading of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN).
  • BACKGROUND: Significant variation is reported in the diagnosis of HPV-associated AIN.
  • We previously observed that band-like positivity for p16 in >90% of contiguous cells coupled with Ki67 positivity in >50% of lesional cells is strongly associated with high grade AIN.
  • This study was undertaken to determine if addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostaining would reduce inter- and intraobserver variability in diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • DESIGN: H&E stained slides of 60 anal biopsies were reviewed by three pathologists and consensus diagnoses were achieved: 25 negative, 12 low (condyloma and/or AIN I) and 23 high (9 AIN II and 14 AIN III) grade lesions.
  • RESULTS: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains reduced intra- and interobserver variability, improved concurrence with consensus diagnoses and reduced two-step differences in diagnosis.
  • Negative and high grade AIN diagnoses showed the most improvement in concurrence levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Addition of p16 and Ki67 immunostains is helpful in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.

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  • (PMID = 21876646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3159996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki67 / P16 / anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) / condyloma / human papilloma virus (HPV) / interobserver variability / intraobserver variability
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3. Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M: Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1447-56
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  • [Title] Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men.
  • Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures.
  • Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested.
  • The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening.
  • METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy.
  • Reliability for the Bethesda classification system was at least moderate, except for the cytologic category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (kappa = 0.12).
  • Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by > or = 3 pathologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Observer Variation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Wahl RU, Blazek C, Megahed M: [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)]. Hautarzt; 2009 May;60(5):371-2
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  • [Title] [HPV type 16-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)].
  • [Transliterated title] HPV-Typ-16-assoziierte anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie (AIN).
  • A 25-year-old woman had suffered from a perianal ulcer for approximately 1 year.
  • Employing virologic and histologic techniques, we confirmed the diagnosis of an intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is induced by carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.
  • Because of its frequency, AIN is a crucial differential diagnosis for lesions of the anogenital area region failing to respond to standard therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19430747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • This paper looks at the current definition, diagnostic methods and management of AIN.
  • The incidence of AIN has increased significantly in the last decades.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In cases of more severe and localized lesions (AIN II and AIN III), surgical resection should be considered if the predictive postoperative morbidity is low.
  • Screening programs for AIN are not currently in place and there might be much effort to study the management of HPV in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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6. Bean SM, Meara RS, Vollmer RT, Conner MG, Crowe DR, Novak L, Eltoum IA, Robboy SJ, Chhieng DC: p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Jul;13(3):145-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is subjective.
  • Previous studies have shown p16 and Ki-67 expressions to correlate with AIN grade.
  • The objectives were (1) to determine the extent of interobserver agreement in evaluating AIN on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections and (2) to test whether p16 and/or Ki-67 staining improve interobserver diagnostic agreement.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven anal specimens were retrieved.
  • Diagnoses were normal/reactive, AIN I/HPV, AIN II, and AIN III.
  • Fair agreement was observed using H&E diagnosis alone (kappa = 0.38, S = 0.56).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement for diagnosis of AIN was fair when based solely on H&E preparation. p16 alone improved interobserver agreement and demonstrated superior agreement when compared with H&E, Ki-67, and H&E/p16/Ki-67 combined.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p16 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biopsy. Clinical Competence. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19550211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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7. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Sep;128(9):2316-24
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  • [Title] Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia.
  • These patients have a strongly increased risk of HPV-induced anal cancer and its precursor lesion, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and a moderately increased risk for penile cancer.
  • Only limited data exist on penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in HIV+MSM.
  • We determined the prevalence and evaluated the virologic characteristics of PIN and AIN in 263 HIV+MSM.
  • In case of histologically confirmed PIN (and AIN), HPV-typing, HPV-DNA load determination, and immunohistochemical staining for p16(INK4a) were performed.
  • PIN was detected in 11 (4.2%) and AIN in 156 (59.3%) patients.
  • Ten PIN patients also had AIN within the observation period.
  • Cutaneous beta-HPVs were found in PIN and AIN, but beta-HPV-DNA loads were very low, irrespective of the histological grade. p16(INK4a) Expression was detectable in all PIN lesions and correlated both with the histological grade and with high-risk HPV-DNA loads.
  • In view of the PIN prevalence found in our study, all HIV+MSM should be screened for PIN in addition to AIN screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. HIV Infections. Homosexuality, Male. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18385760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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8. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • Most cases of AIN are intraanal, but few treatments for intraanal AIN are currently available.
  • Topical 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is an inexpensive method used to treat perianal condyloma, a form of AIN 1, but its efficacy to treat intraanal AIN as first-line therapy is unknown.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.
  • Clearance was defined as the absence of AIN confirmed by high-resolution anoscopy and cytology after up to 4 TCA treatments.
  • 32% of patients with AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesions.
  • On a per lesion basis, 73% of AIN 1 and 71% AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesion or AIN 1 or less, respectively.
  • A high proportion of AIN 2/3 lesions responded to TCA treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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9. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • In 29 of the 33 cases of AIN, HPV DNA was detected (87.9%), most of these in AIN III (15/16=93.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In contrast, AIN had been detected clinically in none of the cases.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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10. Charúa-Guindic L, Esquivel-Ocampo EA, Villanueva-Herrero JA, Jiménez-Bobadilla B, Muñoz-Cortés SB, Leal-Tamez M, Avendaño-Espinosa O: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2009;74(3):195-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (NIA) and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in anoreceptive patients].
  • [Transliterated title] La neoplasia intraepitelial anal y la infección por virus del papiloma humano en pacientes anorreceptivos.
  • BACKGROUND: An association between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and progression to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and epidermoid cancer has been established.
  • OBJECTIVE: To know the prevalence of low and high grade AIN, as well as HPV infection in an anoreceptive patients group, infected or not, by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Patients who accepted anal citology and high definition anoscopy and biopsies with a follow-up not minor of 3 months were included.
  • Anal cytology showed inflammatory alterations in 21 patients (28%), low grade intraepithelial lesion in 23 (52%); there were not patients with high grade epithelial lesion.
  • According to the high definition anoscopy, there were low grade intraepithelial lesion in 42 patients (95%) and high grade in 2 (5%).
  • Biopsy showed low grade intraepithelial in 26 patients (59%), high grade in 4 (9%) and inflammatory alterations in 14 (32%).
  • The prevalence of AIN and HPV infection was 68% in both diseases.
  • The HIV infection was associated with the presence of high grade AIN (p=0.002, OR 47.7) CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of AIN and HPV infection between patients with anoreceptive sexual relations.
  • The HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of high grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19858007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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11. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The natural history of AIN is unclear and management strategies are lacking.
  • METHODS: This review is based on a literature search (Medline and PubMed) with manual cross-referencing of all articles related to AIN.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of AIN is intricately linked with human papilloma viruses.
  • The pathological processes involved in the progression of AIN are becoming clearer but the natural history, particularly the rate of progression to invasive cancer, remains unknown.
  • There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • Long-term follow-up of these patients is essential until the natural history of AIN becomes clearer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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12. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • Forty-seven patients of the 122 patients who underwent biopsy (39%) had biopsy-identified low-grade AIN, and 47 (39%) had high-grade AIN (HGAIN).
  • Patient tolerance and acceptance of AIN screening was good, and the majority of those who underwent screening have been adherent to recommended follow-up examinations and treatment.
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):182-3 [19554737.001]
  • (PMID = 19554736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Scholefield JH, Castle MT, Watson NF: Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Sep;92(9):1133-6
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: The natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is uncertain.
  • METHODS: All patients were diagnosed with high-grade AIN (AIN III) between 1994 and 2003.
  • Diagnosis was by full-thickness biopsy and histopathological examination.
  • Excision of localized high-grade AIN was carried out in 28 patients with minimal morbidity.
  • Six patients were systemically immunosuppressed at diagnosis, all of whom had multifocal perianal lesions.
  • Three immunosuppressed patients developed invasive anal squamous carcinoma during follow-up.
  • By contrast, no invasive carcinomas were identified among immunocompetent patients with either localized or multifocal perianal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: AIN III appears to have a relatively low potential for malignant transformation in the immunocompetent patient.
  • However, immunosuppressed patients are more likely to have extensive AIN III and a greater risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16044425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Kreuter A, Skrygan M, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer NH, Stücker M, Herzler C, Potthoff A, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jun;160(6):1197-205
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS and Infections.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to analyse expression of AMPs in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal skin lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), a special high-risk group for persistent HPV infections and anal dysplasia.
  • RESULTS: Skin biopsies of 45 HIV-positive MSM with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), anal condylomata acuminata or unaffected anal mucosa, as well as condylomata acuminata of eight HIV-negative MSM, were analysed for AMP mRNA expression.
  • Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis for hBD-2 and hBD-3 was performed in a total of 45 samples. hBD-2 and hBD-3 gene and protein expression was significantly increased in both AIN and condyloma, whereas LL-37, RNase 7 and hBD-1 gene expression did not differ significantly from unaffected anal mucosa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: hBD-2 and hBD-3 expression was shown to be significantly upregulated in HPV-associated anal skin lesions of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. beta-Defensins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19298269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DEFB1 protein, human; 0 / DEFB4A protein, human; 0 / beta-Defensins; 0 / beta-defensin 3, human
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16. Richel O, Wieland U, de Vries HJ, Brockmeyer NH, van Noesel C, Potthoff A, Prins JM, Kreuter A: Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1301-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical treatment of AIN, especially at the intra-anal location.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment of AIN in HIV-positive MSM.
  • METHODS: High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed and patients with AIN (grade 1-3) were treated with 5-FU twice weekly for a total of 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: A total of 46 patients with AIN were included in this open prospective pilot study; 76% had multifocal disease and 74% had high-grade lesions (AIN 2 or 3).
  • Eighteen patients (39%) had a complete clearance of AIN and eight patients (17%) had a partial response.
  • Seventeen patients (37%) did not respond (unchanged grade of AIN in 16 patients and progression from low- to high-grade AIN in one patient).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of HIV-positive MSM with AIN completely cleared their lesions with topical 5-FU treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20716208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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17. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), anal HPV prevalence is more than 90% and infections with multiple HPV types are common.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a potential precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Like its cervical counterpart, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), AIN is causally linked to persistent infections with high-risk HPV types such as HPV16 or HPV18.
  • As AIN and CIN share distinct biological similar-ities, AIN screenings analogous to Pap smear programs for CIN have been recommended in high-risk populations to reduce the incidence of anal carcinoma.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • Treatment guidelines for AIN are not yet available.
  • However, controlled studies on AIN treatment have not been performed.
  • The impact of HPV vaccination on AIN development will also need to be assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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18. Kreuter A, Jesse M, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Bechara FG, Pfister H, Wieland U: Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):490-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, especially in men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of AIN might prevent development of anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression of 8 promising proliferative biomarkers in anal dysplasia and to compare the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM3, MCM4, MCM6, and MCM7), p21, Ki-67, p16, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed in a total of 49 specimens of normal anal mucosa and high- and low-grade anal dysplasia.
  • In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade dysplasia, we found significant differences in the expression of all biomarkers.
  • A cutoff of 25% or 50% lesional immunopositivity for the 4 MCMs, Ki-67, and p16 resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity to diagnose high-grade AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of PCNA and p21 for a high-grade AIN diagnosis were lower.
  • HPV-DNA was detectable in 100% of high-grade AIN and 87.5% of low-grade AIN lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs, Ki67, and p16 are reliable immunohistochemical adjuncts for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biopsy, Needle. DNA, Viral / analysis. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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19. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Hochdorfer B, Weissenborn SJ, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr;52(4):603-8
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  • [Title] Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) represents a precursor lesion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a clear association to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HIV infection is strongly associated with a higher prevalence of genital HPV infection, a higher incidence of AIN, and, consecutively, an increased risk for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of AIN and lesional HPV colonization in a cohort of homosexual men who were HIV positive and had a history of receptive anal intercourse.
  • RESULTS: Of all patients, 86% had anal HPV infection at their first visit.
  • AIN was diagnosed in 20 of the 103 patients (19.4%).
  • High-risk HPV types were present in all AIN cases with up to 7 different high-risk and up to 5 different low-risk types per lesion.
  • Histologically, 7 (35%), 7 (35%), and 6 (30%) of the patients had AIN grade I, II, or III, respectively.
  • Four different types of clinical presentation could be distinguished in the 20 patients with AIN: bowenoid (1 case, 5%); erythroplakic (2 cases, 10%); verrucous (6 cases, 30%); and leukoplakic (11 cases, 55%).
  • All verrucous lesions were graded as high-grade intraepithelial lesions in cytology, whereas 6 of the 11 leukoplakic lesions (55%) were low grade.
  • All verrucous AIN carried at least 4 different HPV types, always including HPV-16, and the mean number of HPV types was higher in verrucous lesions than in leukoplakic lesions (5.5 vs 3.8, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: These data confirm the high incidence and prevalence of AIN in patients who are HPV positive with HIV infection.
  • Four different clinical types of AIN can be distinguished that might have prognostic implications.
  • Standardized screening programs for anal cancer prevention and treatment protocols for AIN in patients infected with HIV must be implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 15793509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Chin-Hong PV, Berry JM, Cheng SC, Catania JA, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Fishman F, Jay N, Pollack LM, Palefsky JM: Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men. Ann Intern Med; 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of patient- and clinician-collected anal cytology samples to screen for human papillomavirus-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in prevalence and is more common among men who have sex with men and HIV-positive individuals than cervical cancer is among women in the United States.
  • Cytology screening can detect the anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Little is known about self-collected samples for AIN screening, and few community-based AIN estimates exist.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity of self-collected versus clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to detect biopsy-confirmed AIN and the prevalence estimate of AIN in a community sample.
  • Participants were mailed anal cytology self-collection kits with instructions.
  • Clinicians repeated anal cytology and performed high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies as the diagnostic reference standard.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of anal HPV and AIN.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of self-collected and clinician-collected anal cytology specimens to diagnose AIN were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy-proven AIN was diagnosed in 57% of HIV-positive and 35% of HIV-negative participants (P = 0.04), and 80% provided adequate self-collected specimens for interpretation.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 75% (95% CI, 51% to 93%) when self-collected and 90% (CI, 68% to 99%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 48% (CI, 26% to 70%) and 62% (CI, 38% to 82%).
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN in HIV-positive men was 50% (CI, 22% to 78%) when self-collected and 64% (CI, 36% to 86%) when clinician-collected; respective values in HIV-negative men were 86% (CI, 71% to 94%) and 85% (CI, 72% to 93%).
  • CONCLUSION: In a community-based sample, a high proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men have AIN.
  • The sensitivity of cytology to detect AIN is higher for clinician-collected versus self-collected specimens and for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative men.
  • The specificity of cytology to detect AIN is higher in HIV-negative versus HIV-positive men.
  • However, the probability of AIN in a patient with a negative cytology result may not be low enough (23% for HIV-negative men and 45% for HIV-positive men with a patient-collected specimen) for clinicians to be comfortable recommending no anoscopy for those with a negative cytology result if done as a one-time test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Homosexuality. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. San Francisco / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5 [19221387.001]
  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):I38 [18765696.001]
  • (PMID = 18765699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH54320
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Bean SM, Eltoum I, Horton DK, Whitlow L, Chhieng DC: Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):555-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of p16 and Ki-67 correlates with degree of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a human papilloma virus related lesion.
  • The objective of this study is to correlate p16 expression and cellular proliferation measured by Ki-67 staining with the degree of dysplasia in the anal canal and to determine the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • Seventy-five anal specimens from 55 patients (37 men; 18 women; mean age: 48 y; median: 44 y; range 25 to 96 y) were studied including 35 normal/reactive lesions, 23 low-grade AIN (AIN I and condyloma), and 17 high-grade AIN (AIN II and III).
  • Expression of p16 in AIN correlated with that of Ki-67 (P<0.001).
  • High-grade AIN often demonstrated p16 staining in more than one-third of the thickness of the epithelium in a diffuse/continuous fashion. p16 expression in low-grade AIN was often restricted to the lower 1/3 of the epithelium and/or was focal and discontinuous.
  • The expression of both p16 and Ki-67 correlated with the degree of dysplasia (P<0.01).
  • When positive p16 staining was defined as the presence of diffuse/continuous staining in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of p16 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 76%, 86%, and 84%, respectively.
  • When positive Ki-67 staining was defined as the presence of nuclear staining in more than 25% of the cells in more than one-third of the thickness of epithelium, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ki-67 as a marker for diagnosing high-grade AIN were 71%, 84%, and 83% respectively.
  • Both p16 and Ki-67 are reliable markers for diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Genes, p16. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. History, 17th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17414102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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22. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The groups at risk of this lesion are patients with anogenital condylomata, cervical dysplasia, human immunodeficiency virus infection and, in general, patients with HPV infection.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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23. Wieland U, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Hochdorfer B, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Kreuter A: Imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Nov;142(11):1438-44
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  • [Title] Imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) with the local immune response modifier imiquimod in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Patients Twenty-eight consecutive HIV-positive MSM with histologically confirmed perianal (n = 23) or intra-anal (n = 5) AIN.
  • Intervention Overnight treatment with self-applied imiquimod cream (perianal AIN) or suppositories (intra-anal AIN) 3 times a week for 16 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen (61%) of all 28 patients included in the study and 17 (77%) of the 22 patients with AIN, who applied imiquimod as instructed, showed clinical and histologic clearance at the end of therapy.
  • Four patients had residual AIN and 1 patient did not improve.
  • In the follow-up period, AIN cleared in 3 patients with residual AIN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for AIN in HIV-positive MSM.
  • These results should encourage controlled randomized studies of imiquimod treatment of AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. HIV Infections


24. Pirog EC, Quint KD, Yantiss RK: P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;34(10):1449-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction.
  • The classification of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in mucosal biopsies is subject to considerable interobserver variability.
  • Previous studies have shown that Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunostains aid detection of dysplasia in biopsy samples from the uterine cervix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunolabeling enhanced diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of anal mucosal biopsies from patients with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • The study consisted of 75 cases that were originally interpreted to represent normal anal transitional zone (n=15), fibroepithelial polyp (n=10), condyloma accuminatum (n=10), low-grade AIN (AIN1, n=20), and high-grade AIN (n=20), including 10 cases each of AIN2 and AIN3.
  • Thus, the final study group consisted of 17 samples of normal anal transition zone, 14 fibroepithelial polyps, 6 condylomata accuminata, and 38 cases of AIN (11 AIN1, 16 AIN2, and 11 AIN3).
  • A positive Ki-67 result was defined as the presence of a cluster of at least 2 strongly stained epithelial nuclei in the upper two-thirds of the epithelial thickness.
  • None of the anal transition zone samples or fibroepithelial polyps showed Ki-67 or p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • All condylomata and samples of AIN contained HPV DNA and showed positive Ki-67 labeling.
  • All cases of high-grade AIN showed positive p16/CDKN2A staining.
  • We conclude that Ki-67 labeling detects anal HPV-related changes with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, whereas increased p16/CDKN2A staining is strongly associated with high-grade squamous neoplasia.
  • These results indicate that a combination of these markers may aid interpretation of anal mucosal biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Colonic Polyps / metabolism. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20871219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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25. Bernard JE, Butler MO, Sandweiss L, Weidner N: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):215-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: correlation of grade with p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization.
  • Accurate diagnosis and grading of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) can be problematic, especially in separating AIN from anal transitional-zone epithelium.
  • To investigate if p16 would help in more accurately diagnosing and grading AIN, particularly when attempting to distinguish benign transitional-zone epithelium from high-grade AIN, we separately assessed these stains in a blinded manner on a large number of consecutive anal biopsies and anal tissues and correlated the findings with the diagnosis and grade of AIN.
  • One hundred thirty-three consecutive anal tissue specimens, from 128 patients were studied.
  • One hundred and eight were anal biopsies and 25 were hemorrhoidectomy specimens.
  • The comparisons included AIN grade (negative, 1, 2, 3) with nuclear intensity of p16 IHC (0 to 3+), AIN grade with IHC nuclear staining patterns (contiguous, patchy/rare), AIN grade with HPV-ISH [negative, low-risk (LR), high-risk (HR)] and, nuclear intensity of p16 IHC with HPV-ISH.
  • Yet, 33% of AIN negative cases were positive for nuclear p16, although with less nuclear intensity than for AIN2 or 3.
  • The kappa value for AIN/nuclear p16 intensity agreement was 0.61 (ie, substantial agreement).
  • Yet, 12.5% of AIN negative cases were positive for HPV for both LR and HR types.
  • The kappa value for AIN/HPV agreement was 0.62 (ie, substantial agreement).
  • Of interest, 30 cases were negative for AIN and p16 staining and of these, 2 (7%) were positive for HPV (both LR subtype).
  • Three cases positive for HR HPV were negative for AIN with only patchy nuclear p16 positivity.
  • We conclude that the correlation between AIN and p16 and HPV is strong enough to be quite useful in distinguishing true AIN from benign mimics, such as benign transitional-zone epithelium.

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  • (PMID = 18301250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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26. Gohy L, Gorska I, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Pokomandy Ad, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Kornegay JR, Franco E, HIPVIRG Study Group, Coutlée F: Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Sep 1;49(1):32-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV-seropositive men.
  • The detection of HPV genotypes in anal biopsies and swabs was compared.
  • METHODS: HPV DNA was detected in anal swabs and biopsies obtained concurrently from 154 HIV-seropositive men [31 without AIN, 60 low-grade AIN (AIN-1), 62 high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3), and 1 indeterminate AIN] under or eligible to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 24.2% of normal biopsies compared with 93.5% with AIN-2,3 (P < 0.001) and 88.3% with AIN-1 (P < 0.001).
  • The proportion of biopsies containing multiple genotypes was greater in AIN-1 (n = 21, 35.0%; P = 0.002) and AIN-2,3 (n = 38, 58%; P < 0.001) than in normal biopsies (n = 2, 6.5%).
  • The most frequent genotypes in order of frequency were in AIN-2,3 biopsies HPV-16, 18, 58, and 45 and were in AIN-1 biopsies HPV-6, 11, 16, and 39.
  • Controlling for age, CD4 count, and smoking, the presence of high-risk HPV DNA in biopsies [odds ratio (OR) = 50.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 13.0 to 199.5] but not in swabs (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.6 to 7.0) was associated with AIN-2,3.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIN-2,3 was associated with high-risk HPV infection detected in biopsies but not in swabs in men under or starting highly active antiretroviral therapy, possibly due to the presence of HPV foci outside of the neoplastic lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Diseases / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. DNA, Viral. HIV Seropositivity / virology

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  • (PMID = 18667921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] OAllaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Cote S; Cote P; Coutlee F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco E; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpre D; Mcleod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trepanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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27. Walts AE, Lechago J, Bose S: P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):795-801
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P16 and Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct in the assessment of biopsies for HPV-associated anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HPV is also associated with anal squamous dysplasias and carcinomas.
  • Significant interobserver and intraobserver variation exists in the interpretation of biopsies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was undertaken to assess the potential role of p16 and Ki67 immunohistochemical expression in refining the diagnosis and grading of AIN.One-hundred and four anal biopsies from 74 patients were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of the department.
  • After discrepancies were resolved and concurrence was achieved by at least 2 of 3 reviewing pathologists, the diagnoses were as follows: 37 negative, 12 condylomas without overt dysplasia, 14 AIN I, 25 AIN II, and 16 AIN III. p16 and Ki67 expression was evaluated by ABC immunoperoxidase staining whereas the presence of the high-risk subtypes of HPV virus was determined by in situ hybridization on a subset of the biopsies.
  • Nuclear and/or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was considered as positive for p16 when present in >10% of squamous cells.
  • A band-like pattern of p16 immunoreactivity was seen in 21.4% AIN I, 80% AIN II, and 87.5% AIN III cases.
  • Spotty p16 immunoreactivity was observed in 8.1% negative, 8.3% condyloma, 14.3% AIN I, 12.0% AIN II, and 12.5% AIN III cases.
  • More than 50% of nuclei stained positive for Ki67 in 28.6% AIN I, 48.0% AIN II, and 75.0% AIN III cases but in none of the negative or condyloma cases.
  • On the basis of these results, a band-like pattern of p16 staining and Ki67 positivity in >50% of the squamous cell nuclei were strongly associated with high-grade AIN.
  • Most AIN I lesions stained similar to the nondysplastic cases.
  • A small subset of biopsies studied did not conform to the pattern described above: 4 of 14 (28.6%) AIN I lesions showed a band-like pattern of p16 staining and/or >50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • 4 of 25 (16.0%) AIN II lesions comprising 9.8% of the 41 high-grade AINs (AIN II and III) showed spotty p16 positivity and <50% Ki67 positive nuclei.
  • We conclude that when used together and evaluated in conjunction with H&E stained sections, p16 and Ki67 immunoexpression is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and grading of AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16819320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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28. Fox PA: Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):62-6
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A review of recent developments in the understanding of the natural history of anal squamous carcinoma arising from areas of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a consequence of chronic human papillomavirus infection in the anal canal and appears to be driven by high viral loads of human papillomavirus.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is equally prevalent in different age groups of men who have sex with men, but in other respects what is known of its natural history resembles that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • HIV-positives who practise receptive anal intercourse are at highest risk of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Screening is easy to perform using cytology; the limitations of anal cytology being similar to those of cervical cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 16374220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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29. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with histologically proven anogenital warts or AIN were enrolled.
  • The perianal area was the main lesion location.
  • Eighteen patients had a histopathological diagnosis of AIN-1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The assumption that visible perianal warts are benign lesions in HIV-positive patients has to be reevaluated since an important number of such lesions could correspond to low-grade anal disease, which in turn could progress to high-grade anal disease or cancer.
  • In addition, our results in this preliminary study indicate that imiquimod appears to be effective in treating AIN in HIV-positive patients.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Male / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy


30. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • This prospective follow-up study evaluated the long-term results of imiquimod treatment of AIN in 19 HIV-infected MSM.
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • A total of 74% (14/19) of the patients remained free of AIN at the previously treated site.
  • Five patients (26%) had recurrent high-grade AIN after a mean time of 24.6 months.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • 55% of these new AIN lesions were high-grade lesions and most of them were located intra-anally and associated with high-risk HPV types not detectable before therapy.
  • These results demonstrate that imiquimod leads to a high rate of long-term clearance of AIN in HIV-positive men together with a prolonged decrease of high-risk HPV-DNA load.
  • However, new AIN lesions associated with previously undetected HPV types frequently occur in untreated areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. DNA, Viral / drug effects. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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31. Mullerat J, Perrett CW, Deroide F, Winslet MC, Bofill M, Poulters LW: The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):693-9
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  • [Title] The role of macrophages in angiogenesis. Comparison between HIV+ and HIV- populations with anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While macrophages (CD68+) have been associated with angiogenesis in some inflammatory and neoplastic processes by increasing the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their role in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma has not been established.
  • This study records macrophage infiltration in anal pre-invasive and invasive lesions in HIV+ and HIV- populations, and determines their relationship with angiogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (31 HIV+) with AIN and anal SCC were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / pathology. Macrophages / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / blood supply. Anal Canal / pathology. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / virology. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / blood supply. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 15868898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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32. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • Microarray-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) was performed on DNA from AIN specimens to determine the host genomic alterations and their correlation with HPV DNA integration or rearrangement.
  • Of 27 high-grade AIN specimens tested by CGH, 8 (30%) showed regional DNA copy number abnormalities (CNAs).
  • Our data suggest that there may be several oncogenes in this region that are coactivated to contribute to progression to high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Li Y, Yang Z, Chen Z, Zhou Z: Computational investigation on structural and physical properties of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons. J Nanosci Nanotechnol; 2010 Nov;10(11):7200-3

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  • [Title] Computational investigation on structural and physical properties of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons.
  • Through first-principles computations, we investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional AIN single layer and one-dimensional AIN nanoribbons.
  • AIN single layer and nanoribbons quit the Wurtzite configuration and adopt a graphitic-like structure after geometry optimization.
  • Both hydrogen-terminated zigzag and armchair AIN nanoribbons have a direct band gap, which increases monotonically with increasing ribbon width.
  • Bare zigzag AIN nanoribbons have a spin-polarized ground state and are magnetic semiconductors.
  • The results may promote the experimental preparation of AIN nanosheets and nanoribbons and their applications to nanotechnology.

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  • (PMID = 21137897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4880
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nanosci Nanotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. von Knebel Doeberitz M, Reuschenbach M: [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):13-20
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  • [Title] [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus].
  • [Transliterated title] Humane Papillomviren in der Pathogenese der intraepithelialen Neoplasien (AIN) und Karzinome des Anus.
  • HPV infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007 Sep;131(9):1343-9 [17824788.001]
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  • (PMID = 20033115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Fox PA, Seet JE, Stebbing J, Francis N, Barton SE, Strauss S, Allen-Mersh TG, Gazzard BG, Bower M: The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Apr;81(2):142-6
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  • [Title] The value of anal cytology and human papillomavirus typing in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia: a review of cases from an anoscopy clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the utility of anal cytology as a screening tool for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Comparison was made between results of anal cytology using the sampling method of Palefsky, and histological findings of biopsies taken from abnormal areas seen on high resolution anoscopic examination of the anal canal.
  • At screening of 34 asymptomatic men, 83% had anal cytological dysplasia and 78% had AIN.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology by the Palefsky method is simple to undertake, has a sensitivity and specificity comparable with cervical cytology, and can therefore be used as the basis of a pilot screening project in centres with large cohorts of HIV positive homosexual men who have a high risk of developing anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Bisexuality. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15800092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1764665
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36. van der Snoek EM, van der Ende ME, Schouten WR, den Hollander JC, van der Meijden WI: [Anorectal malignancies and dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Sep 3;149(36):1989-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anorectal malignancies and dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men].
  • Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of anal (pre)malignancies.
  • Less is known about the natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • Screening in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for anorectal malignancies or dysplasia is cost-effective if the incidence is sufficiently high.
  • Treatment options range from watchful waiting for asymptomatic grade-1 AIN to excision or radio(chemo)therapy for anorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16171110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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37. Cranston RD, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Feb;19(2):118-20
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  • [Title] A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus-associated anal squamous cell cancer.
  • Similar to the management of cervical dysplasia, clinicians are treating high-grade anal dysplasia to prevent progression to cancer.
  • Infrared coagulation (IRC) is an outpatient treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • This retrospective clinical study reports on 68 HIV-positive MSM with 78 biopsy proven high-grade anal lesions.
  • Of the 74 evaluable lesions; 39 had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 1, 20 had AIN 2, seven had AIN 3, and eight had normal epithelium.
  • The IRC showed 64% efficacy per treated lesion and shows promise as a treatment modality for high-grade anal dysplasia in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18334066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Kreuter A, Wieland U, Gambichler T, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, German Network of Competence HIV/AIDS: p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;157(3):523-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load.
  • In this context, a drastically increased relative risk for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) exists in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • In a pilot study, imiquimod, a topical immune response modifier, has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of AIN.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of several biomarkers as potential adjuncts in the course of imiquimod treatment for AIN, and to determine whether these markers correlate with the course of high-risk HPV DNA load during imiquimod therapy.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed for p16(ink4a), minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM), Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p21(waf1) expression before and after 16 weeks of imiquimod treatment for AIN.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological and virological analyses were performed in 21 HIV-infected MSM with histologically confirmed AIN.
  • Eighteen (86%) patients had a complete histological clearance of AIN after imiquimod therapy.
  • A significant correlation between the course of high-risk HPV DNA load and p16(ink4a) expression was observed during imiquimod treatment of AIN, whereas the decline of high-risk HPV DNA load did not significantly correlate with MCM, Ki67, PCNA or p21(waf1) expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17573882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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39. Abd Elaziz KM, Bakr IM: Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo. J Prev Med Hyg; 2009 Mar;50(1):19-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.
  • The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards.

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  • (PMID = 19771756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-2233
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Prev Med Hyg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. Duffy PH, Lewis SM, Mayhugh MA, Trotter RW, Hass BS, Latendresse JR, Thorn BT, Tobin G, Feuers RJ: Neoplastic pathology in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed AIN-93M diet ad libitum or at restricted intakes. Nutr Res; 2008 Jan;28(1):36-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoplastic pathology in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed AIN-93M diet ad libitum or at restricted intakes.
  • The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age and long-term dietary reduction on neoplastic diseases in rats fed the AIN-93M purified diet.
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats assigned to 2 groups, ad libitum (AL) and dietary restricted (DR), were fed the AIN-93M (casein protein) diet free choice and reduced in amount by 31%, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19083386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0739
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caseins; 0 / Dietary Proteins
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41. Baynouna LM, Revel AD, Nagelkerke NJ, Jaber TM, Omar AO, Ahmed NM, Naziruldeen MK, Al-Sayed MF, Nour FA: High prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. An emerging health care priority. Saudi Med J; 2008 Aug;29(8):1173-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. An emerging health care priority.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional community based study on established cardiovascular risk factors carried out between February 2004 - February 2005 in Al-Ain City, UAE.

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  • (PMID = 18690314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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42. Al-Hammadi S, Al-Maskari F, Bernsen R: Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 2010;151(4):336-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of food allergy among children in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates.
  • This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of FA among school children aged 6-9 years in Al-Ain city, UAE.
  • METHODS: We used multistage random sampling in order to get a sample of 397 school children whose parents completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the presence or absence of physician diagnosis of FA and other allergic diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FA in Al-Ain city was 8%.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19851075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of allergy and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens
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43. Al-Naeem AA: Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Pak J Biol Sci; 2008 Jan 15;11(2):244-9
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  • [Title] Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
  • A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin.
  • The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops.

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  • (PMID = 18817197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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44. Fiedler JL, Villalobos CA, De Mattos AC: An activity-based cost analysis of the Honduras community-based, integrated child care (AIN-C) programme. Health Policy Plan; 2008 Nov;23(6):408-27
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Children's Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An activity-based cost analysis of the Honduras community-based, integrated child care (AIN-C) programme.
  • The Honduras AIN-C programme is a preventive health and nutrition programme of the Honduras Ministry of Health (MOH) that relies on volunteers to help mothers monitor and maintain the adequate growth of young children.
  • This study was undertaken to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the cost of the AIN-C programme, with the goal of providing a programme and financial planning tool for Honduras.
  • An additional comparison of study findings was also undertaken to determine the cost of the AIN-C programme's community-based services relative to a similar facility-based service.
  • (3) the cost of an AIN-C monthly growth monitoring and counselling session per child is 11% of the cost of a traditional MOH, facility-based growth and development consultation per child; and (4) the effect of mothers substituting AIN-C monitor care for MOH facility-based care 'saves' 203 000 outpatient visits a year, with a potential cost saving of $1.66 million, the equivalent of 60% of the recurrent cost of the programme and roughly equal to the annual incremental budget requirements of the programme.

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  • (PMID = 18755734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1080
  • [Journal-full-title] Health policy and planning
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Policy Plan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Scott H, Khoury J, Moore BA, Weissman S: Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic. Sex Transm Dis; 2008 Feb;35(2):197-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with routine anal cancer screening using anal cytology, determine risk factors for abnormal anal cytology, and determine if an association exists between cytology and histology in patients with HIV infection.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 276 of 560 of the clinic patients received a screening anal cytology during the study period.
  • Of these patients, 11 were excluded from the analysis and 74 of 265 (27.9%) patients screened had an abnormal anal cytology.
  • Forty-nine percent were African American, 34% Caucasian, and 17% Hispanic.
  • They were also more likely to have a lower CD4+ nadir (142 cells/mm3 vs. 223 cells/mm3, P = 0.005) and CD4+ at time of anal cytology (353 cells/mm3 vs. 497 cells/mm3, P <0.001).
  • Those with an abnormal anal cytology also had higher occurrence of anal disease on perianal visual inspection (30% vs. 9%, P <0.001) and were more likely to have a history of genital warts (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.02) or herpes (35% vs. 22%, P = 0.02).
  • Two patients had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I, 2 AIN II, 3 AIN III, and 2 squamous cell carcinoma in situ on histology.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine anal cytology screening is a feasible tool to incorporate into HIV care for patients regardless of gender and HIV risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Urban Health Services / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18216727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Al-Muhairi SS, Zoubeidi TA, Ellis ME, Safa WF, Joseph J: Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Saudi Med J; 2006 Jul;27(7):1044-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors predicting outcome in patients with pneumonia in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyze the data collected from all inpatients over the age of 16 years with a diagnosis of pneumonia in Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates between the years 1997 and 2002.
  • [MeSH-major] Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16830028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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47. El-Lamie IK, El Sayed HM, Badawie AG, Bayomi WA, El-Ghazaly HA, Khalaf-Allah AE, El-Mahallawy MN, El-Lamie KI: Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):866-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience.
  • The aim of the current study is to evaluate the different treatment modalities used in the management of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) between June 1992 and December 2004 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University.

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  • (PMID = 16681775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol; MDC protocol; PEA-M regimen
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48. Hampl M, Sarajuuri H, Wentzensen N, Bender HG, Kueppers V: Effect of human papillomavirus vaccines on vulvar, vaginal, and anal intraepithelial lesions and vulvar cancer. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Dec;108(6):1361-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of human papillomavirus vaccines on vulvar, vaginal, and anal intraepithelial lesions and vulvar cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical cancer, and it has been associated with vulvar and vaginal cancer and vulvar (VIN) and vaginal (VaIN) and anal (AIN) intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight samples of VIN, VaIN, AIN, and vulvar cancer from 241 women were included in the study.
  • The diagnosis of surgical samples was made using published histomorphologic criteria.
  • RESULTS: The analyses were performed on 210 intraepithelial neoplasia samples (VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, AIN2/3) and 48 vulvar carcinoma samples.
  • Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 92%, 91%, 89%, and 60% of the VIN, VaIN, AIN, and vulvar carcinoma samples, respectively.
  • High-risk HPV types 16 or 18 were detected in 76%, 64%, 81%, and 42% of the VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, AIN, and vulvar carcinoma samples.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on the data obtained in this study, widely-implemented prophylactic HPV vaccination could make an important contribution to the reduction of the risk for cervical cancer and could also prevent about half the vulvar carcinomas in younger women and about two thirds of the intraepithelial lesions in the lower genital tract.


49. Patel HS, Silver AR, Northover JM: Anal cancer in renal transplant patients. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jan;22(1):1-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Transplantation.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer in renal transplant patients.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive literature review was performed to examine the prevalence of anal cancer, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in renal transplant recipients who are at risk of anal cancer due to iatrogenic immunosuppression.
  • METHODS: Pertinent articles were identified from searches performed on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database using the following keywords: anal cancer, AIN, screening, renal transplant (or kidney transplant), organ transplant recipients and post-transplant malignancies.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of AIN is 20% in renal transplant patients.
  • The prevalence of anal HPV infection in established transplant patients is 47%, and the prevalence of anal HPV infection in new transplant patients is 23%.
  • The relative risk for anal cancer in renal transplant patients is 10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As compared to HIV-positive male patients who practise anal intercourse, renal transplant patients showed a modest rise in relative risk for anal cancer.
  • Screening programmes to detect AIN in HIV-positive patients who practise anal intercourse have been introduced on a preliminary basis in sexual health clinics in the US and may become standard practise in this population.
  • The case for screening in renal transplant patients is unclear and would merit further investigation, especially with reference to the prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population.
  • It may transpire that renal transplant patients would benefit more from HPV prophylaxis rather than screening for AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • [Cites] Br J Surg. 1994 Mar;81(3):365-7 [8173899.001]
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  • (PMID = 16133005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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50. Sasaki T, Fujikane Y, Ogino Y, Osada K, Sugano M: Hepatic function and lipid metabolism are modulated by short-term feeding of cholesterol oxidation products in rats. J Oleo Sci; 2010;59(9):503-7
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  • The rats (age, 8 weeks) were fed American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-purified diets containing 0.5% cholesterol or 0.5% COPs for 7 days.

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  • (PMID = 20720381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oleo science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oleo Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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51. Ghazal-Aswad S, Badrinath P, Osman NA, Abdul-Khalik S, Raasclou T: Is there a correlation between vaginal chlamydia infection and cervical smear abnormalities? A community-based study in the Al-Ain district, United Arab Emirates. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Feb;32(1):63-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is there a correlation between vaginal chlamydia infection and cervical smear abnormalities? A community-based study in the Al-Ain district, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHODS: In this cross-sectional, community-based survey, women attending primary and secondary care in the Al-Ain medical district, United Arab Emirates, were offered cervical screening using the Papanicolaou smear, and chlamydia testing.
  • Twelve subjects had abnormal smears, including smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Vaginal Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16445527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • We characterized the prevalence of AIN among HIV-positive MSM and examined the association between AIN and various factors including use of HAART.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A baseline point-prevalence analyses in a prospective cohort study of AIN was performed at a university-based research clinic.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • In multivariate analysis, detection of > or = 6 HPV types [odds ratio (OR), 36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4-171) and use of HAART (OR, 10; 95% CI, 2.6-38) were associated with AIN after adjustment for length of time participants were HIV-positive, CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AIN has remained high among HIV-positive MSM after the introduction of HAART.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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53. Baynouna LM, Revel AD, Nagelkerke NJ, Jaber TM, Omar AO, Ahmed NM, Nazirudeen MK, Al Sayed MF, Nour FA, Abdouni S: Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Cardiovasc Diabetol; 2009;8:21

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  • [Title] Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • METHOD: A community based survey, of conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted among 817 national residents of Al Ain city, UAE.

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  • [Cites] Isr Med Assoc J. 2000 Mar;2(3):207-10 [10774268.001]
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  • (PMID = 19371412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular diabetology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Diabetol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2673216
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54. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis


55. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Santoso JT, Long M, Crigger M, Wan JY, Haefner HK: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Sep;116(3):578-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, and to compare anal cytology with colposcopy for their effectiveness in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening.
  • METHODS: Women with confirmed intraepithelial neoplasia on the cervix, vagina, or vulva were referred for gynecologic oncology care.
  • All patients underwent anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy.
  • RESULTS: Women with average age of 39.6 years (range 14 to 83 years) underwent anal cytology and anoscopy (N=205).
  • Of the 205 patients with genital intraepithelial neoplasia, 25 patients (12.2%) had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Twelve patients (5.9%) had abnormal anal cytology (nine with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US], three with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL]).
  • None of the nine patients with anal ASC-US had biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Of the three patients with anal LSIL, two had anal intraepithelial neoplasia II and one had condyloma on biopsy.
  • However, 78 patients (38%) had abnormal anoscopy findings that resulted in 25 biopsy-proven anal intraepithelial neoplasias (8 anal intraepithelial neoplasia I, 5 anal intraepithelial neoplasia II, 12 anal intraepithelial neoplasia III)), condylomas (n=11), and hyperkeratosis (n=8).
  • Anoscopy identified 32% (25 patients) with anal intraepithelial neoplasia out of 78 abnormal anoscopic examinations.
  • In diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia, anoscopy has 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity; anal cytology has 8% sensitivity and 94% specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia have 12.2% prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and should be screened with high-resolution anoscopy.
  • In anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening, anoscopy is more sensitive but less specific than anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep;116(3):566-7 [20733435.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov;116(5):1224
  • (PMID = 20733438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Kirsch P, Assouar MB, Elmazria O, Hakiki ME, Mortet V, Alnot P: Combination of e-beam lithography and of high velocity AIN/diamond-layered structure for SAW filters in X band. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control; 2007 Jul;54(7):1486-91

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  • [Title] Combination of e-beam lithography and of high velocity AIN/diamond-layered structure for SAW filters in X band.
  • In previous work, we have shown that high acoustic velocities (9 to 12 km/s) are obtained from the layered AIN/diamond structure.
  • The interdigital transducers (IDTs) made of aluminium with resolutions up to 250 nm were successfully patterned on AIN/diamond-layered structures with an adapted technological process.
  • The X-ray diffraction effectuated on the AIN/diamond-layered structure exhibits high intensity peaks related to the (002) AIN and (111) diamond orientations.
  • According to the calculated dispersion curves of velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2), the AIN layer thickness was chosen in order to combine high velocity and high K2.

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  • (PMID = 17718340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3010
  • [Journal-full-title] IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Bouzidi A, Souahi F, Hanini S: Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions. J Hazard Mater; 2010 Dec 15;184(1-3):640-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CESIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • [Title] Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions.
  • In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Soil Pollutants; 1KSV9V4Y4I / Cesium
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60. Byun JS, Lee SS: Effect of soybeans and sword beans on bone metabolism in a rat model of osteoporosis. Ann Nutr Metab; 2010;56(2):106-12
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  • METHODS: Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were raised for 2 weeks on a calcium-free diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diets.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20110670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9697
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nutrition & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Nutr. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 90032-33-0 / deoxypyridinoline
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61. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix.
  • As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal.
  • AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / surgery. Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Cytodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections. Recurrence. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
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  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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62. Goyal RK, Tiwari AN, Mulik UP, Negi YS: Thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of high performance PEEK/AIN nanocomposites. J Nanosci Nanotechnol; 2009 Dec;9(12):6902-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of high performance PEEK/AIN nanocomposites.
  • The mechanical, thermal, and dielectric properties of novel high performance poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK)/AIN nanocomposites were discussed.
  • The thermal stability and dielectric constant of the nanocomposites were increased slightly with AIN content.
  • The significant improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites was attributed to the good adhesion between the AIN nanoparticles and the polymer matrix.

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  • (PMID = 19908696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4880
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nanosci Nanotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Salama MM, Ghorab EM, Al-Abyad AG, Al-Bahy KM: Concomitant weekly vincristine and radiation followed by adjuvant vincristine and carboplatin in the treatment of high risk medulloblastoma: Ain Shams University Hospital and Sohag Cancer Center study. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Jun;18(2):167-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concomitant weekly vincristine and radiation followed by adjuvant vincristine and carboplatin in the treatment of high risk medulloblastoma: Ain Shams University Hospital and Sohag Cancer Center study.
  • RESULTS: The study included seventeen high risk medulloblastoma patients presented to Ain Shams University hospitals and Sohag Cancer Center between November 2001 and March 2005.

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  • (PMID = 17496943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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64. Watson AJ, Smith BB, Whitehead MR, Sykes PH, Frizelle FA: Malignant progression of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Aug;76(8):715-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant progression of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • The risk of developing anal cancer in patients with AIN, although known to occur, has been thought to be relatively low.
  • This study reviews our experience with AIN, reviewing the incidence and risk factors for development of invasive malignancy and the outcome of present management strategies.
  • METHODS: This study examined a cohort of 72 patients identified from a prospective database with AIN from a single institution between January 1996 and December 2004.
  • We identified progression of AIN to invasive malignancy in eight patients despite undergoing surveillance.
  • CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high rate of progression to invasive malignancy (11%) with AIN despite surveillance.
  • The patients at risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma were the immunocompromised and those with genital intra-epithelial field change.
  • Treatment of AIN has significant complications and despite treatment, invasive cancers do occur.
  • Decisions made for treatment of AIN can affect treatment choices if invasive malignancy develops.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16916390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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65. Szeto IM, Payne ME, Jahan-Mihan A, Duan J, Anderson GH: Multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy alters body weight and macronutrient selection in Wistar rat offspring. J Dev Orig Health Dis; 2010 Dec;1(6):386-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pregnant Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were fed the AIN-93G diet containing a multivitamin mix at the recommended (RV) content or10-fold higher (high vitamin, HV) content.

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  • (PMID = 25142010.001).
  • [ISSN] 2040-1744
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of developmental origins of health and disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dev Orig Health Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Alves CC, Torrinhas RS, Giorgi R, Brentani MM, Logullo AF, Arias V, Mauad T, da Silva LF, Waitzberg DL: Short-term specialized enteral diet fails to attenuate malnutrition impairment of experimental open wound acute healing. Nutrition; 2010 Sep;26(9):873-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-ARGININE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Control rats received a standard oral diet (AIN-93M chow) plus enteral saline solution.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Collagen / genetics. Collagen / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Enteral Nutrition. Fibroblasts / cytology. Food, Formulated. Gene Expression / physiology. Inflammation / etiology. Male. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20692600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1244
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutrition
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
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67. Saad AA, El-Shennawy D, El-Hagracy RS, Hamed AI, El-Feky MA, Ismail MA: Prognostic value of lipoprotein lipase expression among egyptian B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Dec;20(4):323-9

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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 25 CLL patients attending Hematology Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals.

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  • (PMID = 20571590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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68. Saadatian-Elahi M, Facy F, Del Signore C, Vanhems P: Perception of epidemic's related anxiety in the general French population: a cross-sectional study in the Rhône-Alpes region. BMC Public Health; 2010;10:191
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  • The percentage was even higher (88%) among inhabitants of the Ain district, where an avian influenza epidemic had previously been reported.

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  • [Cites] Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Feb;10(2):358-63 [15030713.001]
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  • (PMID = 20385030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2874530
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69. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67

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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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70. Shalaby SA, Elmasry MK, Abd-Elrahman AE, Abd-Elkarim MA, Abd-Elhaleem ZA: Clinical profile of acute paraphenylenediamine intoxication in Egypt. Toxicol Ind Health; 2010 Mar;26(2):81-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,4-BENZENEDIAMINE ETHANEDIOATE .

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  • It was conducted over 7 years (2001-2008) on 25 cases with acute PPD intoxication admitted to the Poison Control Center Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

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  • (PMID = 20103579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0393
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and industrial health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Ind Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phenylenediamines; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; U770QIT64J / 4-phenylenediamine
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71. Garvey JP, Brown CM, Chotirmall SH, Dorman AM, Conlon PJ, Walshe JJ: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced acute interstitial nephritis in renal allografts; clinical course and outcome. Clin Nephrol; 2009 Nov;72(5):331-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TRIMETHOPRIM/SULFAMETHOXAZOLE .

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  • BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is well documented as a cause of acute renal failure in native kidneys.
  • TMP-SMX is the standard prophylactic agent against pneumocystis carinii (PCP) used in the early post-transplant period, however, it has to date only been indirectly associated with AIN in renal allografts.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We describe eleven renal transplant patients with acute allograft dysfunction in whom a transplant biopsy demonstrated primary histopathologic features of allergic AIN, all of whom were receiving TMP-SMX in addition to other medications known to cause AIN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIN secondary to TMP-SMX, although an uncommon cause of allograft dysfunction over the study period, accounted for over 10% of cases of allograft dysfunction within the first month of transplantation.
  • Therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion for TMP-SMX-induced AIN is warranted when confronted with early acute allograft dysfunction.

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  • (PMID = 19863874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8064-90-2 / Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
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72. Hurschler BA, Ding XC, Grosshans H: Translational control of endogenous microRNA target genes in C. elegans. Prog Mol Subcell Biol; 2010;50:21-40

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  • We will also discuss the roles of the GW182 homologous AIN-1 and AIN-2 proteins in this process.

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  • (PMID = 19841879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6484
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in molecular and subcellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Mol. Subcell. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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73. Farouk HM, Mansour HE, Rahman SA, Mostafa AA, Shamy HA, Zarouk WA: Effect of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide on the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2009 Sep;42(9):831-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Twenty-nine RA patients gave informed consent to participate in a case-control study that was approved by the Ain Shams University Medical Ethics Committee.

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  • (PMID = 19738989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1414-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / cyclic citrullinated peptide
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74. Kozul CD, Hampton TH, Davey JC, Gosse JA, Nomikos AP, Eisenhauer PL, Weiss DJ, Thorpe JE, Ihnat MA, Hamilton JW: Chronic exposure to arsenic in the drinking water alters the expression of immune response genes in mouse lung. Environ Health Perspect; 2009 Jul;117(7):1108-15
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ARSENIC, ELEMENTAL .

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  • METHODS: C57BL/6J mice fed a casein-based AIN-76A defined diet were exposed to 10 or 100 ppb As in drinking water or food for 5-6 weeks.

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  • (PMID = 19654921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007373; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R21 HL081289; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL081289; United States / PHS HHS / / T32-DF007301
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2717138
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; arsenic / inflammation / innate immune system / lung / migration
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75. Staniek H, Krejpcio Z: The effects of tricentric chromium(III) propionate complex supplementation on pregnancy outcome and maternal and foetal mineral status in rat. Food Chem Toxicol; 2009 Oct;47(10):2673-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROPIONIC ACID .

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  • Female Wistar rats (n=20, 14 weeks old) were mated with males and, after successful conception were fed either AIN-93G diet supplemented with CrProp (100mg Cr/kg diet, equals to 7.2mg Cr/kg body mass/day) or non-supplemented diet (0.27 mg Cr/kg diet, equals to 0.02 mg Cr/kg body mass/day) for 21 days.

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  • (PMID = 19651186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Micronutrients; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Trace Elements; 79-09-4 / propionic acid
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76. Park IU, Ogilvie JW Jr, Anderson KE, Li ZZ, Darrah L, Madoff R, Downs L Jr: Anal human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology in women with genital neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):399-403
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal human papillomavirus infection and abnormal anal cytology in women with genital neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Describe the type-specific prevalence of anal HPV infection in women with lower genital tract intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.
  • Describe the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and identify risk factors for anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in this population.
  • METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending 2 university-based colposcopy clinics with high-grade lower genital tract intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer.
  • Participants received anal HPV testing/typing, anal cytology and completed a questionnaire detailing medical history and sexual behavior.
  • RESULTS: Of the 102 women enrolled, 92 (90%) had adequate beta-globin for analysis of HPV DNA status, and 47/92 women (51%) had detectable anal HPV.
  • Overall, 9 women (9%) had abnormal anal cytology, and 7 of those had corresponding anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (AIN I).
  • Women with vulvar disease had the highest proportion of abnormal anal cytology (21%) compared to women with cervical disease alone (7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.10).
  • Neither anal HPV infection nor abnormal cytology was significantly associated with anal sex practices, smoking or number of sexual partners.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal infection with high-risk HPV types is common in women with high-grade genital neoplasia, but was not associated with known risk factors for genital HPV infection.
  • Other unidentified risk factors may play a role in the anal HPV infection in this population.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was rare and larger studies are needed to identify risk factors associated with abnormal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19501896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Kolappaswamy K, Williams KA, Benazzi C, Sarli G, McLeod CG Jr, Vucenik I, DeTolla LJ: Effect of inositol hexaphosphate on the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in SKH1 hairless mice. Comp Med; 2009 Apr;59(2):147-52
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • All mice in both groups were fed an IP6-deficient diet (AIN 76A).

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  • (PMID = 19389306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 7IGF0S7R8I / Phytic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2703150
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78. Ling PR, Bistrian BR: Comparison of the effects of food versus protein restriction on selected nutritional and inflammatory markers in rats. Metabolism; 2009 Jun;58(6):835-42
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We previously demonstrated that feeding a 2% protein AIN-76 diet ad libitum for 14 days resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical changes including weight loss, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, higher levels of plasma cytokines, oxidative stress in the liver, and activation of inflammatory signaling to interleukin (IL)-6, as compared with a 20% protein diet.
  • Because these latter 3 markers were not examined previously, 20 rats were fed an AIN-76 diet, either with 20% or 2% protein, ad libitum for 14 days.

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  • (PMID = 19375129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8600
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab. Clin. Exp.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; None / None / / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-11
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0 / Ghrelin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS330216; NLM/ PMC3201784
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79. Kaczorowska-Hać B, Wierzba J, Stefanowicz J, Sielachowicz K, Wlazłowski M, Balcerska A: [Neutropenia in infancy - sometimes chronic and benign - own experiences]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2008 Jul-Sep;12(3):767-70

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  • The most common type of chronic neutropenia in infants is chronic, benign neutropenia (AIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Neutropenia / blood. Neutropenia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19305028.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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80. Al Reyami E, Al Zoabi K, Rahmani A, Tamim M, Chedid F: Is isolation of outborn infants required at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit? Am J Infect Control; 2009 May;37(4):335-7
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  • METHODS: All 239 consecutive infants referred from the neonatal units of other hospitals to a tertiary NICU in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, between January 2000 and December 2007 were screened for MRSA colonization.

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  • (PMID = 19181424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of infection control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Infect Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial
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81. Stier EA, Baranoski AS: Human papillomavirus-related diseases in HIV-infected individuals. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):541-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Palliative Care of Patients with HIV .

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  • RECENT FINDINGS: Studies assessing geographic variations in human papillomavirus types and prevalence in cervical dysplasia and cancer in HIV-infected women suggest that although human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 dominate, multiple other human papillomavirus types may play a role in carcinogenesis.
  • Anal dysplasia and cancer incidence continues to rise in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era; however, data on outcomes following therapy for anal dysplasia (infrared coagulator, high-resolution anoscopy-guided ablation) and anal cancer (chemoradiation and possibly intensity-modulated radiation therapy) have been encouraging.
  • SUMMARY: As HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era continue to have high rates of cervical and anal cancer, it is important to continue screening efforts and treatment of preinvasive disease.
  • Treatment options for anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals are expanding and may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality.

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  • (PMID = 19106657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS126311; NLM/ PMC2757652
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82. Tharappel JC, Lehmler HJ, Srinivasan C, Robertson LW, Spear BT, Glauert HP: Effect of antioxidant phytochemicals on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77). Food Chem Toxicol; 2008 Nov;46(11):3467-74
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Female Sprague Dawley rats were first injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) and one week later the rats were fed an AIN-93 based purified diet or the same diet containing ellagic acid (0.4%), beta-carotene (0.5%), curcumin (0.5%), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 1.0%), coenzyme CoQ10 (CoQ10, 0.4%), resveratrol (0.005%), lycopene (10% as Lycovit, which contains 10% lycopene), or a tea extract (1%, containing 16.5% epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] and 33.4% total catechins).

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  • (PMID = 18796325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-02S2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380-050003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380-040003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-020001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-030001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-02S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007380-060003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007380-050003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K25 ES012475-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-020001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-01A10001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07380; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K25 ES012475; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-01A10001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-03S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-03S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007380-080003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-02S2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013661-030001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380-070003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380-080003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007380-060003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007380-070003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012475; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007380-040003; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012475-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661-02S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 19YRN3ZS9P / Ellagic Acid; 32598-13-3 / 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl; 36-88-4 / Carotenoids; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EJ27X76M46 / coenzyme Q10; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; SB0N2N0WV6 / lycopene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS80794; NLM/ PMC2597727
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83. Clarke JM, Topping DL, Bird AR, Young GP, Cobiac L: Effects of high-amylose maize starch and butyrylated high-amylose maize starch on azoxymethane-induced intestinal cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis; 2008 Nov;29(11):2190-4
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  • Four groups (n = 30 per group) of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-93G-based diets containing a standard low-RS maize starch (LAMS), LAMS + 3% tributyrin (LAMST), 10% high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) and 10% butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB) for 4 weeks.

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  • (PMID = 18701436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Butyrates; 0 / Carcinogens; 9005-25-8 / Starch; 9005-82-7 / Amylose; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577140
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84. Park JY, Pandher DS, Chun JY, Md ST: Antegrade humeral nailing through the rotator cuff interval: a new entry portal. J Orthop Trauma; 2008 Jul;22(6):419-25
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  • The conventional approach for antegrade intramedullary nailing (AIN) of humerus fractures is associated with persistent pain and compromised shoulder function.
  • Damage to the critical hypovascular zone of the rotator cuff near its insertion on the humerus and/or irritation of the subacromial space by prominent hardware are the factors believed to be responsible for poor shoulder function after AIN of the humerus.
  • The overall satisfaction rate was more than 90%, according to the ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Society) score.

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  • (PMID = 18594308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Son BK, Kim JY, Lee SS: Effect of adlay, buckwheat and barley on lipid metabolism and aorta histopathology in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Ann Nutr Metab; 2008;52(3):181-7
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  • METHODS: The rats were then raised for 4 weeks on an obesogenic diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93 G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18544971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9697
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nutrition & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Nutr. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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86. Qi X, Reed JT, Wang G, Han S, Englander EW, Greeley GH Jr: Ghrelin secretion is not reduced by increased fat mass during diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2008 Aug;295(2):R429-35
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

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  • Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard AIN-76A (approximately 5-12% of calories from fat) or an HF (approximately 45% of calories from fat) diet.

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  • (PMID = 18495830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK061614; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK-61614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Ghrelin; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2519926
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87. Bobe G, Barrett KG, Mentor-Marcel RA, Saffiotti U, Young MR, Colburn NH, Albert PS, Bennink MR, Lanza E: Dietary cooked navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced ob/ob mice. Nutr Cancer; 2008;60(3):373-81
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  • Cooked navy beans (whole beans), the insoluble fraction (bean residue) or soluble fraction of the 60% (vol:vol) ethanol extract of cooked navy beans (bean extract), or a modified AIN-93G diet (16.6% fat including 12.9% lard) as control diet were fed to 160 male obese ob/ob mice after 2 azoxymethane injections.
  • In comparison to control-fed mice, dysplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas were detected in fewer mice on either bean fraction diet (percent reduction from control: whole beans 54%, P=0.10; bean residue 81%, P=0.003; bean extract 91%, P=0.007), and any type of colon lesions, including focal hyperplasia, were found in fewer mice on each of the 3 bean diets percent reduction from control: whole bean 56%, P=0.04; bean residue 67%, P=0.01; bean extract 87%, P=0.0003.

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  • (PMID = 18444172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-5581
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010025-12
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Plant Extracts; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS48988; NLM/ PMC2423381
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88. Stemm DN, Tharappel JC, Lehmler HJ, Srinivasan C, Morris JS, Spate VL, Robertson LW, Spear BT, Glauert HP: Effect of dietary selenium on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by 3,3', 4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2008 Mar;233(3):366-76
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • An AIN-93 torula yeast-based purified diet containing 0.02 (deficient), 0.2 (adequate), or 2.0 mg (supplemental) selenium/kg diet was fed to Sprague-Dawley female rats starting ten days after administering a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (150 mg/kg).

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  • (PMID = 18296742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 012475; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES013661; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 013661; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 07266; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 07380
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 32598-13-3 / 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium; ZRU0C9E32O / 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl
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89. Elnour AA, Ellahham NH, Al Qassas HI: Raising the awareness of inpatient nursing staff about medication errors. Pharm World Sci; 2008 Apr;30(2):182-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Medication Errors.

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  • METHOD: A sample of in-patient nursing staff in Al Ain hospital (n = 370) was included in the study and completed a self-reported questionnaire about medication errors.

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  • (PMID = 17882532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-1231
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacy world & science : PWS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm World Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Al-Maskari F, El-Sadig M, Norman JN: The prevalence of macrovascular complications among diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates. Cardiovasc Diabetol; 2007;6:24
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of macrovascular complications among diabetic patients in the Al-Ain district of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • METHODS: The study was part of a general cross-sectional survey carried out to assess the prevalence of diabetes (DM) complications among known diabetic patients in Al-Ain District, UAE.

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  • (PMID = 17880686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular diabetology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Diabetol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2093928
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91. Son EW, Lee SR, Choi HS, Koo HJ, Huh JE, Kim MH, Pyo S: Effects of supplementation with higher levels of manganese and magnesium on immune function. Arch Pharm Res; 2007 Jun;30(6):743-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • The treatments were as follows: Group 1, AIN-93M diet (0.05% Mg, 0.001% Mn); Group 2, high-dose Mg (0.1% Mg, 0.001% Mn); and Group 3, high dose Mn (0.05% Mg, 0.01% Mn) (n-12/group).

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  • (PMID = 17679553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pharmacal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Mitogens; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 36015-30-2 / Propidium; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese; I2ZWO3LS3M / Trypan Blue; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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92. Kim HA, Jeong KS, Park DH, Lee JA, Jeong WI, Kim YK: Heavy water labeling method for measuring the effect of genistein on mammary gland carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem; 2007 Jul;301(1-2):201-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Deuterium oxide .

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  • Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed estrogen-free AIN-93G diet starting 1 week before breeding and continuing through pregnancy and lactation.
  • Female pups were assigned to the following groups on postnatal day 16 and fed AIN-93G diet: vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide) (DMSO), genistein, and estradiol benzoate (EB).
  • Mammary epithelial cell proliferation was measured by enrichment (EM1) of dA from rats.
  • Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining of mammary tissue revealed that genistein reduced proliferation of the mammary epithelial, and the number of cells stained positive for BrdU both in DMBA-treated groups and DMBA non-treated groups.
  • The exposure to genistein in the prepubertal period inhibited mammary epithelial cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Animals. Body Water / chemistry. Carcinogens / toxicity. Diet. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Pregnancy. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17318409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; J65BV539M3 / Deuterium Oxide
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93. Reeves PG, Gregoire BR, Garvin DF, Hareland GA, Lindlauf JE, Johnson LK, Finley JW: Determination of selenium bioavailability from wheat mill fractions in rats by using the slope-ratio assay and a modified torula yeast-based diet. J Agric Food Chem; 2007 Jan 24;55(2):516-22
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • The responses generated from wheat Se were compared to a standard response curve generated by feeding graded amounts of Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3; NaSelenite) or selenomethionine (SeMet) in an AIN-93G-Torula yeast-based diet.

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  • (PMID = 17227087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.- / glutathione peroxidase GPX1; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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94. Ardiansyah, Shirakawa H, Koseki T, Hashizume K, Komai M: The Driselase-treated fraction of rice bran is a more effective dietary factor to improve hypertension, glucose and lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to ferulic acid. Br J Nutr; 2007 Jan;97(1):67-76
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FERULIC ACID .

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  • Male SHRSP at 4 weeks of age were divided into three groups, and for 8 weeks were fed (1) a control diet based on AIN-93M, (2) a DF of rice bran-supplemented diet at 60 g/kg and (3) an FA-supplemented diet at 0.01 g/kg.

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  • (PMID = 17217561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1145
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Coumaric Acids; 0 / Fungal Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; AVM951ZWST / ferulic acid; EC 3.2.1.- / Glycoside Hydrolases; EC 3.2.1.- / driselase; EC 3.4.15.1 / Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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95. El-Sayed HM, El-Lamie IK, Ibrahim AM, El-Lamie KI: Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in vaginal agenesis. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2007 Sep;18(9):1043-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • From June 2000 to June 2005, 26 patients with congenital vaginal agenesis were evaluated and treated with sigmoid colon reconstruction at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital as a primary procedure in 17 patients and a secondary procedure in 9 patients after previous failed Abbe-McIndoe vaginoplasty elsewhere.

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  • (PMID = 17203327.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Eskin NA, Raju J, Bird RP: Novel mucilage fraction of Sinapis alba L. (mustard) reduces azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 and Zucker obese rats. Phytomedicine; 2007 Aug;14(7-8):479-85
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In two separate studies, male Sprague-Dawley or female Zucker obese rats, injected with azoxymethane (15 or 10 mg/kg body wt. once a week for 2 weeks, respectively), were fed AIN-93G diets with or without 5% mustard mucilage (MM) (w/w) for 8 weeks.

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  • (PMID = 17188481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-7113
  • [Journal-full-title] Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phytomedicine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adhesives; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Plant Extracts; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
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97. Lala G, Malik M, Zhao C, He J, Kwon Y, Giusti MM, Magnuson BA: Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats. Nutr Cancer; 2006;54(1):84-93
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Water .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Fischer 344 male rats were fed the AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 wk.

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  • (PMID = 16800776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-5581
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 6957-76-2 / 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanine; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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98. El Alfy MS, Mokhtar GM, El-Laboudy MA, Khalifa AS: Randomized trial of anti-D immunoglobulin versus low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of childhood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Acta Haematol; 2006;115(1-2):46-52
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bleeding.

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  • Six years ago, low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment of childhood ITP was started at the Pediatric Hematology Unit, Ain Shams University, while intravenous anti-D has been introduced in Egypt in 2001.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16424649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Rho(D) Immune Globulin
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99. Benetti M, Cannatà D, Di Pietrantonio F, Verona E: Growth of A1N piezoelectric film on diamond for high-frequency surface acoustic wave devices. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control; 2005 Oct;52(10):1806-11

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  • Use of high-quality AIN as the piezoelectric layer in conjunction with diamond is also desirable because of its high SAW velocity--the highest among all piezoelectric materials--together with its excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties.

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  • (PMID = 16382632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3010
  • [Journal-full-title] IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Voigt W, Kegel T, Weiss M, Mueller T, Simon H, Schmoll HJ: Potential activity of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep;131(9):585-90
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINBLASTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal course in the mostly elderly patients with a median survival after diagnosis of 4-12 months.
  • Recently, based on preclinical data Ain et al. conducted a clinical phase II study with paclitaxel 96 h infusion in ATC achieving a promising response rate of 53%.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Topotecan .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAXOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINORELBINE .
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  • (PMID = 16021466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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