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1. Montaner S: Akt/TSC/mTOR activation by the KSHV G protein-coupled receptor: emerging insights into the molecular oncogenesis and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Cell Cycle; 2007 Feb 15;6(4):438-43
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  • [Title] Akt/TSC/mTOR activation by the KSHV G protein-coupled receptor: emerging insights into the molecular oncogenesis and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an enigmatic vascular neoplasm that has reached epidemic proportions in parts of the developing world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the AIDS population.
  • Unfortunately, KS is still difficult to manage therapeutically, especially in its most advanced clinical manifestations.
  • The recent identification of the KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) as its viral etiologic agent has prompted renewed interest in the molecular pathogenesis of this disease.
  • Emerging evidence now points to a single KSHV gene, vGPCR, as essential for KS development, providing a unique opportunity to expose new targets for the treatment of this tumor.
  • Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin has shown promising results in preventing vGPCR tumorigenesis in an animal model for KS.
  • These observations are further validated by coincident reports demonstrating the efficacy of rapamycin (sirolimus) as an immunossuppresive and anti-tumoral solution for posttransplant KS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Viral Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17329974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / G protein-coupled receptor, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / TSC protein, human; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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2. Célestin Schartz NE, Chevret S, Paz C, Kerob D, Verola O, Morel P, Lebbé C: Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Apr;58(4):585-91
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  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a virus-associated neoplasm, can be treated locally or systemically with interferon alfa.
  • Therefore, imiquimod, an immune response modifier able to induce interferon-alpha secretion in situ, could prove a good local treatment for KS skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream for the topical treatment of classic or endemic KS skin lesions in patients who are HIV negative.
  • The main efficacy end points were the safety of topical imiquimod and the overall clinical response in patients evaluated on the basis of modified AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria at 36 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical imiquimod 5% cream had antitumor activity in about half the patients with classic and endemic KS and was generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. HIV Seronegativity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18068265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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3. Konstantinopoulos PA, Sullivan RJ, Karamouzis MV, Dezube BJ: Investigational agents for treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2007 Apr;16(4):495-504
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  • [Title] Investigational agents for treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a neoplasm that results from the co-infection of HIV and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8).
  • Targeting HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy has attenuated the natural history of this disease.
  • Recent discoveries have elucidated the role of multiple signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related KS.
  • In addition, KSHV/HHV8 can modulate cellular growth and angiogenic pathways to augment malignant transformation and potentiate growth.
  • This article discusses the main signaling pathways that are implicated in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related KS, reviews recently completed clinical trials and anticipates the future direction of molecularly targeted agents in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


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4. Sánchez del Monte J, Hernández Guerrero A, Sobrino Cossio S, Lárraga Octavio A, Sánchez Benítez G, López Blanco P, Elguero Pineda E: [Clinical manifestations and endoscopic characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]. Rev Gastroenterol Mex; 2005 Oct-Dec;70(4):416-23
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  • [Title] [Clinical manifestations and endoscopic characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Manifestaciones clinicas y características endoscópicas del sarcoma de Kaposi en pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma may be the initial manifestation of immunodeficiency acquired syndrome (AIDS )in 30% of patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To correlate the clinic and endoscopic manifestations of patients with AIDS.
  • METHOD: 12 consecutive cases with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma.
  • We analyzed clinical data, positivity , immune state (leucocytes, lymphocytes, viral load, CD4 and CD8 counts, CD4/CD8 relation), opportunistic infections, tumors, endoscopic characteristics of the associated tumors, and histologic results.
  • All of them acquired the disease by sexual contact.
  • The distribution of Kaposi sarcoma was as follows: hard palate 7, soft palate 2, larynx 3, esophagus 2, stomach 10, duodenum 2, colon 5 and anal conduct 1.
  • The biopsy was positive to Kaposi sarcoma in at least one lesion of each patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Kaposi sarcoma appears as a multiple lesion with diverse aspect and colors that go from purple to blue or red.
  • There is correlation between a high number of Kaposi sarcoma lesions, affected organs, immunologic status and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17058981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0375-0906
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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5. Cantelmo AR, Cammarota R, Noonan DM, Focaccetti C, Comoglio PM, Prat M, Albini A: Cell delivery of Met docking site peptides inhibit angiogenesis and vascular tumor growth. Oncogene; 2010 Sep 23;29(38):5286-98
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  • Here we have investigated the antiangiogenic properties of a synthetic peptide mimicking the docking site of the Met carboxyl-terminal tail, which was delivered into the cells by fusion with the internalization sequences from Antennapedia or HIV-Tat.
  • In vivo, the peptides inhibited HGF-induced angiogenesis in the matrigel sponge assay and impaired xenograft tumor growth and vascularization in Kaposi's sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 20603611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3007100
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6. Sahoo S: HIV- and AIDS-related Ocular Manifestations in Tanzanian Patients. Malays J Med Sci; 2010 Jan;17(1):12-6
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  • [Title] HIV- and AIDS-related Ocular Manifestations in Tanzanian Patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Although around 70% of HIV+ cases used to have ocular manifestations, the late reporting of cases often results in severe forms of ocular morbidity that would otherwise have been prevented.
  • The objective of this study was to describe the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS-related patients who had been admitted to TM Jafferji Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
  • METHODS: Proven cases of HIV were recruited in this study.
  • RESULTS: Around 90% of the recruited cases were in clinical stage III and IV HIV.
  • The notable ocular manifestations included micro-vasculopathy of the retina in 25%, uveitis in 8%, CMV retinitis in 7%, neuro-ophthalmic manifestation in 6%, Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in 5%, Kaposi's sarcoma in 3% and conjunctival carcinoma in 2% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the cases recruited in our study were in the late stages of HIV.

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  • (PMID = 22135520.001).
  • [ISSN] 2180-4303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3216149
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIDS / CMV retinitis / HIV / medical sciences / micro-vasculopathy
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7. Bruce AG, Bakke AM, Thouless ME, Rose TM: Development of a real-time QPCR assay for the detection of RV2 lineage-specific rhadinoviruses in macaques and baboons. Virol J; 2005 Jan 05;2:2
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  • BACKGROUND: Two distinct lineages of rhadinoviruses related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) have been identified in macaques and other Old World non-human primates.

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  • (PMID = 15634356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR13154; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000166; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R24 RR023343; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K02 AI49275; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R01 RR013154; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K02 AI049275; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00166
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC544863
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8. Nemunaitis MC, Schussler JM, Shiller SM, Sloan LM, Mennel RG: Primary effusion lymphoma diagnosed by pericardiocentesis. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent); 2009 Jan;22(1):77-80
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), formerly known as body cavity-based lymphoma, is a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection.
  • PEL is often diagnosed in patients with HIV infection and carries a poor prognosis, with median survival near 6 months.
  • We describe a patient who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion, secondary to newly diagnosed PEL, and no prior history of HIV infection.

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  • (PMID = 19169406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-8280
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2626366
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9. Pak F, Mwakigonja AR, Kokhaei P, Hosseinzadeh N, Pyakurel P, Kaaya E, Bogdanovic G, Selivanova G, Biberfeld P: Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus load in biopsies of cutaneous and oral Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Aug;43(12):1877-82
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus load in biopsies of cutaneous and oral Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) viral load in diagnostic, (formalin fixed, paraffinised) biopsies and patient serum during tumour progression of oral and cutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AKS), and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) by a sensitive and specific quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay.
  • RESULTS: Higher viral load as well as frequency of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)+ tumour spindle cells (SC) and number of LANA granules per SC was found in oral AKS compared to cutaneous AKS.
  • Although few cases were available, serum viral load appeared to decrease compared to tumour tissue during KS progression.
  • Decrease of serum HHV-8 load during KS progression may indicate decreased virus release and/or increased virus clearance.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. DNA, Viral / analysis. Disease Progression. Humans. Mouth / pathology. Mouth / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology. Viral Load


10. Kahl P, Buettner R, Friedrichs N, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Wenzel J, Carl Heukamp L: Kaposi's sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract: report of two cases and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(4):227-31
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract: report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Involvement of Kaposi's sarcoma in the gastrointestinal tract is common in AIDS patients and can also occur in non-AIDS patients.
  • However, the disease is usually asymptomatic and, due to tumor growth primarily in the submucosa, biopsy diagnosis is possible in less than 25%.
  • In the present study, we describe two cases of Kaposi's sarcoma that were first diagnosed in the gastrointestinal tract of a 74-year-old patient who presented to the clinic with nausea and vomiting.
  • Histology revealed a Kaposi's sarcoma of the stomach with existing HHV8 infection, and there were negative tests for HIV.
  • The second case is a 39-year-old patient with multiple lesions in the stomach and in the small and large intestine.
  • The histology verified multiple Kaposi's sarcomas that were HHV 8-positive.
  • Afterwards, the diagnosis of an HIV infection was made.
  • Primary diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract in HIV-negative patients is certainly rare and more frequently made in HIV patients.
  • Nevertheless, Kaposi's sarcoma must always be considered in lesions of the gastrointestinal tract or in gastrointestinal bleeding and should lead to further elucidation of the causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17379429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Webster-Cyriaque J, Duus K, Cooper C, Duncan M: Oral EBV and KSHV infection in HIV. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):91-5
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  • [Title] Oral EBV and KSHV infection in HIV.
  • The gamma herpesviruses, Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are tightly associated with the development of AIDS-associated oral disease and malignancy during immune suppression.
  • The objective of this investigation was to characterize oral infection and pathogenesis in healthy and immune-suppressed individuals.
  • To characterize oral EBV and KSHV infection, we examined throat washings and oral epithelial cells from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.
  • We detected EBV and KSHV in the oral cavity in healthy and immune-suppressed individuals.
  • Viral strain analysis of KSHV K1 in multiple clones from the oral cavities of healthy persons and immunosuppressed patients detected several strains previously detected in KS lesions, with minor strain variation within individuals.
  • Immunoelectron microscopy for multiple viral antigens detected consistent expression of viral proteins and oral epithelial specimens.
  • In oral epithelial cells infected with wild-type KSHV in vitro, the K8.1 glycoprotein associated with lytic KSHV infection was detected in both primary and telomerase immortalized oral epithelial cultures by 24 hours post-infection.
  • Oral epithelial cells were also infected in vitro with wild-type EBV originating from throat washes.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Epithelial Cells / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / pathogenicity. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Mouth Diseases / virology. Mouth Mucosa / virology. Oropharynx / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Line. Cell Line, Transformed. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity. Herpesviridae Infections / transmission. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Saliva / virology. Viral Envelope Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16672557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-0737
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K23DE00460-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03DE1444-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 0 / glycoprotein B, human herpesvirus 8
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12. Agaba PA, Sule HM, Ojoh RO, Hassan Z, Apena L, Mu'azu MA, Badung B, Agbaji OO, Idoko JA, Kanki P: Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Jun;20(6):410-3
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  • [Title] Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • We identified 48 HIV-positive patients with AIDS-KS and matched them for age and sex with an equal number of HIV-positive patients without AIDS-KS.
  • They were similar in age and body mass index profile but patients with AIDS-KS had more tuberculosis co-infection (P, 0.02), lower median CD4 count (P, 0.003) and higher mortality (P, 0.002).
  • Surprisingly, patients with AIDS-KS had lower levels of median viral load (29,347 copies/mL) compared with controls (80,533 copies/mL).
  • We recommend specific AIDS-KS therapy in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy in order to improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / mortality. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


13. Garavelli PL, Rosa F, Brustia D, Brondolo R, Borrè S, Rizzo G: [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV seropositive patient with Kaposi sarcoma]. Recenti Prog Med; 2005 Oct;96(10):492
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  • [Title] [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV seropositive patient with Kaposi sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Istoplasmosi disseminata in un paziente sieropositivo per HIV con sarcoma di Kaposi.
  • Histoplasmosis, worldwide diffuse mycosis, is known as opportunistic infection of AIDS in disseminated clinical pattern.
  • The Authors report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis and Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV positive patient.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Histoplasmosis / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


14. Deeken JF, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: Targeted therapies to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients with HIV on HAART therapy: treatment considerations and research outlook. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):445-54
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  • [Title] Targeted therapies to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients with HIV on HAART therapy: treatment considerations and research outlook.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of patients diagnosed with HIV and AIDS.
  • This includes a significant decline in the rates of AIDS-related cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Unfortunately, rates of non-AIDS-defining cancers are on the rise, and now exceed the rates of AIDS-related cancers in patients with HIV.
  • Treating non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients who are on highly active antiretroviral therapy is an open and complicated clinical question.
  • Unfortunately little is known about possible drug-drug interactions because HIV patients are typically excluded from clinical trials.
  • We conclude with considerations on how to use these new agents to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers, and discuss a future research agenda to better understand and predict potential highly active antiretroviral therapy-targeted therapy interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19606034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 118
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS382143; NLM/ PMC3377583
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15. Ramírez-Olivencia G, Valencia-Ortega ME, Martin-Carbonero L, Moreno-Celda V, González-Lahoz J: [Malignancies in HIV infected patients: study of 139 cases]. Med Clin (Barc); 2009 Nov 21;133(19):729-35
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  • [Title] [Malignancies in HIV infected patients: study of 139 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: estudio de 139 casos.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the natural history of HIV infection has been altered by an increasing survival.
  • Following this, neoplastic diseases have become more common in HIV positive patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the types of tumor, clinical features and prognosis of HIV infected patients with malignant diseases.
  • Information was collected on age, sex, risk factors for HIV, HBV/HCV coinfection, malignancies, diagnosis of AIDS, viral load and CD4 cell counts at diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy and mortality.
  • A total of 139 HIV-infected patients were identified who had at least one malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Types of malignancy were Kaposi's Sarcoma (n=43, 30.9%); non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=42, 30.2%); gynecologic malignancy (n=16, 11.5%); Hodgkin's disease (n=15, 10.8%); hepatocellular carcinoma (n=7, 5%) and others (n=16, 11.5%).
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 40 years (IC 95% 38.51-1.50).
  • Risk factor for HIV was MSM (n=64;46%), IDUs (n=48; 34.5%) and heterosexual (n=26; 18.7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased survival of HIV-infected patients receiving HAART makes it possible the development of secondary tumors and AIDS- unrelated malignancies, sometimes related to another virus.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19880148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Bihl F, Mosam A, Henry LN, Chisholm JV 3rd, Dollard S, Gumbi P, Cassol E, Page T, Mueller N, Kiepiela P, Martin JN, Coovadia HM, Scadden DT, Brander C: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific immune reconstitution and antiviral effect of combined HAART/chemotherapy in HIV clade C-infected individuals with Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2007 Jun 19;21(10):1245-52
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific immune reconstitution and antiviral effect of combined HAART/chemotherapy in HIV clade C-infected individuals with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is endemic in South Africa and the clinical manifestation of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) represents a significant clinical problem.
  • Whereas the positive effects of HAART on the regression of KS have been well established, less is known about the role of herpesvirus-specific cellular immunity in disease improvement.
  • DESIGN: Thirty-three treatment-naive HIV clade C-infected individuals with KS were randomly assigned into two treatment arms (HAART plus systemic chemotherapy versus HAART alone).
  • KSHV-specific cellular immune responses, viral loads and clinical outcome were evaluated.
  • METHODS: KSHV, Epstein-Barr virus and HIV-specific cellular immunity was measured using an IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay in samples obtained at baseline and up to 11 months after treatment initiation.
  • Cell-associated KSHV viremia was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • RESULTS: Robust increases in CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV viral loads were seen in parallel with significant increases in the KSHV-specific cellular immune responses over time.
  • CONCLUSION: The data show a temporal association between the clinical improvement of KS and the re-appearance of KSHV-specific cellular immunity, and demonstrate an effective suppression of KSHV viral replication using combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Immunity, Cellular / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Viremia / immunology. Virus Replication / drug effects. Virus Replication / immunology


17. Laney AS, Cannon MJ, Jaffe HW, Offermann MK, Ou CY, Radford KW, Patel MM, Spira TJ, Gunthel CJ, Pellett PE, Dollard SC: Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1541-5
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present the largest longitudinal study to date that examines the association between Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) disease progression and the presence and viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
  • METHODS: Ninety-six men were enrolled at HIV clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, who had KS (n = 47) or were without KS but seropositive for HHV-8.
  • Visits occurred at 6-month intervals for 2 years at which the patient's KS status was evaluated and oral fluid and blood were collected for quantification of HHV-8 DNA and antibodies.
  • RESULTS: The presence of HHV-8 DNA in blood was more common (P < 0.001) and the viral load higher (P < 0.001) in men with KS in comparison with men without KS.
  • Mean HHV-8 viral loads in blood and oral fluids were associated with disease status, being highest among patients with progressing KS, intermediate among patients with stable KS, and lowest among patients with regressing KS.
  • Consistent with our previous report high antibody titers to HHV-8 orf 65 were inversely associated with HHV-8 shedding in oral fluid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant association between changes in KS disease severity and the presence and viral load of HHV-8.
  • HHV-8 viral load in blood may provide useful information to clinicians for assessment of the risk of further disease progression in patients with KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Saliva / virology. Severity of Illness Index. Virus Shedding


18. Zeng Y, Zhang X, Huang Z, Cheng L, Yao S, Qin D, Chen X, Tang Q, Lv Z, Zhang L, Lu C: Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling. J Virol; 2007 Mar;81(5):2401-17
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  • [Title] Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection significantly increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurrence in individuals infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • KSHV infection appears to be necessary but not sufficient for KS development without other cofactors.
  • However, factors that facilitate KSHV to cause KS have not been well defined.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the Tat protein of HIV-1 is a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts and viral proteins in BCBL-1 cells.
  • These findings suggest that Tat may participate in KS pathogenesis by inducing KSHV replication and increasing KSHV viral load.
  • These data also suggest that JAK/STAT signaling may be of therapeutic value in AIDS-related KS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Products, tat / physiology. HIV-1 / physiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Janus Kinases / metabolism. STAT Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Callithrix. Cell Line. DNA Primers / genetics. Gene Expression. Genes, tat. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Interleukin-4 / genetics. Interleukin-6 / genetics. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Receptors, Interleukin-6 / genetics. STAT6 Transcription Factor / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Signal Transduction. Virus Replication / genetics. Virus Replication / physiology. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 17151125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / IL4 protein, human; 0 / IL6 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-6; 0 / STAT Transcription Factors; 0 / STAT6 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT6 protein, human; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1865948
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19. Nasti G, Tirelli U: Highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS): implications for the design of therapeutic trials in patients with advanced symptomatic KS. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2433; author reply 2433-4
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  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS): implications for the design of therapeutic trials in patients with advanced symptomatic KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


20. McAllister SC, Früh K, Moses AV: Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma. Pharmacogenomics; 2005 Apr;6(3):235-44
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  • [Title] Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative disorder affecting the skin, mucosa and viscera of individuals infected with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8; also Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]).
  • KS is the most common neoplasm in AIDS patients; the clinical outcome of AIDS-KS is significantly improved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • However, in Africa, where the severest manifestations of KS occur, there is limited access to these and other effective but expensive drugs.
  • Here we present a review of current efforts to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of KS using functional genomics, with recommendations regarding the development of economically feasible treatments for use in Africa.
  • [MeSH-major] Genomics. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 16013955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-2416
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacogenomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Mesoporphyrins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 493-90-3 / mesoporphyrin IX; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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21. Martró E, Esteve A, Schulz TF, Sheldon J, Gambús G, Muñoz R, Whitby D, Casabona J, Euro-Shaks study group: Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;120(5):1129-35
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  • [Title] Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study.
  • We aimed to identify risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) among HIV-positive patients and behaviors associated with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection, as well as to assess KS incidence and mortality rates longitudinally.
  • To fulfill the first objective, a European case-control study was designed in the early 1990s (each KS case was matched to 2 controls with another AIDS indicative disease).
  • After the discovery of HHV-8, serology testing enabled us to assess risk factors for KS development among HHV-8 and HIV-1 coinfected men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as risk factors for HHV-8 infection.
  • Assessment of risk factors for KS development and HHV-8 infection was performed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively.
  • A low CD4 count was the only significant risk factor for KS.
  • HHV-8 infection was most strongly linked to the number of life-time sex partners, and multiple body fluids such as saliva and semen are quite likely involved in sexual transmission.
  • Longitudinal follow up showed a significant protective role for highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) both on KS development and mortality of KS patients.
  • Although more conclusive data from cohort studies are needed to better define specific transmission mechanisms for HHV-8, our results contribute to explain why KS incidence is higher among MSM, and the decreasing KS incidence trend observed in countries with universal access to HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Homosexuality, Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


22. Kim KH, Choi JI, Ryu KH, Kang IH, Leng YH, Lee JW, Lee JW, Kim YJ, Lee JK: Primary Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Penis in an HIV-Negative Patient. Korean J Urol; 2010 Nov;51(11):803-6
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  • [Title] Primary Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Penis in an HIV-Negative Patient.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal hemorrhagic sarcoma that occurs primarily on the extremities.
  • KS limited to the penis is rare and a well-recognized manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • However, KS confined to the penis is extraordinary in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients.
  • We present the case of a 68-year-old man with a dark reddish ulcerated nodule on the penile skin, which was reported as a nodular stage of KS.
  • We detected no evidence of immunosuppression or AIDS or systemic involvements in further evaluations.

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  • (PMID = 21165204.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-6745
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991581
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HIV Seronegativity / Kaposi sarcoma / Penile neoplasms
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23. Jan RA, Koul PA, Ahmed M, Shah S, Mufti SA, War FA: Kaposi Sarcoma in a Non HIV Patient. Int J Health Sci (Qassim); 2008 Jul;2(2):153-6
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  • [Title] Kaposi Sarcoma in a Non HIV Patient.
  • We report a case of a 45 year old non HIV infected female, who presented with multiple painful, livid reddish brown plaques, papules and nodules on both lower limbs and left index finger.
  • The cutaneous nodular lesions on biopsy showed characteristic features of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • This case is reported due to paucity of Kapsi's sarcoma in non HIV Persons.
  • It is typically a disease of older men from European and Mediterranean region.
  • Here we present a case report of classic Kaposi's Sarcoma in a young Indian female.

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  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Health Sci (Qassim)
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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24. Xie J, Pan H, Yoo S, Gao SJ: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 during primary infection mediated by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Virol; 2005 Dec;79(24):15027-37
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 during primary infection mediated by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is an angioproliferative disseminated tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • Together, these results demonstrate that KSHV induces AP-1 and IL-6 during primary infection by modulating multiple MAPK pathways.

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  • (PMID = 16306573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096512; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1316010
  •  go-up   go-down


25. Lavolé A, Wislez M, Antoine M, Mayaud C, Milleron B, Cadranel J: Lung cancer, a new challenge in the HIV-infected population. Lung Cancer; 2006 Jan;51(1):1-11
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  • [Title] Lung cancer, a new challenge in the HIV-infected population.
  • HIV infection predisposes patients to AIDS-defining malignancies, some of which, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, can affect the lungs.
  • In 1996, AIDS-related mortality started to fall sharply in industrialized countries following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART).
  • This was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of deaths attributable to non AIDS-defining solid tumors, and especially lung cancer (LC).
  • The increased risk of LC relative to the general population of the same age seems to be due partly to a higher prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected subjects.
  • The average age of HIV-infected patients at LC diagnosis is about 45 years.
  • Most patients are symptomatic at diagnosis and have only mild or moderate immunosuppression.
  • LC is diagnosed when it is locally advanced or metastatic (stages III-IV) in 75-90% of cases, as in patients with unknown HIV serostatus.
  • Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histologic type.
  • The prognosis of LC is poorer in HIV-infected patients than in the general population.
  • Surgery remains the reference treatment for localized disease in patients with adequate functional status and general health, regardless of their immune status.
  • Prospective clinical trials are needed to define the optimal LC treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lung Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Global Health. HIV. Humans. Incidence. Risk Factors. Survival Rate


26. Dougan S, Evans BG, Macdonald N, Goldberg DJ, Gill ON, Fenton KA, Elford J: HIV in gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom: 25 years of public health surveillance. Epidemiol Infect; 2008 Feb;136(2):145-56
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  • [Title] HIV in gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom: 25 years of public health surveillance.
  • It is more than 25 years since the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom.
  • National surveillance began the following year, in September 1982, with the notification of deaths and clinical reports of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma plus laboratory reports of opportunistic infections.
  • The introduction of the HIV antibody test in 1984 led to the reporting of HIV-positive tests by laboratories and the establishment of an unlinked anonymous survey in 1990 measuring undiagnosed HIV infection among gay men attending sexual health clinics.
  • The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) since 1996 has averted many deaths among HIV-positive gay men and has also resulted in a large reduction in AIDS cases.
  • This led to a need for an enumeration of gay men with HIV accessing NHS treatment and care services (1995 onwards), more clinical information on HIV diagnoses for epidemiological surveillance (2000 onwards) and the routine monitoring of drug resistance (2001 onwards).
  • Twenty-five years after the first case of AIDS was reported, gay and bisexual men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV in the United Kingdom.
  • Latest estimates suggest that in 2004, 26 500 gay and bisexual men were living with HIV in the United Kingdom, a quarter of whom were undiagnosed.
  • In this review, we examine how national surveillance systems have evolved over the past 25 years in response to the changing epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom as well as advances in laboratory techniques and medical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Bisexuality. HIV Infections / epidemiology. HIV Infections / history. Homosexuality, Male. Population Surveillance / methods

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - HIV.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.
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  • (PMID = 17662168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Epidemiology and infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epidemiol. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 94
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2870809
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27. Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K: HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1352-3
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. HIV Infections / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV. Humans. Middle Aged


28. Jacobs SA, Vidnovic N, Patel H, Soma LA, Chang Y, Bass N, Swerdlow SH: Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Jul;26(7):1148-50
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  • [Title] Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate.
  • Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a nonneoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder that has a poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we report a patient with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-(KSHV, human herpesvirus-8) associated MCD that showed expression of viral IL-6.
  • Treatment with methotrexate (MTX) resulted in a complete remission of her disease lasting for 54+ months.
  • Multiple studies have suggested that MCD and rheumatoid arthritis are associated with overexpression of the growth-promoting cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and that MTX downregulates the production of this cytokine in vivo.
  • As such, we suggest that the dramatic improvement in this patient's disease is due to the immunomodulatory properties of MTX.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / virology. Female. HIV Seronegativity. Humans. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Remission Induction / methods


29. Sharma-Walia N, Raghu H, Sadagopan S, Sivakumar R, Veettil MV, Naranatt PP, Smith MM, Chandran B: Cyclooxygenase 2 induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during in vitro infection of target cells plays a role in the maintenance of latent viral gene expression. J Virol; 2006 Jul;80(13):6534-52
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase 2 induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during in vitro infection of target cells plays a role in the maintenance of latent viral gene expression.
  • Infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells in vitro by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) provides an excellent in vitro model system to study viral latency.
  • KSHV infection is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades; sustained expression of the latency-associated open reading frame 73 (ORF73) (LANA-1), ORF72, and K13 genes; transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, including the lytic cycle switch ORF50 (replication and transcription activator) gene; and reprogramming of host transcriptional machinery regulating a variety of cellular processes, including several proinflammatory responses.

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  • (PMID = 16775340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075911; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 75911
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 123653-11-2 / N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1488986
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30. Margaron FC, Poenaru D, Northcutt A: Pediatric cancer spectrum in Kenya: a histopathologic review. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Aug;26(8):789-94
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  • The top ten pediatric malignancies were Burkitt's lymphoma (16.6%), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (8.5%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (7.6%), Kaposi's sarcoma (7.6%), osteosarcoma (7.3%), gonadal germ-cell tumors (5.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (3.5%), nephroblastoma (3.4%), epithelial carcinoma (2.8%), and chondrosarcoma (1.8%).

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  • (PMID = 20593187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Aleixo RQ, Scherma AP, Guimarães G, Cortelli JR, Cortelli SC: DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis; 2010 Sep-Oct;14(5):449-56
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  • [Title] DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil.
  • We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals.
  • Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count.
  • Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL.
  • Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions.
  • Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. DMF Index. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Brazil / epidemiology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 21221472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4391
  • [Journal-full-title] The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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32. Hawkins T: Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2006 Jan;20(1):6-18
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  • [Title] Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment.
  • In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, HIV infection was associated with visible signs and symptoms, adding to the stigma associated with the disease.
  • Physical manifestations associated with HIV infection included muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, and hairy leukoplakia.
  • With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, particularly the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, many of these outward manifestations of the disease became rare.
  • Ironically, however, the treatments used to control HIV infection (and its visible markers) have themselves been associated with appearance-related side effects.
  • However, these newer drugs are also associated with appearance-related side effects, which must be considered in the selection of treatment regimens.
  • This paper reviews the appearance-related side effects associated with classes of antiretroviral drugs as well as individual agents, including the newer antiretrovirals.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome / chemically induced. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Skin Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Alopecia / chemically induced. Exanthema / chemically induced. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Hyperpigmentation / chemically induced. Male. Patient Compliance. Quality of Life


33. Biswas J, Sudharshan S: Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep-Oct;56(5):363-75
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  • [Title] Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
  • Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person.
  • Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS.
  • Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise.
  • Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye.
  • This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Anterior Eye Segment / virology. Uveitis, Anterior
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV. Humans. India / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18711264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 127
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636142
  •  go-up   go-down


34. Guiguet M, Boué F, Cadranel J, Lang JM, Rosenthal E, Costagliola D, Clinical Epidemiology Group of the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort: Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Dec;10(12):1152-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: The relative roles of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the onset of individual cancers have rarely been examined.
  • We examined the effect of these factors on the risk of specific cancers in patients infected with HIV-1.
  • METHODS: We investigated the incidence of both AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, and anal cancer) in 52 278 patients followed up in the French Hospital Database on HIV cohort during 1998-2006 (median follow-up 4.9 years, IQR 2.1-7.9; 255 353 person-years).
  • We tested 78 models with different classifications of immunodeficiency, viral load, and cART with Poisson regression.
  • Compared with patients with CD4 count greater than 500 cells per microL, rate ratios (RR) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for CD4 counts 350-499 cells per microL to 25.2 (17.1-37.0) for counts less than 50 cells per microL for Kaposi's sarcoma (p<0.0001), from 1.3 (0.9-2.0) to 14.8 (9.7-22.6) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 1.2 (0.7-2.2) to 5.4 (2.4-12.1) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 2.2 (1.3-3.6) to 8.5 (4.3-16.7) for lung cancer (p<0.0001), and from 2.0 (0.9-4.5) to 7.6 (2.7-20.8) for liver cancer (p<0.0001).
  • The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma increased for current plasma HIV RNA greater than 100 000 copies per mL compared with patients with controlled viral load (RR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.2, p<0.0001; and 2.9, 2.1-3.9, p<0.0001, respectively), whereas cART was independently associated with a decreased incidence (0.3, 0.2-0.4, p<0.0001; and 0.8, 0.6-1.0, p=0.07, respectively).
  • INTERPRETATION: cART would be most beneficial if it restores or maintains CD4 count above 500 cells per microL, thereby indicating an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection and an earlier treatment initiation.
  • Cancer-specific screening programmes need to be assessed in patients with HIV.
  • FUNDING: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites (ANRS), INSERM, and the French Ministry of Health.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology


35. Ramírez-Amador VA, Espinosa E, González-Ramírez I, Anaya-Saavedra G, Ormsby CE, Reyes-Terán G: Identification of oral candidosis, hairy leukoplakia and recurrent oral ulcers as distinct cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Apr;20(4):259-61
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  • [Title] Identification of oral candidosis, hairy leukoplakia and recurrent oral ulcers as distinct cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
  • Oral lesions such as candidosis, hairy leukoplakia (HL) and oral ulcers are strikingly absent in the numerous reports of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).
  • To document oral manifestations attributable to immune reconstitution, we conducted a longitudinal follow-up of a cohort of HIV+ individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and completing oral pathology follow-up up to 12 weeks after treatment initiation.
  • HIV-infected patients had oral examinations, CD4+ T-cell count and viral load determinations performed at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 after HAART initiation.
  • Among individuals with satisfactory viral response and recovery of > or =50 CD4+ T-cell/microL, eight patients complied with strict IRIS criteria: two developed clinical signs of oral candidosis (OC), two oral ulcers, three HL and one Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CD4+ T-cell counts at symptom onset suggested no remaining immune suppression.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Candidiasis, Oral / diagnosis. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / diagnosis. Leukoplakia, Hairy / diagnosis. Oral Ulcer / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Biomarkers / analysis. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Oral. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / immunology. Humans. Treatment Failure


36. Brinkmann MM, Pietrek M, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Schulz TF: Modulation of host gene expression by the K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol; 2007 Jan;81(1):42-58
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  • [Title] Modulation of host gene expression by the K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) contains several open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins capable of initiating signal transduction pathways.
  • K15 interacts with cellular proteins, TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) and Src kinases, and activates AP-1, NF-kappaB, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) c-jun-N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
  • This signaling activity of K15 is related to phosphorylation of Y(481) of the K15 SH2-B motif Y(481)EEV.
  • We demonstrate that K15 is capable of inducing expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, CCL20, CCL2, CXCL3, and IL-1alpha/beta, as well as expression of Dscr1 and Cox-2.
  • Our study establishes K15 as one of the KSHV lytic genes that are inducing expression of multiple cytokines, which have been shown to play an important role in KSHV-associated pathogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17050609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / K15 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / NFATC Transcription Factors; 0 / RCAN1 protein, human; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797256
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37. Jarousse N, Chandran B, Coscoy L: Lack of heparan sulfate expression in B-cell lines: implications for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infections. J Virol; 2008 Dec;82(24):12591-7
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  • [Title] Lack of heparan sulfate expression in B-cell lines: implications for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infections.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and its murine homolog, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), are lymphotropic viruses that establish latent infection in their host.

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  • (PMID = 18842731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2593311
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38. Kagu MB, Khalil MI, Ahmed SG: Bone marrow macrophage iron stores in patients with HIV infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2007 Jun;36(2):125-8
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  • [Title] Bone marrow macrophage iron stores in patients with HIV infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Several observations have been made suggesting that excess iron is harmful to patients with HIV/AIDS disease.
  • Bone marrow macrophage iron stores of 30 anaemic HIV infected patients (median age 32.7 years) and 20 anaemic AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients (median age 37 years) were studied at the haematology department of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.
  • Marrow iron stores was increased in 16 (80%) of the patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and normal in 4 (20%) patients.
  • Of the 30 patients with HIV infection, 22 (73.3%) had normal iron stores and 8 (26.7%) had decreased iron stores.
  • Iron deficiency anaemia can complicate anaemia of HIV infected patients.
  • In view of the documented risk associated with iron supplementation in anaemic patients with HIV/AIDS disease, little caution should be exercise as regards the use of haematinics and/or blood tonics in anaemic HIV-infected or AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients.
  • The fact that noninvasive evaluation for iron deficiency is compromised in many individuals due to the presence of chronic inflammatory process and/or malignancy, bone marrow evaluation for iron stores still remains an important tool often underutilized by many clinicians attending to patients living with HIV/AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Macrophages / chemistry. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Adult. Bone Marrow Cells / chemistry. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Iron / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria. Regression Analysis


39. Mohanna S, Maco V, Gown A, Morales D, Bravo F, Gotuzzo E: Is classic Kaposi's sarcoma endemic in Peru?: report of a case in an indigenous patient. Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2006 Aug;75(2):324-6
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  • [Title] Is classic Kaposi's sarcoma endemic in Peru?: report of a case in an indigenous patient.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has been classified in four clinical variants (classic or Mediterranean; endemic or African; epidemic or AIDS-related; iatrogenic or immunosuppression-related).
  • ELISA-HIV tests were negative and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the tumor tissue was positive for HHV-8.
  • We also review all available Peruvian literature of classic KS, a disease that has been frequently reported in indigenous population of Peru since 1968, making this country a possible endemic zone of classic KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Endemic Diseases. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.
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  • (PMID = 16896142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9637
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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40. van Leeuwen MT, Webster AC, McCredie MR, Stewart JH, McDonald SP, Amin J, Kaldor JM, Chapman JR, Vajdic CM, Grulich AE: Effect of reduced immunosuppression after kidney transplant failure on risk of cancer: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ; 2010;340:c570
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  • RESULTS: All cases of Kaposi's sarcoma occurred during transplant function.
  • In contrast, standardised incidence ratios during dialysis after transplant failure remained significantly elevated for leukaemia and lung cancer, and cancers related to end stage kidney disease (kidney, urinary tract, and thyroid cancers), with thyroid cancer incidence significantly higher during dialysis after transplant failure (incidence rate ratio 6.77 (2.64 to 17.39)).
  • Risk of other cancers, especially those related to end stage kidney disease, remained significantly increased after reduction of immunosuppression.


41. Mosam A, Aboobaker J, Shaik F: Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa: a current perspective. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2010 Apr;23(2):119-23
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa: a current perspective.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent published literature on HIV/AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
  • We attempted to update readers on the epidemiology of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus infection and HIV Kaposi's sarcoma in SSA, as well as clinical features, therapy and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with HIV Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Seroprevalence rates of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus differ across SSA; it is low in South African children as compared to endemic areas like Uganda.
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has increased exponentially with the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a shift in trend demonstrating a dramatic increase in females and occurrence in younger individuals.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma specific therapy is underutilized due to poor access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and financial constraints in SSA.
  • As highly active antiretroviral therapy becomes available, clinicians treating HIV/AIDS in SSA need to have a high index of suspicion of Kaposi's sarcoma immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome events.
  • SUMMARY: Kaposi's sarcoma is a public health concern in SSA.
  • More studies appropriate to therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-poor environments like SSA are imperative.
  • We are hopeful that with the increased availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of HIV Kaposi's sarcoma will decrease and management will improve, as it has in the West.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / chemically induced. Incidence. Seroepidemiologic Studies


42. Wang X, He B, Zhang Z, Liu T, Wang H, Li X, Zhang Q, Lan K, Lu X, Wen H: Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors. Virol J; 2010;7:62
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  • BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent associated with development of classical, AIDS-related, iatrogenic, and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We surveyed HHV-8 infection among 4461 blood donors in Xinjiang, China, a unique endemic area for HHV-8 and KS.
  • RESULTS: The HHV-8 seroprevalence was higher in local minority groups which comprise most KS cases in China, than in Han people.
  • HHV-8 infection was associated with ethnicity and residence.
  • CONCLUSION: HHV-8 seroprevalence was significantly high among blood donors in Xinjiang, where the prevalence of KS correlates with HHV-8 prevalence and titers in Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups.

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  • (PMID = 20236530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852390
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43. Antón E, Sala M, Mallolas J, Navarro G, Cervantes M, Gatell JM, Segura F: [Clinical and epidemiological study of a series of HIV-infected patients over 50 years old]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin; 2005 Mar;23(3):145-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical and epidemiological study of a series of HIV-infected patients over 50 years old].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio de una serie clínica de pacientes infectados por el VIH mayores de 50 años.
  • INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has changed in recent years.
  • The objective of this study is to analyse the epidemiological, clinical and evolution characteristics of a clinical series of HIV-infected patients over 50 years old at the time of diagnosis.
  • METHODS: 165 HIV-infected patients over the age of 50, attended at Hospital Clinic (Barcelona) and Corporació Parc Taulí (Sabadell) during the period of 1985 to 2001, were studied.
  • RESULTS: Among the total, 81% of the patients were men, mean age at the time of diagnosis was 58.5 years, and 81.8% had acquired the disease by sexual contact.
  • At the time of diagnosis, 30.9% had an AIDS-defining disease.
  • The main opportunistic diseases were pulmonary tuberculosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, P. jiroveci (before carinii) pneumonia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Mortality due to AIDS was 32.7%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subjects over 50 years old diagnosed with HIV-infection were predominantly men, who acquired the infection by sexual contact.
  • A high percentage of patients were diagnosed with the development of an opportunistic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sexual Behavior. Spain / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15757586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-005X
  • [Journal-full-title] Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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44. Licci S, D'Antonio A, Boscaino A, Morelli L, Piscioli F, Abbate I, Donnorso RP, Del Nonno F: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Acta Haematol; 2007;118(1):47-52
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma has been described since 1920.
  • METHODS: Two cases of concurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node are described: a diffuse large B cell lymphoma in an AIDS patient and a T cell-rich large B cell lymphoma in a HIV-negative patient, complete with the clinical, immunohistological and molecular features, the latter ones defined after isolation of the different neoplastic areas by laser capture microdissection.
  • RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction assays revealed HHV8 DNA sequences only in the microdissected Kaposi's sarcoma areas and EBV DNA sequences only in the lymphomatous areas in both cases, confirming the HHV8 infection only in the neoplastic sarcomatous cells and evidencing the EBV infection only in the lymphomatous cells.
  • CONCLUSION: This study represents a further confirmation of the supposed different etiopathogenic mechanisms of the 2 neoplasias, suggesting a coincidental occurrence even when localized in the same lymph node, independently from HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17505129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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45. Polák P, Snopková S, Husa P, Povolná K, Bohatá S, Moulis M: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2010 Oct;16(5):172-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposiho sarkom.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual form of tumor which in the era of HIV/AIDS pandemic is increasingly observed outside the original endemic areas.
  • It was shown that the development of KS is in directly related to infection with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The pathophysiology of KS is complex and is influenced by HIV co-infection and by global cytokine interactions.
  • We provode a review of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of and therapeutic options for KS and one clinical case.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21191875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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46. Udhrain A, Skubitz KM, Northfelt DW: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Nanomedicine; 2007;2(3):345-52
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  • [Title] Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor of skin and viscera first described in 1872.
  • Prior to the 1980s, this disease was rarely seen in the Western world, but was quite prevalent in Sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Since the onset of the HIV pandemic in the 1980s, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has increased markedly in Africa and continues to be a significant problem in association with AIDS in Western countries.
  • Many therapies have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, including alitretinoin gel, interferon alpha, and various forms of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • However, as reviewed in this report, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has been established as the treatment of choice for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Western countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Herpesvirus 8, Human / drug effects. Liposomes / chemistry. Nanostructures / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18019833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of nanomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Nanomedicine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
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  • [Number-of-references] 35
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47. Bruce AG, Bakke AM, Gravett CA, DeMaster LK, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Burnside KL, Rose TM: The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques. Virol J; 2009 Nov 18;6:205
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  • BACKGROUND: ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication.
  • RESULTS: We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1) and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf), and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively).

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  • (PMID = 19922662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR13154; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R24 RR023343; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR023343; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR15090; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R01 RR013154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785786
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48. Maurer TA: Dermatologic manifestations of HIV infection. Top HIV Med; 2005 Dec-2006 Jan;13(5):149-54
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  • [Title] Dermatologic manifestations of HIV infection.
  • Conditions that remain relatively common despite adequate antiretroviral therapy include eczema, xerosis, warts, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Disorders that are associated with immune reconstitution under potent antiretroviral therapy include acne, staphylococcal infections, and erythema nodosum.
  • In addition, HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with a number of skin disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Skin Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Skin Diseases, Infectious / etiology. Skin Diseases, Infectious / pathology. Skin Diseases, Infectious / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy


49. Aldenhoven M, Barlo NP, Sanders CJ: Therapeutic strategies for epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J STD AIDS; 2006 Sep;17(9):571-8
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  • [Title] Therapeutic strategies for epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in HIV-infected patients, and is one of the AIDS-defining diagnoses.
  • The incidence of KS has sharply declined since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became widely available, making HAART indispensable in the treatment of epidemic KS.
  • Systemic therapy can be given in disseminated, progressive or symptomatic disease.
  • For local disease, radiotherapy, intralesional chemotherapy or cryotherapy may be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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50. Molho-Pessach V, Lotem M: Viral carcinogenesis in skin cancer. Curr Probl Dermatol; 2007;35:39-51
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  • The skin is an organ in which direct contact with viruses, solar UV irradiation and increased susceptibility to immune suppression gather to support viral tumorigenesis.
  • Viral proteins may directly act as oncogenes that drive cells to proliferate or generate inflammatory responses and cause regeneration of injured cells that eventually lead to malignant transformation.
  • Accelerated viral carcinogenesis is observed in the immune-deficient host.
  • Three pathogenic human viruses associated with skin neoplasms are described: human papilloma virus (HPV), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.
  • The role of HPV in nonmelanoma skin cancer of immune competent hosts is more difficult to prove.
  • The discovery of human herpesvirus 8 as the causative pathogen of KS was made following the AIDS epidemic, and its role in all clinical variants of this tumor was confirmed.
  • KS-associated herpesvirus exerts its tumorigenic effect through a wide repertoire of genes that regulate angiogenesis, inflammation, and cell cycle.
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 causes adult T-cell leukemia and is often associated with skin eruptions that share common features with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 17641489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-5721
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Probl. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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51. Joshi BH, Hogaboam C, Dover P, Husain SR, Puri RK: Role of interleukin-13 in cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, and other T(H)2-type diseases. Vitam Horm; 2006;74:479-504
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  • [Title] Role of interleukin-13 in cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, and other T(H)2-type diseases.
  • The IL-13Ralpha2 but not IL-13Ralpha1 chain binds IL-13 with high affinity and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancer cells derived from glioma, squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In preclinical models of human glioblastoma, head and neck and AIDS-associated Kaposi's cancer, IL-13PE has been found to have significant antitumor activity at a tolerated dose.
  • Several phase I clinical trials have been completed in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • Recently a phase III clinical trial (PRECISE) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma has been completed recruiting a total of 294 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune System Diseases / immunology. Interleukin-13 / immunology. Neoplasms / immunology. Pulmonary Fibrosis / immunology. Th2 Cells / immunology


52. Maggiorella L, Wen B, Frascogna V, Opolon P, Bourhis J, Deutsch E: Combined radiation sensitizing and anti-angiogenic effects of ionizing radiation and the protease inhibitor ritonavir in a head and neck carcinoma model. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4357-62
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  • Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, has been successfully applied in the treatment of HIV infection.
  • Reports of dramatic improvement of AIDS-related cancers, such as primary central system lymphoma after radiation therapy as well as Kaposi's sarcoma, led to the recent discovery of the "non viral" antitumor activity of HIV protease inhibitors.
  • Thus, the antitumor effect of the latter combination is associated with the enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 16309240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
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53. Tao RC, Deng HJ, Ya ZK, Guo SZ, Liang SX, Liu W: [Investigation on oral lesions in 64 Chinese HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi province]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;23(4):338-40
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  • [Title] [Investigation on oral lesions in 64 Chinese HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi province].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, age and gender distribution and clinical features of HIV/AIDS oral lesions in patients in Guangxi province, and to provide the epidemiological information for prevention and treatment of these diseases in the certain population.
  • METHODS: A total of 64 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study.
  • All patients HIV serum-status was confirmed in Guangxi Center of Disease Control (GXCDC).
  • HIV/AIDS orofacial lesions were recorded and diagnosed using the EC Clearing House Criteria on Oral Problems related to HIV Infection (1992).
  • RESULTS: Among the total of 64 HIV/AIDS patients included in this study, there were 53 males and 11 females, with mean age of 36.1 years.
  • Candidiasis was the most common lesion with the pseudomembranous type predominating.
  • High prevalences of xerostomia, 11 oral ulceration and 7 HIV related periodontitis were noted.
  • 6 Herpetic stomatitis and 3 herpes zoster, 2 oral hairy leukoplakia and 1 Kaposi's sarcoma and 1 lymphadentitis also were found.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of candidiasis, salivary gland disease.
  • It suggested that HIV/AIDS usually shows oral lesion and partly can appear in early phase.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candidiasis, Oral. China. Female. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy. Male. Mouth Diseases. Periodontitis. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi


54. Zhang YJ, Bonaparte RS, Patel D, Stein DA, Iversen PL: Blockade of viral interleukin-6 expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Mar;7(3):712-20
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  • [Title] Blockade of viral interleukin-6 expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is associated with several malignant disorders, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease.

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  • (PMID = 18347156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 103612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103612-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103612-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Polymers; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45015; NLM/ PMC2377409
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55. Sissolak G, Abayomi EA, Jacobs P: AIDS defining lymphomas in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): an African perspective. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):63-70
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  • [Title] AIDS defining lymphomas in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): an African perspective.
  • The intermediate to high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are now one of three malignant AIDS defining conditions.
  • The others being Kaposi's sarcoma and cervical carcinoma.
  • While co-infection with oncogenic agents including the human herpes 8 or Epstein-Barr virus offer targets in preventive treatment strategies for these AIDS defining lymphomas (ADL), administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy leading to immune reconstitution permits use of standard or even high-dose cytotoxic drug regimens with curative intent.
  • Socio-economic considerations have an impact especially in resource limited settings while availability of tools for appropriate geno-phenotypic diagnosis and immunological monitoring such as the CD4 cell count will play an important role in the risk stratification as well as disease management.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa / epidemiology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Male. Rituximab. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Socioeconomic Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


56. Mikhail M, Eichenbaum M, Gerstenfeld E, Duquette J, Pomeranz MK, Polsky D: Simultaneous acral nodular eruption and flagellate erythema caused by bleomycin. J Drugs Dermatol; 2005 Jan-Feb;4(1):81-4
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  • A 29-year-old male with AIDS was treated with bleomycin and vincristine for visceral Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of two cutaneous side effects of bleomycin appearing simultaneously in a patient with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15696989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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57. Cazorla Jiménez A, Górgolas Hernández-Mora M, Fernández Guerrero M, Renedo Pascual G, Rivas Manga C: [Multicenter Castleman disease in AIDS. Its relationship with HHV-8 or herpes virus associated to Kaposi's sarcoma. Study of two cases]. Rev Clin Esp; 2005 Dec;205(12):607-9
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  • [Title] [Multicenter Castleman disease in AIDS. Its relationship with HHV-8 or herpes virus associated to Kaposi's sarcoma. Study of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Enfermedad de Castleman multicéntrica en sida. Su relación con el VHH-8 o virus herpes asociado al sarcoma de Kaposi. Estudio de dos casos.
  • Castleman disease is considered a reactive lymphadenopathic picture with two clinical forms: one localized, frequent in immunocompetent patients and another multicenter one that is more characteristic in immunodepressed patients.
  • Two cases of Castleman disease multicenter in HIV positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma are presented.
  • Both patients have multiple adenopathies, hepatomegaly and symptoms B on diagnosis.
  • A review of the concept of multicenter Castleman disease and its pathogenic relationship to human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is done.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


58. Olweny CL, Borok M, Gudza I, Clinch J, Cheang M, Kiire CF, Levy L, Otim-Oyet D, Nyamasve J, Schipper H: Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):632-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is currently the most common tumor in Zimbabwe.
  • In addition, our study was to determine whether a disease-specific module has greater sensitivity to group differences than a generic QOL questionnaire and to determine the most pragmatic approach to treating epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) in Zimbabwe.
  • Histologically confirmed HIV-positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were randomized to receive supportive care only or supportive care plus either radiotherapy, oral Etoposide or a 3-drug combination consisting of actinomycin-D, vincristine and bleomycin.
  • The primary outcome was QOL measured by the functional living index-cancer (FLI-C) and supplemented by the Kaposi's sarcoma module (KSM).
  • The study underscores the value of undertaking studies in areas of disease prevalence and the necessity of selecting appropriate outcome measures.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Quality of Life. Sarcoma, Kaposi / psychology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy


59. Koch S, Göbels K, Oette M, Feldt T, Leidel R, Häussinger D: [Knotty skin tumors of an 80-year-old patient presenting with estimated diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency]. Med Klin (Munich); 2005 Nov 15;100(11):744-6
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  • [Title] [Knotty skin tumors of an 80-year-old patient presenting with estimated diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency].
  • Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected patients is a sign of progressive immunodeficiency.
  • It is therefore classified as an AIDS-defining disease according to the CDC classification of 1993.
  • Before antiretroviral therapy became available, disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma was a common therapeutic problem in HIV-infected patients.
  • Therapeutic interventions were limited and in spite of interferon, irradiation or cytostatic drugs, chances of a definitive healing were minimal.Today, disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma is rare even in specialized clinics for infectious diseases.
  • An exception are patients who are not aware of their HIV serostatus until they are diagnosed HIV-positive and who present already with a progressive immunodeficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology. Venous Insufficiency / diagnosis


60. Kaaya EE, Castaños-Velez E, Ekman M, Mwakigonja A, Carneiro P, Lema L, Kitinya J, Linde A, Biberfeld P: AIDS and non AIDS-related malignant lymphoma in Tanzania. Afr Health Sci; 2006 Jun;6(2):69-75
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  • [Title] AIDS and non AIDS-related malignant lymphoma in Tanzania.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant lymphoma (ML) in HIV patients, are second in frequency to Kaposi's sarcoma (AKS) as AIDS-defining tumors.
  • In Africa the frequency of AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is rare and the findings are controversial.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions are now causally associated with KSHV/HHV-8 but whether African ARL shows this association is not clear.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and type of AIDS and non-AIDS related malignant lymphoma in Tanzania and a possible co-association with KSHV/HHV-8 and EBV.
  • The tumors were classified as Burkitt's (6), diffuse large cell (10), precursor-B lymphoblastic (1) and Hodgkin's disease (5) from HIV positive and negative patients.
  • Ten (40%) high grade ML and three Hodgkin's lymphoma from HIV patients had HHV-8 DNA.
  • These findings were not related to age, sex or type of lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an overall increased frequency of ML patients infected with HHV-8 in Tanzania particularly in HIV patients which may result from the well established high HHV-8 prevalence in the general population, but HHV-8 was not associated with ARL pathogenesis as reflected by lack of tumor cell infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / epidemiology. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Developing Countries. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Incidence. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Survival Analysis. Tanzania / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 16916294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1729-0503
  • [Journal-full-title] African health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr Health Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1831982
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61. Lin CY, Chen MY, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Sun HY, Lo YC, Hung CC, Chang SC: Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2009 Jun;42(3):227-33
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) continues to occur in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and remains the most common HIV-associated malignancy.
  • This retrospective study was conducted to describe the change in incidence and characteristics of HIV-associated KS in Taiwan.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients with HIV infection who received a diagnosis of KS at the National Taiwan University Hospital between June 1994 and March 2008 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: During the 14-year study period, 62 HIV-infected patients were diagnosed with KS, which included 40 definite diagnoses (64.5%) by pathology and 22 probable diagnoses (35.5%) ascertained by characteristic lesions, compatible clinical manifestations, and response to treatment.
  • At the time of diagnosis of KS, the median CD4 count was 20 cells/microL (range, 1-371 cells/microL).
  • A considerable decline in the incidence of KS in HIV-infected patients since the introduction of HAART was demonstrated; in the pre-HAART era, 18 of 175 patients (10.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.53- 15.75) developed KS, compared with 44 of 1615 patients in the HAART era (2.7%; 95% CI, 2.03-3.65) [p < 0.0001].
  • The prognosis of HIV-infected patients with KS has improved since the introduction of HAART, as the mortality rate has declined from 77.8% in the pre-HAART era to 34.1% in the HAART era (p = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of KS in HIV-infected patients and the mortality rate of these patients significantly declined in the HAART era, although KS continued to occur in patients with advanced HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. HIV Infections / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


62. Dispenza F, Ballacchino A, Di Bernardo A, Mathur N, Gallina S: Localisation of Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma in Morgagni's ventricle. B-ENT; 2010;6(4):289-93
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  • [Title] Localisation of Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma in Morgagni's ventricle.
  • OBJECTIVE: Head and neck involvement in Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is not unusual.
  • However, laryngeal involvement is a relatively infrequent manifestation and ENT specialists should consider it in differential diagnosis in laryngeal lesions of AIDS patients and/or subjects from the Mediterranean area.
  • A diagnosis of KS was then suspected and confirmed after dermatological inspection.
  • Laryngeal KS must be included in the differential diagnosis of pigmented laryngeal lesions to plan correct management.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21302693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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63. Mwakigonja AR, Pak F, Pyakurel P, Mosha IJ, Urassa WK, Kaaya EE, Biberfeld P: Oral Kaposi's sarcoma in Tanzania: presentation, immunopathology and human herpesvirus-8 association. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jun;17(6):1291-9
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  • [Title] Oral Kaposi's sarcoma in Tanzania: presentation, immunopathology and human herpesvirus-8 association.
  • Oral Kaposi's sarcoma (OKS) from Tanzanian patients (78) at Muhimbili National Hospital/Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences corresponding to approximately 10% of KS registered during 1990-2005, were diagnosed (ELISA) as HIV-infected (OAKS) (74/78) and endemic KS (4/78).
  • More males (50%) had systemic KS than females (37%) and 4-times more multicentric OKS.
  • All tested (34) oral KS patients sera had HHV-8 antibodies.
  • Significantly more LANA+ and Ki-67+ cells were found in nodular OAKS compared to cutaneous HIV/AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma (CAKS).
  • OKS in Tanzania is since 1990, mostly seen in females, associated with HIV/AIDS and advanced (nodular) histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Mouth Neoplasms / immunology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 17487381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
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64. Sunil M, Reid E, Lechowicz MJ: Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2010 Mar;12(2):147-54
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  • [Title] Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies.
  • The human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative disorders, namely, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • KS is among the most common malignancies seen in HIV-infected patients despite the decreased incidence of KS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Advances in molecular pathology reveal HHV-8 tumorigenesis is mediated through molecular mimicry wherein viral-encoded proteins can activate several cellular signaling cascades while evading immune surveillance.
  • This knowledge has led to the evolution of multiple therapeutic strategies against specific molecular targets.
  • This review summarizes the recent developments in the fields of virus transmission, molecular biology, and treatment of HHV-8-related neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 20461118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-3146
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Gill MB, Murphy JE, Fingeroth JD: Functional divergence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related gamma-2 herpesvirus thymidine kinases: novel cytoplasmic phosphoproteins that alter cellular morphology and disrupt adhesion. J Virol; 2005 Dec;79(23):14647-59
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  • [Title] Functional divergence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related gamma-2 herpesvirus thymidine kinases: novel cytoplasmic phosphoproteins that alter cellular morphology and disrupt adhesion.
  • The nucleoside kinase encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a relatively inefficient enzyme with substrate specificity for thymidine alone, unlike alphaherpesvirus thymidine kinases (TKs).
  • Ectopic expression of KSHV TK in adherent cells induced striking morphological changes and anchorage independence although cells survived, a property shared with the related rhadinovirus TKs of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus and herpesvirus saimiri.
  • Fusion of the KSHV N terminus to herpes simplex virus type 1 TK, a nucleus-localized enzyme, similarly resulted in cytoplasmic redistribution of the chimeric protein but did not alter cell shape or adhesion.
  • Unlike other human herpesvirus TKs, KSHV TKs and related rhadinovirus TKs are constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated; a KSHV TK mutant that was hypophosphorylated failed to detach and grow in suspension.
  • Loss of adhesion may enhance terminal differentiation, viral replication, and egress at the cellular level and at the organism level may facilitate detachment and distant migration of KSHV-replicating cells within body fluids--promoting oropharyngeal transmission and perhaps contributing to the multifocal lesions that characterize KS.

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  • (PMID = 16282465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCPDCID CDC HHS / CI / NCI K24; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE12189
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphoproteins; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1287549
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66. Vanni T, Fonseca BA, Polanczyk CA: Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil. HIV Clin Trials; 2006 Jul-Aug;7(4):194-202
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Economic analyses of agents used in the treatment of AIDS and opportunistic diseases are particularly important in developing countries.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) chemotherapy regimens in Brazil.
  • CONCLUSION: ABV seems to be the most reasonable treatment option for AIDS-KS patients in resource-limited countries like Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / economics. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics

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  • (PMID = 17065031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4336
  • [Journal-full-title] HIV clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HIV Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Liposomes; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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67. Chu KM, Mahlangeni G, Swannet S, Ford NP, Boulle A, Van Cutsem G: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010;13:23
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is an important, life-threatening opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.
  • In western countries, the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and new chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in decreased incidence and improved prognosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In this study, we describe disease characteristics and risk factors for mortality in a public sector HIV programme in South Africa.
  • METHODS: We analysed data from an observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, enrolled between May 2001 and January 2007 in three primary care clinics.
  • Paper records from primary care and tertiary hospital oncology clinics were reviewed to determine the site of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome stage, and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of 6292 patients, 215 (3.4%) had AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Advanced T stage (adjusted HR, AHR = 5.3, p < 0.001), advanced S stage (AHR = 5.1, p = 0.008), and absence of chemotherapy (AHR = 2.4, p = 0.012) were associated with mortality.
  • Patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma presented with advanced disease and high rates of mortality and loss to follow up.
  • Risk factors for mortality included advanced Kaposi's sarcoma disease and lack of chemotherapy use.
  • Contributing factors to the high mortality for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma likely included late diagnosis of HIV disease, late accessibility to cART, and sub-optimal treatment of advanced Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the importance of early access to both cART and chemotherapy for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Early diagnosis and improved treatment protocols in resource-poor settings are essential.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


68. Tsoupras AB, Chini M, Tsogas N, Fragopoulou E, Nomikos T, Lioni A, Mangafas N, Demopoulos CA, Antonopoulou S, Lazanas MC: Anti-platelet-activating factor effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a new insight in the drug therapy of HIV infection? AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2008 Aug;24(8):1079-86
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  • [Title] Anti-platelet-activating factor effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a new insight in the drug therapy of HIV infection?
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory mediator, which seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of several AIDS manifestations such as AIDS dementia complex, Kaposi's sarcoma, and HIV-related nephropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Platelet Activating Factor / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18620493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-8405
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Platelet Activating Factor; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.67 / 1-alkylglycerophosphocholine acetyltransferase; EC 2.7.8.2 / Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase; EC 3.1.1.47 / 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase
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69. Adedigba MA, Naidoo S, Ogunbodede EO: Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS. Odontostomatol Trop; 2009 Mar;32(125):17-24
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  • [Title] Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS.
  • The descriptive, retrospective study that investigated the cost implications of the treatment of five oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS: oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases, oral ulcers and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • One hundred and twenty four cases with oral HIV lesions were selected from the list of 181 HIV patients listed in the attendance registers of three hospitals in the selected study sites.
  • A data capture sheet was used to obtain information related to diagnosis, investigations done, staging of the disease, treatment plan and treatment outcome.
  • There was no significant association between staging of the disease and the hospital cost (p > 0.05), but the CD4 count significantly influenced the hospital cost (p<0.05).
  • Governments should endeavour to provide antiretroviral and other relevant drugs, at no cost, to HIV/AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Costs. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Mouth Diseases / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / economics. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / economics. Male. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / complications. Oral Ulcer / economics. Periodontal Diseases / complications. Periodontal Diseases / economics. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


70. Stebbing J, Sanitt A, Nelson M, Powles T, Gazzard B, Bower M: A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet; 2006 May 6;367(9521):1495-502
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  • [Title] A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma remains common in individuals with HIV-1 infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • We developed a simple model for predicting mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics present at the time of diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: Of 5873 individuals with HIV-1 infection, 326 (6%) developed Kaposi's sarcoma; for 262 (80%) this was their first AIDS-defining illness.
  • We did univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to identify covariates predictive of overall survival and validated our model with an independent data set of 446 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Having Kaposi's sarcoma as the AIDS-defining illness (-3 points) and increasing CD4 count (-1 point for every complete 100 cells per mm3) improved prognosis; age of 50 years or older (2 points) and having another AIDS-associated illness at the same time (3 points) conveyed a poorer prognosis.
  • INTERPRETATION: We identified four prognostic factors that can be used to obtain an accurate prognostic index at diagnosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV-1. Sarcoma, Kaposi


71. Yamanegi K, Tang S, Zheng ZM: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K8beta is derived from a spliced intermediate of K8 pre-mRNA and antagonizes K8alpha (K-bZIP) to induce p21 and p53 and blocks K8alpha-CDK2 interaction. J Virol; 2005 Nov;79(22):14207-21
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K8beta is derived from a spliced intermediate of K8 pre-mRNA and antagonizes K8alpha (K-bZIP) to induce p21 and p53 and blocks K8alpha-CDK2 interaction.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a lymphotropic DNA tumor virus that induces Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS-related primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Optimization of this intron in K8 (K8 intron 2) promoted the interaction of the 5' ss with U1 and the 3' ss with U2AF, resulting in a substantial increase in intron splicing.

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  • (PMID = 16254356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / Z01 SC010357-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 3.1.26.4 / Ribonuclease H
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1280184
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72. Sani MU, Mohammed AZ, Adamu B, Yusuf SM, Samaila AA, Borodo MM: AIDS mortality in a tertiary health institution: A four-year review. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 Jun;98(6):862-6
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  • [Title] AIDS mortality in a tertiary health institution: A four-year review.
  • Africa contains 70% of adults and 80% of children living with AIDS in the world and has buried 75% of the 21.8 million worldwide who have died of AIDS since the epidemic began.
  • Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has 5.8% of her adult population having HIV infection at the end of 2003.
  • We reviewed the causes of death among AIDS patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria over four years.
  • Four-hundred-fifty-five (9.9%) of the 4,574 adult medical admissions were due to HIV/AIDS-related diagnosis.
  • HIV/AIDS admissions increased progressively from 45 cases in 2001 to 174 in 2004.
  • HIV/AIDS caused 176 deaths over the period giving an HIV-related mortality of 38.7%.
  • The most common causes of death were tuberculosis (33.4%), septicemia (23.8%), advanced HIV disease (9.1%), meningitis (7.4%), other pulmonary infections (5.1%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (4.5%).
  • The present dismal situation of patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality. Hospital Mortality. Hospitals, Teaching / statistics & numerical data