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1. Haldorsen IS, Kråkenes J, Goplen AK, Dunlop O, Mella O, Espeland A: AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989-2003. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:225
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989-2003.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989-2003.
  • METHODS: We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003.
  • We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989-2003.
  • AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18684320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525658
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2. Algazi AP, Kadoch C, Rubenstein JL: Biology and treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neurotherapeutics; 2009 Jul;6(3):587-97
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  • [Title] Biology and treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare variant of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is restricted in distribution to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, and intraocular compartments.
  • Although PCNSL shares overlapping features with systemic lymphoma, recent studies also reveal a unique pattern of gene and protein expression in PCNSL.
  • Immune system compromise, such as is seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is the best established known risk factor for PCNSL.
  • Like other lesions of the brain, meninges, and eye, the presenting symptoms associated with PCNSL typically include focal neurological deficits related to the site of disease or more global consequences of increased intracranial pressure.
  • PCNSL typically has a worse overall prognosis than systemic lymphoma.
  • High-dose chemotherapy, particularly with methotrexate-based regimens, is the backbone of therapy for most patients, and chemotherapy is associated with much lower rates of treatment-related morbidity and mortality than whole-brain irradiation.
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation is an emerging treatment modality, particularly in younger patients with relapsed disease, but high rates of treatment-related mortality are observed in older patients.
  • Treatment options for intraocular lymphoma parallel those for PCNSL elsewhere in the brain: systemic chemotherapy, radiation, and local delivery of cytotoxic and immunologically active agents such as anti-CD20 antibody.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / physiopathology. Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19560747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurotherapeutics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA100291
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Number-of-references] 99
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS130545; NLM/ PMC4942275
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3. Panageas KS, Elkin EB, DeAngelis LM, Ben-Porat L, Abrey LE: Trends in survival from primary central nervous system lymphoma, 1975-1999: a population-based analysis. Cancer; 2005 Dec 1;104(11):2466-72
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  • [Title] Trends in survival from primary central nervous system lymphoma, 1975-1999: a population-based analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The age-adjusted incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has increased since the 1970s, and treatment for this disease has evolved considerably.
  • We used information on underlying cause of death to distinguish likely immunocompetent patients from those whose PCNSL was related to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Lymphoma / mortality. Survival Analysis


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4. Rubenstein J, Ferreri AJ, Pittaluga S: Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: epidemiology, pathology and current approaches to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008;49 Suppl 1:43-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: epidemiology, pathology and current approaches to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
  • An overview of the current approaches to the management of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is provided.
  • The issue of treatment-related neurotoxicity is also a central consideration in treatment planning.
  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has had a major impact on this disease in that the incidence of AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma, once highly prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s, has now virtually disappeared.
  • The use of anti-CD20 antibody in this disease represents the first application of biologically based targeted therapies for PCNSL; however, the overall impact of this modality in brain lymphoma awaits further evaluation in ongoing studies The application of proteomic as well as gene expression technologies is yielding insights into PCNSL pathogenesis, in particular specific oncogenic pathways, which may be exploited to develop new therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Lymphoma

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  • (PMID = 18821432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA100291
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 51
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS612828; NLM/ PMC4110179
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5. Aboulafia DM, Ratner L, Miles SA, Harrington WJ Jr, AIDS Associated Malignancies Clinical Trials Consortium: Antiviral and immunomodulatory treatment for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: AIDS Malignancies Consortium pilot study 019. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2006 Mar;6(5):399-402
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  • [Title] Antiviral and immunomodulatory treatment for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: AIDS Malignancies Consortium pilot study 019.
  • PURPOSE: A consistent association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) distinguishes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) from that which occurs in the general population.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 4 patients with AIDS-related PCNSL into a novel antiviral and immunomodulatory protocol.
  • All 6 patients had advanced-stage AIDS as reflected by a CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count of < 50/microL and a detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 viral RNA load (median copies, 135,000/mL; range, 2170-360,000/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that for patients with AIDS and PCNSL, treatments with dual efficacy against HIV and EBV merit further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Interleukins / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality


6. Costa H, Franco M, Hahn MD: Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: a clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical study of ten autopsy cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Dec;64(4):976-82
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: a clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical study of ten autopsy cases.
  • CONTEXT: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) are a rare subgroup of lymphomas generally associated with HIV and EBV.
  • METHOD: The clinical, histological and immunohistochemical data of ten cases of PCNSL, eight cases from patients with AIDS, identified among 265 autopsies of these patients were analyzed.
  • Most patients had diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Autopsy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17221007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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7. Villafañe MF, Trione N, Corti M, Mendez N, Gancedo E, Zamora N, Levin M: Primary liver AIDS-related lympoma. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo; 2006 Jul-Aug;48(4):229-31
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  • [Title] Primary liver AIDS-related lympoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are the second most frequent malignancies in AIDS patients.
  • The majority of NHL associated with AIDS involves extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system.
  • Primary liver lymphoma (PLL) is an uncommon neoplasm among these patients.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography scans may be helpful in the diagnosis of focal hepatic lymphoma.
  • Image-guided fine-needle biopsy with histopathology of the liver lesions is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma.
  • We report a case of PLL as the initial manifestation of AIDS in a patient without any previous infection by hepatitis C or B virus, presented as multiple and large hepatic masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17119682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-4665
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. Bibas M, Antinori A: EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis; 2009;1(2):e2009032

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  • [Title] EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma.
  • The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1).
  • It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin disease (HD), systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC).
  • Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Detailed understanding of the EBV lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein.

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  • (PMID = 21416008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2035-3006
  • [Journal-full-title] Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3033170
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9. Nagai H, Odawara T, Ajisawa A, Tanuma J, Hagiwara S, Watanabe T, Uehira T, Uchiumi H, Yotsumoto M, Miyakawa T, Watanabe A, Kambe T, Konishi M, Saito S, Takahama S, Tateyama M, Okada S: Whole brain radiation alone produces favourable outcomes for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma in the HAART era. Eur J Haematol; 2010 Jun;84(6):499-505
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Whole brain radiation alone produces favourable outcomes for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma in the HAART era.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a lethal disorder, but the recent application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved prognosis.
  • This retrospective cohort study of AIDS-related PCNSL examined the actual clinical outcomes and prognostic variables affecting overall survival (OS) in the HAART era.
  • Twenty-three newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL at 12 regional centre hospitals for HIV/AIDS in Japan between 2002 and 2008 were consecutively enrolled.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / radiotherapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Haematol. 2010 Sep;85(3):277. Tanuma, Junko [added]
  • (PMID = 20132301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Aboulafia DM, Puswella AL: Highly active antiretroviral therapy as the sole treatment for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a case report with implications for treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2007 Dec;21(12):900-7
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  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy as the sole treatment for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a case report with implications for treatment.
  • A brain imaging study showed a right temporal mass, which on biopsy proved to be primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).
  • For patients who present with PCNSL as their initial AIDS-defining event, stable neurologic findings, and effective HAART options, initial treatment with HAART alone may be possible, reserving WBRT and corticosteroids for those who show signs of impending neurologic demise.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy


11. Kasamon YL, Ambinder RF: AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2005 Aug;19(4):665-87, vi-vii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) can develop in the setting of profound immunosuppression, including late-stage infection with HIV.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of AIDS-related PCNSL are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16083829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA96888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA70062
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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12. Dhir AA, Sawant SP: Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):517-21
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India has the second largest number of HIV/AIDS patients in the world; however, studies done in the area of HIV-related malignancies are few.
  • With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections, an increase in life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals and an increase in HIV-related malignancies is expected.
  • The purpose of this review is to put forth the Indian scenario of HIV-related malignancies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: About 2.5 million Indians have HIV/AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical cancer were found to occur in a higher proportion among the HIV-infected individuals in India as compared with non-HIV-infected individuals.
  • The incidence of AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma is low in India.
  • Amongst the non-AIDS defining cancers anal cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, colon cancer and certain head and neck cancer sites in men and vaginal cancers among women were found to occur more frequently.
  • As India is a large country and geographically and culturally diverse, large-scale studies need to be done linking the regional cancer centres with the AIDS centres across the country to evaluate the exact burden of HIV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19106653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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13. Ilniczky S, Debreczeni R, Kovács T, Várkonyi V, Barsi P, Szirmai I: [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode]. Ideggyogy Sz; 2006 Jul 20;59(7-8):289-93
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  • [Title] [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].
  • [Transliterated title] Akut psychosis mint az AIDS-hez társuló toxoplasma-encephalitis elso tünete.
  • The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy).
  • Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis.
  • We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / parasitology. Brain / parasitology. Brain / pathology. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Toxoplasma / isolation & purification. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17076307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-1442
  • [Journal-full-title] Ideggyógyászati szemle
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ideggyogy Sz
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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14. Moulignier A: [HIV and the central nervous system]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2006 Jan;162(1):22-42
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  • [Title] [HIV and the central nervous system].
  • [Transliterated title] Atteintes du système nerveux central et infection par le VIH-1.
  • Central nervous system complications are common in HIV-1 infected patients and occur either as a result of concomitant immunosuppression (opportunistic infections, lymphoma and tumors), as a primary manifestation of HIV infection, or as an adverse effect of therapy (immune restoration and toxicity).
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Encephalitis / etiology. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS Dementia Complex / diagnosis. AIDS Dementia Complex / epidemiology. AIDS Dementia Complex / etiology. AIDS Dementia Complex / therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Adult. Animals. Brain Ischemia / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology. Disease Susceptibility. Encephalitis, Viral / diagnosis. Encephalitis, Viral / epidemiology. Encephalitis, Viral / etiology. Encephalitis, Viral / therapy. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / epidemiology. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / etiology. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / diagnosis. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / epidemiology. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / etiology. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / therapy. Middle Aged. Myelitis, Transverse / diagnosis. Myelitis, Transverse / epidemiology. Myelitis, Transverse / etiology. Myelitis, Transverse / therapy. Neurosyphilis / diagnosis. Neurosyphilis / epidemiology. Neurosyphilis / etiology. Neurosyphilis / therapy. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / diagnosis. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / etiology. Tuberculosis / diagnosis. Tuberculosis / epidemiology. Tuberculosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16446621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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15. Stern JI, Raizer JJ: Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S63-70
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  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a stage 1E non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confined to the nervous system.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma can affect the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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16. Haldorsen IS, Espeland A, Larsen JL, Mella O: Diagnostic delay in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Acta Oncol; 2005;44(7):728-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic delay in primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • This study investigates delay in diagnosing primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), which has a variable clinical and radiological presentation.
  • The time from initial symptom to final morphological diagnosis of PCNSL had a median (mean, range) of 70 (106, 22-330) days in 16 AIDS patients and 75 (157, 8-1285) days in 58 non-AIDS patients.
  • Among non-AIDS patients, the time to diagnosis was longer in patients with no tumour in the first neuroimaging report after initial symptom (p = 0.001).
  • Median (mean, range) time from initial symptom to neuroimaging was 14 (25, 1-60) days in AIDS patients and 21 (88, 1-1095) days in non-AIDS patients.
  • In the non-AIDS group, those presenting with personality change or visual disturbance had more delayed imaging than the others.
  • The time from first neuroimaging examination to final diagnosis in non-AIDS patients had a median (mean, range) of 28 (69, 1-845) days, and was longer when no tumour was indicated in the imaging report (p = 0.005) and if first biopsy did not confirm the diagnosis (p = 0.02).
  • All AIDS patients had their diagnosis of PCNSL first established by autopsy.
  • Physicians should consider early neuroimaging in patients with personality changes or visual disturbance, early renewed imaging in patients with persistent neurological symptoms but no tumour on initial imaging, and early/repeated biopsy of focal brain lesions in both AIDS patients and non-AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16227164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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17. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Im T, Miradi M, Wallace M, Anton-Culver H: Highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with improved survival among patients with AIDS-related primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Curr HIV Res; 2006 Jul;4(3):375-8
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  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with improved survival among patients with AIDS-related primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We sought to determine how the use of HAART influenced survival among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and primary central nervous system (CNS) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • We used the population-based San Diego and Orange County cancer registry to identify 94 patients with both AIDS and CNS NHL diagnosed 1994-1999, of whom 31 were diagnosed 1996-1999.
  • Median survival was eight months for those who received HAART at the time of lymphoma diagnosis or after, versus one month for untreated patients.
  • We conclude that HAART prolongs survival in AIDS-related CNS NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16842088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. HIV Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07CA096480
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. Schultz CJ, Bovi J: Current management of primary central nervous system lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Mar 1;76(3):666-78
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  • [Title] Current management of primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Humans. Immunocompetence. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20159361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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19. Bossolasco S, Falk KI, Ponzoni M, Ceserani N, Crippa F, Lazzarin A, Linde A, Cinque P: Ganciclovir is associated with low or undetectable Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb 15;42(4):e21-5
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  • [Title] Ganciclovir is associated with low or undetectable Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is pathogenically linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and is found in virtually all HIV-related PCNSL cases.
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ganciclovir on EBV DNA replication in patients with HIV-related PCNSL.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: EBV DNA was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples from 25 patients with HIV-related PCNSL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / virology. DNA, Viral / cerebrospinal fluid. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Ganciclovir / pharmacology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / drug effects. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology

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  • (PMID = 16421782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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20. Haldorsen IS, Kråkenes J, Krossnes BK, Mella O, Espeland A: CT and MR imaging features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in Norway, 1989-2003. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Apr;30(4):744-51
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in Norway, 1989-2003.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studying imaging findings of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), we hypothesized that the imaging presentation has changed with the increasing incidence of PCNSL and is related to clinical factors (eg, time to diagnosis and the patient's being diagnosed alive or at postmortem examination).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chart and histologic reviews of patients recorded as having PCNSL during 1989-2003 in the Norwegian Cancer Registry identified 98 patients with non-AIDS PCNSL; 75 had available imaging.
  • CONCLUSIONS: White matter periventricular contrast-enhancing single or multiple focal lesions were typical of non-AIDS PCNSL.
  • Although the incidence of non-AIDS PCNSL has increased, its presentation at imaging remains unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Lymphoma. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


21. Wong HL, Breen EC, Pfeiffer RM, Aissani B, Martinson JJ, Margolick JB, Kaslow RA, Jacobson LP, Ambinder RF, Chanock S, Martínez-Maza O, Rabkin CS: Cytokine signaling pathway polymorphisms and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. AIDS; 2010 Apr 24;24(7):1025-33
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  • [Title] Cytokine signaling pathway polymorphisms and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytokine stimulation of B-cell proliferation may be an important causative mechanism for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be a co-factor, particularly for primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, which are uniformly EBV-positive in the setting of AIDS.
  • Thus, we examined associations of genetic variation in IL10 and related cytokine-signaling molecules (IL10RA, CXCL12, IL13, IL4, IL4R, CCL5 and BCL6) with AIDS-related NHL risk and evaluated differences between primary CNS and systemic tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: We compared 160 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants with incident lymphomas, of which 90 followed another AIDS diagnosis, to HIV-1-seropositive controls matched on duration of lymphoma-free survival post-HIV-1 infection (N = 160) or post-AIDS diagnosis (N = 90).
  • RESULTS: Carriage of at least one copy of the T allele for the IL10 rs1800871 (as compared to no copies) was associated with decreased AIDS-NHL risk specific to lymphomas arising from the CNS (CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 0.3; 95% CI 0.1, 0.7) but not systemically (CC vs. CT/TT: OR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.5, 1.9) (Pheterogeneity = 0.03).
  • Carriage of two copies of the 'low IL10' haplotype rs1800896_A/rs1800871_T/rs1800872_A was associated with decreased lymphoma risk that varied by number of copies (Ptrend = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Excessive IL10 response to HIV-1 infection may be associated with increased risk of NHL, particularly in the CNS.
  • IL10 dysregulation may be an important causative pathway for EBV-related lymphomagenesis.

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  • [ErratumIn] AIDS. 2010 Jul 31;24(12):1973
  • (PMID = 20299965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA073475; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA-096888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA57152; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057152; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA73475
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS192123; NLM/ PMC3950937
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22. Bolarinwa RA, Ndakotsu MA, Oyekunle AA, Salawu L, Akinola NO, Durosinmi MA: AIDS-related lymphomas in Nigeria. Braz J Infect Dis; 2009 Oct;13(5):359-61
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  • [Title] AIDS-related lymphomas in Nigeria.
  • Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), including primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma and non-endemic Burkitt's lymphoma have been recognized as AIDS-defining cancers in most developed countries.
  • However, HIV/AIDS epidemics appear not to have been associated with higher incidence of lymphomas in Africa.
  • We therefore carried out this study to highlight the significance or otherwise of HIV/AIDS epidemics in the pathogenesis of lymphomas in a population of Nigerians with the disease.
  • Patients with a histological diagnosis of malignant chronic lymphoproliferative diseases {non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)} at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife from January 1993 to August 2008 were noted.
  • Those patients confirmed to be HIV/AIDS positive among the cohort with lymphomas were retrospectively studied using their clinical case notes.
  • A total of 391 patients were histologically confirmed to have lymphoma {NHL-109, (27.9%); CLL-76, (19.4%); BL-178, (45.5%) and HL-28, (7.2%)} during the study period.
  • The prevalence of AIDS-related lymphomas is 2.3% compared to 4.4% found in the general population.
  • However, it is interesting that no single case of AIDS-associated BL was seen, despite the fact that Burkitt's lymphoma is endemic in this part of the world.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20428636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4391
  • [Journal-full-title] The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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23. Audigé A, Schlaepfer E, von Wyl V, Miller RC, Vernazza P, Nadal D, Speck RF, SHCS: B cells from HIV-infected patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma display an activated phenotype and have a blunted TNF-α response to TLR9 triggering. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2010 Oct;26(10):1063-74
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  • [Title] B cells from HIV-infected patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma display an activated phenotype and have a blunted TNF-α response to TLR9 triggering.
  • Each cell in HIV-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) harbors latent EBV.
  • Finally, since increased IL-6 expression is linked to EBV-associated Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the enhanced baseline expression of IL-6 might be important in the pathogenesis of PCNSL in HIV-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. HIV Infections / metabolism. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Toll-Like Receptor 9 / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20963937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-8405
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Antigens, CD86; 0 / CpG ODN 2006; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides; 0 / TLR9 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cattacin S; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux CA; Gorgievski M; Günthard HF; Hirsch HH; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert C; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schöni-Affolter F; Schüpbach J; Speck RF; de Tejada BM; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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24. Kreisl TN, Panageas KS, Elkin EB, Deangelis LM, Abrey LE: Treatment patterns and prognosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and primary central system lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Sep;49(9):1710-6
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  • [Title] Treatment patterns and prognosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and primary central system lymphoma.
  • The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has decreased in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, but PCNSL continues to be a prominent AIDS-defining illness.
  • Despite improved treatment for both diseases over the past decade, survival remains dismal in this cohort of Medicare/Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV-related PCNSL.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18661394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Musolino A, Guazzi A, Lazzaretti M, Pezzuolo D, Calzetti C, Degli Antoni A, Ardizzoni A: Intracranial hematopoiesis in a patient with AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma and severe pancytopenia. Haematologica; 2007 May;92(5):e59-61
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  • [Title] Intracranial hematopoiesis in a patient with AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma and severe pancytopenia.
  • The case here reported reflects the difficulty in diagnosing meningeal extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), which clinically appeared concomitantly with primary cerebral lymphoma and occurred in a patient with HIV infection and severe pancytopenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / radiography. Pancytopenia / diagnosis. Pancytopenia / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17562595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Singer EJ, Valdes-Sueiras M, Commins D, Levine A: Neurologic presentations of AIDS. Neurol Clin; 2010 Feb;28(1):253-75
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  • [Title] Neurologic presentations of AIDS.
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS, has infected an estimated 33 million individuals worldwide.
  • This work has broad applications for the study of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, dementias, neuropathies, and CNS disease in other immunosuppressed individuals.
  • HIV is neuroinvasive (can enter the CNS), neurotrophic (can live in neural tissues), and neurovirulent (causes disease of the nervous system).
  • This article reviews the HIV-associated neurologic syndromes, which can be classified as primary HIV neurologic disease (in which HIV is both necessary and sufficient to cause the illness), secondary or opportunistic neurologic disease (in which HIV interacts with other pathogens, resulting in opportunistic infections and tumors), and treatment-related neurologic disease (such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome).
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. HIV-1. Nervous System Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS Dementia Complex / pathology. AIDS Dementia Complex / therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Brain / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19932385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9875
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U01MH083500; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03 DA026099; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U24 MH100929; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U01 MH083500; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U01 MH083500-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R24 NS038841-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R24 NS038841; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03DA026099; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS38841
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 191
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS166363; NLM/ PMC2806427
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27. Wolf T, Brodt HR, Fichtlscherer S, Mantzsch K, Hoelzer D, Helm EB, Mitrou PS, Chow KU: Changing incidence and prognostic factors of survival in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Feb;46(2):207-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing incidence and prognostic factors of survival in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an AIDS-defining disease.
  • We collected data of 214 cases of AIDS-related Lymphoma (ARL) treated at our centre from January 1984 until May 2003 and analysed them using the Kaplan-Meier-, log rank- and Cox proportional hazard-model.
  • The incidence of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) took a comparable, yet more pronounced development.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Humans. Incidence. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 15621803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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28. Navarro JT, Vall-Llovera F, Mate JL, Morgades M, Feliu E, Ribera JM: Decrease in the frequency of meningeal involvement in AIDS-related systemic lymphoma in patients receiving HAART. Haematologica; 2008 Jan;93(1):149-50
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  • [Title] Decrease in the frequency of meningeal involvement in AIDS-related systemic lymphoma in patients receiving HAART.
  • We evaluated the frequency of primary central nervous system lymphoma and leptomeningeal involvement in systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in HIV-infected patients.
  • Therefore HAART could prevent CNS involvement in systemic NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / prevention & control. Meninges / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18166804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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29. Corti M, Villafañe MF, Souto L, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, Soler Mde D: Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2007 May-Jun;40(3):338-40
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  • [Title] Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma, among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system.
  • We report a case of primary lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS.
  • A complete diagnostic study including histological, immunohistochemical and virological analyses showed high-grade B-cell Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17653472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-8682
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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30. Zoufaly A, Stellbrink HJ, Heiden MA, Kollan C, Hoffmann C, van Lunzen J, Hamouda O, ClinSurv Study Group: Cumulative HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy is a strong predictor of AIDS-related lymphoma. J Infect Dis; 2009 Jul 1;200(1):79-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cumulative HIV viremia during highly active antiretroviral therapy is a strong predictor of AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-related lymphoma contributes to significant morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • We assessed the predictive role of cumulative HIV viremia and other risk factors in the development of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • RESULTS: In the Cox model, which comprised 6022 patients and 27,812 patient-years of follow-up while patients were receiving HAART from 1999 through 2006, cumulative HIV viremia was found to be independently associated with the risk of lymphoma (hazard ratio, [HR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.27-2.20]) (P < .001]).
  • This association differed markedly between lymphoma subtypes.
  • Although the association was more pronounced for Burkitt-type lymphoma (HR, 3.45 [95% CI, 1.52-7.85]) (P = .003), there was no association between cumulative HIV viremia and the incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma (HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.39-2.57]) (P = .997).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative HIV viremia is an independent and strong predictor of AIDS-related lymphoma among patients receiving HAART.
  • The influence of cumulative HIV viremia may differ between lymphoma subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Viremia / complications

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  • [CommentIn] J Infect Dis. 2009 Jul 1;200(1):8-10 [19476436.001]
  • (PMID = 19476437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Kuehne A; Arastéh K; Kowol S; Bergmann F; Warnke M; Brockmeyer N; Mühlbächer N; Rockstroh J; Wasmuth J; Oette M; Blondin C; Esser S; Schenk-Westkamp P; Plettenberg A; Lorenzen T; Walther I; Adam A; Weitner L; Schewe K; Goey H; Fenske S; Buhk T; Gellerman H; Wassmuss K; Stoll M; Gerschmann S; Horst H; Fätkenheuer G; Kümmerle T; Gillor D; Bogner J; Sonntag B; Salzberger B; Fritzsche C
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31. Sokolska V, Knysz B, Czapiga E, Gasiorowski J, Sasiadek M, Gładysz A: [The role of brain magnetic resonance studies in the diagnostics of central nervous system lesions in HIV-1 positive patients]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):805-13
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  • [Title] [The role of brain magnetic resonance studies in the diagnostics of central nervous system lesions in HIV-1 positive patients].
  • Approximately 10% of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 75-90% patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) present neurological symptoms.
  • This group causes the greatest diagnostic difficulties among AIDS patients.
  • The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MR) of the central nervous system (CNS) in the diagnosis and differentiation of primary and secondary lesions.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty one patients with the symptoms suggesting CNS involvement were enrolled into the study.
  • In 40 of them AIDS diagnosis was established based on the picture of CNS lesions.
  • RESULTS: Pathological findings were visible on MR of CNS in 37 (92.5%) of 40 patients with AIDS.
  • In 8 (20%) cases the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) was established.
  • Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 9 (22.5%) cases, tuberculosis in 6 (15%), cryptococcosis in 5 (12.5%) patients, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in 3 (7.5%) patients, primary lymphoma also in 3 (7.5%), and atypical mycobacteriosis in 2 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity in identifying lesions of the central nervous system.
  • It is very useful, together with the results of other tests, in the final diagnosis of the lesions in the CNS.
  • Magnetic resonance plays also an important role in the treatment planning and monitoring of the efficacy of therapy used in AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Brain Diseases / diagnosis. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS Dementia Complex / diagnosis. Adult. Brain. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Male. Meningitis, Cryptococcal / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / diagnosis


32. Cingolani A, Fratino L, Scoppettuolo G, Antinori A: Changing pattern of primary cerebral lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Neurovirol; 2005;11 Suppl 3:38-44
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  • [Title] Changing pattern of primary cerebral lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) represented one of the most prevalent causes of focal brain lesions in HIV-infected people.
  • The strict association between AIDS-PCNSL and Epstein-Barr virus led to the suggestion that EBV DNA in cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) might serve as a diagnostic marker, reducing the time required for diagnosis and allowing a minimally invasive approach.
  • After the introduction of HAART in clinical practice, a survival benefit has been observed for most persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated opportunistic infections and cancers.
  • In particular, for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a higher likelihood of response to chemotherapy as well as a longer survival has been found as a consequence of the use of combined antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology


33. Manzardo C, Del Mar Ortega M, Sued O, García F, Moreno A, Miró JM: Central nervous system opportunistic infections in developed countries in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Neurovirol; 2005;11 Suppl 3:72-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Central nervous system opportunistic infections in developed countries in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • A marked decrease in incidence has been observed for most central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections (OIs) after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries.
  • However, the spectrum of these OIs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients has remained almost unchanged.
  • CNS toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) remain the most frequent ones.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of all cases with focal lesions.
  • Once HAART is initiated, some patients can develop a clinical worsening of some CNS OIs with or without atypical neuroimaging manifestations.
  • This paradoxical worsening is known as the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and it results from reconstitution of the immune system's ability to recognize pathogens/antigens in patients with prior OIs and low CD4+ T-cell counts.
  • In this context, IRIS can be seen in patients with CNS cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, or PML.
  • On the other hand, HAART-induced immune reconstitution can improve the prognosis of some untreatable diseases such as PML, and can allow maintenance therapy of some CNS OI to be safely discontinued in patients with high and sustained CD4+ T-cell response.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Central Nervous System Infections / etiology. HIV Infections / complications


34. Zazpe I, De Llano P, Gorosquieta A, Cabada T, Tuñón T, Vázquez A, Azcona J, Gallo-Ruiz A, Portillo E: [Primary CNS Lymphoma: bibliographical review and experience at the Hospital of Navarre in the last 5 years (2000-2004)]. An Sist Sanit Navar; 2005 Sep-Dec;28(3):367-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary CNS Lymphoma: bibliographical review and experience at the Hospital of Navarre in the last 5 years (2000-2004)].
  • Primary cerebral lymphoma (Primary CNS Lymphoma, PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma that originates in the central nervous system without evidence of lymphoma in any other localization at the time of diagnosis.
  • Primary cerebral lymphomas are less well-known and are characterized than their homologues the systemic lymphomas, as they are an entity whose frequency was scarce until a few decades ago.
  • Nonetheless, treatment of primary cerebral lymphoma continues to give rise to numerous controversies at present due to its high neurotoxicity in patients over 60 years of age, a group of patients frequently affected by this pathology.
  • To resolve these and other questions it is necessary to deep in the study of primary cerebral lymphoma and to carry out high quality clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hospitals. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Male. Middle Aged. Spain

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  • (PMID = 16421615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1137-6627
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Sist Sanit Navar
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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35. Martini M, Capello D, Serraino D, Navarra A, Pierconti F, Cenci T, Gaidano G, Larocca LM: Characterization of variants in the promoter of EBV gene BZLF1 in normal donors, HIV-positive patients and in AIDS-related lymphomas. J Infect; 2007 Mar;54(3):298-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of variants in the promoter of EBV gene BZLF1 in normal donors, HIV-positive patients and in AIDS-related lymphomas.
  • We characterized the Zp region in type A and type B EBV, infecting AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) and non-malignant lymphoid tissues derived from HIV-positive patients and from healthy individuals.
  • METHODS: The Zp region was directly sequenced in 133 EBV-positive DNA samples: 63 AIDS-NHL (32 systemic AIDS-NHL and 31 AIDS-primary central nervous system lymphoma [AIDS-PCNSL]), 30 lymphoid tissues derived from HIV-positive individuals and 40 lymphoid samples derived from healthy individuals.
  • Zp-V3 was significantly associated with AIDS-PCNSL (P<0.001) and with systemic AIDS-NHL (P=0.007), in particular with AIDS-related immunoblastic lymphoma (P<0.001).
  • Finally, the new identified Zp-PV variant was isolated in 7 AIDS-PCNSL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of polymorphisms in the regulatory zone of BZLF1 is different between malignant and non-malignant samples in AIDS patients and may identify EBV subtypes with different transforming activities, including those associated to the pathogenesis of B cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Lymphoma / virology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Trans-Activators / genetics. Viral Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / genetics. Humans. Lymphoid Tissue / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Polymorphism, Genetic. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16784778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BZLF1 protein, Herpesvirus 4, Human; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins
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36. Bower M, Powles T, Nelson M, Mandalia S, Gazzard B, Stebbing J: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and human immunodeficiency virus-associated primary cerebral lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2006 Aug 2;98(15):1088-91
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy and human immunodeficiency virus-associated primary cerebral lymphoma.
  • From a cohort of 9621 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals, we identified 61 patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCL) who had a median survival of 1.3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Brain Neoplasms / prevention & control. Brain Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16882946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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37. Corti M, de Dios Soler M, Bare P, Villafañe MF, De Tezanos Pinto M, Perez Bianco R, Narbaitz M: [AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8]. Medicina (B Aires); 2010;70(2):151-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8].
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS.
  • Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL) diagnosed at the Histopathological Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas of the National Academy of Medicine.
  • Virological findings showed the strong association between EBV and AIDS-related NHL.
  • According to the histopathological subtype, the EBV genome was detected in 16/21 (76%) diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1/3 Burkitt lymphoma and 3/4 (75%) of primary central nervous system lymphomas.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma were more frequent in males 18/20 (90%), with an aggressive clinical course and a significant predominance of the subtypes associated with worse prognosis (90% of cases).
  • We consider that all cases of AIDS related lymphomas should be assessed for the presence of EBV because its presence may play a role in the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / analysis. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology

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  • (PMID = 20447898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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38. Corti M, Villafañe Fioti MF, Lewi D, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, de Dios Soler M: [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2006 Dec;36(4):190-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients].
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm among patients with AIDS.
  • One of the major clinical characteristics of AIDS-associated NHL is the high frequency of extra-nodal involvement, including the gastrointestinal tract, at initial presentation.
  • METHODS: From January 1997 to December 2004, 8 cases of NHL of the digestive tract and anexal glands (liver and parotid gland) were observed at the HIV/AIDS division of the Infectious Diseases FJ Muñiz Hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • No patient was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at lymphoma diagnosis.
  • The global incidence of AIDS-associated lymphomas (central nervous system lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma) during the time of study was 2,9% (54 cases); 17 patients (32%) had diagnosis of systemic NHL; 10 (58,8%) of them were extranodal at the onset of clinical symptoms and 8 (80%) involvement the digestive tract and anexal glands (parotid gland, cavum, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the right colon in 2 patients and the liver), as primary NHL of high grade and "B" phenotype.
  • Primary duodenal lymphoma was the only Burkitt lymphoma of this serie and we detected the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the biopsy smears of this tumor and in the hepatic lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: NHL of the gastrointestinal tract is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17225446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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39. Yoritaka A, Ohta K, Kishida S: [Prevalence of neurological complications in Japanese patients with AIDS after the introduction of HAART]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2007 Aug;47(8):491-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prevalence of neurological complications in Japanese patients with AIDS after the introduction of HAART].
  • Two questionnaire surveys were performed in hospitals treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to compare two periods: immediately after the introduction of HAART (1999-2001); and a few years later (2002-3).
  • Neurological complications developed as the first AIDS-defining disease for 8.3% of AIDS patients in 1999-2001 and for 5.4% in 2002-3.
  • However, prevalences of cytomegalovirus encephalitis, PML and primary brain lymphoma did not decrease.
  • PML and primary brain lymphoma occurred in patients who received HAART and whose CD4 counts were relatively high during the study period.
  • This is probably related to the extended survival of HIV-infected individuals after the introduction of HAART as a worldwide therapy, and the reactivation of viremia or latent infection persisting within the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Central Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System / epidemiology. AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Complex / epidemiology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Prevalence. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 17882940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Senocak E, Oğuz KK, Ozgen B, Kurne A, Ozkaya G, Unal S, Cila A: Imaging features of CNS involvement in AIDS. Diagn Interv Radiol; 2010 Sep;16(3):193-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging features of CNS involvement in AIDS.
  • Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are the subjects of a large part of routine neuroradiological work in the Western world currently.
  • The World Health Organization announced that Turkish authorities had reported a cumulative total of 2544 HIV cases from 1985 to 2006, of whom 623 had developed AIDS and 140 had died.
  • It is estimated that approximately one-third of AIDS patients develop neurological complications.
  • The spectrum of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in AIDS patients comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Although to a lesser degree when compared with Western countries, the incidence of AIDS and related neurological diseases are on the rise also in Turkey.
  • In this review, we focus on imaging features of more common CNS diseases in HIV-seropositive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS Dementia Complex / pathology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20119906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1305-3612
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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41. Corti M, Metta H, Villafañe MF, Yampolsky C, Schtirbu R, Sevlever G, Garrido D: [Stereotactic brain biopsy in the diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS]. Medicina (B Aires); 2008;68(4):285-90
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Stereotactic brain biopsy in the diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS].
  • Focal brain lesions are frequent complications among HIV/AIDS patients.
  • Between January 1999 and May 2007, 83 procedures of stereotactic brain biopsies in HIV/AIDS patients with focal cerebral lesions were carried out.
  • Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) was the most frequent diagnosis (29%), followed by primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) (23%), and toxoplasmosis (15.7%).
  • In conclusion, the stereotactic brain biopsy ordered early during the patient's evolution showed a good performance in order to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic scheme in these AIDS patients with focal brain lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Brain / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Central Nervous System Viral Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Stereotaxic Techniques / mortality. Stereotaxic Techniques / standards. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / pathology. Young Adult


42. Hill QA, Owen RG: CNS prophylaxis in lymphoma: who to target and what therapy to use. Blood Rev; 2006 Nov;20(6):319-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CNS prophylaxis in lymphoma: who to target and what therapy to use.
  • The purpose of this article is to review the current data on the risk of CNS relapse in patients with lymphoma and the efficacy of CNS directed prophylactic therapy.
  • CNS relapse occurred in 30-50% of those with Burkitt lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma prior to the introduction of intensified regimens that include CNS prophylaxis.
  • Most patients with AIDS-related-lymphoma receive a short course of intrathecal prophylaxis but a re-evaluation of type and targeting of CNS prophylaxis is needed.
  • Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a 5% overall risk of CNS relapse but a high risk sub-population can be identified on the basis of raised LDH and >1 extranodal site, testicular or primary breast involvement.
  • CNS prophylaxis for selected patients with DLBCL may be justified by risk but its benefit is not yet proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16884838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-960X
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 151
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43. Camilleri-Broët S, Raphaël M: [Physiopathogenic aspects of HIV-associated primary brain lymphomas]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2006 Jan;162(1):57-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Physiopathogenic aspects of HIV-associated primary brain lymphomas].
  • HIV-associated Primary brain lymphomas (PBLs) are usually diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs).
  • Since viral latency proteins are target antigens for anti-viral cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the double immunodeficiency (HIV infection, central nervous system microenvironment) favors the expression of viral latency proteins (LMP-1, EBNA2).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. B-Lymphocytes / virology. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Brain / virology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / immunology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. HIV / physiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / cerebrospinal fluid. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / etiology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / genetics. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / physiopathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology

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  • (PMID = 16446623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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44. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Damek DM, Lillehei KO, Dogan A, Giannini C: Epstein Barr virus-associated primary CNS lymphomas in elderly patients on immunosuppressive medications. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Nov;67(11):1103-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epstein Barr virus-associated primary CNS lymphomas in elderly patients on immunosuppressive medications.
  • Unlike primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) in patients with AIDS or organ transplants, PCNSLs in the elderly are usually not considered to be mediated by Epstein Barr virus (EBV); hence, diagnostic studies for EBV are not routinely performed.
  • The patient who had received mycophenolate mofetil was treated successfully for his EBV-associated PCNSL with rituximab and methotrexate, but later developed fatal systemic malignant melanoma, which was likely immunosuppression related.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / physiopathology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / physiopathology. Immune Tolerance / physiology. Lymphoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18957891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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45. Carbone A, Cesarman E, Spina M, Gloghini A, Schulz TF: HIV-associated lymphomas and gamma-herpesviruses. Blood; 2009 Feb 5;113(6):1213-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Among the most common HIV-associated lymphomas are Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with immunoblastic-plasmacytoid differentiation (also involving the central nervous system).
  • Lymphomas occurring specifically in HIV-positive patients include primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and its solid variants, plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity type and large B-cell lymphoma arising in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated multicentric Castleman disease.
  • These lymphomas together with BL and DLBCL with immunoblastic-plasmacytoid differentiation frequently carry EBV infection and display a phenotype related to plasma cells.
  • EBV infection occurs at different rates in different lymphoma types, whereas KSHV is specifically associated with PEL, which usually occurs in the setting of profound immunosuppression.
  • (2) AIDS lymphomas fall in a spectrum of B-cell differentiation where those associated with EBV or KSHV commonly exhibit plasmablastic differentiation; and (3) prognosis for patients with lymphomas and concomitant HIV infection could be improved using better combined chemotherapy protocols incorporating anticancer treatments and antiretroviral drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Gammaherpesvirinae / pathogenicity. HIV-1 / pathogenicity. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology

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  • (PMID = 18955561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 162
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46. Correa RM, Fellner MD, Durand K, Redini L, Alonio V, Yampolsky C, Colobraro A, Sevlever G, Teyssié A, Benetucci J, Picconi MA: Epstein Barr virus genotypes and LMP-1 variants in HIV-infected patients. J Med Virol; 2007 Apr;79(4):401-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The study was performed on 258 individuals: CASES: 144 HIV-infected patients that included: (a) 7 AIDS patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), (b) 62 AIDS patients, and (c) 75 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adolescent. Adult. Argentina. Base Sequence. Biopsy. Blotting, Southern. Brain / pathology. Brain / virology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Genetic Variation. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Deletion. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17311329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins
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47. Chaudhari VV, Yim CM, Hathout H, Lai A, Donovan SM: Atypical imaging appearance of toxoplasmosis in an HIV patient as a butterfly lesion. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Oct;30(4):873-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, differentiating toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma remains a clinical and radiographic dilemma.
  • We present an AIDS patient who had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -positive cerebrospinal fluid studies with a butterfly toxoplasmosis lesion confirmed by multiple methods signifying the importance of including toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of butterfly lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Corpus Callosum / parasitology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Toxoplasmosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19787733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Del Valle L, Piña-Oviedo S: HIV disorders of the brain: pathology and pathogenesis. Front Biosci; 2006;11:718-32
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Approximately 16,000 new cases are diagnosed every day and almost 3 million people die every year from AIDS, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the world.
  • Since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 1990s, the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infection has significantly decreased and AIDS has become a chronic disorder.
  • However, neuropathological conditions associated with AIDS are still present in approximately 70 to 90% of patients and can be the result of HIV itself or of opportunistic infections.
  • Here we briefly review the pathology and pathophysiology of AIDS-Encephalopathy, of some of the significant opportunistic infections affecting the brain in the context of AIDS, including Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) a demyelinating disease caused by the human neurotropic JC virus, Toxoplasmosis, Cryptococcosis and of primary CNS lymphoma, a brain malignancy frequently associated with HIV-1 infection, all of them considered AIDS defining conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Brain / virology. Brain Diseases / virology. HIV Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Animals. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / virology. Cryptococcosis / virology. HIV-1 / chemistry. Humans. JC Virus / chemistry. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / virology. Toxoplasmosis / virology


49. Choe PG, Park WB, Song JS, Song KH, Jeon JH, Park SW, Kim HB, Chang KH, Oh MD, Choe KW, Kim NJ: Spectrum of intracranial parenchymal lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the Republic of Korea. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Jul;25(7):1005-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (12 patients) is the most frequent intracranial parenchymal lesions, followed by intracranial tuberculoma (7 patients), primary central nervous system lymphoma (7 patients), intracranial cryptococcoma (4 patients), Toxoplasma encephalitis (4 patients), and disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (3 patients).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Central Nervous System Diseases / pathology. Central Nervous System Diseases / virology. HIV Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20592890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890875
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / Brain Diseases / HIV / Korea
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50. Mwakigonja AR, Kaaya EE, Mgaya EM: Malignant lymphomas (ML) and HIV infection in Tanzania. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2008;27:9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: HIV infection is reported to be associated with some malignant lymphomas (ML) so called AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL), with an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
  • The ML frequency, pathogenicity, clinical patterns and possible association with AIDS in Tanzania, are not well documented impeding the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
  • Supra-diaphragmatic presentation was commonest and histological sub-types were mostly aggressive B-cell lymphomas however, no clear cases of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) were diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant lymphomas apparently, increased significantly among diagnosed tumors at MNH between 1996 and 2001, predominantly among the young, HIV infected and AIDS patients.
  • The frequent aggressive clinical and histological presentation as well as the dominant B-immunophenotype and the HIV serology indicate a pathogenic association with AIDS.
  • Therefore, routine HIV screening of all malignant lymphoma patients at MNH is necessary to enable comprehensive ARL diagnosis and formulation of preventive and therapeutic protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / virology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. HIV Seropositivity. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Tanzania / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18577266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2438337
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51. Bhigjee AI: Neurological manifestations of HIV infection in Kwazulu-Natal South Africa. J Neurovirol; 2005;11 Suppl 1:17-21
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS in Women.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple bacterial abscesses and tuberculomata are other important causes whilst primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare.
  • Until the antiretroviral therapy roll out programme is well established the above HIV related neurological complications will continue to be seen for several years.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS Dementia Complex / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15960236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-0284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurovirol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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52. Kumar GG, Mahadevan A, Guruprasad AS, Kovoor JM, Satishchandra P, Nath A, Ranga U, Shankar SK: Eccentric target sign in cerebral toxoplasmosis: neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Jun;31(6):1469-72
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Diagnosis is a challenge because on cranial imaging it closely mimics central nervous system lymphoma, primary and metastatic central nervous system (CNS) tumors, or other intracranial infections like tuberculoma or abscesses.
  • Herein we correlate the underlying histopathology to the MR feature of eccentric target sign in a patient with autopsy-proven HIV/AIDS-related cerebral toxoplasmosis.
  • The central enhancing core of the target seen on MRI was produced by a leash of inflamed vessels extending down the length of the sulcus that was surrounded by concentric zones of necrosis and a wall composed of histiocytes and proliferating blood vessels, with impaired permeability producing the peripheral enhancing rim.

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  • (PMID = 20512900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS055628-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055628; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R01NS055628-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055628-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218257; NLM/ PMC2908244
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53. Aiello-Laws L, Rutledge DN: Management of adult patients receiving intraventricular chemotherapy for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2008 Jun;12(3):429-35
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYTARABINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cancer in the central nervous system can arise from a primary brain tumor and metastasize to the brain or to the leptomeninges, leading to leptomeningeal metastasis (LM).
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adult. Blepharoptosis / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / nursing. Carcinoma / secondary. Drug Compounding. Drug Monitoring / nursing. Evidence-Based Medicine. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Low Back Pain / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Male. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Nurse's Role. Nursing Assessment. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18515241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-1095
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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54. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • CD40 ligand incorporated into the HIV envelope and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase may help explain the relationship between HIV load and Burkitt lymphoma.
  • Genetic polymorphisms have been identified that are linked to lymphoma in HIV patients.
  • Cytokines and related molecules (IL10, sCD30) may identify patients at high risk for NHL.
  • EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) have not yet emerged as especially promising markers of risk for either lymphoma or Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • SUMMARY: CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV load, germline genetic polymorphisms, cytokine and related molecules, and immunoglobulin light chains all show increasing promise as biomarkers of malignancy in HIV patients.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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