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1. Little RF, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2006 Jun 15;107(12):4650-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhances Th1-type T-cell responses and exerts antiangiogenic effects.
  • We initiated a phase 1 pilot study of IL-12 in 32 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) whose KS was progressing while on antiretroviral therapy.
  • Fifteen patients had poor prognosis T(1)S(1) disease.
  • These results provide preliminary evidence that IL-12 has substantial activity against AIDS-related KS with acceptable toxicity and warrants further investigation for this indication.

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  • (PMID = 16507779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / Z01 SC006737-14; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1475826
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2. Little RF, Aleman K, Kumar P, Wyvill KM, Pluda JM, Read-Connole E, Wang V, Pittaluga S, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4165-71
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years.
  • Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)).
  • Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline.
  • The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Interleukin-12 / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Chemokine CXCL10 / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17846226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020449
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234790
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3. Nsubuga MM, Biggar RJ, Combs S, Marshall V, Mbisa G, Kambugu F, Mehta M, Biryahwaho B, Rabkin CS, Whitby D, Mbulaiteye SM: Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Cancer Lett; 2008 May 18;263(2):182-8
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions.
  • INTRODUCTION: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether peripheral blood viral load is a marker of KS burden (total number of KS lesions), KS progression (the rate of eruption of new KS lesions), or both is unclear.
  • We investigated these relationships in persons with AIDS.
  • METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with AIDS-related KS attending Mulago Hospital, in Kampala, Uganda, were assessed for KS burden and progression by questionnaire and medical examination.
  • Associations were examined with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models and with t-tests.
  • Median virus load was 3.8 logs10/10(6) peripheral blood cells (IQR 3.4-5.0) and was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.8 logs; p=0.04), in patients with faster (>20 lesions per year) than slower rate of KS lesion eruption (4.5 vs. 3.6 logs; p<0.001), and higher, but not significantly, among patients with more (>median 20 KS lesions) than fewer KS lesions (4.4 vs. 4.0 logs; p=0.16).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show significant association of HHV8 load in peripheral blood with rate of eruption of KS lesions, but not with total lesion count.
  • Our results suggest that viral load increases concurrently with development of new KS lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18234418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010150-08; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010176-07; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS49037; NLM/ PMC2440724
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4. Hiatt KM, Nelson AM, Lichy JH, Fanburg-Smith JC: Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States over the last two decades: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of 438 non-HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma patients with comparison to HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):572-82
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  • [Title] Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States over the last two decades: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of 438 non-HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma patients with comparison to HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma.
  • Classic Kaposi sarcoma is rare and occurs predominantly in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern men.
  • Since the emergence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma, the incidence, clinicopathologic features, and molecular human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) association of American Classic Kaposi Sarcoma has not been fully explored.
  • This study compares Classic Kaposi Sarcoma to AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma over the same two decade time period.
  • There were 438 histologically and clinically confirmed Classic Kaposi Sarcoma patients.
  • Classic Kaposi Sarcoma was more common in men, 7:1, with a mean age of 74 years.
  • A second, non-Classic Kaposi Sarcoma, malignancy was present in 42% (n=45) of the 108 Classic Kaposi Sarcoma patients with complete clinical information, 73% (33 patients) with a higher incidence over the general population.
  • Follow-up of <1-19 years (mean=4.8 years) revealed that 24% of patients died of second malignancy, 22% died of other medical conditions, 2% died of treatment-related complications, and 2% patients died of widespread disease.
  • Thirty-five percent are alive with no evidence of disease and 15% with persistent disease.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi Sarcoma was observed in 354 cases.
  • There was a male predominance and more aggressive behavior, with higher rates of visceral and disseminated disease.
  • While Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States is an indolent disease and rarely accounts for patient demise, predominantly affecting Caucasian/American males on the lower extremity in the nodular phase, it more importantly may denote an underlying other malignancy.
  • Current PCR probes detect HHV-8 in 98% of Classic Kaposi Sarcoma cases.
  • In comparison, AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma is predominately multicentric, visceral, and disseminated, with more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


5. Mbulaiteye SM, Sternberg LR, Nsubuga MM, Anver MR, Mehta M, Biryahwaho B, Kambugu F, Rabkin CS, Biggar RJ: Absence of Y-chromosome sequences in tumors from African women with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 18;248(2):229-33
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  • [Title] Absence of Y-chromosome sequences in tumors from African women with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs with relatively high frequency in immunosuppressed transplant recipients and in patients with AIDS.
  • Recently, Italian investigators reported transplant-related KS tumors bearing donor-derived antigens, suggesting possible parenteral transmission of KS as whole cells, i.e., chimeric tumors.
  • To investigate the hypothesis that KS whole cells may also be transmitted into immunocompromised persons via heterosexual acts, we tested nodular KS lesions and matched normal tissue obtained from female patients with AIDS for the presence of the Y-chromosome specific sex determining sequence (SRY).
  • While our results do not exclude sexual cellular transmission of whole KS cells, they suggest that if it occurs, it is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sex-Determining Region Y Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16934394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
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6. Reiser BJ, Mok A, Kukes G, Kim JW: Non-AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma involving the tarsal conjunctiva and eyelid margin. Arch Ophthalmol; 2007 Jun;125(6):838-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma involving the tarsal conjunctiva and eyelid margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. HIV Seronegativity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17563000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Joerger M, Huitema AD, Meenhorst PL, Schellens JH, Beijnen JH: Pharmacokinetics of low-dose doxorubicin and metabolites in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2005 May;55(5):488-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacokinetics of low-dose doxorubicin and metabolites in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Systemic chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for AIDS-related advanced Kaposi sarcoma.
  • We analysed the plasma concentrations of low-dose doxorubicin (Dx) and its metabolites doxorubicinol, 7-deoxydoxorubicinone, doxorubicinone, doxorubicinolone, and 7-deoxydoxorubicinolone in AIDS-patients to define patient-group and dose-specific pharmacokinetic parameters.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously described high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method and a population approach with non-linear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM) were used for analysis and subsequent modelling of the time-concentration data of low-dose Dx and metabolites in seven patients with AIDS-related advanced Kaposi sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / metabolism. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15726371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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8. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7

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  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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9. Bahl S, Theis B, Nishri D, Marrett LD: Changing incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Dec;19(10):1251-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Ontario, Canada.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in Ontario.
  • METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates for KS and NHL from 1981 to 2000 were calculated from the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry.
  • AIDS cases were extracted from Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care reports.
  • HIV death data were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry.
  • RESULTS: KS was a rare cancer before the 1980s; however, incidence increased sharply between 1985 and 1995 by 13.8% per year.
  • NHL and KS cases represented one-third of HIV deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The AIDS epidemic, the introduction of antiretroviral therapies, and the decrease in HIV infection rates explain the rise and decline of KS incidence in Ontario.
  • NHL incidence trends are more complex, although the AIDS epidemic explains the trends observed in younger men (in whom AIDS is more common), and for the AIDS-related subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Population Surveillance. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


10. Borok M, Fiorillo S, Gudza I, Putnam B, Ndemera B, White IE, Gwanzura L, Schooley RT, Campbell TB: Evaluation of plasma human herpesvirus 8 DNA as a marker of clinical outcomes during antiretroviral therapy for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Aug 1;51(3):342-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of plasma human herpesvirus 8 DNA as a marker of clinical outcomes during antiretroviral therapy for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in Zimbabwe.
  • BACKGROUND: The usefulness of plasma human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA as a marker of response to treatment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in an African setting is unknown.
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study at the Parirenyatwa Hospital Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) to investigate the hypothesis that the clinical response of AIDS-KS is associated with suppression of HHV-8 DNA.
  • Clinical response was defined as survival to week 96 with either complete or partial resolution of KS disease.
  • RESULTS: Ninety ART-naive participants (62 men and 28 women) aged >18 years who had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and biopsy-confirmed KS were studied; 82% had stage T1 disease.
  • The median CD4(+) lymphocyte count increased from 124 cells/microL at baseline to 281 cells/microL, the plasma HIV-1 RNA level decreased from 4.69 to <2.60 log(10) copies/mL, the plasma HHV-8 DNA level decreased from 660 to <25 copies/mL, and HHV-8 DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased from 2790 to 37 copies/10(6) cells (P < .001 for each comparison).
  • Clinical response of KS occurred in 17 participants (19%).
  • Pretreatment plasma HHV-8 DNA levels of <660 copies/mL were associated with greater survival (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-7.53; P = .04) and a better clinical response (odds ratio, 6.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-24.19; P = .006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-KS tumor responses after ART initiation were limited.
  • Pretreatment plasma HHV-8 DNA level may be a surrogate for KS disease that is in need of intensive clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. DNA, Viral / blood. Drug Monitoring / methods. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Plasma / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20572760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA054907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA, Viral
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11. da Silva Filho FP, Marchiori E, Valiante PM, Escuissato DL, Gasparetto TD: AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma of the lung presenting with a "crazy-paving" pattern on high-resolution CT: imaging and pathologic findings. J Thorac Imaging; 2008 May;23(2):135-7
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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma of the lung presenting with a "crazy-paving" pattern on high-resolution CT: imaging and pathologic findings.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a fulminate and disseminated form of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining neoplasm, usually presenting pulmonary involvement.
  • We report a 40-year-old woman with AIDS and biopsy-proven KS showing unusual high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings.
  • The authors suggest the inclusion of KS in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases in patients with AIDS presenting with crazy-paving pattern on the HRCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Pulmonary Edema / etiology


12. Vanni T, Sprinz E, Machado MW, Santana Rde C, Fonseca BA, Schwartsmann G: Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev; 2006 Oct;32(6):445-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent type of cancer in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • In contrast, the incidence of KS has been steadily climbing in parallel with the AIDS epidemic in Africa over the past 10-15 years, being the most common cancer in adult men in countries like Uganda and Zimbabwe.
  • AIDS-KS can be diagnosed at any stage of HIV infection, although it more commonly occurs in the setting of severe immune suppression, especially with an elevated viral load.
  • Up to now, AIDS-KS is still an incurable disease.
  • Its clinical course is variable, ranging from very indolent cases, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Various local therapies are available to control small and asymptomatic lesions, while cytotoxic, immunological and biological therapies can be considered for more aggressive disease.
  • Optimal anti-retroviral therapy is a key component of AIDS-KS management.
  • There are still many questions to be answered in the management of patients with AIDS-KS, such as (1) What are the therapeutic agents that should be used in this disease, and in which sequence?
  • The aim of this review is to discuss the systemic management of AIDS-KS, with special focus on the above mentioned questions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 16860939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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13. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: pathogenesis and therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2007 Dec;5(12):1091-4
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: pathogenesis and therapy.
  • While classical Kaposi sarcoma is a slowly progressing tumor, AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is much more aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Risk Factors. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 17944950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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14. Meditz AL, Borok M, MaWhinney S, Gudza I, Ndemera B, Gwanzura L, Campbell TB: Gender differences in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2007 Mar 1;44(3):306-8
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  • [Title] Gender differences in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Reasons for gender-related differences in the risk of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) are unknown.
  • Four hundred thirty-eight male and 166 female AIDS-KS patients were evaluated in Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Female patients were younger than male patients in this study (median of 33 vs. 38 years; P < 0.001), mirroring the epidemiology of AIDS in Zimbabwe.
  • These findings suggest an increased severity of KS or other unidentified infections among women with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / physiopathology. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17146369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 054907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 79389; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW 0123
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kalpidis CD, Lysitsa SN, Lombardi T, Kolokotronis AE, Antoniades DZ, Samson J: Gingival involvement in a case series of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma. J Periodontol; 2006 Mar;77(3):523-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gingival involvement in a case series of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: This case series presents the polymorphic clinical characteristics of gingival acquired immunodeficieny syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a malignancy that is gradually becoming uncommon in developed nations.
  • An up-to-date overview of the related epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, histopathology, and treatment is provided, along with a pictorial guide to ease clinical diagnosis.
  • Thirty-two cases diagnosed with oral AIDS-related KS were retrieved between 1991 and 2004.
  • KS diagnosis was established histologically by incisional biopsies from intraoral lesions.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen patients (12 males and one female) presented with KS gingival involvement (40.6%).
  • The mean age of the patients at the time of intraoral KS diagnosis was 42.1 years, and the mean CD4 cell count was 103 (0 to 481).
  • Gingival epidemic KS presented with various degrees of pigmentation and a wide range of clinical patterns, from relatively flat macules (early stage) to tumors with variable nodular morphology (advanced disease).
  • Solitary or multiple gingival involvement may appear concomitantly with palatal and/or cutaneous lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though the incidence of intraoral KS had fallen precipitously in developed countries after the mid-1990s, gingival KS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every pigmented gingival lesion.
  • Periodontists are in a unique position to identify gingival involvement of intraoral KS and facilitate early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Africa / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palatal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / virology. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16512768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Brambilla L, Romanelli A, Bellinvia M, Ferrucci S, Vinci M, Boneschi V, Miedico A, Tedeschi L: Weekly paclitaxel for advanced aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma: experience in 17 cases. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jun;158(6):1339-44
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  • [Title] Weekly paclitaxel for advanced aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma: experience in 17 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel has proved to be highly effective in the treatment of severe AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS), for which it is now considered as a second-line monotherapy.
  • Taxanes were recently shown to be active also in classic, endemic and post-transplantation KS.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of standardized paclitaxel treatment (100 mg weekly, intravenously) in a homogeneous group of 17 patients with advanced aggressive and refractory classic KS (cKS).
  • One patient had progression of disease despite initial improvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that low-dose paclitaxel proved to be effective and well tolerated in patients with aggressive refractory cKS, controlling the aggressiveness of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Vascular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18363766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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17. Lim ST, Tupule A, Espina BM, Levine AM: Weekly docetaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer; 2005 Jan 15;103(2):417-21
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  • [Title] Weekly docetaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Intravenous paclitaxel, 100 mg/m(2), given over 3 hours every 2 weeks is associated with a response rate of 59% in patients with recurrent or refractory acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • However, this regimen is associated with significant myelosuppression, and the inconvenience of a 3-hour infusion.
  • A Phase II trial was conducted with weekly docetaxel in patients with advanced-stage KS to assess safety and antitumor activity.
  • Thereafter, if the patient experienced stable disease or better response, treatment doses were given every other week until complete disease remission, disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
  • Treatment was well tolerated, with no Grade 4 toxicity of any type.
  • The median time to disease progression was 26 months (range, 5-53 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Weekly docetaxel is safe, with reasonable antitumor activity in patients with advanced-stage, recurrent, or refractory AIDS-related KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


18. Nguyen HQ, Magaret AS, Kitahata MM, Van Rompaey SE, Wald A, Casper C: Persistent Kaposi sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: characterizing the predictors of clinical response. AIDS; 2008 May 11;22(8):937-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Persistent Kaposi sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: characterizing the predictors of clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy on tumor response among persons with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and identify factors associated with response in a clinic setting.
  • METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients from two HIV clinics with a diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma were identified via a clinical database.
  • Records were reviewed to confirm Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis and abstract clinical and chemotherapy information.
  • Cox's proportional hazards models identified predictors of Kaposi sarcoma improvement and resolution.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-six months following Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis, the rate of improvement among 64 patients with confirmed Kaposi sarcoma was 77% and that of complete resolution was 51%.
  • In univariate analyses, recent chemotherapy was associated with Kaposi sarcoma improvement, and recent HIV viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy were associated with both improvement and resolution.
  • No measured baseline characteristics (tumor stage, diagnosis year, CD4 T-cell count, HIV viral load, or prior highly active antiretroviral therapy history) or recent CD4 T-cell counts predicted improvement or resolution.
  • In multivariate analyses, recent chemotherapy (hazard ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.7-11.2, P < 0.001) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (hazard ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-12.6, P = 0.01) were predictors of improvement; only recent highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with resolution (hazard ratio 6.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-26.4, P = 0.01).
  • Response was not associated with type of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen (non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based, protease inhibitor based, or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor based).
  • CONCLUSION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy are important in clinical Kaposi sarcoma response.
  • Despite widespread availability of these therapies, Kaposi sarcoma continues to be a clinical problem; only half the patients achieved complete resolution of disease.

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  • (PMID = 18453853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-05; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / NIH K23AI54162; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K24 AI071113; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120257; NLM/ PMC2730951
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19. Kanmogne GD: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 2005 May;11(3):208-12
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  • [Title] Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS, with a focus on HIV/AIDS-related lung malignancies and pulmonary hypertension, and discusses their incidence in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS are now recognized as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients.
  • This is especially the case for HIV-related lung cancer and other non-AIDS-defining malignancies, which are now being diagnosed with increased frequency in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma has decreased in the HAART era, but compared with the general population, the risk of these malignancies and pulmonary hypertension is still very high in HIV-infected patients.
  • Concurrent use of HAART and chemotherapy improves prognosis and survival of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • For patients with HIV-related pulmonary hypertension, some studies show no beneficial effect of HAART whereas other reports show that HAART improves patient survival and response to antihypertensive treatment.
  • SUMMARY: The beneficial effect of HAART and improved immune response on the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma suggests that HIV or viral-induced immunosuppression plays an important role in the development of these malignancies.
  • Evidence from current studies suggests that HAART does not protect against HIV-related lung cancer.
  • The full impact of HAART on HIV pulmonary hypertension remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Hypertension, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Comorbidity. Female. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15818181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Pulm Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 1KO1MH068214-1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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20. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant disorders have been linked to the HIV epidemic from its onset.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • The present study evaluates the neoplasm prevalence before and after the implementation of HAART.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 171 HIV-infected adults who were followed in Puerto Rico from May 1992 through December 2005.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • RESULTS: Malignant neoplasms were detected in 171 patients (4.8%).
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.
  • Preventive strategies that include screening tests, vaccination, and lifestyle modification should be routinely applied in HIV-infected patients.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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21. Marquart KH: Electron microscopy reveals fungal cells within tumor tissue from two African patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2006 May-Jun;30(3):187-92
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  • [Title] Electron microscopy reveals fungal cells within tumor tissue from two African patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Electron microscopic investigation of biopsy materials from Kaposi sarcoma (KS) skin lesions of 2 African AIDS patients occasionally revealed fungal cells within the tumor tissue.
  • The presence of Candida albicans in the KS tissue specimens seems to represent an early and asymptomatic stage of cutaneous candidiasis in the 2 severely immunocompromised AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Candida albicans / isolation & purification. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / microbiology. Skin Neoplasms / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16825120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Venkatarajan S, Glaich AS, Ostler DA, Hsu S: A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(12):6
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  • [Title] A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm commonly seen in HIV patients.
  • In AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, small red papules or nodules initially present on the face, especially on the nose, and the trunk, that then rapidly spread to other areas.
  • We present an unusual case of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Online J. 2010;16(3):13 [20233570.001]
  • (PMID = 20040256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Peer FI, Pui MH, Rae WI, Mosam A: 99mTc-MIBI imaging of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the lungs. Nucl Med Commun; 2008 Sep;29(9):786-90
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  • [Title] 99mTc-MIBI imaging of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the lungs.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurs in more than 10% of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has a high mortality rate.
  • Prompt detection, diagnosis, and treatment reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging in detecting pulmonary AIDS-related KS.
  • METHODS: 99mTc-MIBI imaging was performed on 72 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with bronchoscopic diagnosis of pulmonary KS (36 patients), pneumonia (22), normal tracheo-bronchial tree (11), lymphoma (2), and bronchogenic carcinoma (1).
  • Lung uptake and lymph node detection in KS were compared on planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans.
  • RESULTS: The lung/myocardium ratios on the 1-h planar images were significantly higher in KS and normal lungs than opportunistic infection.
  • Using the lung/myocardium ratio of 1 as cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 1-h planar images for detecting pulmonary KS were 75, 57.58, and 66.67%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Planar 99mTc-MIBI imaging has moderate sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting pulmonary KS.
  • 99mTc-MIBI SPECT followed by planar imaging at 40-60 min can be useful in assessing pulmonary KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardium / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods


24. Cissé H, Dao S, Oumar AA, Dembele JP, Cissé IA, Traore CB, Fongoro: [AIDS related Kaposi’s disease in Hospital area in Bamako]. Mali Med; 2007;22(1):29-32
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  • [Title] [AIDS related Kaposis disease in Hospital area in Bamako].
  • [Transliterated title] La Maladie de Kaposi au cours du VIH/Sida en milieu hospitalier de Bamako.
  • The goal of this prospective work were to describe the clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of Kaposis disease occurring during AIDS in the infectious diseases service from October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005.
  • The diagnosis of the infection by the HIV was based on the positivity of serology with 2 fast tests.
  • That of the Kaposis disease was based on the clinical aspect and /or histological of the lesions.
  • On these 2189 patients, 37 presented the Kaposis disease that means a prevalence of 1.6%.
  • Kaposis disease limited on the skin and mucous were most represented within (48.65 %), followed by the skin limited (43.24 %) and mucous localization (8.11%).
  • The Kaposis disease during the AIDS is relatively frequent with the service of the infectious diseases and the prognosis remains severe.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Male. Mali. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21319433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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25. Polák P, Snopková S, Husa P, Povolná K, Bohatá S, Moulis M: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2010 Oct;16(5):172-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposiho sarkom.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual form of tumor which in the era of HIV/AIDS pandemic is increasingly observed outside the original endemic areas.
  • It was shown that the development of KS is in directly related to infection with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The pathophysiology of KS is complex and is influenced by HIV co-infection and by global cytokine interactions.
  • We provode a review of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of and therapeutic options for KS and one clinical case.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21191875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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26. Goedert JJ, Calamusa G, Dazzi C, Perna A, Pelser C, Anderson LA, Madsen C, Preiss LR, Airola M, Graubard BI, Messina A, Lauria C, Romano N: Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5(1):23
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  • [Title] Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily.
  • BACKGROUND: Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • METHODS: In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls.
  • With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history.
  • RESULTS: Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81).
  • In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10) and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13), including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol) used to cultivate durum wheat.
  • None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus.
  • Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17), but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35) and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to chance.
  • Study of the effects of durum wheat, which was previously associated with cKS, may be warranted.

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  • (PMID = 21126363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3014880
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27. Pantanowitz L, Kuperman M, Goulart RA: Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology. Cytojournal; 2010;7:7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms.
  • As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions.
  • The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases.
  • Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient's HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of the cytologic evaluation.
  • Multiple noncontributory repeat procedures were performed until a final excision revealed a schwannoma.
  • Follow up revealed multiple calcified lung and hilar node based granulomata.
  • Case 3 involved the cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid from a 47-year-old man with Kaposi sarcoma and recurrent chylous pleural effusions.
  • These cases demonstrate that knowledge of a patient's HIV status can be misleading in the evaluation of cytology specimens, with potential for misdiagnosis and/or multiple procedures.
  • To avoid this pitfall in the setting of HIV infection, common entities unrelated to HIV infection and artifacts should always be included in the differential diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Chest. 1989 Sep;96(3):460-6 [2766805.001]
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  • (PMID = 20607096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895884
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIDS / HIV / cytology / misleading
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28. Adedigba MA, Naidoo S, Ogunbodede EO: Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS. Odontostomatol Trop; 2009 Mar;32(125):17-24
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  • [Title] Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS.
  • The descriptive, retrospective study that investigated the cost implications of the treatment of five oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS: oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases, oral ulcers and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • One hundred and twenty four cases with oral HIV lesions were selected from the list of 181 HIV patients listed in the attendance registers of three hospitals in the selected study sites.
  • A data capture sheet was used to obtain information related to diagnosis, investigations done, staging of the disease, treatment plan and treatment outcome.
  • There was no significant association between staging of the disease and the hospital cost (p > 0.05), but the CD4 count significantly influenced the hospital cost (p<0.05).
  • Governments should endeavour to provide antiretroviral and other relevant drugs, at no cost, to HIV/AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Costs. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Mouth Diseases / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / economics. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / economics. Male. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / complications. Oral Ulcer / economics. Periodontal Diseases / complications. Periodontal Diseases / economics. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19711837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0251-172X
  • [Journal-full-title] Odonto-stomatologie tropicale = Tropical dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Odontostomatol Trop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Senegal
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29. Symeonidou C, Standish R, Sahdev A, Katz RD, Morlese J, Malhotra A: Imaging and histopathologic features of HIV-related renal disease. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1339-54
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  • [Title] Imaging and histopathologic features of HIV-related renal disease.
  • Despite extraordinary recent advances in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, patients infected with HIV are still susceptible to a variety of complications that stem either from immunodeficiency or from side effects of antiretroviral regimens.
  • Diagnosis is often challenging, since every organ in the body can be affected by HIV, and the kidneys have been increasingly shown to be involved by a variety of disease processes.
  • Opportunistic infections including those caused by atypical organisms, malignancies such as lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma, and disease processes specific to HIV infection such as HIV-associated nephropathy have all been shown to affect the kidneys.
  • In this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal disease arising secondary to antiretroviral medication has been added to the list.
  • Furthermore, the introduction of HAART has increased survival of HIV-infected patients; consequently, the frequency of HIV-associated and incidental renal disease is expected to rise in this population.
  • Because mortality and morbidity rates are affected by the early recognition of renal disease in HIV-infected patients, it is paramount that the radiologist be familiar with the imaging features that can be encountered in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / diagnosis. AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / etiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Kidney / pathology. Kidney / radiography

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18794311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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30. Sekiya N, Imamura A: [Doxil--pegylated liposomal doxorubicin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1439-43
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  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil: PLD) is a liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin modified with polyethylene glycol that has been approved for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • This does not mean, however, that PLD should be used in the treatment of all patients with Kaposi's sarcoma; in some cases with skin lesions only and local distribution highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) alone is effective.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18701868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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31. Guedes F, de Andrade HF Jr, Fernandes ER, Tuon FF, Brasil RA, Pagliari C, Duarte MI: The effects of human herpesvirus 8 infection and interferon-gamma response in cutaneous lesions of Kaposi sarcoma differ among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected individuals. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Sep;159(4):839-46
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] The effects of human herpesvirus 8 infection and interferon-gamma response in cutaneous lesions of Kaposi sarcoma differ among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected individuals.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The cutaneous immune response in this tumour is not well established and a better understanding is necessary.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the HHV-8 expression and immune response in cutaneous lesions of classic KS (CKS) and AIDS-associated KS (AIDS-KS).
  • METHODS: We performed a quantitative immunohistochemical study of cells expressing HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), CD4, CD8 and interferon (IFN)-gamma in skin lesions from patients with CKS and AIDS-KS (with or without highly active antiretroviral therapy, HAART).
  • RESULTS: CKS showed higher LANA expression compared with AIDS-KS, regardless of HAART.
  • The tissue CD4+ cell proportion was lower in AIDS-KS patients without HAART than in patients with CKS.
  • AIDS-KS presented low numbers of IFN-gamma-expressing cells.
  • CD8+ cell numbers were similar in all groups, which appeared unrelated to the clinical or epidemiological type of KS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our quantitative data on the pattern of KS lesions in selected groups of patients, as shown by in situ immune response, demonstrated a CD4+ T-cell involvement associated with IFN-gamma, an environment of immune response-modified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • In our sample, the promotion of KS in patients without HIV appears to be related to higher HHV-8 load or virulence than in those with AIDS.
  • This higher resistance may be explained by a sustained immune response against this herpesvirus, that is only partially restored but effective after HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18644020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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32. Makombe SD, Harries AD, Yu JK, Hochgesang M, Mhango E, Weigel R, Pasulani O, Fitzgerald M, Schouten EJ, Libamba E: Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi. Trop Doct; 2008 Jan;38(1):5-7
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  • [Title] Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi.
  • AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa, with a generally unfavourable prognosis.
  • We report on six-month and 12-month cohort treatment outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive KS patients and HIV-positive non-KS patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector facilities in Malawi.
  • Between July and September 2005, 7905 patients started ART-488 (6%) with a diagnosis of KS and 7417 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • Between January and March 2005, 4580 patients started ART-326 (7%) with a diagnosis of KS and 4254 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • At six-months and 12-months, significantly fewer KS patients were alive and significantly more had died or defaulted compared to non-KS patients.
  • HIV-positive KS patients on ART in Malawi have worse outcomes than other patients on ART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18302849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
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33. Brinker BT, Krown SE, Lee JY, Cesarman E, Chadburn A, Kaplan LD, Henry DH, Von Roenn JH: Phase 1/2 trial of BMS-275291 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi sarcoma: a multicenter trial of the AIDS Malignancy Consortium. Cancer; 2008 Mar 1;112(5):1083-8
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase 1/2 trial of BMS-275291 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi sarcoma: a multicenter trial of the AIDS Malignancy Consortium.
  • BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • The safety and efficacy of a novel, orally bioavailable MMP inhibitor, BMS-275291, was evaluated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated KS and the correlation between changes in the percentage of apoptotic cells in tumor biopsies and response was explored.
  • Assessment of biologic response for dose escalation/de-escalation decisions utilizing the apoptosis assay was not feasible.
  • The better-tolerated schedule of 1200 mg once a day demonstrated inadequate efficacy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2008 Mar 1;112(5):962-5 [18098222.001]
  • (PMID = 18224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 070079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 083038; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 121947
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 259188-38-0 / N-((2S)-2-mercapto-1-oxo-4-(3,4,4- trimethyl-2,5-dioxo-1-imidazolidinyl)butyl)-L-leucyl-N,3- dimethyl-L-Valinamide
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34. Salako AA, Adisa AO, Ojo OS, Arigbabu AO: Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2007 Dec;14(4):352-4
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  • [Title] Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was previously a relatively rare disease.
  • With the advent of HIV/AIDS pandemic however, AIDS-related KS has been on the increase and so has interest in the disease.
  • Ninety per cent of patients with KS present with skin lesions.
  • While the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly common site of metastatic KS, primary gastrointestinal KS is uncommon.
  • The presentation of gastrointestinal KS with severe gastrointestinal bleeding is rarer still.
  • In this report, we present a 56yr old HIV-negative patient who presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding without any skin lesions.
  • Multiple haemorrhagic polypoidal lesions were found on the walls of the jejunum and ileum as well as the liver at exploratory laparotomy and these were found to be KS on histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18163148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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35. Ganem D: KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Annu Rev Pathol; 2006;1:273-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] KSHV infection and the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has long been suspected of having an infectious etiology on the basis of its unusual epidemiology, histopathology, and natural history.
  • Nearly a decade ago, a novel herpesviral genome was discovered in KS biopsies, and since that time strong epidemiologic evidence has accumulated correlating infection with this KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus 8) with the development of the disease.
  • Here we review the evidence linking KSHV infection to KS risk and discuss current notions of how KSHV gene expression promotes the development of this remarkable neoplasm.
  • These studies show that both latent and lytic viral replicative cycles contribute significantly-but differently-to KS development.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Humans. Male. Virus Latency

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  • (PMID = 18039116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4006
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu Rev Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 158
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36. Nnoruka EN, Chukwuka JC, Anisuiba B: Correlation of mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV/AIDS infection with CD4 counts and disease progression. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Oct;46 Suppl 2:14-8
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  • [Title] Correlation of mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV/AIDS infection with CD4 counts and disease progression.
  • BACKGROUND: As the search for reliable clinical indicators for management of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in resource-poor settings continues, mucocutaneous disorders of HIV should be considered among key clinical indicators for prediction of underlying immune status, disease progression, and possible complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Africa.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify and correlate mucocutaneous disorders to CD4-positive cell count and total lymphocyte count in HIV/AIDS patients of southeast Nigeria.
  • RESULT: Mean CD4 cell count of HIV/AIDS patients was 303.81 cells/mm(3) and was significantly lower to the control group - 807.3 cells/mm(3) (z = 10.089 and P < 0.005).
  • In comparison with the CD4 cell count of asymptomatic HIV-positive patients (mean 433.6 cells/mm(3)), CD4 cell count of HIV-positive patients with various mucocutaneous manifestations (mean 293.63 cells/mm(3)) was statistically correlated with low counts (z = 4.0731 and P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Cryptococcus skin lesions occurred at low CD4+ counts of </= 50 cells/mm(3); Kaposi sarcoma at CD4+ counts of </= 200 cells/mm(3), while seborrheic dermatitis occurred at CD4+ counts of >200 cells/mm(3 )and as an early skin manifestation within our environment.
  • Campaign for the skin as an important clinical organ for assessment, prediction of immune status, and management of HIV/AIDS, particularly for hard-to-reach and resource-limited health facilities, has to be undertaken.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV. HIV Infections / immunology. Skin Diseases / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Nigeria. Prevalence


37. Krown SE: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: is there still a role for interferon alfa? Cytokine Growth Factor Rev; 2007 Oct-Dec;18(5-6):395-402
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: is there still a role for interferon alfa?
  • Interferon alfa (IFNalpha) was one of the first agents to be used therapeutically in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) more than 25 years ago, and induces tumor regression in a subset of patients.
  • Although much has been learned about the clinical role of IFNalpha in KS treatment, little is currently known about the mechanism(s) by which IFNalpha causes KS regression.
  • This is despite a growing understanding of both KS pathogenesis and relevant IFNalpha activities.
  • To a large extent other agents have supplanted IFNalpha as treatments for KS, but there may still remain a therapeutic role for IFNalpha, possibly in combination with other agents targeting angiogenesis and/or HHV-8-encoded human gene homologs that encode proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and signaling.

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  • (PMID = 17656146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-6101
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytokine & growth factor reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070054-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA070054-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 74
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS30422; NLM/ PMC2041795
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38. Davis DA, Singer KE, Reynolds IP, Haque M, Yarchoan R: Hypoxia enhances the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of ganciclovir and zidovudine in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 15;67(14):7003-10
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  • [Title] Hypoxia enhances the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of ganciclovir and zidovudine in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • These findings may have clinical applicability in the development of effective therapies for PEL or other KSHV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Synergism. Ganciclovir / administration & dosage. Herpesviridae / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Zidovudine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17638913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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39. Mosam A, Sathar MA, Dawood H, Cassol E, Esterhuizen TM, Coovadia HM: Effect of GB virus C co-infection on response to generic HAART in African patients with HIV-1 clade C infection. AIDS; 2007 Jun 19;21(10):1377-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of GB virus C co-infection on response to generic HAART in African patients with HIV-1 clade C infection.
  • In 38 African AIDS patients initiating generic HAART, GB virus C (GBV-C) RNA-positive patients retained GBV-C viraemia during 52 weeks of HAART, had a faster decline in HIV viral load (P = 0.03), fewer opportunistic infections (14.3 versus 50%, P = 0.18), and suffered no serious adverse events (none versus 61%, P = 0.008) compared with patients without GBV-C.
  • GBV-C co-infection may be associated with a beneficial effect on African AIDS patients treated with generic HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Flaviviridae Infections / epidemiology. GB virus C. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Adult. Africa / epidemiology. Female. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. RNA, Viral / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Viremia / complications. Viremia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17545721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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40. Malope BI, Pfeiffer RM, Mbisa G, Stein L, Ratshikhopha EM, O'Connell DL, Sitas F, MacPhail P, Whitby D: Transmission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus between mothers and children in a South African population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2007 Mar 1;44(3):351-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transmission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus between mothers and children in a South African population.
  • BACKGROUND: To assess whether Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) with or without HIV coinfection in South African mothers is associated with higher KSHV seropositivity in their children.
  • The HIV status of mothers was marginally associated with an increased risk of KSHV seropositivity in their children (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.6; P = 0.07).
  • KSHV seroprevalence was significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects (P = 0.0005), and HIV-infected subjects had significantly higher lytic and latent KSHV antibody levels than HIV-negative subjects.
  • Although KSHV seroprevalence was significantly higher in children and mothers who were infected with HIV, the HIV status of the mother was only marginally associated with an increased risk of KSHV seropositivity in the child.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / transmission. Herpesviridae Infections / transmission. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Antigens, Viral / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glycoproteins / blood. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Risk Factors. Seroepidemiologic Studies. South Africa / epidemiology. Viral Proteins / blood

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  • (PMID = 17195763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO 12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / K8.1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Viral Proteins
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41. Ranganathan K, Hemalatha R: Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):63-8
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  • [Title] Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview.
  • HIV infection is a major global health problem affecting developing and developed countries alike.
  • Oral lesions that are associated with this disease are important, since they affect the quality of life of the patient and are useful markers of disease progression and immunosuppression.
  • Oral lesions in HIV infection have been well-documented in developed countries, but there are fewer reports on oral lesions from developing countries.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported only from Africa and Latin America, while histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were reported in patients with advanced disease from Thailand.
  • HIV-associated salivary gland disease has a high prevalence in Africa and Latin America, especially in the pediatric group.
  • It is clear that there are considerable regional variations in the oral manifestations of HIV infection, depending both on the populations studied and on the clinical expertise available, among other factors.
  • Well-designed and -documented studies are necessary for the correct assessment of the nature and magnitude of the problem in developing countries, if oral health measures are to be effectively formulated for the HIV-infected.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / complications. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Africa / epidemiology. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Child. Female. Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative / complications. Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative / epidemiology. Humans. India / epidemiology. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / epidemiology. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Salivary Gland Diseases / complications. Salivary Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. South America / epidemiology. Thailand / epidemiology


42. Reyners AK, Sprenger HG, Suurmeijer AJ, van der Graaf WT: [Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 18;150(11):589-93
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostiek en behandeling van hiv-gerelateerde kaposisarcomen.
  • Both men appeared to have a Kaposi's sarcoma and to be HIV-positive.
  • During highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and radiotherapy or chemotherapy, both the AIDS parameters and the skin lesions improved.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is AIDS-defining in HIV-seropositive patients.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 infection seems to play a role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has declined since the introduction of HAART.
  • Nowadays, Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently the presenting symptom of HIV-seropositivity.
  • Visceral lesions are associated with a shorter median survival.
  • The treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma is palliative, whereas immune restitution can lead to regression of the sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [ErratumIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Jun 1;150(26):1438
  • (PMID = 16610494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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43. Garavelli PL, Rosa F, Brustia D, Brondolo R, Borrè S, Rizzo G: [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV seropositive patient with Kaposi sarcoma]. Recenti Prog Med; 2005 Oct;96(10):492
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  • [Title] [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV seropositive patient with Kaposi sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Istoplasmosi disseminata in un paziente sieropositivo per HIV con sarcoma di Kaposi.
  • Histoplasmosis, worldwide diffuse mycosis, is known as opportunistic infection of AIDS in disseminated clinical pattern.
  • The Authors report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis and Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV positive patient.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Histoplasmosis / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


44. Mohanna S, Maco V, Bravo F, Gotuzzo E: Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, seroprevalence, and variants of human herpesvirus 8 in South America: a critical review of an old disease. Int J Infect Dis; 2005 Sep;9(5):239-50
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  • [Title] Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, seroprevalence, and variants of human herpesvirus 8 in South America: a critical review of an old disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the current South American literature on classic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and point the way for studies that still need to be performed.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors performed an exhaustive search in LILACS, SCIELO and PUBMED databases for classic KS and HHV-8 in South America.
  • The classic KS form seen in Colombia resembles the type of disease seen among African communities; the same unusual presentation with confluent exophytic nodules or eroded lesions has been noticed in Peru.
  • Five specimens from Argentina were subtyped: (three classic KS and two AIDS KS); the identified strains fell into subtypes A and C.
  • AIDS-related KS specimens from Brazil and Venezuela were subtyped: (43 and nine respectively); analysis grouped them predominantly into subgroups A, B and C.
  • In French Guiana ten endemic KS and six AIDS-related KS specimens were subtyped; analysis grouped them predominantly into subgroups A, B and C.
  • CONCLUSION: Classic KS in South America has a very similar clinical presentation but not the same as the classic KS variety described in the Mediterranean.
  • Finally, the key to understanding the precise molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic distribution of HHV-8 in South America would be to perform more subtyping of classic KS cases.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hematologic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16095940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-9712
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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45. Sullivan RJ, Pantanowitz L: New drug targets in Kaposi sarcoma. Expert Opin Ther Targets; 2010 Dec;14(12):1355-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New drug targets in Kaposi sarcoma.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs as a result of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, typically in the context of an immunodeficient state such as coinfection with HIV or transplantation.
  • Systemic treatment of KS has traditionally involved one of several chemotherapeutic agents either in combination or as single agents, which typically provides reasonable response rates and short-term control.
  • However, recurrence of KS is common and progression-free intervals are short.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review describes the contemporary pathobiology of KS targets, current limitations of standard treatment options, and examines the findings of completed and ongoing clinical trials of novel, molecularly targeted treatments for patients with KS.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will be presented with key clinicopathological characteristics and the pathogenesis of KS.
  • Standard therapy for KS is reviewed including local, regional and systemic treatments.
  • Molecular targets related to LANA-mediated and vGPCR-mediated signaling, angiogenesis, apoptosis and KSHV replication are discussed in detail.
  • The reader will be provided with a compilation of agents, their mechanism of action, and results on various molecularly target agents in KS.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: With the elucidation of novel pathogenic mechanisms of KS including KSHV replication, restoration of immune competence and signal transduction pathways utilized by KSHV in the propagation of KS, rational therapeutic targets have been identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Molecular Targeted Therapy. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 21043836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7631
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents
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46. Wang X, Wang X, Liang D, Lan K, Guo W, Ren G: Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in Han Chinese and useful tools for differential diagnosis. Oral Oncol; 2010 Sep;46(9):654-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in Han Chinese and useful tools for differential diagnosis.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a common AIDS-related malignant neoplasm in the head and neck region, especially in the oral cavity, but is rarely described in the HIV-negative and non-immunosuppressed individual.
  • Our case is of interest, because it is the first case in which manifestation of the KS occurred in the face and head areas in a patient with a Han ethnic background who had an adequate immune system.
  • The clinical presentation, therapeutic options, and tools for differentiating Kaposi sarcoma from other vascular and nonvascular spindle cell lesions are presented, and the relevant literature is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seronegativity. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] China / ethnology. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Neoplasms / ethnology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immune Tolerance. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Strother RM, Gregory KM, Pastakia SD, Were P, Tenge C, Busakhala N, Jakait B, Schellhase EM, Rosmarin AG, Loehrer PJ: Retrospective analysis of the efficacy of gemcitabine for previously treated AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in western Kenya. Oncology; 2010;78(1):5-11
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of the efficacy of gemcitabine for previously treated AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in western Kenya.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of outcomes in the use of single-agent gemcitabine for the treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a western Kenyan cancer treatment program.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients with KS treated with single agent gemcitabine following failure of first-line Adriamycin, bleomycin, and vincristine (ABV).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with KS who had previously failed first-line therapy with ABV were evaluated.
  • Following treatment, 22 of the 23 patients responded positively to treatment with stable disease or better.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment options in the resource-constrained setting are limited, both by financial constraints as well as the need to avoid myelotoxicity, which is associated with high morbidity in this treatment setting.
  • This work shows that gemcitabine has promising activity in KS, with both objective responses and clinical benefit observed in this care setting.
  • Gemcitabine as a single agent merits further investigation for AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Kenya. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20215784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; VBA protocol
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48. Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Loquercio G, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era. Virology; 2010 Mar 15;398(2):280-9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) variants have been found heterogeneously distributed among human populations living in diverse geographic regions, but their differential pathogenicity in Kaposi's sarcoma development remains controversial.
  • In the present study, HHV-8 variant distribution has been analyzed in classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) during pre-AIDS and AIDS period (1971-2008) in countries with different KS incidence rate.
  • DNA samples from cutaneous KS lesions of 68 patients living in Africa (n=23, Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda), Europe (n=34, Greece and Italy) and North America (n=11) have been subjected to PCR amplification of HHV-8 ORF 26, T0.7, K1 and K14.1/15, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
  • In conclusion, comparison of the HHV-8 sequences from classic or endemic versus AIDS-associated KS showed a strong linkage of the HHV-8 variants with specific populations, which has not changed during AIDS epidemic.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20079510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0341
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Chen X, Cheng L, Jia X, Zeng Y, Yao S, Lv Z, Qin D, Fang X, Lei Y, Lu C: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat accelerates Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Kaposin A-mediated tumorigenesis of transformed fibroblasts in vitro as well as in nude and immunocompetent mice. Neoplasia; 2009 Dec;11(12):1272-84
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  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat accelerates Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Kaposin A-mediated tumorigenesis of transformed fibroblasts in vitro as well as in nude and immunocompetent mice.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), in the absence of antiretroviral suppressive therapy, drastically increases the risk of KS.
  • Previously, we identified that HIV-1 transactivative transcription protein (Tat) was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV.
  • Our data present the first line of evidence that Tat may participate in KS pathogenesis by collaborating with Kaposin A in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS (AIDS-KS) patients.
  • Our data also suggest that the model for Kaposin and Tat-mediated oncogenesis will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of AIDS-KS at the molecular level and may even be important in exploring a novel therapeutic method for AIDS-KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblasts / metabolism. Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Viral Proteins / metabolism. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20019835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / kaposin B protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2794508
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50. Schwartz RA, Micali G, Nasca MR, Scuderi L: Kaposi sarcoma: a continuing conundrum. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Aug;59(2):179-206; quiz 207-8
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma: a continuing conundrum.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains a challenge.
  • As part of the AIDS pandemic, of which it was an original defining component, it may be life-threatening.
  • It is due to human herpesvirus-8, which is necessary but not sufficient to produce the disease.
  • KS has a low prevalence in the general population of the United States and United Kingdom, with an intermediate rate in Italy and Greece, and a high one in parts of Africa.
  • In Italy, hot spots include its southern regions, the Po River Valley, and Sardinia, possibly related to a high density of blood-sucking insects.
  • An important challenge is to treat KS patients without immunocompromising them.
  • The potential of effective anti-herpes virus therapy and the use of sirolimus in transplantation recipients have added new opportunities for KS prevention.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should be able to provide the most recent information about Kaposi sarcoma in the context in which it occurs.
  • Its classic or Mediterranean form, its pattern in transplant recipients and others iatrogenically immunosuppressed, and its occurrence as a potentially life-threatening part of the AIDS pandemic will be stressed.
  • Its etiology and transmission will be discussed in detail to facilitate understanding of Kaposi sarcoma and of human herpesvirus-8 infection in the general population of the United States and United Kingdom, in Italy and Greece, and in certain parts of Africa.
  • New opportunities for Kaposi sarcoma prevention will also be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18638627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 363
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51. Mandal S, Cooper S, Lipman M: HIV and respiratory medicine. Br J Hosp Med (Lond); 2008 Mar;69(3):132-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Pneumocystosis and HIV .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV and respiratory medicine.
  • The end of the 20th century saw the start of an HIV pandemic that brought death and suffering to millions.
  • Anti-HIV drug therapy has improved the lives of many, although HIV-related respiratory complications remain extremely common worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Respiratory Tract Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Infections / complications. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Bacterial Infections / radiography. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases, Fungal / complications. Lung Diseases, Fungal / drug therapy. Lung Diseases, Fungal / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Male. Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 18422215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-8460
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Hosp Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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52. Stein L, Urban MI, O'Connell D, Yu XQ, Beral V, Newton R, Ruff P, Donde B, Hale M, Patel M, Sitas F: The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995-2004. Int J Cancer; 2008 May 15;122(10):2260-5
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  • [Title] The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995-2004.
  • The effect of the evolving HIV epidemic on cancer has been sparsely documented in Africa.
  • We report results on the risk of cancer associated with HIV-1 infection using data from an ongoing study.
  • A case-control analysis was used to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio, OR) of cancer types known to be AIDS defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 333), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 223) and cancers of the cervix (n = 1,586), and 11 cancer types possibly associated with HIV infection: Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 154), cancers of other anogenital organs (n = 157), squamous cell cancer of the skin (SCC, n = 70), oral cavity and pharynx (n = 319), liver (n = 83), stomach (n = 142), leukemia (n = 323), melanoma (n = 53), sarcomas other than Kaposi's (n = 93), myeloma (n = 189) and lung cancer (n = 363).
  • The comparison group comprised 3,717 subjects with all other cancer types and 682 subjects with vascular disease.
  • ORs were adjusted for age, sex (except cervical cancer), year of diagnosis, education and number of sexual partners.
  • Significantly increased risks associated with HIV-1 infection were found for HIV/AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma (OR = 47.1, 95% CI = 31.9-69.8), NHL (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.3-8.1) and cancer of the cervix (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.0); Hodgkin's disease (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.7), cancers of anogenital organs other than the cervix (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.3) and SCC (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-4.9) were also significantly increased.
  • No significant associations were found between HIV and any of the other cancers examined.
  • Risks for HIV-related cancers are consistent with previous studies in Africa, and are lower when compared to those observed in developed countries.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group. HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. South Africa / epidemiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors


53. Célestin Schartz NE, Chevret S, Paz C, Kerob D, Verola O, Morel P, Lebbé C: Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Apr;58(4):585-91
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  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a virus-associated neoplasm, can be treated locally or systemically with interferon alfa.
  • Therefore, imiquimod, an immune response modifier able to induce interferon-alpha secretion in situ, could prove a good local treatment for KS skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream for the topical treatment of classic or endemic KS skin lesions in patients who are HIV negative.
  • The main efficacy end points were the safety of topical imiquimod and the overall clinical response in patients evaluated on the basis of modified AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria at 36 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical imiquimod 5% cream had antitumor activity in about half the patients with classic and endemic KS and was generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. HIV Seronegativity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18068265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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54. Dhrif AS, Kilani B, Ammari L, Kanoun F, Tiouri H, Ben Chaaben T: [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):494-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Kaposi associee au SIDA: etude de 22 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy.
  • Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic findings in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed between 1991 and 2005.
  • Epidemiological data, the stage of human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) infection, clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma, treatment rendered and outcome were collected.
  • They were 17 men and 5 females (sex-ratio=3.4/ 1) with a mean age of 33.6 years at the diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma appeared after a period varying between 0 and 10 years.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma uncovered the infection in 5 cases.
  • The mean rate of CD4 was 216 21/mm3 at the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Mucocutaneous lesions were isolated in 12 cases and associated with visceral involvement in 10 cases; lung (10 cases), gastrointestinal tract (5 cases), lymphadenopathy (5 cases), liver (4 cases), spleen (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe condition because of visceral localisations and the field of immunodeficiency.
  • It requires a precocious diagnosis and collaboration.
  • The identification of HHV8 in the aetiopathogenic mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to the development new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Splenic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tunisia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17644904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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55. Bottler T, Kuttenberger J, Hardt N, Oehen HP, Baltensperger M: Non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue. Case report and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Dec;36(12):1218-20
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  • [Title] Non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a frequently seen AIDS-related malignant neoplasm in the head and neck region, especially in the oral cavity, but is rarely described in the HIV-negative and non-immunosuppressed individual.
  • The case of a 76-year-old HIV-negative, non-immunocompromised woman with a solitary Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue is reported.
  • Diagnosis and therapy are discussed and compared with a review of the contemporary literature.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seronegativity. Immunocompetence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17614259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0901-5027
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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56. Davis JL, Shum AK, Huang L: A 36-year-old man with AIDS and relapsing, nonproductive cough. Chest; 2007 Jun;131(6):1929-31
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  • [Title] A 36-year-old man with AIDS and relapsing, nonproductive cough.
  • A rapidly progressive, fatal recrudescence of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma developed in an HIV-infected man who was receiving corticosteroids for treatment of an immune reconstitution syndrome secondary to Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infection.
  • We discuss the implications for current diagnosis and management of HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.


57. Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoal LH, Baptista MS: New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg; 2006 Aug;24(4):528-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS).
  • BACKGROUND DATA: Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients.
  • Laser-based PDT protocols have been applied to treat Sk-AIDS with relative success.
  • METHODS: A single patient with multiple lesions who had undergone chemotherapy without success was treated with several applications of PDT, and the patient was closely evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: This inexpensive PDT protocol, which is based on phenothiazinium compounds and RL50, is efficient to treat Sk-AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Sullivan R, Dezube BJ, Koon HB: Signal transduction targets in Kaposi's sarcoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Sep;18(5):456-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signal transduction targets in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma results from co-infection with HIV and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8, which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of the condition.
  • Recent discoveries regarding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 infection and its activation of signal transduction have led to a greater understanding into Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis and have identified potential targets for therapy.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Kaposi's sarcoma is driven by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor, viral IL-6, and viral chemokine homologues.
  • In addition, cellular growth/angiogenic pathways such as vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, angiopoietin and matrix metalloproteinases are 'pirated' by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8.
  • Recent findings show Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 specific signaling pathways and pirated pathways to be important therapeutic targets.
  • SUMMARY: Numerous advances have been made recently that expand the understanding of Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.
  • These findings and recent clinical trials of targeted therapy for treatment are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is managed.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16894293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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59. Gutiérrez F, Masiá M, Padilla S, Ramos JM, Bernal E, Morales P, Pozo F, Andrada E, Martin-Hidalgo A: Occult lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma associated with severe pulmonary hypertension: A clinical hint about the potential role of HHV-8 in HIV-related pulmonary hypertension? J Clin Virol; 2006 Oct;37(2):79-82
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  • [Title] Occult lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma associated with severe pulmonary hypertension: A clinical hint about the potential role of HHV-8 in HIV-related pulmonary hypertension?
  • Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) mimicking idiopathic PH is an increasingly recognized complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • PH shares several histopathologic features with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in AIDS patients, and molecular evidence of the vasculotropic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) has been found in the lung tissue of patients with the disease.
  • Although the prevalence of HHV-8 infection is increased among HIV-infected patients, no clinical association between KS and PH has ever been reported.
  • Herein, we described a 30-year-old HIV-infected female co-infected with HHV-8 who developed severe PH coincident with occult KS.
  • The clinical presentation of KS was unusual and remained masqueraded for years as an indolent cervical lymphadenopathy, without the typical cutaneous lesions.
  • This is the first ever-reported case of PH associated with KS.
  • Although the co-occurrence of both diseases in this patient could have been just a coincidence, the observation may also indicate that a relationship between HHV-8 infection and HIV-associated PH exists.
  • Coinfection with HHV-8 and occult lymphadenopatic KS should be considered in HIV-infected patients developing PH.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Hypertension, Pulmonary / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


60. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, Virgo P, McNeel TS, Scoppa SM, Biggar RJ, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002. AIDS; 2006 Aug 1;20(12):1645-54
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  • [Title] Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002.
  • BACKGROUND: People with AIDS have heightened cancer risk from immunosuppression.
  • HAART has been available since 1996 and has reduced AIDS-related mortality, but there are few large-scale studies on cancer trends.
  • METHODS: AIDS and cancer registries in 11 US regions (1980-2002) were used to identify cancers in 375 933 people with AIDS.
  • Cancer risk relative to the general population was measured using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), focusing on the 2 years after AIDS onset for those with AIDS in 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (HAART era).
  • RESULTS: Between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002, risk declined for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [(KS) n = 5131; SIR, 22 100 and 3640, respectively; P < 0.0001] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [(NHL) n = 3412; SIR, 53.2 and 22.6, respectively; P < 0.0001].
  • Among non-AIDS malignancies, lung cancer was most common, but risk declined between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (n = 344; SIR, 3.3 and 2.6, respectively; P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic declines in KS and NHL were temporally related to improving therapies, especially introduction of HAART, but those with AIDS remain at marked risk.
  • Among non-AIDS-related cancers, a recent increase in Hodgkin lymphoma was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / immunology. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology


61. Bonnet F, Morlat P: [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?]. Rev Med Interne; 2006 Mar;27(3):227-35
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  • [Title] [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancers et infection par le VIH: quelles associations?
  • PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality related to neoplasia are increasing in HIV-infected patients.
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND KEY-POINTS: The incidence of AIDS opportunistic infections dramatically decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Among AIDS-cancers, the incidences of Kaposi sarcoma and of cerebral lymphoma decreased in a same way than AIDS infections but the incidences of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma and of cervical cancer decreased less than the others and remain higher than in the general population.
  • This suggests that other factors than the quantitative immune reconstitution could be implicated.
  • The most recent and large studies have also shown a 1.7 to 3 fold increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected patients when compared to the general population without significant impact of HAART on incidence curves.
  • These malignancies include Hodgkin disease, lung, anal, head and neck cancers, hemopathies, and conjunctival cancers.
  • The own roles of HIV itself and of antiretrovirals as prooncogenic factors need to be assessed.

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  • (PMID = 16337065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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62. Coogan MM, Greenspan J, Challacombe SJ: Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Bull World Health Organ; 2005 Sep;83(9):700-6
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  • [Title] Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV.
  • Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries.
  • They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people.
  • Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions.
  • The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life.
  • Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases.
  • International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient.
  • It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16211162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. World Health Organ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2626330
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63. Marquart KH: Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;29(2):85-93
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  • [Title] Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Biopsied tissue specimens from 40 cases of classic, atypical classic, endemic, and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were investigated by electron microscopy.
  • To search for ultrastructural differences between non-AIDS-associated KS and AIDS-associated KS, the occurrence of the following 2 ultrastructural abnormalities of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in KS cells was evaluated semi-quantitatively: tubuloreticular structures (TRS) and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions (IPI).
  • These peculiar structures were found in 23 of the 40 KS cases.
  • LTRS were observed in endothelial cells of tissue from all the different epidemiological types of KS.
  • CTRS were confined to AIDS-associated KS.
  • IPI were present in endothelial tumor cells of only 3 non-AIDS-associated KS cases.
  • The study shows that in cells of KS tissue only CTRS, but not LTRS, are an ultrastructural marker for AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough / ultrastructure. Endothelium, Vascular / ultrastructure. Inclusion Bodies / ultrastructure. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood supply. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16028665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Perret D, Rousseau F, Tran V, Gascan H: Reversal of some viral IL-6 electrostatic properties compared to IL-6 contributes to a loss of alpha receptor component recruitment. Proteins; 2005 Jul 1;60(1):14-26
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  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) has been associated with classical and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • HHV-8 encodes viral IL-6 (vIL-6), a functional homolog of human interleukin-6, that promotes the growth of KS and of some lymphoma cells.

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  • (PMID = 15861391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteins
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteins
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-6; 0 / Viral Proteins; 133483-10-0 / Cytokine Receptor gp130
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65. Jinno S, Goshima C: Progression of Kaposi sarcoma associated with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in a person with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Read; 2008 Feb;18(2):100-4
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  • [Title] Progression of Kaposi sarcoma associated with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in a person with HIV/AIDS.
  • This case report describes an exacerbation of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the setting of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by an interaction between ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and fluticasone.
  • Discontinuation of fluticasone resulted in resolution of the cutaneous KS.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids should be used cautiously in persons with HIV/AIDS who have a history of KS and are being treated with a boosted atazanavir regimen because this can potentially exacerbate KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Androstadienes / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Cushing Syndrome. HIV Infections. HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atazanavir Sulfate. Drug Interactions. Fluticasone. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease. Male. Middle Aged. Oligopeptides / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects. Ritonavir / adverse effects


66. Mani D, Neil N, Israel R, Aboulafia DM: A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3). J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2009 Sep-Oct;8(5):279-85
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  • [Title] A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3).
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical course of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV viral loads (VLs) to patients with AIDS-KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 91 patients with AIDS-KS in a multispeciality clinic.
  • RESULTS: Twenty (22%) of the 91 patients had newly diagnosed, persistent or progressive KS despite CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV VLs.
  • Age, gender, ethnicity, mode and duration of HIV acquisition, type of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and KS therapy did not differ significantly (P < or = .005) between this group and the remaining 71 patients.
  • Although tumor stage and response to KS therapy were similar, there was a significantly greater risk of death among the patients with CD4 counts <300 cells/mm(3) and detectable HIV VLs (P = .048).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the highly active antiretroviral (HAART) era, a substantial proportion of patients with KS had undetectable HIV VLs and CD4 counts greater than the level typically associated with opportunistic diseases.
  • They required systemic therapy to control their KS but were significantly less likely to die and demonstrated a trend toward better 15-year survival than patients having KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • [MeSH-major] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Viral Load

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  • [CommentIn] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010 Mar-Apr;9(2):73 [20484734.001]
  • (PMID = 19721098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill. : 2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Kourí V, Martínez PA, Blanco O, Capó V, Rodríguez ME, Dovigny Mdel C, Cardellá L, Gala A, Jiménez NA, Luzardo C, Correa C, Alemán Y, Pérez L, Alvarez A, Hengge U: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus load in asymptomatic contacts of Cuban epidemic KS patients. Arch Virol; 2010 Dec;155(12):1971-6

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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus load in asymptomatic contacts of Cuban epidemic KS patients.
  • To evaluate the pathogenic mechanisms and transmission routes involved in KSHV infection in 22 Cuban individuals who maintained close contact with epidemic KS patients, real-time PCR was used to quantify KSHV-DNA in clinical samples of plasma, saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
  • Two of three intra-domiciliary and two serodiscordant sexual contacts of AIDS-KS patients were infected with KSHV.
  • Even in the absence of disease, KSHV could cause an asymptomatic systemic infection in individuals who maintain close contact with AIDS-KS patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cuba. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Plasma / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Saliva / virology

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  • (PMID = 20852904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-8798
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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68. Seaberg EC, Wiley D, Martínez-Maza O, Chmiel JS, Kingsley L, Tang Y, Margolick JB, Jacobson LP, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): Cancer incidence in the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007. Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;116(23):5507-16
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence in the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals declined after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s, but the cancer risk associated with HIV infection during the HAART era remains to be clarified.
  • METHODS: Cancer incidence among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants in the Multicenter AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Cohort Study (MACS) between 1984 and 2007 was compared with the expected incidence using US population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program.
  • Age- and race-adjusted cancer incidence rates were also compared HIV by status and over time within the MACS.
  • Compared with SEER, MACS HIV-infected men had significantly (P<.05) elevated rates of KS (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 139.10), NHL (SIR, 36.80), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)(SIR, 7.30), and anal cancer (SIR, 25.71).
  • Within MACS, HIV infection was found to be independently associated with each of these cancers across the entire follow-up period, and KS (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 54.93), NHL (IRR, 11.18), and anal cancer (IRR, 18.50) were each found to be significantly elevated among HIV-infected men during the HAART era.
  • Among these men, the incidence of KS and NHL declined (IRR, 0.13 and 0.23, respectively), the incidence of anal cancer increased (IRR, 5.84), and the incidence of HL remained statistically unchanged (IRR, 0.75) from the pre-HAART to the HAART era.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancer risk remains elevated among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, highlighting the continuing need for appropriate cancer screening in this population.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20672354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35042; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000052-46; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041-17; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00052; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035043-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035040-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043-17; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000052; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218249; NLM/ PMC2991510
  • [Investigator] Margolick JB; Jacobson LP; Phair JP; Wolinsky SM; Detels R; Rinaldo CR
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69. Barillari G, Franzese O, Comandini A, Bonmassar E, Ensoli B: Spindle cells from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions express telomerase activity that is enhanced by Kaposi's sarcoma progression factors. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jul;24(1):219-23
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  • [Title] Spindle cells from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions express telomerase activity that is enhanced by Kaposi's sarcoma progression factors.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most frequent tumor in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients (AIDS-KS), arises as a disorder of new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), but it may evolve into an aggressive cancer, characterized by the proliferation and invasion of spindle-shaped, endothelial-like cells (KS cells, KSC).
  • Here we report that primary KSC express low telomerase levels which are strongly enhanced by KS initiation and progression factors including the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and interferon (IFN)gamma, the angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the Tat protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1.
  • These preliminary in vitro findings encourage measuring telomerase activity in AIDS-KS lesions in order to survey the clinical progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytokines / pharmacology. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / pharmacology. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Male. Risk Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20514465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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70. Herbeck JT, Gottlieb GS, Winkler CA, Nelson GW, An P, Maust BS, Wong KG, Troyer JL, Goedert JJ, Kessing BD, Detels R, Wolinsky SM, Martinson J, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP, Margolick JB, Kaslow RA, O'Brien SJ, Mullins JI: Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS. J Infect Dis; 2010 Feb 15;201(4):618-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: A mean of 9-10 years of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection elapse before clinical AIDS develops in untreated persons, but this rate of disease progression varies substantially among individuals.
  • To investigate host genetic determinants of the rate of progression to clinical AIDS, we performed a multistage genomewide association study.
  • METHODS: The discovery stage comprised 156 individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, enriched with rapid and long-term nonprogressors to increase statistical power.
  • This was followed by replication tests of putatively associated genotypes in an independent population of 590 HIV-1-infected seroconverters.
  • RESULTS: Significant associations with delayed AIDS progression were observed in a haplotype located at 1q41, 36 kb upstream of PROX1 on chromosome 1 (relative hazard ratio, 0.69; Fisher's combined P = 6.23 X 10(-7)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identified and replicated a locus upstream of PROX1 that is associated with delayed progression to clinical AIDS.
  • PROX1 is a negative regulator of interferon-gamma expression in T cells and also mitigates the advancement of vascular neoplasms, such as Kaposi sarcoma, a common AIDS-defining malignancy.
  • This study adds to the cumulative polygenic host component that effectively regulates the progression to clinical AIDS among HIV-1-infected individuals, raising prospects for potential new avenues for therapy and improvements in AIDS prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 20064070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R56 DA004334; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01-DA04334; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI047734-06A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007140; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-119010; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA004334; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-1258; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI27757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI027757-169012; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5M01 RR00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI07140; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI027757-119010; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-219021; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI047734; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035042-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI037984-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-21; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI47734; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35042; United States / PHS HHS / / U64/CCU900523-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-169012; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI047734-06A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040-18; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI37613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI027757-21; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI027757-219021; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS174410; NLM/ PMC2928718
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71. Martellotta F, Berretta M, Vaccher E, Schioppa O, Zanet E, Tirelli U: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: state of the art and therapeutic strategies. Curr HIV Res; 2009 Nov;7(6):634-8
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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: state of the art and therapeutic strategies.
  • In the HAART era Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the second most frequent tumor in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and it has become the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • In western countries the risk for KS in men having sex with men (MSM) is 5 to 10 times higher compared to other groups of individuals practicing other HIV-risk behaviors.
  • Patients with KS in Sub-Saharan Africa have very high tumor burdens and rapid disease progression with a diminished life expectancy of less than 6 months.
  • KS lesions are comprised of both distinctive spindle cells of endothelial origin and a variable inflammatory infiltrate, which suggests that KS may result from reactive hyperproliferation induced by chronic inflammation, and therefore it is not a true neoplasm.
  • KS has a variable clinical course ranging from very indolent forms, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Treatment decisions must take into consideration the extent and the rate of tumor growth, patient's symptoms, immune system conditions and concurrent HIV-related complications.
  • Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) including protease inhibitors (PI) may represent the first treatment step for slowly progressive disease; chemotherapy (CT) plus HAART is indicated for visceral and/or rapidly progressive disease, whereas maintenance (M)-HAART after systemic chemotherapy may be an effective anti-KS measure after debulking CT.
  • The angiogenic nature of KS makes it particularly suitable for therapies based on targeted agents such as metalloproteinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the current status and perspectives of AIDS-related KS in the HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Disease Progression. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


72. Westmoreland SV, Mansfield KG: Comparative pathobiology of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related primate rhadinoviruses. Comp Med; 2008 Feb;58(1):31-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative pathobiology of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related primate rhadinoviruses.
  • With the emergence of the AIDS epidemic over the last 2 decades and the more recent identification of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Human herpesvirus 8), the genera of rhadinoviruses have gained importance as a family of viruses with oncogenic potential.
  • Molecular analysis of these viruses has elucidated several functionally conserved genes and properties shared with KSHV involved in cellular proliferation, transformation, and immune evasion that facilitate the oncogenic potential of these viruses.
  • This review examines the comparative pathobiology of KSHV, discusses the role of macaque rhadinoviruses as models of human disease, and outlines the derivation of specific pathogen-free animals.

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  • (PMID = 19793454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR16020; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U42 RR016020
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factors; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / interferon regulatory factor-4
  • [Number-of-references] 93
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2703163
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73. Crum-Cianflone N, Hullsiek KH, Satter E, Marconi V, Weintrob A, Ganesan A, Barthel RV, Fraser S, Agan BK: Cutaneous malignancies among HIV-infected persons. Arch Intern Med; 2009 Jun 22;169(12):1130-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous malignancies among HIV-infected persons.
  • BACKGROUND: As the life expectancy of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases, cancers have become an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • Although cutaneous cancers are the most common malignant neoplasms in the general population, little data exist among HIV-positive persons, especially regarding the impact of HIV-specific factors.
  • METHODS: We evaluated the incidence rates and factors associated with the development of cutaneous malignancies among HIV-infected persons by examining data that were prospectively collected from a large HIV study that included 4490 participants (1986-2006).
  • RESULTS: Six percent of HIV-infected persons (n = 254) developed a cutaneous malignancy during 33 760 person-years of follow-up (mean, 7.5 years).
  • Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence rates of cutaneous non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs), in particular basal cell carcinoma, have exceeded the rates of cutaneous AIDS-defining cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Factors associated with the development of cutaneous NADCs in the multivariate models included increasing age (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-2.6) and race.
  • There were no significant associations between cutaneous NADCs and time-updated CD4 lymphocyte counts, HIV RNA levels, or receipt of HAART.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At present, the most common cutaneous malignancies among HIV-infected persons are NADCs.
  • Cutaneous NADCs do not appear to be significantly associated with immune function or HAART but rather are related to traditional factors such as aging and skin color.

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  • (PMID = 19546414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / HU0001-05-2-0011; United States / PHS HHS / / HU0001-05-2-0011
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS127594; NLM/ PMC2761839
  •  go-up   go-down


74. Ma Q, Cavallin LE, Yan B, Zhu S, Duran EM, Wang H, Hale LP, Dong C, Cesarman E, Mesri EA, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ: Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 May 26;106(21):8683-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the major AIDS-associated malignancy.
  • It is characterized by the proliferation of spindle cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and aberrant angiogenesis caused by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection.
  • Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active Rac1 (RacCA) driven by the alpha-smooth muscle actin promoter in transgenic mice is sufficient to cause KS-like tumors through mechanisms involving ROS-driven proliferation, up-regulation of AKT signaling, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha-related angiogenesis.
  • RacCA-induced tumors expressed KS phenotypic markers; displayed remarkable transcriptome overlap with KS lesions; and were, like KS, associated with male gender.
  • Consistent with a pathogenic role in KS, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Rac1 is overexpressed in KSHV(+) spindle cells of AIDS-KS biopsies.
  • Our results demonstrate the direct oncogenicity of Rac1 and ROS and their contribution to a KS-like malignant phenotype, further underscoring the carcinogenic potential of oxidative stress in the context of chronic infection and inflammation.
  • They define the RacCA transgenic mouse as a model suitable for studying the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and therapy of KS, with relevance to other inflammation-related malignancies.
  • Our findings suggest host and viral genes triggering Rac1 or ROS production as key determinants of KS onset and potential KS chemopreventive or therapeutic targets.

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  • (PMID = 19429708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL071536; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL71536-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75918; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI073961; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075918
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679580
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75. Mosam A, Hurkchand HP, Cassol E, Page T, Cassol S, Bodasing U, Aboobaker J, Dawood H, Friedland GH, Coovadia HM: Characteristics of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among women and men in South Africa. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jun;19(6):400-5
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among women and men in South Africa.
  • Despite the increase of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), little is known about HIV-associated KS in the African setting, particularly among women.
  • A descriptive study of the demographic, clinical, immunological and virological features of AIDS-associated KS from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was undertaken.
  • Consecutively, recruited patients were clinically staged; CD4/CD8 cell counts, HIV-1 viral loads and clinical parameters were evaluated.
  • Females were significantly younger (P = 0.02) and had poorer disease prognosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-5.4, P = 0.003) and were more likely to have extensive cutaneous KS when compared with males (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.7, P = 0.003).
  • One-third of patients had coexisting HIV-related disease, most commonly tuberculosis, and these were more frequent in females (56.7 vs. 43.3%).
  • In conclusion, HIV-associated KS in South Africans has an equal female-to-male ratio.
  • Females are younger and have more severe disease than males.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. HIV Infections / virology. HIV-1 / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Male. South Africa / epidemiology


76. Caccialanza M, Marca S, Piccinno R, Eulisse G: Radiotherapy of classic and human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results in 1482 lesions. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Mar;22(3):297-302
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy of classic and human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results in 1482 lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The lesions of the various forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which are relatively radiosensitive, have been treated with different modalities of radiotherapy, with heterogeneous aims and results.
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness and safety of radiotherapy on a large number of lesions endowed (classic KS) with a prolonged follow-up.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was done on 711 lesions of classic KS and 771 lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related KS, treated with traditional X-ray therapy.
  • RESULTS: In classic KS, a cure rate of 98.7% resulted after 13.5 years from the end of radiotherapy.
  • In HIV-related KS, a complete remission was obtained in 91.43% of the lesions, partial remission in 6.74% and non-response in 0.51% at 1 to 46 months from the end of radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy showed to be a safe and effective method, with relevant importance in the therapeutic strategy of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. HIV. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiodermatitis / etiology. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Skin / pathology. Skin / radiation effects. Treatment Outcome


77. Feller L, Lemmer J: Insights into pathogenic events of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and immune reconstitution syndrome related Kaposi sarcoma. Infect Agent Cancer; 2008;3:1
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Insights into pathogenic events of HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and immune reconstitution syndrome related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • A decrease in the incidence of human immune deficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) and regression of some established HIV-KS lesions is evident after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART), and is attributed to generalized immune restoration, to the reconstitution of human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 specific cellular immune responses, and to the decrease in HIV Tat protein and HHV-8 loads following HAART.
  • However, a small subset of HIV-seropositive subjects with a low CD4+ T cell count at the time of introduction of HAART, may develop HIV-KS as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) within 8 weeks thereafter.

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  • (PMID = 18208585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265259
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78. Ramos da Silva S, Bacchi MM, Bacchi CE, Elgui de Oliveira D: Human bcl-2 expression, cleaved caspase-3, and KSHV LANA-1 in Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Nov;128(5):794-802
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  • [Title] Human bcl-2 expression, cleaved caspase-3, and KSHV LANA-1 in Kaposi sarcoma lesions.
  • We aimed to evaluate the frequency of Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in KS lesions in patients from Brazil.
  • In addition, expression of human bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, and KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)-1 in tumors was evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • We studied 64 KS cases, classified as follows: classical, 20 (31%); iatrogenic, 2 (3%); AIDS-associated, 25 (39%); and not otherwise specified (lack of information about HIV status), 17 (27%).
  • Only a few cells in 15 cases (23%) of KS had demonstrable immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3.
  • These results further support the association of KSHV with all KS forms.
  • Cleaved caspase-3 in KS tumors was infrequent, which may reflect the inhibition of apoptosis owing to bcl-2 overexpression observed in the majority of KS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / metabolism. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Viral Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17951202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Bcl-2 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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79. Feller L, Lemmer J, Wood NH, Raubenheimer EJ: Necrotizing gingivitis of Kaposi sarcoma affected gingivae. SADJ; 2006 Aug;61(7):314-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Necrotizing gingivitis of Kaposi sarcoma affected gingivae.
  • Necrotizing gingivitis and oral Kaposi sarcoma are common concomitants of HIV infection and both are regarded as indicators of HIV infection.
  • Their simultaneous appearance in an HIV seropositive subject therefore, should be relatively common; but other reports documenting such cases could not be found.
  • This article documents an uncommon case of necrotizing gingivitis superimposed on Kaposi sarcoma-affected gingiva, occurring in a patient with chronic periodontitis.
  • The nature of necrotizing gingivitis and Kaposi sarcoma and the possible differential diagnosis of the periodontal attachment loss are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Periodontal Attachment Loss / etiology. Periodontitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 17133793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-4864
  • [Journal-full-title] SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] SADJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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80. Lambert M, Gannagé M, Karras A, Abel M, Legendre C, Kerob D, Agbalika F, Girard PM, Lebbe C, Caillat-Zucman S: Differences in the frequency and function of HHV8-specific CD8 T cells between asymptomatic HHV8 infection and Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2006 Dec 1;108(12):3871-80
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  • [Title] Differences in the frequency and function of HHV8-specific CD8 T cells between asymptomatic HHV8 infection and Kaposi sarcoma.
  • It is unclear how the immune response controls human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8; also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) replication and thereby prevents Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • We compared CD8 T-cell responses to HHV8 latent (K12) and lytic (glycoprotein B, ORF6, ORF61, and ORF65) antigens in patients who spontaneously controlled the infection and in patients with posttransplantation, AIDS-related, or classical KS.
  • Conversely, HHV8-specific CD8 cells were very rare in patients who progressed to KS, and were not recruited to the tumoral tissue, as visualized by in situ tetramer staining of KS biopsies.
  • These results support the crucial role of cellular immune responses in controlling HHV8 replication, in preventing malignancies in latently infected subjects, and in conferring genuine resistance to persistent infection.
  • They may also have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic HHV8 vaccines, and for adoptive immunotherapy of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Virus Replication / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Female. Herpesvirus Vaccines / immunology. Herpesvirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / immunology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Transplants / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16926293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Herpesvirus Vaccines
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81. Dharmshale SN, Patil SA, Gohil A, Chowdhary A, Oberoi C: Disseminated crytococcosis with extensive cutaneous involvement in AIDS. Indian J Med Microbiol; 2006 Jul;24(3):228-30
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  • [Title] Disseminated crytococcosis with extensive cutaneous involvement in AIDS.
  • Cutaneous infections is observed in 15% of patients with disseminated cryptococcosis with AIDS.
  • We present here a case of a 34 years old female with AIDS.
  • She presented with multiple skin coloured umbilicated over face, neck, trunk and limbs, which mimicked molluscum contagiosum and kaposi sarcoma.
  • The HIV viral load was 2,48,084 copies/mL.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Cryptococcosis / microbiology. Cryptococcus neoformans / isolation & purification. Dermatomycoses / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16912448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0255-0857
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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82. Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura MJ, Sackoff J, Virgo P, Pfeiffer RM: Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jul 1;39(3):293-9
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  • [Title] Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS.
  • The survival of persons with AIDS (PWA) has recently improved because of better antiretroviral therapies.
  • To determine if survival in PWA with cancer has also improved, we compared cancer survival in adults with and without AIDS using data from New York City from 1980 through 2000.
  • Analyses were made for AIDS-related cancers (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) and for 8 non-AIDS-related cancers (lung, larynx, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, prostate, and testis).
  • Death hazard ratios compared survival in PWA with cancer with that in cancer patients without AIDS, adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar-time of cancer occurrence.
  • The 24-month survival rate of PWA with cancer (9015 AIDS cancers and 929 non-AIDS-related cancers of 8 types) improved significantly for most cancer types.
  • By 1996 through 2000, the 24-month survival rate in PWA was 58% for Kaposi sarcoma, 41% for peripheral NHL, 29% for central nervous system NHL, and 64% for cervical cancer.
  • For non-AIDS-related cancers, survival of PWA was lowest for lung cancer (10%) but was >50% for most other cancer types.
  • In 1996 through 2000, significant differences in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS still remained for Hodgkin lymphoma and lung, larynx, and prostate cancers.
  • We conclude that recent improvements in AIDS and cancer care have greatly narrowed the gap in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. New York City / epidemiology. Prognosis. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15980688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Cheung MC, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncologist; 2005 Jun-Jul;10(6):412-26
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  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at increased risk of developing cancer, particularly in the later stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • AIDS-related KS varies from minimal to fulminant disease.
  • Treatment decisions for AIDS-related KS are guided largely by the presence and extent of symptomatic disease.
  • In addition to HAART, excellent treatments exist for both localized disease (topical gel, radiotherapy, and intralesional therapy) and advanced disease (liposomal anthracyclines, paclitaxel).
  • Novel therapies that have become available to treat AIDS-related KS include angiogenesis inhibitors and antiviral agents.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, standard-dose chemotherapies now can be safely administered to treat ARL with curative intent.
  • The role of analogous treatments used in HIV-negative patients, including monoclonal antibodies and autologous stem cell transplantation, requires further clarification in HIV-positive patients.
  • HIV-infected patients also appear to be at increased risk for developing certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
  • Although the optimal treatment of these neoplasms is at present uncertain, recent advances in chemotherapy, antiretroviral drugs, and supportive care protocols are allowing for more aggressive management of many of the AIDS-related cancers.
  • This article provides an up-to-date review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of various AIDS-related malignancies that are likely to be encountered by an oncologist practicing in the current HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Medical Oncology / trends. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


84. Carbone A: KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):626-8
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  • [Title] KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The unusual occurrence of a metastatic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a lymph node affected by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was originally reported when knowledge of the specific virological features of these tumours was lacking.
  • METHODS: The presence of EBV was investigated by in situ hybridisation, whereas KS associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both viruses were analysed in the case reported, in 30 lymph nodes from patients with classic HL, and in 22 skin biopsies from patients with KS.
  • RESULTS: Consistent with the findings in the HL and KS cases analysed, in the case showing features of both HL and KS in the same lymph node, EBV was detectable only in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, but not in KS spindle cells, whereas KSHV/HHV-8 was detectable only in KS spindle cells, and not in RS cells.
  • CONCLUSION: It is probable that the development of KS and HL was related to two independent aetiological cofactors-KSHV/HHV-8 and EBV, respectively-and that the occurrence of the two malignancies in the same patient was merely fortuitous.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15917415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770672
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85. Deloose ST, Smit LA, Pals FT, Kersten MJ, van Noesel CJ, Pals ST: High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia; 2005 May;19(5):851-5
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  • [Title] High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is known to be associated with two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)/MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • We here report a high incidence of KSHV infection in solid HIV-associated immunoblastic/plasmablastic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), in patients lacking effusions and without evidence of (prior) MCD.
  • Within a cohort of 99 HIV-related NHLs, 10 cases were found to be KSHV positive on the basis of immunostaining for KSHV LNA-1 as well as KSHV-specific polymerase chain reaction.
  • These KSHV-positive lymphomas were preceded by Kaposi sarcoma in 60% of the patients and involved the gastrointestinal tract in 80%.
  • Our results indicate that KSHV infection is not restricted to PEL and MCD; it is also common (38%) in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. HIV Infections / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


86. Olweny CL, Borok M, Gudza I, Clinch J, Cheang M, Kiire CF, Levy L, Otim-Oyet D, Nyamasve J, Schipper H: Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):632-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is currently the most common tumor in Zimbabwe.
  • In addition, our study was to determine whether a disease-specific module has greater sensitivity to group differences than a generic QOL questionnaire and to determine the most pragmatic approach to treating epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) in Zimbabwe.
  • Histologically confirmed HIV-positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were randomized to receive supportive care only or supportive care plus either radiotherapy, oral Etoposide or a 3-drug combination consisting of actinomycin-D, vincristine and bleomycin.
  • The primary outcome was QOL measured by the functional living index-cancer (FLI-C) and supplemented by the Kaposi's sarcoma module (KSM).
  • The study underscores the value of undertaking studies in areas of disease prevalence and the necessity of selecting appropriate outcome measures.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Quality of Life. Sarcoma, Kaposi / psychology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy


87. Feller L, Khammissa RA, Gugushe TS, Chikte UM, Wood NH, Meyerov R, Lemmer J: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in African children. SADJ; 2010 Feb;65(1):20-2
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in African children.
  • HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) is common in African countries where HIV infection is pandemic and anti-retroviral medication is not readily available.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), which is the essential, but not the sole aetiological factor in KS, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and is substantially more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than in HIV-seronegative subjects.
  • In children in sub-Saharan Africa, KS, whether it be HIV-KS or African endemic KS is much more prevalent than any other epidemiological forms of KS.
  • In addition, in sub-Saharan children oral KS is common, and the life-expectancy of HIV-seropositive children with KS is short.
  • Since generalized systemic KS is frequently associated with oral HIV-KS, it is advisable to introduce systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy early in the course of oral HIV-KS.
  • Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) brought about a decline in the incidence of HIV-KS worldwide, HIV-KS remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of HHV-8 infection is high and access to HAART is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Child. Disease Outbreaks / statistics & numerical data. Endemic Diseases / statistics & numerical data. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20411798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-4864
  • [Journal-full-title] SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] SADJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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88. Han YY, Dinse GE, Umbach DM, Davis DL, Weissfeld JL: Age-period-cohort analysis of cancers not related to tobacco, screening, or HIV: sex and race differences. Cancer Causes Control; 2010 Aug;21(8):1227-36
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  • [Title] Age-period-cohort analysis of cancers not related to tobacco, screening, or HIV: sex and race differences.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify trends in a residual category of cancers not typically associated with tobacco, screening, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • METHODS: For persons aged 20-84, we used sex- and race-specific age-period-cohort (APC) models to describe temporal patterns of incidence (1975-2004) and mortality (1970-2004) in the U.S. for a residual cancer category that excluded non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, pancreas, larynx, lung and bronchus, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, colon and rectum, prostate, female breast, and cervix uteri.
  • RESULTS: Age-specific incidence rose (0.1-0.9% per year, on average) in every sex-race group, with factors related to both time period and birth cohort membership appearing to accelerate the increases in women.

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  • (PMID = 20373012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA ES102265-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202679; NLM/ PMC2904415
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89. Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients. Oncology; 2009;77(5):328-34
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  • [Title] TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: Several studies have examined the association of codon 72 polymorphism of the TP53 gene, encoding either arginine or proline, in several tumor types but none have investigated its role in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development.
  • METHODS: In this prevalent case-control study, 67 cutaneous lesions of classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic KS from African (n = 22) and Caucasian (n = 45) patients, and blood samples from 150 healthy controls (n = 57 African, n = 93 Caucasian) have been analyzed for arginine and proline allele distribution.
  • No significant differences in arginine and proline allele distribution were observed when the cases were stratified by HIV status/tumor type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that p53 polymorphism at codon 72 does not represent a risk factor for the development of all forms of KS, either among African or among Caucasian populations.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Codon. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Genes, p53. Polymorphism, Genetic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / ethnology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19940524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
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90. van Leeuwen MT, Vajdic CM, Middleton MG, McDonald AM, Law M, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE: Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS; 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2183-90
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  • [Title] Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in cancer incidence in people with HIV in Australia since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of people with HIV (n = 20 232) using data linkage between national registers of HIV/AIDS and cancer in 1982-2004.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma declined significantly (Ptrend < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has continued to decline among people with HIV in Australia, though it remains very substantially elevated.
  • Incidence of anal cancer has remained stable, and it is now the third most common cancer in HIV-infected Australians.

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  • (PMID = 19734774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069907; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069907-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01AI069907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199813; NLM/ PMC2873230
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91. Defoiche J, Zhang Y, Lagneaux L, Pettengell R, Hegedus A, Willems L, Macallan DC: Measurement of ribosomal RNA turnover in vivo by use of deuterium-labeled glucose. Clin Chem; 2009 Oct;55(10):1824-33
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  • We describe here an approach for measuring ribosomal RNA turnover in vivo using [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose as a precursor for de novo RNA synthesis.
  • Similarly, in 2 patients with malignant infiltration of lymph nodes, administration of [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose (by intravenous infusion for 24 h) before excision biopsy allowed estimation of DNA and RNA turnover in lymph node samples.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Complex / blood. AIDS-Related Complex / pathology. Adenosine / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Deuterium. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Ribonucleosides / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19696118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Ribosomal; 0 / Ribonucleosides; AR09D82C7G / Deuterium; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
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92. Oji C, Chukwuneke F: Clinical evaluation of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV/AIDS patients with orofacial lesions in Enugu, Nigeria. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Jul;66(7):1362-5
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  • [Title] Clinical evaluation of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV/AIDS patients with orofacial lesions in Enugu, Nigeria.
  • PURPOSE: To highlight the association of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with HIV/AIDS in patients of the oral and maxillofacial surgery units of 2 specialist hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The case notes of 112 patients who had HIV/AIDS lesions in the orofacial region were retrieved from the medical records department of 2 specialist hospitals.
  • After studying the biopsy results, attention was focused on 33 patients (27 male and 6 female; age range, 10 to 59 years) who had KS.
  • We studied the clinical, histopathologic, and therapeutic aspects of these AIDS-related KS cases over a period of 4 years, from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • RESULTS: There were 33 cases of KS and they ranged highest out of the total number of cases (112) cases that had HIV/AIDS.
  • At the time of initial presentation, all 33 patients were in stages III and IV of the disease.
  • CONCLUSION: KS is strongly associated with HIV/AIDS in our environment.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nigeria. Patient Acceptance of Health Care. Retrospective Studies. Sexual Behavior


93. Singh NB, Lakier RH, Donde B: Hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma--a prospective randomized trial. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Aug;88(2):211-6
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  • [Title] Hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma--a prospective randomized trial.
  • PURPOSE: To compare a conventional fractionation regimen with a hypofractionated regimen in the treatment of Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma with radiation therapy.
  • Complete responses were recorded at 28 sites (13 Arm A,15 Arm B), partial responses at 19 sites (8 Arm A,11 Arm B) and stable disease at three sites (2 Arm A,1 Arm B).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / radiotherapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18439694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • HIV infected subjects are at increased risk of developing cancer and the risk seems to be directly associated with the level of immunodeficiency.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • HAART widely used since 1996 changed the natural process of HIV infection by aggressively suppressing viral replication and progress of HIV disease.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, patients better responded to cancer treatment.
  • There are data demonstrating that HAART regimens alone lead to remission of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


95. Carbone A, Gloghini A: KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphomas. Br J Haematol; 2008 Jan;140(1):13-24
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  • [Title] KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphomas.
  • This review looks at the current state of knowledge on primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and other Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-associated lymphomas.
  • In 1995, KSHV DNA sequences were identified within a distinct subgroup of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas localized in body cavities and presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial lymphomatous effusions.
  • Subsequently, the spectrum of KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphomas has been expanded by the identification of cases of extracavitary solid lymphomas without serous effusions.
  • Despite the diversification in the clinical presentation of KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphomas, the majority of the cases reported demonstrated similar morphology, immunophenotype and KSHV/HHV8 viral status.
  • KSHV/HHV8 infection is also in multicentric Castleman disease-associated plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • The prognosis for KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphomas is poor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17991301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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96. Lu CX, Li J, Sun YX, Qi X, Wang QJ, Xin XL, Geng MY: Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate, inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol; 2007 Nov 1;74(9):1330-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate, inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a neoplasm often associated with iatrogenic and acquired immunosuppression, is characterized by prominent angiogenesis.
  • Angiogenic factors released from KS and host cells and HIV viral products-the protein Tat are reported to be involved in angiogenesis.
  • Mounting evidence further suggests that multiple angiogenic activities of Tat contribute to AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • Herein, we report that sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG), a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate now undergoing phase II clinical trial, significantly eliminated Tat-induced angiogenesis in SLK cells both in vitro and in vivo.
  • All these collectively favor an issue that SPMG functions as a promising therapeutic against Tat-induced angiogenesis and pathologic events relevant to AIDS-KS, which adds novel mechanistic profiling to the anti-AIDS action of SPMG.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. HIV-1 / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Polysaccharides / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Collagen. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Escherichia coli / genetics. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Humans. Laminin. Male. Mice. Proteoglycans. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17868650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / sulfated polymannuroguluronate; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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97. Haramati LB, Jenny-Avital ER, Alterman DD: Thoracic manifestations of immune restoration syndromes in AIDS. J Thorac Imaging; 2007 Aug;22(3):213-20
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  • [Title] Thoracic manifestations of immune restoration syndromes in AIDS.
  • Immune restoration syndromes (IRS) in AIDS constitute a group of illness characterized by a pathologic inflammatory response in patients with late-stage AIDS who start highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Although there is no standardized definition or therapy, IRS have partial immune restoration associated with an increase in their CD-4 cell count and a decrease in their viral load.
  • Patients with IRS show a paradoxical reaction that is, clinical worsening rather than improvement on therapy, associated with a recognized or occult infection.
  • Symptoms include new or worsening fever, lymphadenopathy, pulmonary, visceral, central nervous system, or cutaneous disease which may be severe and occasionally life threatening and must be differentiated from disease progression.
  • In this paper, we review the clinical and associated thoracic imaging findings of IRS associated with specific infections including mycobacterial and fungal infections, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and also Kaposi sarcoma and sarcoidosis.
  • Recognition of the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting presents an opportunity to make a timely diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / radiography. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Radiography, Thoracic
  • [MeSH-minor] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Prognosis. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 17721329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-5993
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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98. Bhandari M, Kempin S, Aziz MS: AIDS-related osseous Kaposi sarcoma. AIDS Read; 2007 Apr;17(4):202-3, 205
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related osseous Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) can present with a myriad of clinical features ranging from widespread organ involvement to minimal disease.
  • Osseous manifestations of KS are rare.
  • We report a case of AIDS-related KS in which asymptomatic lytic bone lesions were the primary manifestations of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS Read. 2007 Apr;17(4):204 [17479505.001]
  • (PMID = 17479504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Volkow P, Zinser JW, Correa-Rotter R: Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not". BMC Nephrol; 2007;8:6
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  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not".
  • BACKGROUND: Imatinib is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor; for which there is limited information regarding its effects on AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma and none in patients with transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Sirolimus, an immunosuppressive drug used for kidney transplant, exhibits antiangiogenic activity related to impaired production of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), clinical benefit has been reported in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with renal graft.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of an 80 year old male, who developed Kaposi's Sarcoma nine months after receiving a living non-related donor kidney transplant at age 74.
  • Three years after treatment with different chemotherapeutic agents for progressive cutaneous Kaposi's Sarcoma with no visceral involvement, he was prescribed Imatinib (200 mg/day for two weeks followed by 400 mg/day) after four weeks of treatment he developed anasarca, further progression of KS and agranulocytosis.
  • One year later his immunosuppressive therapy was changed to Sirolimus and regression of the Kaposi's sarcoma occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: The lack of benefit and severe toxicity associated with the use of Imatinib in this patient should alert clinicians of potentially adverse consequence of its use in patients with transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • On the other hand the positive response seen in this patient to Sirolimus even after a long evolution of Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple chemotherapy regimens and extensive cutaneous disease further suggest it therapeutical utility for transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Piperazines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retreatment. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17386117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852096
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100. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: [HIV-associated tumors]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):988, 990-3
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  • [Title] [HIV-associated tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] HIV-assoziierte Tumore.
  • In the beginning of the HIV epidemic, Kaposi sarcoma was a common stigma in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of death.
  • While Kaposi sarcoma is seen less frequently since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, lymphoma and other malignancies are an increasing therapeutic challenge.
  • The incidence of HPV-related anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions is rising so dramatically that screening programs as they are already established for cervical carcinoma should be implemented.
  • The role of HPV in UV-associated tumors is not yet determined.
  • While fewer patients die from opportunistic infections, we face a growing problem with malignancies in HIV-positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17036250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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