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1. Flores R, Goedert JJ: Reconstitution of immune responses against Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. AIDS; 2010 Sep 10;24(14):2279-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reconstitution of immune responses against Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


2. Polák P, Snopková S, Husa P, Povolná K, Bohatá S, Moulis M: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2010 Oct;16(5):172-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposiho sarkom.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual form of tumor which in the era of HIV/AIDS pandemic is increasingly observed outside the original endemic areas.
  • It was shown that the development of KS is in directly related to infection with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The pathophysiology of KS is complex and is influenced by HIV co-infection and by global cytokine interactions.
  • Skin, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory organs are typically involved.
  • We provode a review of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of and therapeutic options for KS and one clinical case.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21191875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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3. Renkl AC, Weiss JM, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Weiss T: [Pseudo-Kaposi Sarcoma or Kaposi Sarcoma? Kaposi-sarcoma-like skin lesions in a patient with AIDS]. Hautarzt; 2008 Mar;59(3):233-6
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  • [Title] [Pseudo-Kaposi Sarcoma or Kaposi Sarcoma? Kaposi-sarcoma-like skin lesions in a patient with AIDS].
  • [Transliterated title] Pseudo-Kaposi-Sarkom oder Kaposi-Sarkom? Kaposiforme Hautveränderungen bei einem Patienten mit AIDS.
  • We report on a patient with AIDS stage C3, who received haemodialysis for terminal renal insufficiency and presented with Kaposi sarcoma-like skin lesions on the left hand, distal of his dialysis shunt.
  • Histology, immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis did not support the initially favoured diagnosis of a Kaposi sarcoma, but revealed a pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma related to the Stewart-Bluefarb-syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


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4. Tanaka PY, Atala MM, Pereira J, Caterino-de-Araujo A: Primary effusion lymphoma with cardiac involvement in HIV positive patient-complete response and long survival with chemotherapy and HAART. J Clin Virol; 2009 Jan;44(1):84-5
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  • [Title] Primary effusion lymphoma with cardiac involvement in HIV positive patient-complete response and long survival with chemotherapy and HAART.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of lymphoma related to herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and considered an AIDS-defining condition.
  • The authors describe a case of PEL with cardiac involvement occurring in an HIV-positive patient treated with HAART and chemotherapy, who achieved complete remission and long survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Long-Term Survivors. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / complications. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis


5. Mlombe Y: Management of HIV associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi. Malawi Med J; 2008 Dec;20(4):129-32
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  • [Title] Management of HIV associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a common malignancy in Malawi and is often managed with single agent vincristine.
  • This article outlines feasible combination chemotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi which should be made more widely available.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1. Humans. Malawi


6. Albini A, Brigati C, Ventura A, Lorusso G, Pinter M, Morini M, Mancino A, Sica A, Noonan DM: Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target. J Transl Med; 2009;7:5
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  • [Title] Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target.
  • We had previously demonstrated that innate immune cells are key targets of angiostatin, however the pathway involved in this immune-related angiogenesis inhibition was not known.
  • RESULTS: Angiostatin inhibts angiogenesis induced by VEGF-TNFalpha or supernatants of Kaposi's Sarcoma cells (a highly angiogenic and inflammation-associated tumor).
  • Angiostatin induces IL-12 mRNA synthesis by human macrophages in vitro, suggesting that these innate immunity cells produce IL-12 upon angiostatin stimulation and could be a major cellular mediator.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor such as angiostatin act on innate immune cells as key targets in inflammatory angiogenesis.
  • Angiostatin proves to be anti-angiogenic as an immune modulator rather than a direct anti-vascular agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / immunology. Angiostatins / immunology. Immune System / immunology. Immunity, Innate / immunology. Interleukin-12 / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19144161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630934
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7. Koon HB, Bubley GJ, Pantanowitz L, Masiello D, Smith B, Crosby K, Proper J, Weeden W, Miller TE, Chatis P, Egorin MJ, Tahan SR, Dezube BJ: Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 10;23(5):982-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and c-kit receptors has been proposed as important in mediating the growth of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We investigated the response of KS to the PDGF receptor (PDGFR)/c-kit inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, and investigated the effect of this therapy on critical signal transduction intermediates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten male patients with AIDS-related cutaneous KS, which progressed despite chemotherapy and/or highly active antiretroviral therapy, received imatinib mesylate administered orally, 300 mg twice daily.
  • Clinical response was determined by serial tumor measurements.
  • To determine biologic and histologic response, skin lesion biopsies were obtained at baseline and following 4 weeks of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Imatinib mesylate administered orally twice daily for AIDS-related KS results in clinical and histologic regression of cutaneous KS lesions within 4 weeks.
  • These promising results demonstrate that inhibition of the c-kit and/or PDGF receptors may represent an effective strategy for treating KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15572730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12CA077846-03
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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8. Salako AA, Adisa AO, Ojo OS, Arigbabu AO: Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2007 Dec;14(4):352-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was previously a relatively rare disease.
  • With the advent of HIV/AIDS pandemic however, AIDS-related KS has been on the increase and so has interest in the disease.
  • Ninety per cent of patients with KS present with skin lesions.
  • While the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly common site of metastatic KS, primary gastrointestinal KS is uncommon.
  • The presentation of gastrointestinal KS with severe gastrointestinal bleeding is rarer still.
  • In this report, we present a 56yr old HIV-negative patient who presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding without any skin lesions.
  • Multiple haemorrhagic polypoidal lesions were found on the walls of the jejunum and ileum as well as the liver at exploratory laparotomy and these were found to be KS on histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


9. Murray JF: Pulmonary complications of HIV-1 infection among adults living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2005 Aug;9(8):826-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary complications of HIV-1 infection among adults living in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa, which has just over 10% of the world's population, is home to more than 25 million people living with HIV/AIDS-two thirds of the global total.
  • Opportunistic pulmonary infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in the subcontinent.
  • Of these diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is by far the most prevalent and serious, and in some countries it causes one third or more of all AIDS-related deaths.
  • Because it is so frequent and a major public health problem, TB tops the list of differential diagnoses of people-with or without coexisting HIV infection-who present to the health care system with chronic cough and other pulmonary symptoms.
  • As HIV-induced immunosuppression worsens, the clinical and radiographic manifestations of TB become increasingly atypical.
  • Second among HIV/AIDS-associated pulmonary complications is community-acquired pneumonia, most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually responds to standard beta-lactam antimicrobial agents.
  • The prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is increasing, due to both improved recognition of its characteristic clinical and radiographic features and aggressive diagnostic interventions.
  • Pulmonary nocardiosis, cryptococcosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, and (possibly) histoplasmosis appear to be infrequent, but probably underdiagnosed.
  • Improved diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of all these diseases are urgently needed, but a greatly expanded antiretroviral treatment program will help most of all.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1 / pathogenicity. Public Health. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa / epidemiology. Community-Acquired Infections. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / etiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / pathology. Prevalence


10. Mebazaa A, El Euch D, Abdelmalek R, Azouz H, Trojjet S, Zribi H, CheikhRouhou R, Zaraa I, Zitouna M, Ben Chaabane T, Mokni M, Ben Osman A: [Profuse subcutaneous nodules in a Tunisian patient: Kaposi sarcoma revealing AIDS]. Med Trop (Mars); 2010 Aug;70(4):403-5
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  • [Title] [Profuse subcutaneous nodules in a Tunisian patient: Kaposi sarcoma revealing AIDS].
  • [Transliterated title] Nodules sous cutanés profus chez un Tunisien: maladie de Kaposi révélatrice de SIDA.
  • The purpose of this report is to describe a case involving Kaposi sarcoma as the inaugural manifestation of HIV infection at the full-blown AIDS stage.
  • The patient was a 59-year-old Tunisian man who presented with profuse subcutaneous nodules and multiple lymph nodes.
  • Treatment was based on antiretroviral therapy in association with radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / etiology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology


11. Power DG, Mulholland PJ, O'Byrne KJ: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with a normal CD4 count. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Feb;20(1):97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with a normal CD4 count.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


12. Duprez R, Hbid O, Afonso P, Quach H, Belloul L, Fajali N, Ismaili N, Benomar H, Hassane Tahri E, Huerre M, Quintana-Murci L, Gessain A: Molecular epidemiology of the HHV-8 K1 gene from Moroccan patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Virology; 2006 Sep 15;353(1):121-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular epidemiology of the HHV-8 K1 gene from Moroccan patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The genetic variability of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) strains circulating in the populations living in the Maghreb region, an endemic area for HHV-8 and associated Kaposi's sarcoma, remains largely unknown.
  • We have thus analyzed the genetic variation of the complete K1 gene of HHV-8 in a series of 35 viral strains, originating from 28 Moroccan patients with classic, AIDS-associated or iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • Furthermore, high genetic diversity within the C subtype was observed in the 35 sequenced HHV-8 K1 genes, with strains belonging to several and distinct subgroups highly supported from a phylogenetically viewpoint (e.g., C3, C7, C'' and C5).
  • In addition, the genetic characterization of the host maternal gene pool, through the analyses of mtDNA variation, did not provide evidence for any association between a particular human ethno-geographic background (i.e., North African vs. sub-Saharan African vs. West Eurasian linages) and any HHV-8 strain because both C' and C'' strains were randomly distributed among the different patients' population backgrounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Viral. Molecular Epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Viral Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Female. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Morocco / epidemiology. Phylogeny. Polymorphism, Genetic. Population / genetics. Recombination, Genetic. Sequence Analysis, DNA


13. Yarchoan R, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Aleman K, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Little RF: Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Crit Rev Immunol; 2007;27(5):401-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity.
  • In this article, we review the preliminary evidence for the activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) against Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and discuss these results in the context of the biology of IL-12 and KS.
  • IL-12 is a cytokine that enhances type 1 immunity, induces production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and mediates antiangiogenic effects.
  • In addition, it can downregulate a constitutively active G protein coupled receptor that is encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the causative agent of KS.
  • These factors suggested that IL-12 might be worth exploring as a potential anti-KS agent.
  • In an initial phase I pilot study, IL-12 was found to have anti-KS activity when used alone in patients with AIDS-associated KS who were on a stable regimen of antiretroviral therapy.
  • In preliminary results from a subsequent study of the combination of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin along with highly active antiretroviral therapy, remissions were obtained in a substantial percentage of patients with advanced AIDS-associated KS.
  • IL-12 has also been found active in patients with certain lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cytokines / immunology. Cytokines / metabolism. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans


14. Meyer D: Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS. SADJ; 2005 Oct;60(9):386-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eye signs that alert the clinician to a diagnosis of AIDS.
  • One of the hallmarks of progressive immune deficiency is a steady decline in the absolute number of CD4+ T-lymphocytes.
  • As the immune response thus becomes suppressed, opportunistic systemic infections such as protozoal (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, disseminated toxoplasmosis), viral (Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and colitis and persistent invasive herpes simplex lesions), fungal (cryptococcossis and esophageal candidiasis) and bacterial infections (atypical mycobacterial and extrapulmonary tuberculosis) set in to claim their toll.
  • Ocular complications occur in about 75% of AIDS patients and may be divided into four categories: Retinal microangiopathy, Opportunistic infections, Tumours, Neuro-ophthalmological lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Eye Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Eye Infections, Viral / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus / diagnosis. Humans. Keratitis, Herpetic / diagnosis. Molluscum Contagiosum. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


15. Maggiorella L, Wen B, Frascogna V, Opolon P, Bourhis J, Deutsch E: Combined radiation sensitizing and anti-angiogenic effects of ionizing radiation and the protease inhibitor ritonavir in a head and neck carcinoma model. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4357-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined radiation sensitizing and anti-angiogenic effects of ionizing radiation and the protease inhibitor ritonavir in a head and neck carcinoma model.
  • Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, has been successfully applied in the treatment of HIV infection.
  • Reports of dramatic improvement of AIDS-related cancers, such as primary central system lymphoma after radiation therapy as well as Kaposi's sarcoma, led to the recent discovery of the "non viral" antitumor activity of HIV protease inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 16309240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
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16. Guech-Ongey M, Verboom M, Pfeiffer RM, Schulz TF, Ndugwa CM, Owor AM, Bakaki PM, Bhatia K, Figueiredo C, Eiz-Vesper B, Blasczyk R, Mbulaiteye SM: HLA polymorphisms and detection of kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA in saliva and peripheral blood among children and their mothers in the uganda sickle cell anemia KSHV Study. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HLA polymorphisms and detection of kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA in saliva and peripheral blood among children and their mothers in the uganda sickle cell anemia KSHV Study.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called Human herpesvirus 8 or HHV8) is a γ-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi sarcoma.
  • KSHV seroprevalence rates vary geographically with variable rates recorded in different sub Sahara African countries, suggesting that effects of genetic and/or environmental factors may influence the risk of infection.
  • One study conducted in South Africa, where KSHV seroprevalence is relatively low, found that carriage of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-A*6801, HLA-A*30, HLA-A*4301, and HLA-DRB1*04 was associated with increased shedding of KSHV DNA in saliva.
  • To explore these associations in another setting, we used high resolution HLA-A, B, and DRB1 typing on residual samples from the Uganda Sickle Cell Anemia KSHV study, conducted in a high KSHV seroprevalence region, to investigate associations between HLA and KSHV shedding in saliva or peripheral blood among 233 children and their mothers.
  • In exploratory analyses, we found marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in saliva but not in peripheral blood among children carrying HLA- B*4415 and marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in peripheral blood but not in saliva among children carrying HLA- B*0801 alleles.
  • Larger population-based studies are needed to estimate the magnitude and direction of association of HLA with KSHV shedding and viral control.

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  • (PMID = 21087485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2995779
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17. Chambers C, Sharon V, Fazel N: Unknown: Unusual exophytic nodule on the plantar foot. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(4):11
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  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) may be categorized into four primary clinical variants: classic, iatrogenic, endemic or African, and epidemic or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma typically presents on the face and trunk as pink to red macules and papules and can be rapidly progressive leading to disseminated visceral involvement and death.
  • Rarely has AIDS-associated KS been described as presenting on the feet.
  • We report a case of AIDS-associated nodular KS manifesting as an exophytic nodule on the plantar foot.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Foot Diseases / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20409418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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18. Bower M, Stebbing J: AIDS-associated malignancies. Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif; 2005;22:687-706
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16110634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0921-4410
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and biological response modifiers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 193
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19. Valmary S, Richard P, Brousset P: Frequent detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus in germinal centre macrophages from AIDS-related multicentric Castleman's disease. AIDS; 2005 Jul 22;19(11):1229-31
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  • [Title] Frequent detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus in germinal centre macrophages from AIDS-related multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma is able to infect several cell types.
  • By investigating hyperplastic lymph nodes from AIDS patients with multicentric Castleman's disease, we demonstrate, for the first time, by dual colour immunohistochemistry, that KSHV is frequently detectable in germinal centre macrophages.
  • These macrophages, which display a latency programme and frequently contain apoptotic bodies, may represent a non-negligible reservoir for the virus in lymphoid organs.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Macrophages / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Virus Latency


20. Brimo F, Michel RP, Khetani K, Auger M: Primary effusion lymphoma: a series of 4 cases and review of the literature with emphasis on cytomorphologic and immunocytochemical differential diagnosis. Cancer; 2007 Aug 25;111(4):224-33
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  • [Title] Primary effusion lymphoma: a series of 4 cases and review of the literature with emphasis on cytomorphologic and immunocytochemical differential diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated and very rare type of lymphoma usually confined to the body cavities and commonly observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
  • RESULTS: Cytologically, the most consistent features of the 4 cases and those in the literature included large cell size, moderate to abundant cytoplasm, a single nucleus in most cells with occasional bi- or multinucleated giant cells, single to multiple prominent nucleoli, and coarse chromatin.
  • Immunocytochemically, only 2 (50%) of the current cases were of the null-phenotype compared with 93% of cases in the literature; the other 2 cases had a T-cell phenotype.
  • Positivity for HHV-8 was proven in the 4 cases by immunocytochemistry.
  • Therefore, HHV-8 detection is an essential confirmatory ancillary test in suspected cases of PEL.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesviridae Infections / diagnosis. Herpesviridae Infections / pathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17554754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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21. Aoki Y, Tosato G: Interactions between HIV-1 Tat and KSHV. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol; 2007;312:309-26
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  • [Title] Interactions between HIV-1 Tat and KSHV.
  • Since the advent of the HIV-1 pandemic, a close association between HIV-1 infection and the development of selected types of cancers has been brought to light.
  • The discovery of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has led to significant advances in uncovering the virological and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related malignancies.
  • Extensive evidence indicates that HIV-1 trans-activating protein Tat plays an oncogenic role in the development of KSHV-associated neoplasms.
  • Comprehensive knowledge of the functions of Tat-1 together with the KSHV genes will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of virus-associated cancers and the interaction of viruses with their hosts.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Products, tat / physiology. HIV-1 / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. HIV-2 / pathogenicity. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 17089803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-217X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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22. Deloose ST, Smit LA, Pals FT, Kersten MJ, van Noesel CJ, Pals ST: High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia; 2005 May;19(5):851-5
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  • [Title] High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is known to be associated with two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)/MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • We here report a high incidence of KSHV infection in solid HIV-associated immunoblastic/plasmablastic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), in patients lacking effusions and without evidence of (prior) MCD.
  • Within a cohort of 99 HIV-related NHLs, 10 cases were found to be KSHV positive on the basis of immunostaining for KSHV LNA-1 as well as KSHV-specific polymerase chain reaction.
  • All but one of the tumors coexpressed Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Interestingly, all KSHV-positive cases belonged to a distinctive subgroup of 26 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas characterized by the expression of CD138 (syndecan-1) and plasmablastic/immunoblastic morphology.
  • These KSHV-positive lymphomas were preceded by Kaposi sarcoma in 60% of the patients and involved the gastrointestinal tract in 80%.
  • Our results indicate that KSHV infection is not restricted to PEL and MCD; it is also common (38%) in HIV-related solid immunoblastic/plasmablastic lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. HIV Infections / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


23. Biggar RJ, Chaturvedi AK, Goedert JJ, Engels EA, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2007 Jun 20;99(12):962-72
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  • [Title] AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer has been declining among persons with AIDS.
  • We investigated the association between cancer risk and CD4 cell count among such persons.
  • METHODS: Data from US AIDS registries were linked to local cancer registry data.
  • Cancer incidence per 100,000 person-years was determined for the 4-27 months from the onset of AIDS from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1995--before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available--and from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2002.
  • The relationships between CD4 count at AIDS onset and cancer incidence were assessed by proportional hazards models.
  • RESULTS: Among 325,516 adults with AIDS, the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was lower in 1996-2002 (334.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (1838.9 cases per 100,000 person-years), and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma followed a similar pattern (i.e., 390.1 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1996-2002 and 1066.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1990-1995).
  • In 1996-2002, for each decline in CD4 cell count of 50 cells per microliter of blood, increased risks were found for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 1.50), for central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes (HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.58 to 2.16), and for non-central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.20) but not for non-central nervous system Burkitt lymphoma (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.06).
  • Cervical cancer incidence was higher in 1996-2002 (86.5 per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (64.2 per 100,000 person-years), although not statistically significantly so (relative risk [RR] = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.81 to 2.46).
  • After adjustment for age, race, and sex or mode of HIV exposure, the risks for Kaposi sarcoma (RR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.24) and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.44) were lower in the period of 1996-2002 than in 1990-1995.
  • Similar relationships of these cancers to CD4 count were observed for 1990-1995.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both before and after HAART was available, CD4 count was strongly associated with risks for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not for cervical cancer and Burkitt lymphoma.
  • The decreasing incidences of most AIDS-associated cancers in persons with AIDS during the 1990s are consistent with improving CD4 counts after HAART introduction in 1996.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


24. Simard EP, Pfeiffer RM, Engels EA: Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Aug 9;170(15):1337-45
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  • [Title] Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Persons living with AIDS today remain at elevated cancer risk.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), widely available since 1996, prolongs life, but immune function is not fully restored.
  • We conducted this study to assess long-term cancer risk among persons with AIDS relative to the general population and the impact of HAART on cancer incidence.
  • METHODS: Records of 263 254 adults and adolescents with AIDS (1980-2004) from 15 US regions were matched to cancer registries to capture incident cancers during years 3 through 5 and 6 through 10 after AIDS onset.
  • Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare cancer incidence before and after 1996 to assess the impact of availability of HAART.
  • RESULTS: Risk was elevated for the 2 major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (SIRs, 5321 and 1347 in years 3-5 and 6-10, respectively) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIRs, 32 and 15).
  • Risk was elevated for all non-AIDS-defining cancers combined (SIRs, 1.7 and 1.6 in years 3-5 and 6-10, respectively) and for the following specific non-AIDS-defining cancers: Hodgkin lymphoma and cancers of the oral cavity and/or pharynx, tongue, anus, liver, larynx, lung and/or bronchus, and penis.
  • Anal cancer incidence increased between 1990-1995 and 1996-2006 (RR, 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-4.0), as did that of Hodgkin lymphoma (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9).
  • CONCLUSION: Among people who survived for several years or more after an AIDS diagnosis, we observed high risks of AIDS-defining cancers and increasing incidence of anal cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Bronchial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / virology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20696958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010150-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212628; NLM/ PMC2921231
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25. Makombe SD, Harries AD, Yu JK, Hochgesang M, Mhango E, Weigel R, Pasulani O, Fitzgerald M, Schouten EJ, Libamba E: Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi. Trop Doct; 2008 Jan;38(1):5-7
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  • [Title] Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi.
  • AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa, with a generally unfavourable prognosis.
  • We report on six-month and 12-month cohort treatment outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive KS patients and HIV-positive non-KS patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector facilities in Malawi.
  • Between July and September 2005, 7905 patients started ART-488 (6%) with a diagnosis of KS and 7417 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • Between January and March 2005, 4580 patients started ART-326 (7%) with a diagnosis of KS and 4254 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • At six-months and 12-months, significantly fewer KS patients were alive and significantly more had died or defaulted compared to non-KS patients.
  • HIV-positive KS patients on ART in Malawi have worse outcomes than other patients on ART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality


26. Phatak UA, Joshi R, Badakh DK, Gosavi VS, Phatak JU, Jagdale RV: AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Mar;58:159-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and effects of anti-retroviral therapy along with cancer chemotherapy on outcome of AIDS associated Cancers in Indian patients.
  • 46 AIDS-associated cancers were identified.
  • HIV status was evaluated by ELISA, Western Blot, viral load and CD4/CD8 counts.
  • Patients were treated with different modalities of cancer management and anti-retroviral therapy was discussed with the patient and relatives.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of AIDS-associated cancers was 1.2 percent.
  • AIDS-Defining Cancers (ADC) were seen in 26 (54.35%) while non-AIDS-Defining Cancers (NADC) were observed in 21 (45.65%).
  • Non Hodgkin Lymphoma was the commonest form of AIDS-defining cancers in 21 (84%) patients, cervical cancers in 4 (16%) women while there was not a single case of Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • AIDS associated cancers were common in males.
  • Only 33.5% patients received treatment for HIV and cancers.
  • Development of immune reconstitution syndrome was observed in 9.09% patients.
  • Hepatitis B infection was seen in only one patient (2.17%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-associated cancers are seen in advanced stage of HIV infection.
  • Cervical cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers do not show predictable response to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • Mortality in non-AIDS related cancers was significantly higher than AIDS related cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. India / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Young Adult


27. Chaturvedi AK, Mbulaiteye SM, Engels EA: Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers. Ann Epidemiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers.
  • PURPOSE: Registry-based studies provide valuable data regarding cancer risk among people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA).
  • However, SIR may underestimate RR when HIV/AIDS prevalence in the general population or RR is high.
  • We quantified the extent of this underestimation for 3 AIDS-related cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CNS NHL) and cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: We used data on cancer risk among PWHA from the U.S.
  • HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study.
  • (1) SIRs calculated using pre-AIDS era (1973-1979) cancer incidence rates (SIRpre-AIDS) and (2) SIRs calculated after subtraction of cancers known to be among PWHA from general population rates (SIRexclusion).
  • RESULTS: For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs (117.8 and 133.9, respectively) calculated using overall general population rates substantially underestimated both SIRpre-AIDS (19,778 and 3,612, respectively) and SIRexclusion (657.7 and 536.4, respectively).
  • In contrast, the extent of underestimation was negligible for cervical cancer (SIR = 4.9 vs. SIRexclusion = 5.1).
  • For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs were higher in females than in males.
  • However, SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion estimates were more similar, indicating that SIR differences artifactually reflect differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between males and females.
  • For KS and CNS NHL, trends across calendar time were weaker in SIRs than in SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion.
  • CONCLUSION: For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs substantially underestimate RRs.
  • This underestimation arises from the exceptionally high relative risk of KS and CNS NHL among PWHA.
  • SIRs must be interpreted cautiously when HIV/AIDS prevalence is high or varies across groups of interest.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


28. Dhir AA, Sawant SP: Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):517-21
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  • [Title] Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India has the second largest number of HIV/AIDS patients in the world; however, studies done in the area of HIV-related malignancies are few.
  • With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections, an increase in life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals and an increase in HIV-related malignancies is expected.
  • The purpose of this review is to put forth the Indian scenario of HIV-related malignancies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: About 2.5 million Indians have HIV/AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical cancer were found to occur in a higher proportion among the HIV-infected individuals in India as compared with non-HIV-infected individuals.
  • The incidence of AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma is low in India.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is rare in India.
  • Amongst the non-AIDS defining cancers anal cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, colon cancer and certain head and neck cancer sites in men and vaginal cancers among women were found to occur more frequently.
  • As India is a large country and geographically and culturally diverse, large-scale studies need to be done linking the regional cancer centres with the AIDS centres across the country to evaluate the exact burden of HIV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19106653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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29. Campo-Trapero J, Del Romero-Guerrero J, Cano-Sánchez J, Rodríguez-Martín C, Martínez-González JM, Bascones-Martínez A: Relationship between oral Kaposi 's sarcoma and HAART: contribution of two case reports. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2008 Nov;13(11):E709-13
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  • [Title] Relationship between oral Kaposi 's sarcoma and HAART: contribution of two case reports.
  • Two HIV infected patients not receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) presented with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity.
  • The other patient developed KS and progressed to AIDS at two years after ceasing HAART due to adverse effects; he was referred to hospital for renewed administration of HAART.
  • In both cases, the lesions observed in the oral cavity were the first clinical manifestation of AIDS.
  • These reports underline the close relationship between the use of HAART and the control of KS lesions, highlighting the important role of the dentist in the identification and early diagnosis of these oral lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / prevention & control


30. Butler LM, Dorsey G, Hladik W, Rosenthal PJ, Brander C, Neilands TB, Mbisa G, Whitby D, Kiepiela P, Mosam A, Mzolo S, Dollard SC, Martin JN: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in population-based samples of African children: evidence for at least 2 patterns of KSHV transmission. J Infect Dis; 2009 Aug 1;200(3):430-8
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in population-based samples of African children: evidence for at least 2 patterns of KSHV transmission.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is endemic among adult populations in Africa.
  • However, few studies have directly examined children, particularly in locations where KS is not commonly endemic.
  • CONCLUSION: Two distinct relationships between age and KSHV infection among children imply that KSHV transmission among children is not uniform throughout Africa and is therefore not always responsible for the high seroprevalence observed in adults.

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  • (PMID = 19534596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32 MH019105; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K01 HD052020-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K01 HD052020; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027763; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119903; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI052142; United States / CCR NIH HHS / RC / HHSN261200800001C; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / HHSN261200800001E
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS130800; NLM/ PMC3975590
  •  go-up   go-down


31. Oji C, Chukwuneke F: Clinical evaluation of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV/AIDS patients with orofacial lesions in Enugu, Nigeria. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Jul;66(7):1362-5
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  • [Title] Clinical evaluation of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV/AIDS patients with orofacial lesions in Enugu, Nigeria.
  • PURPOSE: To highlight the association of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with HIV/AIDS in patients of the oral and maxillofacial surgery units of 2 specialist hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The case notes of 112 patients who had HIV/AIDS lesions in the orofacial region were retrieved from the medical records department of 2 specialist hospitals.
  • After studying the biopsy results, attention was focused on 33 patients (27 male and 6 female; age range, 10 to 59 years) who had KS.
  • We studied the clinical, histopathologic, and therapeutic aspects of these AIDS-related KS cases over a period of 4 years, from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • RESULTS: There were 33 cases of KS and they ranged highest out of the total number of cases (112) cases that had HIV/AIDS.
  • At the time of initial presentation, all 33 patients were in stages III and IV of the disease.
  • They all died within 1 to 18 months after commencement of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: KS is strongly associated with HIV/AIDS in our environment.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nigeria. Patient Acceptance of Health Care. Retrospective Studies. Sexual Behavior


32. Phipps W, Ssewankambo F, Nguyen H, Saracino M, Wald A, Corey L, Orem J, Kambugu A, Casper C: Gender differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma in Uganda. PLoS One; 2010 Nov 12;5(11):e13936
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  • [Title] Gender differences in clinical presentation and outcomes of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma in Uganda.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has increased dramatically among women in sub-Saharan Africa since the onset of the HIV pandemic, but data on KS disease in women are limited.
  • To identify gender-related differences in KS presentation and outcomes, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and response in men and women with AIDS-associated KS in Uganda.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected adults with KS attending the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) and Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) in Kampala, Uganda between 2004 and 2006 were included in a retrospective cohort.
  • Evaluation of KS presentation was based on the clinical features described at the initial KS visit.
  • The cohort consisted of 197 adults with HIV and KS: 55% (108/197) were women.
  • Women were more likely than men to present with lesions of the face (OR 2.8, 95% CI, 1.4, 5.7; p = 0.005) and hard palate (OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1, 3.7; p = 0.02), and were less likely than men to have lower extremity lesions (OR 0.54, 95% CI, 0.3, 0.99; p = 0.05).
  • Women were less likely than men to demonstrate clinical improvement (HR = 0.52, CI 0.31, 0.88; p = 0.01) in multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation and response of KS differs between men and women in Uganda.
  • These data suggest that gender affects the pathophysiology of KS, which may have implications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of KS in both men and women.
  • Prospective studies are needed to identify predictors of response and evaluate efficacy of treatment in women with KS, particularly in Africa where the disease burden is greatest.


33. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • HIV infected subjects are at increased risk of developing cancer and the risk seems to be directly associated with the level of immunodeficiency.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • HAART widely used since 1996 changed the natural process of HIV infection by aggressively suppressing viral replication and progress of HIV disease.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, patients better responded to cancer treatment.
  • There are data demonstrating that HAART regimens alone lead to remission of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


34. Broxmeyer L, Cantwell A: AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!". Med Hypotheses; 2008 Nov;71(5):741-8
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  • [Title] AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".
  • Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections."
  • According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients.
  • Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS?
  • Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis.
  • By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease?
  • And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it.
  • Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue.
  • On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr.
  • Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees.
  • In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue.
  • He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS.
  • Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue.
  • Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between mycoplasma and CWD bacteria is difficult at best and cites Pachas's 1985 study wherein one mycoplasma was actually mistaken for a CWD form of a bacterium closely related to the mycobacteria.
  • It is important to realize that the statement "HIV is the sole cause of AIDS" is just a hypothesis.
  • There are unanswered questions and controversy concerning the role of HIV "as the sole cause of AIDS."
  • This paper explores the possible role of acid-fast tuberculous mycobacteria as "primary agents" in AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / etiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / microbiology. Bacterial Infections / etiology. Mycobacterium / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Guinea Pigs. Humans. Lung / microbiology. Lung / virology. Male. Models, Biological. Models, Theoretical. Mycobacterium Infections / diagnosis. Mycobacterium Infections / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / microbiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Tuberculosis / complications. Tuberculosis / microbiology. Tuberculosis / virology


35. Agaba PA, Sule HM, Ojoh RO, Hassan Z, Apena L, Mu'azu MA, Badung B, Agbaji OO, Idoko JA, Kanki P: Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Jun;20(6):410-3
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  • [Title] Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • We identified 48 HIV-positive patients with AIDS-KS and matched them for age and sex with an equal number of HIV-positive patients without AIDS-KS.
  • We compared their clinical, immunological, virological characteristics and survival.
  • They were similar in age and body mass index profile but patients with AIDS-KS had more tuberculosis co-infection (P, 0.02), lower median CD4 count (P, 0.003) and higher mortality (P, 0.002).
  • Surprisingly, patients with AIDS-KS had lower levels of median viral load (29,347 copies/mL) compared with controls (80,533 copies/mL).
  • We recommend specific AIDS-KS therapy in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy in order to improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / mortality. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


36. Adedigba MA, Naidoo S, Ogunbodede EO: Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS. Odontostomatol Trop; 2009 Mar;32(125):17-24
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  • [Title] Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the cost of a prescribed treatment plan; to compare the costs in an academic hospital cost with that of private pharmacy; and to determine the average treatment cost per visit.
  • The descriptive, retrospective study that investigated the cost implications of the treatment of five oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS: oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases, oral ulcers and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • One hundred and twenty four cases with oral HIV lesions were selected from the list of 181 HIV patients listed in the attendance registers of three hospitals in the selected study sites.
  • A data capture sheet was used to obtain information related to diagnosis, investigations done, staging of the disease, treatment plan and treatment outcome.
  • The association between the number of hospital visits and the total cost of treatment was significant (p < 0.05).
  • Also, there was a significant negative relationship between the outcome of treatment and the total hospital costs (p < 0.05).
  • There was no significant association between staging of the disease and the hospital cost (p > 0.05), but the CD4 count significantly influenced the hospital cost (p<0.05).
  • Governments should endeavour to provide antiretroviral and other relevant drugs, at no cost, to HIV/AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Costs. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Mouth Diseases / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / economics. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / economics. Male. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / complications. Oral Ulcer / economics. Periodontal Diseases / complications. Periodontal Diseases / economics. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


37. Marotta D, Sgambato A, Cerciello S, Magarelli N, Martini M, Larocca LM, Maccauro G: Soft tissue non-Hodgkin lymphoma of shoulder in a HIV patient: a report of a case and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:111
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  • [Title] Soft tissue non-Hodgkin lymphoma of shoulder in a HIV patient: a report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The risk of developing lymphoma is greatly increased in HIV infection.
  • Musculoskeletal manifestations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and are sometimes the initial presentation of the disease.
  • Muscle, bone, and joints are involved by septic arthritis, myopathies and neoplasms.
  • HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system include Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the latter being mainly localized at lower extremities, spine and skull.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: The Authors report a case of a 34 year-old lady.
  • In March 2004 she was diagnosed HIV positive and contemporary got pregnant.
  • The lesion was also negative for EBV infection and showed a monoclonal rearrangement of IgH chain and a polyclonal pattern for TCR gamma and beta.
  • A final diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was made.
  • HIV infection is still under control.
  • CONCLUSION: In this report, we present a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma localized in the soft tissue of the shoulder in a HIV infected patient.
  • Authors want to underline this case for the rare position, the big size and the association with HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Outcome. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pregnancy. Risk Assessment. Shoulder. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods

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  • (PMID = 18939988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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38. Ferrazzo KL, Mesquita RA, Aburad AT, Nunes FD, de Sousa SO: EBV detection in HIV-related oral plasmablastic lymphoma. Oral Dis; 2007 Nov;13(6):564-9
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  • [Title] EBV detection in HIV-related oral plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) of the oral cavity is an aggressive neoplasm derived from B cell, considered to be the second more common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated malignancies.
  • As Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with this neoplasm, the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of EBV in 11 cases of oral HIV-related PBL and investigate the controversial issue of the presence of Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) in these tumors.
  • METHODS: DNA was extracted from nine cases of HIV-associated oral lymphomas, diagnosed as PBL, and genomic material was amplified by polymerase chain reaction to verify the presence of EBV.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to confirm previous diagnosis and verify HHV-8 infection.
  • RESULTS: The 11 cases had diagnosis confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • The five cases tested for EBV viral infection by ISH showed positive signals.
  • All 11 cases were negative for HHV-8.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of EBV in all cases studied favors a direct role of this virus in the development of HIV-related PBL, and this finding could be considered when dealing with HIV patients.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / analysis. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17944673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1354-523X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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39. Costa C, Bergallo M, Cavallo R: Re: Schulz, The pleiotropic effects of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus. J Pathol 2006;208:187-198. J Pathol; 2007 Feb;211(3):379-80
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  • [Title] Re: Schulz, The pleiotropic effects of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus. J Pathol 2006;208:187-198.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesviridae Infections / pathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology

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  • [CommentOn] J Pathol. 2006 Jan;208(2):187-98 [16362980.001]
  • (PMID = 17152082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Licci S, D'Antonio A, Boscaino A, Morelli L, Piscioli F, Abbate I, Donnorso RP, Del Nonno F: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Acta Haematol; 2007;118(1):47-52
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma has been described since 1920.
  • In the few cases described, the presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the different neoplastic areas was investigated only by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies.
  • METHODS: Two cases of concurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node are described: a diffuse large B cell lymphoma in an AIDS patient and a T cell-rich large B cell lymphoma in a HIV-negative patient, complete with the clinical, immunohistological and molecular features, the latter ones defined after isolation of the different neoplastic areas by laser capture microdissection.
  • RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction assays revealed HHV8 DNA sequences only in the microdissected Kaposi's sarcoma areas and EBV DNA sequences only in the lymphomatous areas in both cases, confirming the HHV8 infection only in the neoplastic sarcomatous cells and evidencing the EBV infection only in the lymphomatous cells.
  • CONCLUSION: This study represents a further confirmation of the supposed different etiopathogenic mechanisms of the 2 neoplasias, suggesting a coincidental occurrence even when localized in the same lymph node, independently from HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17505129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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41. da Silva CA, Dourado I, Dahia SR, Harzheim E, Rutherford GW: Oral manifestations of HIV infection in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Bahia, Brazil. J Public Health Dent; 2008;68(3):178-81
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  • [Title] Oral manifestations of HIV infection in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Bahia, Brazil.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the oral manifestations of HIV-infected patients in Salvador, Brazil, and their relationship to immunologic, sociodemographic, and therapeutic factors.
  • METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that used data from adult patients' medical records in the dentistry service of the AIDS Reference Center in Salvador, Brazil.
  • We reviewed the patients' records to collect information concerning oral health status and data on socioeconomic status, immunologic status, and treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that lesions are more common in patients with advanced immune suppression and low level of schooling.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brazil / epidemiology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Cheilitis / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Educational Status. Employment / statistics & numerical data. Female. Health Status. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oral Health. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Social Class. Stomatitis, Herpetic / epidemiology. Viral Load. Young Adult


42. Bower M, Palmieri C, Dhillon T: AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):14-9
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  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three cancers in people with HIV denote an AIDS diagnosis: Kaposi's sarcoma, high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer.
  • In addition a number of other cancers occur at increased frequency in this population group but are not AIDS-defining illnesses.
  • This review discusses the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the epidemiology and outcome of AIDS-defining cancers.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of both Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has declined in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the outcome of both tumours has improved.
  • Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy alone produces a response in a majority of antiretroviral-naïve patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In contrast, highly active antiretroviral therapy has had little impact on the incidence of human papilloma virus-associated tumours (cervical and anal cancer) in people with HIV, although it may improve survival by reducing opportunistic infection deaths.
  • As people with HIV live longer with highly active antiretroviral therapy, an increased incidence of other non AIDS-defining cancers that have no known association with oncogenic infections is becoming apparent.
  • SUMMARY: For those with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the good news from the AIDS-defining cancers - particularly Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - may be balanced by the increasing numbers of non AIDS-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


43. Yamanegi K, Tang S, Zheng ZM: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K8beta is derived from a spliced intermediate of K8 pre-mRNA and antagonizes K8alpha (K-bZIP) to induce p21 and p53 and blocks K8alpha-CDK2 interaction. J Virol; 2005 Nov;79(22):14207-21
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K8beta is derived from a spliced intermediate of K8 pre-mRNA and antagonizes K8alpha (K-bZIP) to induce p21 and p53 and blocks K8alpha-CDK2 interaction.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a lymphotropic DNA tumor virus that induces Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS-related primary effusion lymphoma.
  • KSHV open reading frame 50 and K8 genes in early viral lytic infection express, respectively, a tricistronic and a bicistronic pre-mRNA, which undergo alternative splicing to create two major spliced mRNA isoforms, alpha and beta, by inclusion (beta) or exclusion (alpha) of an intron at nucleotides 75563 to 75645.
  • This intron contains some suboptimal features, which cause the intron 5' splice site (ss) to interact weakly with U1 snRNA and the 3' ss to bind a U2 auxiliary factor, U2AF, with low affinity.
  • Optimization of this intron in K8 (K8 intron 2) promoted the interaction of the 5' ss with U1 and the 3' ss with U2AF, resulting in a substantial increase in intron splicing.
  • Splicing of K8 intron 2 has also been shown to be stimulated by the splicing of a downstream intron.
  • This was confirmed by the insertion of a human beta-globin intron into the K8beta exon 3-exon 4 splice junction, which promoted splicing of K8beta intron 2 and conversion of the K8beta mRNA to the K8alpha mRNA that encodes a K-bZIP protein.

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  • (PMID = 16254356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / Z01 SC010357-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 3.1.26.4 / Ribonuclease H
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1280184
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44. Boy SC, van Heerden MB, Raubenheimer EJ, van Heerden WF: Plasmablastic lymphomas with light chain restriction - plasmablastic extramedullary plasmacytomas? J Oral Pathol Med; 2010 May;39(5):435-9
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  • Clinical features and HIV status were recorded and each case was classified as 'PBL of the oral mucosa type' or as 'PBL with plasmacytic differentiation'.
  • In situ hybridization was performed for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HHV-8.
  • Epstein-Barr virus was detected in 44/45 cases and HHV-8 in none.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / classification. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Immunoblastic / classification. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / classification. Plasmacytoma / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunoglobulin Light Chains / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Viral / analysis. Retrospective Studies. South Africa

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  • (PMID = 20537055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 2; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 0 / RNA, Viral
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45. Folk GS, Abbondanzo SL, Childers EL, Foss RD: Plasmablastic lymphoma: a clinicopathologic correlation. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Feb;10(1):8-12
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  • Plasmablastic lymphoma is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but has been reported in HIV-negative individuals.
  • An immunohistochemical panel consisting of CD3, CD20, CD30, CD38, CD45RB, CD79a, CD138, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, Alk-1, Ki-67, EBV-LMP-1, and HHV8 was performed.
  • CD20 was immunoreactive in 1 case, and CD79a was positive in 2 cases.
  • HHV8 and EBV-LMP-1 were nonreactive in all cases.
  • Follow-up revealed only 1 patient alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Our cases show that PBL is an aggressive type of B-cell lymphoma predominantly found in the oral cavity.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma is often associated with HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Mouth / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Plasma Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16414538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Syndecans; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38
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46. Singh H, Singh P, Tiwari P, Dey V, Dulhani N, Singh A: Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India. Indian J Dermatol; 2009;54(4):338-41
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  • [Title] Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous disorders during HIV infection are numerous and skin is often the first and only organ affected during most of the course of HIV disease.
  • Some Cutaneous disorders reflect the progression of HIV disease; though the relation is still controversial.
  • AIMS: The objective of this study, conducted at a tertiary care centre in Bastar, Jagdalpur, is to estimate the status of cutaneous manifestation in HIV-infected patients and its relationship with CD4 cell counts.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 137 HIV positive subjects.
  • Demographic information such as age, gender, weight, height, socioeconomic status, and educational status were recorded.
  • Patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist.
  • RESULTS: Majority of the patients were from rural area (65.69%) and belonged to a low socioeconomic and educational status.
  • Most common HIV-related dermatological manifestations were seborrheic dermatitis (74.16%), xerosis (52.5%), generalized skin hyperpigmentation 56 (46.67%), onychomycosis 53 (44.16%), pruritic papular eruption 27 (22.5%), oral candidiasis 21 (17.5%), photo dermatitis 21 (17.5%), and scabies 4 (3.33%).
  • Significant correlation with low CD4+ cell counts was found for oral candidiasis (P < 0.0001) and Kaposi's sarcoma (P = 0.03), while other disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis (P = 0.22), xerosis (P = 0.25), and onychomycosis (P = 0.08) were not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: This study showed high prevalence of dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected subjects, and they occur more frequently with progression of HIV and decline in immune functions.
  • Therefore, early diagnosis and management of skin disorders can improve the quality of life of HIV-infected subjects.

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  • (PMID = 20101334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807709
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human immunodeficiency virus / National Aids Control Organisation / people living with HIV/AIDS
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47. Sutcliffe S, Giovannucci E, Gaydos CA, Viscidi RP, Jenkins FJ, Zenilman JM, Jacobson LP, De Marzo AM, Willett WC, Platz EA: Plasma antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, and human herpesvirus type 8 in relation to prostate cancer: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Aug;16(8):1573-80
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  • [Title] Plasma antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, and human herpesvirus type 8 in relation to prostate cancer: a prospective study.
  • Traditionally, case-control studies of sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer have focused on gonorrhea and syphilis, with overall positive associations.
  • More recently, researchers have begun to expand their focus to include additional sexually transmitted infections, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus (HPV), and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) infections.
  • Continuing this investigation, we examined each of these infections in relation to incident prostate cancer in a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
  • Prostate cancer cases were men diagnosed with prostate cancer between the date of blood draw (1993-1995) and 2000 (n = 691).
  • Controls were men free of cancer and alive at the time of case diagnosis who had had at least one prostate-specific antigen test between the date of blood draw and case diagnosis.
  • One control was individually matched to each case by age; year, time of day, and season of blood draw; and prostate-specific antigen screening history before blood draw (n = 691). C. trachomatis and HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-33 antibody serostatus were assessed by enzyme-based immunoassays and HHV-8 antibody serostatus was assessed by an immunofluorescence assay.
  • No associations were observed between C. trachomatis [odds ratio (OR), 1.13; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.65-1.96], HPV-16 (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.57-1.23), HPV-18 (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.66-1.64), and HPV-33 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.76-1.72) antibody seropositivity and prostate cancer.
  • A significant inverse association was observed between HHV-8 antibody seropositivity and prostate cancer (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.95).
  • As this study is the first, to our knowledge, to observe such an inverse association, similar additional studies are warranted.

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  • (PMID = 17684131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL035464-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055075-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA58236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55075; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-07; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL35464; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL035464; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL035464-22
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257748; NLM/ PMC3012386
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48. Sissolak G, Mayaud P: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment and control aspects in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health; 2005 Oct;10(10):981-92
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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment and control aspects in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Until the 1980s, little attention had been accorded to endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a neoplasm noted in several parts of Southern Europe and the African continent but with relatively slow progression, except in children and young adults.
  • Furthermore, therapeutic approaches based on surgery, radiation and topical treatment were of limited efficacy, mostly used to overcome the disabling and stigmatizing effects of the disease.
  • With the emergence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the profound impact of KS on AIDS-related mortality, the pathogenesis of KS has been better studied, and the realisation that a virus (KS-associated Herpesvirus or Human Herpesvirus 8, or KSHV/HHV-8), combined with immunosuppression and cytokine-induced growth, was responsible for the development of this disease has led to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • However, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has led to a considerable decline in KS incidence in populations of industrialized countries, constitutes the best hope for the control of this stigmatizing and lethal disease in Africa.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / etiology. Herpesviridae Infections / therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16185232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-2276
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop. Med. Int. Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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49. Han YY, Dinse GE, Umbach DM, Davis DL, Weissfeld JL: Age-period-cohort analysis of cancers not related to tobacco, screening, or HIV: sex and race differences. Cancer Causes Control; 2010 Aug;21(8):1227-36
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  • [Title] Age-period-cohort analysis of cancers not related to tobacco, screening, or HIV: sex and race differences.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify trends in a residual category of cancers not typically associated with tobacco, screening, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • METHODS: For persons aged 20-84, we used sex- and race-specific age-period-cohort (APC) models to describe temporal patterns of incidence (1975-2004) and mortality (1970-2004) in the U.S. for a residual cancer category that excluded non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, pancreas, larynx, lung and bronchus, urinary bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, colon and rectum, prostate, female breast, and cervix uteri.
  • RESULTS: Age-specific incidence rose (0.1-0.9% per year, on average) in every sex-race group, with factors related to both time period and birth cohort membership appearing to accelerate the increases in women.
  • Declining mortality may signify improvements in cancer care.

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  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA ES102265-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202679; NLM/ PMC2904415
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50. Sivakumar R, Sharma-Walia N, Raghu H, Veettil MV, Sadagopan S, Bottero V, Varga L, Levine R, Chandran B: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications. J Virol; 2008 Feb;82(4):1759-76
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, is characterized by spindle-shaped endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, cytokines, growth and angiogenic factors, and angiogenesis.
  • KS spindle cells are believed to be of the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) type.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically linked to KS, and in vitro KSHV infection of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades, sustained expression of latency-associated genes, transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, sustained induction of NF-kappaB and several cytokines, and growth and angiogenic factors.
  • VEGF-A and -C were also induced by UV-inactivated KSHV and envelope glycoprotein gpK8.1A, thus suggesting a role for virus entry stages in the early induction of VEGF and requirement of KSHV viral gene expression for sustained induction.
  • KSHV infection also induced the expression of lymphatic markers Prox-1 and podoplanin as early as 8 h p.i., and a paracrine effect was seen in the neighboring uninfected cells.
  • Similar observations were also made in the pure blood endothelial cell (BEC)-TIME cells, thus suggesting that commitment to the LEC phenotype is induced early during KSHV infection of blood endothelial cells.
  • Collectively, these studies show that the in vitro microenvironments of KSHV-infected endothelial cells are enriched, with VEGF-A and -C molecules playing key roles in KSHV biology, such as increased infection and gene expression, as well as in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, thus recapitulating the microenvironment of early KS lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18057235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099925
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258737
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51. Honda M, Morikawa T, Yamaguchi Y, Tani M, Yamaguchi K, Iijima K, Akishita M, Fukayama M, Ouchi Y: [A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2009;46(6):551-6
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  • [Title] [A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly].
  • We report a 90-year-old man who was given a diagnosis of pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) based on the detailed immunochemical and DNA analyses of the pleural effusion.
  • He was bed-ridden and on enteral nutrition due to severe Alzheimer's disease, and also had diabetes mellitus.
  • Considering his general physical status, further investigations were not performed.
  • Most of the atypical cells were CD30 positive, with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated protein.
  • A PCR analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene detected monoclonal rearrangement, thus indicating the atypical cells to be involved in the B-cell lineage.
  • These findings led to a final diagnosis of PEL.
  • PEL is a rare type of lymphoma confined to the body cavities without any prominent tumor mass, and its pathogenesis is related to HHV-8 infection.
  • PEL develops mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20139653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Dharmshale SN, Patil SA, Gohil A, Chowdhary A, Oberoi C: Disseminated crytococcosis with extensive cutaneous involvement in AIDS. Indian J Med Microbiol; 2006 Jul;24(3):228-30
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  • [Title] Disseminated crytococcosis with extensive cutaneous involvement in AIDS.
  • Cutaneous infections is observed in 15% of patients with disseminated cryptococcosis with AIDS.
  • We present here a case of a 34 years old female with AIDS.
  • She presented with multiple skin coloured umbilicated over face, neck, trunk and limbs, which mimicked molluscum contagiosum and kaposi sarcoma.
  • The HIV viral load was 2,48,084 copies/mL.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Cryptococcosis / microbiology. Cryptococcus neoformans / isolation & purification. Dermatomycoses / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16912448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0255-0857
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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53. Dezube BJ, Sullivan R, Koon HB: Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science. J Cell Physiol; 2006 Dec;209(3):659-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science.
  • Arthur Pardee emphasized the critical importance of bidirectional translational research-not only advancing drug development from bench to bedside, but also bringing back precious clinical material to the laboratory to assess the biologic effects of therapeutic agents on their targets.
  • This mini-review focuses on the signal transduction pathways of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and on how the knowledge of such pathways has led to the rational development of molecularly targeted pathogenesis-driven therapies.
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related-KS results from co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8), which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of KS.
  • KS is driven by KSHV/HHV8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), and viral chemokine homologues.
  • In addition, cellular growth/angiogenic pathways, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), angiopoietin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are "pirated" by KSHV/HHV8.
  • As a very tangible example of how translational research has led to a marked improvement in patient outcome, the signal transduction inhibitor imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-kit and PDGF) was administered to patients with KS whose tumors were serially biopsied.
  • Recent and future clinical trials of molecularly targeted therapy for the treatment of KS are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how KS is managed.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Protein Biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / metabolism. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / immunology. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Viral Proteins / genetics. Viral Proteins / immunology


54. Pastor MA, Vasco B, Mosquera JM, Debén G, Bautista P, Requena L: [Two HHV8-related illnesses in a HIV-negative patient: Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. Response to treatment with Rituximab and CHOP]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Jul-Aug;97(6):385-90
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  • [Title] [Two HHV8-related illnesses in a HIV-negative patient: Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. Response to treatment with Rituximab and CHOP].
  • [Transliterated title] Dos enfermedades relacionadas con el VHH-8 en un paciente VIH-negativo: sarcoma de Kaposi y enfermedad de Castleman multicéntrica. Respuesta a tratamiento con rituximab y CHOP.
  • Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) was discovered in 1994 in the biopsy of a Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.
  • Since then it has been identified in all variants of Kaposi's sarcoma and in another two rare disorders: multicentric Castleman's disease and primary body-cavity based lymphomas.
  • The case discusses a 68 year old, HIV-negative male patient, presenting Kaposi's sarcoma for one year and being monitored by dermatology, who presented for weakness, anorexia and fever.
  • A biopsy on one of the swellings led to findings characteristic of multicentric plasma cell variant Castleman's disease.
  • Blood tests for HHV8 and HIV were carried out, resulting positive and negative respectively (IgG anti-HHV8 positive, title 1/640, indirect immunofluorescence).
  • PCR amplification showed HHV8 in peripheral blood.
  • Patient received 8 cycles of CHOP and rituximab, leading to complete disappearance of the adenitis and general symptoms, with no worsening of his Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • This paper discusses the case of a HIV-, HHV8+ patient, diagnosed with classic Kaposi's sarcoma, who developed multicentric plasma cell variant Castleman's disease.
  • The coincidence of two or more HHV8-related illnesses in a HIV-negative patient has rarely been described in medical literature.
  • Treatment with rituximab combined with CHOP chemotherapy was effective in this case, and no worsening of the patient's KS was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. HIV Seronegativity. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


56. Cantaluppi V, Deregibus MC, Biancone L, Deambrosis I, Bussolati B, Albini A, Camussi G: The expression of CD154 by Kaposi's sarcoma cells mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1-TAT protein. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2006 Jan-Mar;19(1):81-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The expression of CD154 by Kaposi's sarcoma cells mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1-TAT protein.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy associated to conditions of immune system impairment such as HIV-1 infection and post-transplantation therapy.
  • Here we report that HIV-1-Tat protein, at concentrations well below those detected in AIDS patients, up-regulates the expression of both CD40 and CD154 on KS cells.
  • This occurred also in the presence of vincristine, that at doses shown to induce apoptosis decreased the expression of both CD40 and CD154 on KS cells.
  • The treatment with a soluble CD40-muIg fusion protein (CD40 fp) that prevents the binding of CD154 with cell surface CD40, as well as the transfection with a vector for soluble CD40 (KS sCD40), decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of Tat.
  • Moreover, Tat-induced motility of KS cells was inhibited by soluble CD40 fp.
  • Tat as well as soluble CD154 (sCD154) prevented vincristine-induced reduction of TRAF-3 in KS cells transfected with a vector for neomycin resistance (KS psv-neo), but not in KS sCD40.
  • Immunoprecipitation studies showed that Tat induced CD40 / TRAF-3 association and that this binding was abrogated upon the incubation with the soluble CD40 fp.
  • These findings indicate that the CD40-CD154 pathway mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1- Tat, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits of blocking CD40 activation in HIV-1-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. CD40 Ligand / biosynthesis. Cell Movement / drug effects. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD40 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD40 / genetics. Blotting, Western. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. HIV-1 / metabolism. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Indicators and Reagents. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Transfection. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 16569346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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57. Chu KM, Mahlangeni G, Swannet S, Ford NP, Boulle A, Van Cutsem G: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010;13:23
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is an important, life-threatening opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.
  • In western countries, the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and new chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in decreased incidence and improved prognosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In this study, we describe disease characteristics and risk factors for mortality in a public sector HIV programme in South Africa.
  • METHODS: We analysed data from an observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, enrolled between May 2001 and January 2007 in three primary care clinics.
  • Paper records from primary care and tertiary hospital oncology clinics were reviewed to determine the site of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome stage, and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of 6292 patients, 215 (3.4%) had AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The mortality and lost-to-follow-up rates were, respectively, 25 (95% CI 19-32) and eight (95% CI 5-13) per 100 person years for patients who received cART, and 70 (95% CI 42-117) and 119 (80-176) per 100 person years for patients who did not receive cART.
  • Advanced T stage (adjusted HR, AHR = 5.3, p < 0.001), advanced S stage (AHR = 5.1, p = 0.008), and absence of chemotherapy (AHR = 2.4, p = 0.012) were associated with mortality.
  • Patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma presented with advanced disease and high rates of mortality and loss to follow up.
  • Risk factors for mortality included advanced Kaposi's sarcoma disease and lack of chemotherapy use.
  • Contributing factors to the high mortality for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma likely included late diagnosis of HIV disease, late accessibility to cART, and sub-optimal treatment of advanced Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the importance of early access to both cART and chemotherapy for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Early diagnosis and improved treatment protocols in resource-poor settings are essential.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


58. Haramati LB, Jenny-Avital ER, Alterman DD: Thoracic manifestations of immune restoration syndromes in AIDS. J Thorac Imaging; 2007 Aug;22(3):213-20
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  • [Title] Thoracic manifestations of immune restoration syndromes in AIDS.
  • Immune restoration syndromes (IRS) in AIDS constitute a group of illness characterized by a pathologic inflammatory response in patients with late-stage AIDS who start highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Although there is no standardized definition or therapy, IRS have partial immune restoration associated with an increase in their CD-4 cell count and a decrease in their viral load.
  • Patients with IRS show a paradoxical reaction that is, clinical worsening rather than improvement on therapy, associated with a recognized or occult infection.
  • Symptoms include new or worsening fever, lymphadenopathy, pulmonary, visceral, central nervous system, or cutaneous disease which may be severe and occasionally life threatening and must be differentiated from disease progression.
  • In this paper, we review the clinical and associated thoracic imaging findings of IRS associated with specific infections including mycobacterial and fungal infections, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and also Kaposi sarcoma and sarcoidosis.
  • Recognition of the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting presents an opportunity to make a timely diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / radiography. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Radiography, Thoracic
  • [MeSH-minor] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Prognosis. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Viral Load


59. Youngster I, Vaisben E, Cohen H, Nassar F: An unusual cause of pleural effusion. Age Ageing; 2006 Jan;35(1):94-6
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique clinicopathological entity associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection, occurring almost exclusively in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.
  • We report a rare case of HHV-8-negative PEL in an HIV-negative elderly patient who presented with pleural effusion.
  • As opposed to the general poor outcome of this disease, our patient achieved complete remission and is still without signs of disease 11 months after the last treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. HIV. Humans. Male. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16364944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Age and ageing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Age Ageing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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60. Palmieri C, Treibel T, Large O, Bower M: AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy. QJM; 2006 Dec;99(12):811-26
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  • [Title] AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic effect on the natural history of HIV disease, reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma, and improving overall survival.
  • Since HAART became available in 1996, the incidence of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has fallen, and although there has been no change in the clinical features at presentation, the overall survival of patients with AIDS-related NHL has improved.
  • Prognosis is now determined chiefly by lymphoma-associated factors similar to those in the general population (the International Prognostic Index), although serum CD4 count at lymphoma diagnosis is an additional independent prognostic factor.
  • The management of patients with AIDS-related NHL with either infusional chemotherapy or CHOP-like regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) achieves response and survival rates approaching those observed in the general population.
  • However, careful attention should be paid to central nervous system chemoprophylaxis, opportunistic infection prophylaxis and potential drug interactions between cytotoxic and antiretroviral therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Neutropenia / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


61. Yanagisawa Y, Sato Y, Asahi-Ozaki Y, Ito E, Honma R, Imai J, Kanno T, Kano M, Akiyama H, Sata T, Shinkai-Ouchi F, Yamakawa Y, Watanabe S, Katano H: Effusion and solid lymphomas have distinctive gene and protein expression profiles in an animal model of primary effusion lymphoma. J Pathol; 2006 Aug;209(4):464-73
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  • However, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) does not form solid tumours and adhesion molecule expression is suppressed in the cells.
  • Inoculation of a KSHV-associated PEL cell line into the peritoneal cavity of severe combined immunodeficiency mice resulted in the formation of effusion and solid lymphomas in the peritoneal cavity.
  • Proteomics using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and DNA microarray analyses identified 14 proteins and 105 genes, respectively, whose expression differed significantly between effusion and solid lymphomas.
  • These data demonstrate that effusion and solid lymphomas possess distinctive gene and protein expression profiles in our mouse model, and suggest that differences in gene and protein expression between effusion and solid lymphomas may be associated with the formation of effusion lymphoma or invasive features of solid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Viral / analysis. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / genetics. Mice. Mice, SCID. Models, Animal. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / metabolism. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / virology. Proteomics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Viral Proteins / analysis


62. Arav-Boger R: Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus: great challenges with promising accomplishments. Virus Genes; 2009 Apr;38(2):195-203
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  • [Title] Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus: great challenges with promising accomplishments.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with three distinct malignancies: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease.
  • The KSHV genome has been fully sequenced and contains numerous genes with homology to human regulatory genes that are potentially important in KS development.
  • This review describes multiple classes of pharmacological compounds that have been studied in patients with KS, including antivirals, chemotherapeutics, and novel agents related to KSHV pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesvirus 8, Human / drug effects. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19139983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-8569
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus genes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Genes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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63. Parkin DM: The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jun 15;118(12):3030-44
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  • [Title] The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002.
  • Several infectious agents are considered to be causes of cancer in humans.
  • The fraction of the different types of cancer, and of all cancers worldwide and in different regions, has been estimated using several methods; primarily by reviewing the evidence for the strength of the association (relative risk) and the prevalence of infection in different world areas.
  • The estimated total of infection-attributable cancer in the year 2002 is 1.9 million cases, or 17.8% of the global cancer burden.
  • The principal agents are the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (5.5% of all cancer), the human papilloma viruses (5.2%), the hepatitis B and C viruses (4.9%), Epstein-Barr virus (1%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) together with the human herpes virus 8 (0.9%).
  • Relatively less important causes of cancer are the schistosomes (0.1%), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (0.03%) and the liver flukes (0.02%).
  • The attributable fraction at the specific sites varies from 100% of cervix cancers attributable to the papilloma viruses to a tiny proportion (0.4%) of liver cancers (worldwide) caused by liver flukes.
  • [MeSH-major] Developed Countries / statistics & numerical data. Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data. Global Health. Infection / complications. Infection / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Africa / epidemiology. Americas / epidemiology. Animals. Asia / epidemiology. Cholangiocarcinoma / epidemiology. Cholangiocarcinoma / parasitology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter pylori. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Lymphoma / virology. Opisthorchiasis / complications. Opisthorchis. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16404738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Petersen PE: Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization. Oral Oncol; 2009 Apr-May;45(4-5):454-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization.
  • Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality today.
  • It is estimated that around 43% of cancer deaths are due to tobacco use, unhealthy diets, alcohol consumption, inactive lifestyles and infection.
  • Oro-pharyngeal cancer is significant component of the global burden of cancer.
  • Tobacco and alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors for oral cancer.
  • The evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer was confirmed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • Studies have shown that heavy intake of alcoholic beverages is associated with nutrient deficiency, which appears to contribute independently to oral carcinogenesis.
  • Oral cancer is preventable through risk factors intervention.
  • Prevention of HIV infection will also reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma.
  • The WHO Global Oral Health Programme is committed to work for country capacity building in oral cancer prevention, inter-country exchange of information and experiences from integrated approaches in prevention and health promotion, and the development of global surveillance systems for oral cancer and risk factors.
  • The WHO Global Oral Health Programme has established a global surveillance system of oral cavity cancer in order to assess risk factors and to help the planning of effective national intervention programmes.
  • Epidemiological data on oral cancer (ICD-10: C00-C08) incidence and mortality are stored in the Global Oral Health Data Bank.
  • In 2007, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution on oral health for the first time in 25 years, which also considers oral cancer prevention.
  • The resolution WHA60 A16 URGES Member states--To take steps to ensure that prevention of oral cancer is an integral part of national cancer-control programmes, and to involve oral-health professionals or primary health care personnel with relevant training in oral health in detection, early diagnosis and treatment;--The WHO Global Oral Health Programme will use this statement as the lead for its work for oral cancer control www.who.int/oral_health.

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  • (PMID = 18804412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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65. Sullivan SG, Hirsch HH, Franceschi S, Steffen I, Amari EB, Mueller NJ, Magkouras I, Biggar RJ, Rickenbach M, Clifford GM, Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus antibody response and viremia following highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort study. AIDS; 2010 Sep 10;24(14):2245-52
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus antibody response and viremia following highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of HAART on Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) antibody response and viremia among HIV-positive MSM.
  • DESIGN: A follow-up study of 272 HIV-positive MSM (including 22 with Kaposi sarcoma) who first initiated HAART between January 1996 and July 2004 in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
  • Seropositivity was associated with the presence of Kaposi sarcoma, older age, lower CD8 cell count and higher CD4/CD8 ratio.
  • Prevalence of KSHV viremia at HAART initiation was 6.4%, being significantly higher among patients with Kaposi sarcoma (35.0%), and those with HIV viral loads 100 000 copies/ml (11.7%) or higher.
  • Having Kaposi sarcoma and/or CD4 cell counts less than 50 cells/microl at HAART initiation was associated both with higher probability for antibody titers to increase (including seroconversion) and larger increases in GMTs.
  • CONCLUSION: HAART increases KSHV-specific humoral immune response and clearance of viremia among HIV-infected MSM, consistent with the dramatic protection offered by HAART against Kaposi sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. HIV Infections / immunology. HIV-1 / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibody Formation. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cohort Studies. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Viral Load. Viremia / immunology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS. 2010 Sep 10;24(14):2279-81 [20616696.001]
  • (PMID = 20543658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux CA; Gorgievski M; Günthard HF; Hirsch HH; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert C; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Martinez de Tejada B; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schöni-Affolter F; Schüpbach J; Speck R; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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66. van Leeuwen MT, Webster AC, McCredie MR, Stewart JH, McDonald SP, Amin J, Kaldor JM, Chapman JR, Vajdic CM, Grulich AE: Effect of reduced immunosuppression after kidney transplant failure on risk of cancer: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ; 2010;340:c570
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  • [Title] Effect of reduced immunosuppression after kidney transplant failure on risk of cancer: population based retrospective cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients during periods of transplant function (and immunosuppression) and after transplant failure (when immunosuppression is ceased or reduced).
  • Incident cancers were ascertained using linkage with national cancer registry records.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios for periods of transplant function and for dialysis after transplant failure.
  • RESULTS: All cases of Kaposi's sarcoma occurred during transplant function.
  • Standardised incidence ratios were significantly elevated during transplant function, but not during dialysis after transplant failure, for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lip cancer, and melanoma.
  • For each of these cancers, incidence was significantly lower during dialysis after transplant failure in multivariate analysis (incidence rate ratios 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 0.04 (0.01 to 0.31) for lip cancer, and 0.16 (0.04 to 0.64) for melanoma).
  • In contrast, standardised incidence ratios during dialysis after transplant failure remained significantly elevated for leukaemia and lung cancer, and cancers related to end stage kidney disease (kidney, urinary tract, and thyroid cancers), with thyroid cancer incidence significantly higher during dialysis after transplant failure (incidence rate ratio 6.77 (2.64 to 17.39)).
  • There was no significant difference in incidence by transplant function for other cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The effect of immunosuppression on cancer risk is rapidly reversible for some, but not all, cancer types.
  • Risk of other cancers, especially those related to end stage kidney disease, remained significantly increased after reduction of immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Australia / epidemiology. Female. Graft Rejection / complications. Graft Rejection / mortality. Humans. Incidence. Infection / mortality. Male. Renal Dialysis / mortality. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


67. Vanni T, Sprinz E, Machado MW, Santana Rde C, Fonseca BA, Schwartsmann G: Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev; 2006 Oct;32(6):445-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent type of cancer in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • In contrast, the incidence of KS has been steadily climbing in parallel with the AIDS epidemic in Africa over the past 10-15 years, being the most common cancer in adult men in countries like Uganda and Zimbabwe.
  • AIDS-KS can be diagnosed at any stage of HIV infection, although it more commonly occurs in the setting of severe immune suppression, especially with an elevated viral load.
  • Up to now, AIDS-KS is still an incurable disease.
  • Its clinical course is variable, ranging from very indolent cases, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Various local therapies are available to control small and asymptomatic lesions, while cytotoxic, immunological and biological therapies can be considered for more aggressive disease.
  • Optimal anti-retroviral therapy is a key component of AIDS-KS management.
  • There are still many questions to be answered in the management of patients with AIDS-KS, such as (1) What are the therapeutic agents that should be used in this disease, and in which sequence?
  • The aim of this review is to discuss the systemic management of AIDS-KS, with special focus on the above mentioned questions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Liposomes. Male. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage


68. Lim ST, Levine AM: Recent advances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma. CA Cancer J Clin; 2005 Jul-Aug;55(4):229-41; 260-1, 264
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  • [Title] Recent advances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma when compared with the general population.
  • With the remarkable decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections since the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL) is now the second most common cancer associated with human immunodeficiency virus after Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Apart from the contribution of HAART, this improvement in prognosis can also be attributed to new initiatives in treatment of these patients, such as the use of effective infusional regimens, the feasibility of high-dose therapy with peripheral stem cell rescue for relapsed or refractory disease, and better supportive care.
  • Nonetheless, several controversial issues persist, including the optimal timing of HAART with combination chemotherapy, the role of rituximab when incorporated into treatment regimens, and the optimal therapy for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Burkitt lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Incidence. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Prevalence. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16020424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CA Cancer J Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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69. Flanigan TP, Campbell T, Harwell J, Kumarasamy N: The extraordinary hope of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa (even for patients with tuberculosis or kaposi sarcoma!). J Infect Dis; 2005 Feb 1;191(3):321-3
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  • [Title] The extraordinary hope of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa (even for patients with tuberculosis or kaposi sarcoma!).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. HIV-1 / drug effects. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. South Africa. Treatment Outcome


70. Bhandari M, Kempin S, Aziz MS: AIDS-related osseous Kaposi sarcoma. AIDS Read; 2007 Apr;17(4):202-3, 205
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  • [Title] AIDS-related osseous Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) can present with a myriad of clinical features ranging from widespread organ involvement to minimal disease.
  • Osseous manifestations of KS are rare.
  • We report a case of AIDS-related KS in which asymptomatic lytic bone lesions were the primary manifestations of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS Read. 2007 Apr;17(4):204 [17479505.001]
  • (PMID = 17479504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Morris VA, Punjabi AS, Lagunoff M: Activation of Akt through gp130 receptor signaling is required for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-induced lymphatic reprogramming of endothelial cells. J Virol; 2008 Sep;82(17):8771-9
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  • [Title] Activation of Akt through gp130 receptor signaling is required for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-induced lymphatic reprogramming of endothelial cells.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor of AIDS patients worldwide.
  • KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious cause of this highly vascularized skin tumor.
  • The main cell type found within a KS lesion, the spindle cell, is latently infected with KSHV and has markers of both blood and lymphatic endothelial cells.
  • Interestingly, KSHV infection of blood endothelial cells induces lymphatic endothelial cell differentiation.
  • KSHV infection activates many cell signaling pathways in endothelial cells and persistently activates STAT3 through the gp130 receptor, the common receptor of the interleukin 6 family of cytokines.
  • We find that KSHV infection also activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cell signaling pathway in latently infected endothelial cells and that gp130 receptor signaling is necessary for Akt activation.
  • The induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific transcription factor Prox1 is also involved in KSHV-induced lymphatic reprogramming.

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  • (PMID = 18579585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA09229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097934; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA097934-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein; 133483-10-0 / Cytokine Receptor gp130; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2519632
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72. Mosthaf FA, Hanhoff NJ, Goetzenich A, Wolf E, Knechten H: [High incidence of non-AIDS-defined cancers among HIV-infected patients in Germany. A 3-year nationwide review]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2006 Aug 25;131(34-35):1849-52
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  • [Title] [High incidence of non-AIDS-defined cancers among HIV-infected patients in Germany. A 3-year nationwide review].
  • [Transliterated title] Hohe Inzidenz nicht AIDS-definierender Neoplasien bei HIV-infizierten Patienten in Deutschland. Ein 3-jähriger bundesweiter Uberblick.
  • OBJECTIVE: It was the main aim of this study to obtain data on the epidemiology of AIDS- and not AIDS-defined malignancies in HIV-positive persons, the results to provide an epidemiological overview and to be the basis for further research initiatives.
  • Additionally it sought to gain an impression of the realities of treatment of patients with HIV-associated malignant tumors in Germany.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a period of 3 years (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2002) data were retrospectively collected on the incidence of malignant tumors in HIV-positive patients.
  • A questionnaire was sent to all members of the German Working Party of Physicians in Private Practice Treating HIV-Infected Patients, all members of the Association of Haematologists and Oncologists in Private Practice, and all out-patient HIV clinics in Germany.
  • The questionnaires were sent to a total of 949 practices/clinics.
  • The data were collected on all AIDS- and not-AIDS-defined haematological malignancies and all AIDS- and not-AIDS-defined solid malignant tumors in HIV-positive patients, as well as on time of diagnosis of the malignancy, tumor stage, tumor treatment and response to treatment.
  • RESULTS: 380 data sets on 376 patients of 50 practices/clinics were included in the analysis (four patients had two malignant tumors).
  • 180 malignant neoplasms (47%) were AIDS-defined: 89 Kaposi's sarcomas, 82 aggressive B-cell lymphomas and 9 invasive cervical carcinomas.
  • The aggressive B-cell lymphomas consisted of 19 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma, 8 of Castleman's disease and 12 of primary cerebral malignant lymphoma.
  • Of the 200 (52.6%) not-AIDS-defined malignant tumors 133 were 133 solid tumors, 40 of them anal carcinoma (20% of all not-AIDS-defined malignancies) and 67 haematological malignancies, 22 of these Hodgkin's lymphoma (11.0% of all not-AIDS-defined malignancies).
  • The incidence of anal carcinoma is estimated to be 34 (95% CI 24-470) per 100 000 patient-years, that of Hodgkin's lymphoma 19 (95% CI 12-28) per 100 000 patient-years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that over a period of 3 years there was a very high incidence of not-AIDS-defined malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / virology


73. Dhir AA, Sawant S, Dikshit RP, Parikh P, Srivastava S, Badwe R, Rajadhyaksha S, Dinshaw KA: Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Mar;19(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the cancer pattern among HIV positive cancer cases.
  • METHOD: The study group included patients registered in the HIV Cancer clinic at the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai, which is the largest tertiary referral cancer center in India.
  • We used the gender and age-specific proportions of each cancer site of the year 2002 that was recorded in the Hospital Cancer Registry to estimate an expected number of various cancer sites among HIV positive cancer patients during the period 2001-2005.
  • The observed number of site-specific cancer cases was divided by the expected number to obtain proportional incidence ratio (PIR).
  • RESULTS: No case of Kaposi's sarcoma was observed.
  • Increased proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was observed (PIR in males = 17.1, 95%CI 13.33-21.84, females = 10.3, 95%CI 6.10-17.41).
  • In males, PIR was increased for anal cancer (PIR = 10.3, 95%CI 4.30-24.83), Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, colon cancer, and few head and neck cancer sites.
  • Among females, the PIRs for cervical cancer (PIR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.90-5.75), vaginal cancer (PIR = 7.7, 95%CI 2.48-23.85), and anal cancer (PIR = 6.5, 95%CI 0.91-45.88) were increased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Kaposi's sarcoma and increased PIRs for certain non-AIDS defining cancers among HIV infected cancer cases indicates a different spectrum of HIV associated malignancies in this region.
  • The raised PIR for cervical cancer emphasizes the urgent need for screening programs for cervical cancer among HIV infected individuals in India.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries


74. Yin MT, Dobkin JF, Grbic JT: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients with periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000; 2007;44:55-81
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  • [Title] Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients with periodontal disease.

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  • (PMID = 17474926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0906-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] Periodontology 2000
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Periodontol. 2000
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI059884-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI059884; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI059884-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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75. Wang X, He B, Zhang Z, Liu T, Wang H, Li X, Zhang Q, Lan K, Lu X, Wen H: Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors. Virol J; 2010;7:62
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors.
  • BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent associated with development of classical, AIDS-related, iatrogenic, and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Several studies provide strong evidence that HHV-8 can be transmitted by blood transfusion.
  • We evaluated the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of HHV-8 infection in blood donors in one region.
  • We surveyed HHV-8 infection among 4461 blood donors in Xinjiang, China, a unique endemic area for HHV-8 and KS.
  • RESULTS: The HHV-8 seroprevalence was higher in local minority groups which comprise most KS cases in China, than in Han people.
  • HHV-8 prevalence was 18.6% in the Han ethnic group, 25.9% in Uygur subjects, 29.2% in Kazak subjects, 36.8% in Mongolian subjects, and 21.9% in other ethnic groups.
  • In HHV-8-seropositive subjects, a larger fraction of local minorities (23.9%) had high HHV-8 titers than that of Han subjects (9.2%).
  • HHV-8 infection was associated with ethnicity and residence.
  • CONCLUSION: HHV-8 seroprevalence was significantly high among blood donors in Xinjiang, where the prevalence of KS correlates with HHV-8 prevalence and titers in Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups.
  • Blood exposure represented by the frequency of blood donation indicated a possible blood-borne transmission route of HHV-8 in Xinjiang.
  • Detecting anti-HHV-8 antibodies before donation in this region is therefore important.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Blood Donors. Blood-Borne Pathogens / isolation & purification. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 20236530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852390
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76. Rosen T: Limited extent AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma responsive to imiquimod 5% cream. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;45(7):854-6
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  • [Title] Limited extent AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma responsive to imiquimod 5% cream.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16863526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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77. Arora A, Chiao E, Tyring SK: AIDS malignancies. Cancer Treat Res; 2007;133:21-67
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  • [Title] AIDS malignancies.
  • Among individuals with HIV-infection, coinfection with oncogenic viruses including EBV, HHV-8, and HPV cause significant cancer-related morbidity and mortality.
  • It is clear that these viruses interact with HIV in unique ways that predispose HIV-infected individuals to malignant diseases.
  • In general, treatment directed specifically against these viruses does not appear to change the natural history of the malignant disease, and once the malignancy develops, if their health permits, HIV-infected patients should be treated using similar treatment protocols to HIV-negative patients.
  • However, for the less frequent HIV-related malignancies, such as PEL, or MCD, optimal treatments are still emerging.
  • For certain AIDS-defining malignancies, it is clear that the widespread access to HAART has significantly decreased the incidence, and improved outcomes.
  • However, for other cancers, such as the HPV-related tumors, the role of HAART is much less clear.
  • Further research into prevention and treatment of these oncogenic virally mediated AIDS-related malignancies is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17672037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 368
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78. Sasco AJ, Jaquet A, Boidin E, Ekouevi DK, Thouillot F, Lemabec T, Forstin MA, Renaudier P, N'dom P, Malvy D, Dabis F: The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One; 2010;5(1):e8621
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  • [Title] The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries.
  • The question is to determine what occurs now and will happen in the future in the low income countries and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where more than two-thirds of all HIV-positive people live in the world.
  • The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms.
  • A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers.
  • In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR) were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 12.5-38.6) to 47.1 (31.9-69.8) for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5) to 12.6 (2.2-54.4) for non Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2) to 1.6 (1.1-2.3), whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4) to 17.0 (2.2-134.1).
  • For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9) to 13.0 (4.5-39.4).
  • A record-linkage study conducted in Uganda showed an association between Hodgkin lymphoma and HIV infection with a standardized incidence ratio of 5.7 (1.2-17) although OR in case-referent studies ranged from 1.4 (0.7-2.8) to 1.6 (1.0-2.7).
  • Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa show that HIV infection is not only strongly associated with AIDS-classifying cancers but also provided some evidence of association for other neoplasia.
  • African countries need now to implement well designed population-based studies in order to better describe the spectrum of AIDS-associated malignancies and the most effective strategies for their prevention, screening and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20066157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799672
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79. Lambert M, Gannagé M, Karras A, Abel M, Legendre C, Kerob D, Agbalika F, Girard PM, Lebbe C, Caillat-Zucman S: Differences in the frequency and function of HHV8-specific CD8 T cells between asymptomatic HHV8 infection and Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2006 Dec 1;108(12):3871-80
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  • [Title] Differences in the frequency and function of HHV8-specific CD8 T cells between asymptomatic HHV8 infection and Kaposi sarcoma.
  • It is unclear how the immune response controls human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8; also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) replication and thereby prevents Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • We compared CD8 T-cell responses to HHV8 latent (K12) and lytic (glycoprotein B, ORF6, ORF61, and ORF65) antigens in patients who spontaneously controlled the infection and in patients with posttransplantation, AIDS-related, or classical KS.
  • We found that anti-HHV8 responses were frequent, diverse, and strongly differentiated toward an effector phenotype in patients who controlled the infection.
  • Conversely, HHV8-specific CD8 cells were very rare in patients who progressed to KS, and were not recruited to the tumoral tissue, as visualized by in situ tetramer staining of KS biopsies.
  • Last, HHV8-specific CD8 T cells were observed in a seronegative recipient of an HHV8infected graft who remained persistently aviremic and antibody negative, suggesting that specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may provide protection from persistent HHV8 infection.
  • These results support the crucial role of cellular immune responses in controlling HHV8 replication, in preventing malignancies in latently infected subjects, and in conferring genuine resistance to persistent infection.
  • They may also have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic HHV8 vaccines, and for adoptive immunotherapy of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Virus Replication / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Female. Herpesvirus Vaccines / immunology. Herpesvirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / immunology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Transplants / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16926293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Herpesvirus Vaccines
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80. Tumwine LK, Orem J, Kerchan P, Byarugaba W, Pileri SA: EBV, HHV8 and HIV in B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma in Kampala, Uganda. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:12
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  • [Title] EBV, HHV8 and HIV in B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma in Kampala, Uganda.
  • BACKGROUND: B cell non Hodgkin lymphomas account for the majority of lymphomas in Uganda.
  • There has been an increase in incidence of malignant lymphoma since the onset of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • However, the possible linkages of HHV8 and EBV to the condition of impaired immunity present in AIDS are still not yet very clearly understood.
  • To describe the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus, Human Herpes virus 8 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma biopsy specimens in Kampala, Uganda.2.
  • To describe the histopathology of non Hodgkin lymphoma by HIV serology test result in Kampala, Uganda METHOD: Tumour biopsies specimens from 119 patients with B cell non Hodgkin lymphoma were classified according to the WHO classification.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of HHV8 and in situ hybridization with Epstein Barr virus encoded RNA (EBER) for EBV.
  • Real time and nested PCR were used for the detection of HIV.The patients from whom the 1991-2000 NHL biopsies had been taken did not have HIV serology results therefore 145 patients biopsies where serology results were available were used to describe the association of HIV with non Hodgkin lymphoma type during 2008-2009.
  • None of the precursor B lymphoblastic lymphomas or the mantle cell lymphomas showed EBV integration in the lymphoma cells.None of the Burkitt lymphoma biopsies had HIV by PCR.
  • Of the 121 non Hodgkin B cell lymphoma patients with HIV test results, 19% had HIV.
  • However, only 1(0.04%) case of Burkitt lymphoma had HIV.
  • All the tumours were HHV8 negative.
  • All the tumours were HHV8 negative.
  • Generally, the relationship of NHL and HIV was weaker than what has been reported from the developed countries.
  • We discuss the role of these viruses in lymphomagenesis in light of current knowledge.

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  • (PMID = 20591151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907314
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81. Herbeck JT, Gottlieb GS, Winkler CA, Nelson GW, An P, Maust BS, Wong KG, Troyer JL, Goedert JJ, Kessing BD, Detels R, Wolinsky SM, Martinson J, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Jacobson LP, Margolick JB, Kaslow RA, O'Brien SJ, Mullins JI: Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS. J Infect Dis; 2010 Feb 15;201(4):618-26
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  • [Title] Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: A mean of 9-10 years of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection elapse before clinical AIDS develops in untreated persons, but this rate of disease progression varies substantially among individuals.
  • To investigate host genetic determinants of the rate of progression to clinical AIDS, we performed a multistage genomewide association study.
  • METHODS: The discovery stage comprised 156 individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, enriched with rapid and long-term nonprogressors to increase statistical power.
  • This was followed by replication tests of putatively associated genotypes in an independent population of 590 HIV-1-infected seroconverters.
  • RESULTS: Significant associations with delayed AIDS progression were observed in a haplotype located at 1q41, 36 kb upstream of PROX1 on chromosome 1 (relative hazard ratio, 0.69; Fisher's combined P = 6.23 X 10(-7)).
  • This association was replicated further in an analysis stratified by transmission mode, with the effect consistent in sexual or mucosal and parenteral transmission (relative hazard ratios, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; combined P = 1.63 X 10(-6)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identified and replicated a locus upstream of PROX1 that is associated with delayed progression to clinical AIDS.
  • PROX1 is a negative regulator of interferon-gamma expression in T cells and also mitigates the advancement of vascular neoplasms, such as Kaposi sarcoma, a common AIDS-defining malignancy.
  • This study adds to the cumulative polygenic host component that effectively regulates the progression to clinical AIDS among HIV-1-infected individuals, raising prospects for potential new avenues for therapy and improvements in AIDS prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Genome-Wide Association Study / methods. HIV Infections / genetics. HIV-1. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Genetic Loci. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Linkage Disequilibrium. Logistic Models. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Proportional Hazards Models. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 20064070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R56 DA004334; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01-DA04334; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI047734-06A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007140; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA004334; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-1258; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI27757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5M01 RR00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-169012; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-21; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI07140; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-119010; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI047734; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P01 AI057005; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI47734; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757-219021; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35042; United States / PHS HHS / / U64/CCU900523-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040-18; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI37613
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS174410; NLM/ PMC2928718
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82. Sani MU, Mohammed AZ, Adamu B, Yusuf SM, Samaila AA, Borodo MM: AIDS mortality in a tertiary health institution: A four-year review. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 Jun;98(6):862-6
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  • [Title] AIDS mortality in a tertiary health institution: A four-year review.
  • Africa contains 70% of adults and 80% of children living with AIDS in the world and has buried 75% of the 21.8 million worldwide who have died of AIDS since the epidemic began.
  • Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has 5.8% of her adult population having HIV infection at the end of 2003.
  • We reviewed the causes of death among AIDS patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria over four years.
  • Four-hundred-fifty-five (9.9%) of the 4,574 adult medical admissions were due to HIV/AIDS-related diagnosis.
  • HIV/AIDS admissions increased progressively from 45 cases in 2001 to 174 in 2004.
  • HIV/AIDS caused 176 deaths over the period giving an HIV-related mortality of 38.7%.
  • The most common causes of death were tuberculosis (33.4%), septicemia (23.8%), advanced HIV disease (9.1%), meningitis (7.4%), other pulmonary infections (5.1%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (4.5%).
  • The present dismal situation of patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality. Hospital Mortality. Hospitals, Teaching / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16775907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2569378
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83. Hengge UR, Mota R, Marini A: [Frequent and rare dermatological diseases in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):975-84, 986-7
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  • [Title] [Frequent and rare dermatological diseases in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Häufige und seltene dermatologische Erkrankungen bei HIV-Patienten.
  • HIV patients develop a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Some of these serve as indicator diseases for a weakening immune system.
  • While none of the dermatological complications is pathognomonic, conditions such as oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes zoster, thrush, and eosinophilic folliculitis should make physicians consider the possibility of underlying HIV disease.
  • Moreover, one has to consider HIV if these skin diseases take an atypical or severe course, or if they do not respond properly to appropriate medication.
  • Frequent and rare dermatoses occurring in HIV infection are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Skin Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / etiology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / diagnosis. Leukoplakia, Hairy / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Diseases, Infectious / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Infectious / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17058053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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84. Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura MJ, Sackoff J, Virgo P, Pfeiffer RM: Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jul 1;39(3):293-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS.
  • The survival of persons with AIDS (PWA) has recently improved because of better antiretroviral therapies.
  • Similarly, the prognosis of cancer has also improved.
  • To determine if survival in PWA with cancer has also improved, we compared cancer survival in adults with and without AIDS using data from New York City from 1980 through 2000.
  • Analyses were made for AIDS-related cancers (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) and for 8 non-AIDS-related cancers (lung, larynx, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, prostate, and testis).
  • Death hazard ratios compared survival in PWA with cancer with that in cancer patients without AIDS, adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar-time of cancer occurrence.
  • The 24-month survival rate of PWA with cancer (9015 AIDS cancers and 929 non-AIDS-related cancers of 8 types) improved significantly for most cancer types.
  • By 1996 through 2000, the 24-month survival rate in PWA was 58% for Kaposi sarcoma, 41% for peripheral NHL, 29% for central nervous system NHL, and 64% for cervical cancer.
  • For non-AIDS-related cancers, survival of PWA was lowest for lung cancer (10%) but was >50% for most other cancer types.
  • In 1996 through 2000, significant differences in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS still remained for Hodgkin lymphoma and lung, larynx, and prostate cancers.
  • We conclude that recent improvements in AIDS and cancer care have greatly narrowed the gap in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS.
  • Clinicians should be encouraged by the improving prognosis and be diligent about detecting and treating cancer in PWA.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. New York City / epidemiology. Prognosis. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Survival Rate