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1. Koon HB, Bubley GJ, Pantanowitz L, Masiello D, Smith B, Crosby K, Proper J, Weeden W, Miller TE, Chatis P, Egorin MJ, Tahan SR, Dezube BJ: Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 10;23(5):982-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and c-kit receptors has been proposed as important in mediating the growth of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We investigated the response of KS to the PDGF receptor (PDGFR)/c-kit inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, and investigated the effect of this therapy on critical signal transduction intermediates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten male patients with AIDS-related cutaneous KS, which progressed despite chemotherapy and/or highly active antiretroviral therapy, received imatinib mesylate administered orally, 300 mg twice daily.
  • CONCLUSION: Imatinib mesylate administered orally twice daily for AIDS-related KS results in clinical and histologic regression of cutaneous KS lesions within 4 weeks.
  • These promising results demonstrate that inhibition of the c-kit and/or PDGF receptors may represent an effective strategy for treating KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15572730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12CA077846-03
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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2. Polák P, Snopková S, Husa P, Povolná K, Bohatá S, Moulis M: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2010 Oct;16(5):172-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposiho sarkom.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual form of tumor which in the era of HIV/AIDS pandemic is increasingly observed outside the original endemic areas.
  • It was shown that the development of KS is in directly related to infection with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The pathophysiology of KS is complex and is influenced by HIV co-infection and by global cytokine interactions.
  • We provode a review of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of and therapeutic options for KS and one clinical case.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21191875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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3. Yanagisawa Y, Sato Y, Asahi-Ozaki Y, Ito E, Honma R, Imai J, Kanno T, Kano M, Akiyama H, Sata T, Shinkai-Ouchi F, Yamakawa Y, Watanabe S, Katano H: Effusion and solid lymphomas have distinctive gene and protein expression profiles in an animal model of primary effusion lymphoma. J Pathol; 2006 Aug;209(4):464-73
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  • However, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) does not form solid tumours and adhesion molecule expression is suppressed in the cells.
  • Inoculation of a KSHV-associated PEL cell line into the peritoneal cavity of severe combined immunodeficiency mice resulted in the formation of effusion and solid lymphomas in the peritoneal cavity.
  • Five genes were identified as having similar expression profiles to that of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, an important adhesion molecule in leukocytes.
  • These data demonstrate that effusion and solid lymphomas possess distinctive gene and protein expression profiles in our mouse model, and suggest that differences in gene and protein expression between effusion and solid lymphomas may be associated with the formation of effusion lymphoma or invasive features of solid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Viral / analysis. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / genetics. Mice. Mice, SCID. Models, Animal. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / metabolism. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / virology. Proteomics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Viral Proteins / analysis


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4. Sun HY, Chen MY, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Chang SY, Hsiao CF, Hung CC, Chang SC: Changes in the clinical spectrum of opportunistic illnesses in persons with HIV infection in Taiwan in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Jpn J Infect Dis; 2006 Oct;59(5):311-6
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  • [Title] Changes in the clinical spectrum of opportunistic illnesses in persons with HIV infection in Taiwan in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • We compared changes in the relative frequencies of opportunistic illnesses (OIs) among 1,044 Taiwanese persons with HIV infection who were enrolled in three study periods from June 1994 to June 2004: before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); early HAART; and late HAART.
  • Nearly two-thirds of those newly diagnosed with HIV infection had CD4 counts below 200/mm(3).
  • Only 81 cases of OIs were diagnosed, the most common of which were cytomegalovirus disease, tuberculosis, candidiasis, and Mycobacterium avium complex infection.
  • Except for the decreasing frequency of Kaposi's sarcoma, there was no significant change in the relative frequency of each individual OI within 3 months and within 3-12 months after enrollment across the three study periods.
  • We concluded that despite the significant decrease in the number of AIDS-related OIs, the relative frequencies of common OIs did not change significantly after the introduction of HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. HIV. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / microbiology


5. Salako AA, Adisa AO, Ojo OS, Arigbabu AO: Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2007 Dec;14(4):352-4
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  • [Title] Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma - a case report.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was previously a relatively rare disease.
  • With the advent of HIV/AIDS pandemic however, AIDS-related KS has been on the increase and so has interest in the disease.
  • Ninety per cent of patients with KS present with skin lesions.
  • While the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly common site of metastatic KS, primary gastrointestinal KS is uncommon.
  • The presentation of gastrointestinal KS with severe gastrointestinal bleeding is rarer still.
  • In this report, we present a 56yr old HIV-negative patient who presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding without any skin lesions.
  • Multiple haemorrhagic polypoidal lesions were found on the walls of the jejunum and ileum as well as the liver at exploratory laparotomy and these were found to be KS on histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


6. Chang PC, Fitzgerald LD, Van Geelen A, Izumiya Y, Ellison TJ, Wang DH, Ann DK, Luciw PA, Kung HJ: Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5681-9
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  • [Title] Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, a major AIDS-associated malignancy, and to hematologic malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Understanding the molecular details associated with this transition from latency to lytic replication is key to controlling virus spread and can affect the development of intervention strategies.
  • Here, we report that Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 (KAP-1)/transcriptional intermediary factor 1beta, a cellular transcriptional repressor that controls chromosomal remodeling, participates in the process of switching viral latency to lytic replication.
  • In cells harboring latent KSHV, KAP-1 was associated with the majority of viral lytic-gene promoters.

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  • (PMID = 19584288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-03; None / None / / R01 CA111185-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114575-S1; None / None / / P30 CA093373-010001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-02; None / None / / R01 CA111185-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111185; None / None / / P01 DE019085-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-01A2; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114575; None / None / / R01 CA111185-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-02; None / None / / R01 CA111185-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085-020002; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019085-020002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111185-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373-010001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins; 0 / TRIM28 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS119615; NLM/ PMC2731626
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7. Zeng Y, Li Y, Chen RS, He X, Yang L, Li W: Overexpression of xCT induces up-regulation of 14-3-3beta in Kaposi's sarcoma. Biosci Rep; 2010 Aug;30(4):277-83
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  • [Title] Overexpression of xCT induces up-regulation of 14-3-3beta in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus), or HHV-8 (human herpesvirus 8), is associated with the pathogenesis of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. xCT (functional subunit of the cystine/glutamate transporter xc- system) is known as the HHV-8 fusion-entry receptor as well as an oncogenic protein.
  • We found that xCT was overexpressed in KS tissues and HHV-8-positive BCBL-1 cells.
  • These results suggest that 14-3-3beta is a downstream effector of xCT in KS to mediate the cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism. Amino Acid Transport System y+ / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • [ISSN] 1573-4935
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Amino Acid Transport System y+; 0 / SLC7A11 protein, human; 0 / Slc7a11 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2860696
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8. Sivakumar R, Sharma-Walia N, Raghu H, Veettil MV, Sadagopan S, Bottero V, Varga L, Levine R, Chandran B: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications. J Virol; 2008 Feb;82(4):1759-76
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, is characterized by spindle-shaped endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, cytokines, growth and angiogenic factors, and angiogenesis.
  • KS spindle cells are believed to be of the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) type.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically linked to KS, and in vitro KSHV infection of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades, sustained expression of latency-associated genes, transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, sustained induction of NF-kappaB and several cytokines, and growth and angiogenic factors.
  • Collectively, these studies show that the in vitro microenvironments of KSHV-infected endothelial cells are enriched, with VEGF-A and -C molecules playing key roles in KSHV biology, such as increased infection and gene expression, as well as in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, thus recapitulating the microenvironment of early KS lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18057235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099925
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258737
  •  go-up   go-down


9. Remenyik E, Juhász A, Hunyadi J: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Oct 2;146(40):2047-55
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposi-sarcoma.
  • In recent years large amounts of findings have accumulated about Kaposi's sarcoma, a virus induced angioproliferative disorder appearing in four clinical forms: classical, epidemic, endemic and iatrogenic, as it has been in focus of not only from the dermatologic but also from the viral tumorgenesis perspective.
  • Viruses, genetic -, and environmental factors have been shown to play a role in the pathomechanism of the disease, of which the most important is the human herpesvirus-8.
  • The mechanisms by which viral proteins and virus infection enhance tumorgenesis and alter immune functions directed at cells have been studied in detail.
  • During the initiation of tumorgenesis, virus induced viral and host cell products (cytokines, receptors and oncogens) initiate inflammatory and angiogenic polyclonal cell proliferation, which later, by the synergistic action of other viruses and/or environmental factors, give rise to malignant proliferation and allow the selected cell to clonally expand and behave like a true malignant tumor.
  • In light of newly published results the authors not only present the clinical appearances and summarize diagnostic possibilities and the pathomechanism of the disease, but also give a thorough overview of the therapeutic tools of Kaposi's sarcoma, and share their experiences obtained during the follow-up of classical Kaposi's sarcoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Incidence. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Serologic Tests. Sex Distribution. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Orv Hetil. 2006 Apr 2;147(13):617-21; author reply 621 [16623444.001]
  • (PMID = 16259333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Oncogene Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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10. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • HIV infected subjects are at increased risk of developing cancer and the risk seems to be directly associated with the level of immunodeficiency.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • HAART widely used since 1996 changed the natural process of HIV infection by aggressively suppressing viral replication and progress of HIV disease.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, patients better responded to cancer treatment.
  • There are data demonstrating that HAART regimens alone lead to remission of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


11. Riva G, Barozzi P, Torelli G, Luppi M: Immunological and inflammatory features of Kaposi's sarcoma and other Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8-associated neoplasias. AIDS Rev; 2010 Jan-Mar;12(1):40-51
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  • [Title] Immunological and inflammatory features of Kaposi's sarcoma and other Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8-associated neoplasias.
  • During the last 15 years, virologic and immunologic studies have provided a series of valuable clues on the modalities of gamma-herpesvirus-induced oncogenesis, which do not only consist of the direct subversion of intracellular signaling pathways, leading to a frank neoplastic molecular network in the infected cell, but also rely on viral manipulations of the cellular and cytokine microenvironment, especially in conditions of immunodeficiency in the host.
  • At the virus-host interface, something iniquitous, strikingly favoring the aggressive expansion of human herpesvirus 8-infected lympho-endothelial clones, known as Kaposi's sarcoma, often occurs in different types of immunocompromised patients, able to establish a deleterious "pro-Kaposi's sarcoma" neo-angiogenic inflammatory network.
  • However, these patients may control - or even resolve - the neoplastic burden as soon as an immunologic reassessment restores functional anti-Kaposi's sarcoma immune responses and reconstitutes a proper inflammatory environment.
  • Indeed, the occurrence of iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma remissions, after the reduction or switch of immunosuppressive regimens, strongly suggests that the reset of immunologic constraints characterizing the Kaposi's sarcoma onco-pathogenic system may be sufficient to inhibit human herpesvirus 8-positive lympho-endothelial proliferations.
  • Accordingly, immunologic reports all underline the pivotal protective role of anti-human herpesvirus 8 memory T-cells (harmonically, both CD8+ and CD4+ subsets), thus definitely implying a general requirement for an effective, antiviral immuno-inflammatory environment, based on correct and productive interactions between different compartments of dendritic, myeloid, and specific T-cells, in order to achieve and maintain optimal control on human herpesvirus 8-associated antigenic stimulations and Kaposi's sarcoma disease.
  • In this review, we recapitulate some remarkable features about the outstanding immunologic issue raised by human herpesvirus 8-driven neoplastic outgrowths in immunodeficient patients, and in particular, we discuss the emerging view of Kaposi's sarcoma as an atypical neoplastic process, tightly dependent on immune system dynamics.
  • It is conceivable that functional dissection of the specific immune responses, capable to cope with human herpesvirus 8, and further definitions of a global inflammatory profile with protective activity against Kaposi's sarcoma outbreaks, will eventually foster immunologic monitoring protocols during the follow-up of AIDS and posttransplant patients, either preventing or treating human herpesvirus 8-related tumors by multifunctional immunomodulation or prompt development of adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Inflammation / virology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Tumor Escape. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 20216909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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12. Deeken JF, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: Targeted therapies to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients with HIV on HAART therapy: treatment considerations and research outlook. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):445-54
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  • [Title] Targeted therapies to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients with HIV on HAART therapy: treatment considerations and research outlook.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic improvement in the prognosis of patients diagnosed with HIV and AIDS.
  • This includes a significant decline in the rates of AIDS-related cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Unfortunately, rates of non-AIDS-defining cancers are on the rise, and now exceed the rates of AIDS-related cancers in patients with HIV.
  • Treating non-AIDS-defining cancers in patients who are on highly active antiretroviral therapy is an open and complicated clinical question.
  • Unfortunately little is known about possible drug-drug interactions because HIV patients are typically excluded from clinical trials.
  • We conclude with considerations on how to use these new agents to treat non-AIDS-defining cancers, and discuss a future research agenda to better understand and predict potential highly active antiretroviral therapy-targeted therapy interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19606034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 118
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS382143; NLM/ PMC3377583
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13. Martinez V, Caumes E, Gambotti L, Ittah H, Morini JP, Deleuze J, Gorin I, Katlama C, Bricaire F, Dupin N: Remission from Kaposi's sarcoma on HAART is associated with suppression of HIV replication and is independent of protease inhibitor therapy. Br J Cancer; 2006 Apr 10;94(7):1000-6
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  • [Title] Remission from Kaposi's sarcoma on HAART is associated with suppression of HIV replication and is independent of protease inhibitor therapy.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the incidence and improves the prognosis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • This study was designed to identify factors associated with KS clinical responses in HIV-infected patients during HAART.
  • We reviewed the files of 138 HIV-1-infected patients with KS.
  • Epidemiologic and HIV-related clinical and biological parameters were recorded at KS diagnosis (baseline) and every 6 months thereafter.
  • In a subset of 73 antiretroviral-naive patients, we compared the clinical outcome of KS according to the use or nonuse of protease inhibitors (PI).
  • After 6 months of follow-up, KS remission was more frequent in patients who were naive of HAART and who were at ACTG stage S0 at baseline (P = 0.03 and 0.02).
  • Undetectable HIV viral load was strongly associated with KS remission (P< or = 0.004 at all time points), while CD4 cell count was not.
  • Among the 73 antiretroviral-naive patients at baseline, and who were studied for 24 months, KS outcome did not differ between patients who were prescribed PI-containing and PI-sparing regimens.
  • Intercurrent multicentric Castleman's disease was associated with poor outcome after 60 months of follow-up (P< or = 0.0001).
  • Fourteen deaths occurred after a median follow-up of 37.5 months, eight of which were KS related.
  • Suppression of HIV replication appears to be crucial to control KS.
  • Non-PI-based regimens were equivalent to PI-based regimens as regards the clinical and virological outcome of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients with KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


14. Ma Q, Cavallin LE, Yan B, Zhu S, Duran EM, Wang H, Hale LP, Dong C, Cesarman E, Mesri EA, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ: Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 May 26;106(21):8683-8
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  • [Title] Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the major AIDS-associated malignancy.
  • It is characterized by the proliferation of spindle cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and aberrant angiogenesis caused by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection.
  • Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active Rac1 (RacCA) driven by the alpha-smooth muscle actin promoter in transgenic mice is sufficient to cause KS-like tumors through mechanisms involving ROS-driven proliferation, up-regulation of AKT signaling, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha-related angiogenesis.
  • RacCA-induced tumors expressed KS phenotypic markers; displayed remarkable transcriptome overlap with KS lesions; and were, like KS, associated with male gender.
  • Consistent with a pathogenic role in KS, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Rac1 is overexpressed in KSHV(+) spindle cells of AIDS-KS biopsies.
  • Our results demonstrate the direct oncogenicity of Rac1 and ROS and their contribution to a KS-like malignant phenotype, further underscoring the carcinogenic potential of oxidative stress in the context of chronic infection and inflammation.
  • They define the RacCA transgenic mouse as a model suitable for studying the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and therapy of KS, with relevance to other inflammation-related malignancies.
  • Our findings suggest host and viral genes triggering Rac1 or ROS production as key determinants of KS onset and potential KS chemopreventive or therapeutic targets.


15. Grigorian A, Hurford R, Chao Y, Patrick C, Langford TD: Alterations in the Notch4 pathway in cerebral endothelial cells by the HIV aspartyl protease inhibitor, nelfinavir. BMC Neurosci; 2008 Feb 26;9:27
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  • [Title] Alterations in the Notch4 pathway in cerebral endothelial cells by the HIV aspartyl protease inhibitor, nelfinavir.
  • BACKGROUND: Aspartyl protease inhibitors (PIs) used to treat HIV belong to an important group of drugs that influence significantly endothelial cell functioning and angiogenic capacity, although specific mechanisms are poorly understood.
  • Recently, PIs, particularly Nelfinavir, were reported to disrupt Notch signaling in the HIV-related endothelial cell neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Given the importance of maintaining proper cerebral endothelial cell signaling at the blood brain barrier during HIV infection, we considered potential signaling pathways such as Notch, that may be vulnerable to dysregulation during exposure to PI-based anti-retroviral regimens.
  • Since, the effects of HIV PIs on gamma-secretase substrate pathways in cerebral endothelial cell signaling have not been addressed, we sought to determine the effects of HIV PIs on Notch and amyloid precursor protein.

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  • (PMID = 18302767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2202
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Neurosci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K01 MH071206; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS055639; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T35HL007491-25; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R24 MH059745; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / T35AG026757; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS055639; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH062962; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH071206; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / T35 AG026757; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T35 HL007491; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH59745; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH62962
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C14orf129 protein, human; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / NOTCH4 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 5W6YA9PKKH / Indinavir; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; HO3OGH5D7I / Nelfinavir; L3JE09KZ2F / Saquinavir; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2268698
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16. Mani D, Neil N, Israel R, Aboulafia DM: A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3). J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2009 Sep-Oct;8(5):279-85
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  • [Title] A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3).
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical course of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV viral loads (VLs) to patients with AIDS-KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 91 patients with AIDS-KS in a multispeciality clinic.
  • RESULTS: Twenty (22%) of the 91 patients had newly diagnosed, persistent or progressive KS despite CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV VLs.
  • Age, gender, ethnicity, mode and duration of HIV acquisition, type of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and KS therapy did not differ significantly (P < or = .005) between this group and the remaining 71 patients.
  • Although tumor stage and response to KS therapy were similar, there was a significantly greater risk of death among the patients with CD4 counts <300 cells/mm(3) and detectable HIV VLs (P = .048).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the highly active antiretroviral (HAART) era, a substantial proportion of patients with KS had undetectable HIV VLs and CD4 counts greater than the level typically associated with opportunistic diseases.
  • They required systemic therapy to control their KS but were significantly less likely to die and demonstrated a trend toward better 15-year survival than patients having KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • [MeSH-major] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Viral Load

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  • [CommentIn] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010 Mar-Apr;9(2):73 [20484734.001]
  • (PMID = 19721098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill. : 2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hawkins T: Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2006 Jan;20(1):6-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment.
  • In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, HIV infection was associated with visible signs and symptoms, adding to the stigma associated with the disease.
  • Physical manifestations associated with HIV infection included muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, and hairy leukoplakia.
  • With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, particularly the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, many of these outward manifestations of the disease became rare.
  • Ironically, however, the treatments used to control HIV infection (and its visible markers) have themselves been associated with appearance-related side effects.
  • However, these newer drugs are also associated with appearance-related side effects, which must be considered in the selection of treatment regimens.
  • This paper reviews the appearance-related side effects associated with classes of antiretroviral drugs as well as individual agents, including the newer antiretrovirals.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome / chemically induced. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Skin Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Alopecia / chemically induced. Exanthema / chemically induced. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Hyperpigmentation / chemically induced. Male. Patient Compliance. Quality of Life


18. Teo CG: Conceptual emergence of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) as an oral herpesvirus. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):85-90
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  • [Title] Conceptual emergence of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) as an oral herpesvirus.
  • Recognition of the various clinico-epidemiologic forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, a disease putatively caused by an infectious agent, did not provide ready clues as to how that agent might be transmitted, although fecal and sexual routes were implicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesviridae Infections / transmission. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Mouth Mucosa / virology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Body Fluids / virology. Epithelial Cells / virology. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Saliva / virology. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Sexual Behavior. Virus Shedding

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  • (PMID = 16672556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-0737
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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19. Jörg A, Grubert T, Grimm T, Guenzi E, Naschberger E, Samson E, Oostendorp R, Keller U, Stürzl M: Maternal HIV type 1 infection suppresses MMP-1 expression in endothelial cells of uninfected newborns: nonviral vertical transmission of HIV type 1-related effects. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2005 Nov;21(11):940-4
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  • [Title] Maternal HIV type 1 infection suppresses MMP-1 expression in endothelial cells of uninfected newborns: nonviral vertical transmission of HIV type 1-related effects.
  • HIV-1 infection is associated with vascular alterations.
  • This is accompanied by an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and Kaposi's sarcoma, an endothelial cell-derived tumor.
  • We investigated the impact of maternal HIV-1 infection on phenotype and gene expression of endothelial cells in newborns.
  • For this reason endothelial precursor cells and differentiated endothelial cells were isolated from cord blood as well as from umbilical veins and arteries of noninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected (H-group) and noninfected (Ngroup) mothers.
  • The reduced MMP-1 expression may contribute to the impaired cardiac function that has been observed in children of HIV-1-infected women.
  • Most interestingly, our findings indicate that HIV-1-related effects can be transferred from mother to child in the absence of HIV-1 transmission.
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelial Cells / enzymology. HIV Infections / metabolism. HIV-1. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Blotting, Western. Cell Separation. Cells, Cultured. DNA / metabolism. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Fetal Blood / cytology. Humans. Immunochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Mutation. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Zidovudine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16386110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-2229
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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20. Seybold U, Mayr D, Degenhart C, Bogner JR: HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Infection; 2008 Feb;36(1):96-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18231715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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21. Meer S, Altini M: Cytomegalovirus co-infection in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus co-infection in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The increasing appearance of AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in South Africa may be ascribed to the later start of the HIV epidemic, more patients reaching stages III and IV, and the inaccessibility of most patients to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • The objective of this study was to demonstrate cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in oral KS and to consider its possible significance.
  • We reviewed 20 cases of oral KS in known HIV-positive patients without active CMV disease.
  • The significance of CMV co-infection in oral KS is unclear.
  • The inclusions suggest active infection, although there is no evidence to support CMV in the pathogenesis of KS.
  • Nonetheless, it is vital that physicians be alerted to active CMV infection, so that timely intervention and careful observation can be instituted, ensuring early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Cytomegalovirus / pathogenicity. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / virology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


22. Majerciak V, Yamanegi K, Allemand E, Kruhlak M, Krainer AR, Zheng ZM: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 functions as a viral splicing factor and promotes expression of intron-containing viral lytic genes in spliceosome-mediated RNA splicing. J Virol; 2008 Mar;82(6):2792-801
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 functions as a viral splicing factor and promotes expression of intron-containing viral lytic genes in spliceosome-mediated RNA splicing.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 facilitates the expression of both intronless viral ORF59 genes and intron-containing viral K8 and K8.1 genes (V.
  • In this study, we showed that disruption of ORF57 in a KSHV genome led to increased accumulation of ORF50 and K8 pre-mRNAs and reduced expression of ORF50 and K-bZIP proteins but had no effect on latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA).
  • Although Epstein-Barr virus EB2, a closely related homolog of ORF57, had a similar activity in the cotransfection assays, herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 was inactive.

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  • (PMID = 18184716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA013106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13106; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258979
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23. Dongre A, Montaldo C: Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 May-Jun;75(3):290-2
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the malignant neoplasms, which can develop in HIV-infected patients.
  • Although the prevalence of HIV infection is reported to be high in Asian countries, Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely reported.
  • We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the skin and oral mucosa along with extensive bilateral lymphedema of lower extremities, treated successfully with paclitaxel and antiretrovirals.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19439884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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24. Carbone A, Cesarman E, Gloghini A, Drexler HG: Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma through its derived cell lines. AIDS; 2010 Feb 20;24(4):479-90
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  • There is strong evidence that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL.
  • Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-associated and non-AIDS-associated PEL.
  • Also, PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the disorder of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces.

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  • (PMID = 20051807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA068939; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103646; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA068939; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA103646
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS492494; NLM/ PMC3740588
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25. Dhir AA, Sawant SP: Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):517-21
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  • [Title] Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India has the second largest number of HIV/AIDS patients in the world; however, studies done in the area of HIV-related malignancies are few.
  • With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections, an increase in life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals and an increase in HIV-related malignancies is expected.
  • The purpose of this review is to put forth the Indian scenario of HIV-related malignancies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: About 2.5 million Indians have HIV/AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical cancer were found to occur in a higher proportion among the HIV-infected individuals in India as compared with non-HIV-infected individuals.
  • The incidence of AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma is low in India.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is rare in India.
  • Amongst the non-AIDS defining cancers anal cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, colon cancer and certain head and neck cancer sites in men and vaginal cancers among women were found to occur more frequently.
  • As India is a large country and geographically and culturally diverse, large-scale studies need to be done linking the regional cancer centres with the AIDS centres across the country to evaluate the exact burden of HIV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19106653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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26. Caterino-de-Araujo A, Manuel RC, Bianco RD, Santos-Fortuna E, Magri MC, Silva JM, Bastos R: First survey for detecting the presence of human herpesvirus 8 infection (HHV-8) in Maputo, Mozambique. Braz J Infect Dis; 2009 Jun;13(3):200-2
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  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), is endemic in parts of the sub-Saharan, and KS has increased concomitantly with the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
  • Concerning 34 hospitalized patients from the Dermatology Unit, 47.1% were HHV-8-seropositive overall, while the rate was 85.7% among KS patients.
  • An association between HHV-8 seropositivity and male gender (OR 5.72), the central origin of patients (OR 5.33), blood transfusions (OR 3.25), and KS (OR 24.0) was detected among hospitalized patients, and primary school (OR 7.18) and HIV-1 infection (OR 8.76) among out-patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Male. Mozambique / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Socioeconomic Factors

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  • (PMID = 20191196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4391
  • [Journal-full-title] The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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27. Carbone A, Gloghini A: AIDS-related lymphomas: from pathogenesis to pathology. Br J Haematol; 2005 Sep;130(5):662-70
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  • [Title] AIDS-related lymphomas: from pathogenesis to pathology.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphomas include:.
  • (1) lymphomas also occurring, although sporadically, in the absence of HIV infection.
  • (2) unusual lymphomas occurring more specifically in HIV-positive patients and include two rare entities, namely 'primary effusion lymphoma' (PEL) and 'plasmablastic lymphoma' of the oral cavity.
  • The pathological heterogeneity of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) reflects the heterogeneity of their associated molecular lesions.
  • In AIDS-BL, the molecular lesions involve activation of cMYC, inactivation of P53, and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • AIDS-IBL infected with EBV are characterised by frequent expression of latent membrane protein 1--an EBV oncoprotein.
  • The biological heterogeneity of AIDS-NHL is highlighted by their histogenetic differences.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8)-associated lymphomas, which often develop in persons with advanced AIDS, present predominantly as PEL.
  • The KSHV/HHV8-associated solid lymphomas are (1) unusual lymphomas that occur more specifically in HIV-positive patients;.
  • (2) extracavitary and arise in nodal and/or extranodal sites; and (3) histologically, they usually display a PEL-like morphology and plasma cell-related phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans


28. Reed M, Cosgrove JM, Cindrich R, Parithivel VS, Gad Y, Bangalore M, Uzor R, Kalim J, Segura R, Albu E: Ten years later: a single hospital experience with malignancy in HIV/AIDS. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep 1;102(3):282-6
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  • [Title] Ten years later: a single hospital experience with malignancy in HIV/AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in the era of HAART with 5,112 patients having HIV infection or AIDS, treated between 2002 and 2006 in our hospital, 182 of whom had malignancies (3.56%).
  • A decrease in AIDS-defining cancers (ADC), from 63.6% to 37.3% and a higher incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), 62.7 as opposed to 37.9% was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS patients on HAART are older, have lower rates of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma and a higher incidence of NADCs than did patients in the early HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


29. González de Arriba A, Pérez-Gala S, Goiriz-Valdés R, Ríos-Buceta L, García-Díez A: [Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jan-Feb;98(1):50-3
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma de Kaposi clásico tratado con alitretinoína tópica.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal neoplastic process with four clinical variants, all of them induced by human herpes virus 8.
  • Currently there is no treatment of choice and it depends on the extension and location of the lesions as well as on the clinical type of the disease.
  • Alitretinoin gel 0.1 % is approved for the treatment of cutaneous lesions of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin that had a favourable evolution in spite of an intense local reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17374335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5300-03-8 / alitretinoin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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31. Wood C, Harrington W Jr: AIDS and associated malignancies. Cell Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(11-12):947-52
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  • [Title] AIDS and associated malignancies.
  • AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.
  • Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease.
  • In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV-1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV-1 incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available.
  • Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV-1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.
  • Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy.
  • These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV-1 seronegative patients.
  • For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/ Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. HIV / physiology. Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16354573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0602
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76958; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD39620; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR15635
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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32. Hbid O, Belloul L, Fajali N, Ismaili N, Duprez R, Tanguy M, Benomar H, Tahri el H, Gessain A, Huerre M: Kaposi's sarcoma in Morocco: a pathological study with immunostaining for human herpesvirus-8 LNA-1. Pathology; 2005 Aug;37(4):288-95
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in Morocco: a pathological study with immunostaining for human herpesvirus-8 LNA-1.
  • AIMS: The Maghreb region is considered to be an endemic area for classical Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) but the few published reports have focused on clinical descriptions.
  • We report here the clinical, virological and pathological features of 26 KS cases, including 17 classic forms, eight epidemic forms and one case of post-transplant KS.
  • RESULTS: Antibodies directed against HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen (LNA-1/ORF73) were present in sera from all 26 KS cases and the ORF26 HHV-8 gene fragment was amplified from the tumour DNA of all patients.
  • KS lesions that met the classical criteria for KS (spindle cells, positive endothelial markers) and were immunostained with the anti-LNA-1 marker, demonstrated typical granular intranuclear labelling of the spindle cells in all but one case of KS, in which very few spindle cells were present.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirms that Morocco is an endemic area for classical KS, which remains the most frequent type of KS in this country, and emphasises the value of the LNA-1 marker for the early diagnosis of KS lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Morocco / epidemiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16194827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / latent nuclear antigen (LNA)
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33. Pérez-Blázquez EE, Redondo M, García T: [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view]. An Sist Sanit Navar; 2008;31 Suppl 3:69-81
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  • [Title] [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view].
  • [Transliterated title] Sida y oftalmología: una visión actual.
  • The appearance of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) meant a revolution in medicine, which has also affected Ophthalmology: the routine presence of ophthalmological pathologies which until then had been exceptional, such as retinitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the appearance of other new pathologies such as progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN).
  • The generalised use of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the second half of the 1990s represented a turning point, since when the immunological improvement of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) resulted in a fall in the cases with ophthalmological pathology associated to immunodepression (HIV retinopathy, retinitis due to CMV, PORN...), and the spontaneous improvement of symptoms which until then had had a torpid evolution (Kaposi's ocular sarcoma, Palpebral Molluscum...).
  • New ophthalmological alterations also appear that are related to HAART: uveitis due to immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis in complete remission and the enophthalmos due to the atrophy of orbital fat in the context of lipodystrophy, associated with antiretrovirals.
  • If they also show HIV retinopathy, a monthly check up is advisable until immune recovery, given the greater risk of infection by CMV.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / virology


34. Szajerka T, Jablecki J: Kaposi's sarcoma revisited. AIDS Rev; 2007 Oct-Dec;9(4):230-6
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma revisited.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a puzzling condition of unclear, possibly endothelial origin.
  • It is divided into four distinct types regarding the affected population: classic in elder men of Ashkenazi Jewish and Mediterranean origin; endemic in African infants and young males; iatrogenic in patients under immunosuppressive regimens; epidemic in men having sex with men affected by AIDS.
  • The exact etiopathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma continues to elude its researchers.
  • Nonetheless, it has been discovered that human herpesvirus 8 is essential but not sufficient for sarcoma development.
  • Also, iron exposure of populations inhabiting regions with volcanic soils has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the classic and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma etiology.
  • The epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is strongly associated with HIV's detrimental effect on immune system and HIV's Tat protein proangiogenic properties.
  • Because Kaposi's sarcoma is found also in men having sex with men without AIDS, it has been proposed that certain lifestyle features (e.g. massive semen exposure and inhalant nitrites) may promote transformation of endothelial cells of both lymphatic and vascular origin.
  • Despite numerous studies on Kaposi's sarcoma, it continues to be an incurable disease.
  • Because of the increasing prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma, especially in certain parts of Africa, a better understanding of this condition is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / physiopathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Humans. Iron / metabolism. Male. Transplantation / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18219366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1139-6121
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E1UOL152H7 / Iron
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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35. Davis DA, Singer KE, Reynolds IP, Haque M, Yarchoan R: Hypoxia enhances the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of ganciclovir and zidovudine in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 15;67(14):7003-10
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  • [Title] Hypoxia enhances the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of ganciclovir and zidovudine in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • These findings may have clinical applicability in the development of effective therapies for PEL or other KSHV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Synergism. Ganciclovir / administration & dosage. Herpesviridae / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Zidovudine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17638913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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36. Pak F, Mwakigonja AR, Kokhaei P, Hosseinzadeh N, Pyakurel P, Kaaya E, Bogdanovic G, Selivanova G, Biberfeld P: Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus load in biopsies of cutaneous and oral Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Aug;43(12):1877-82
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus load in biopsies of cutaneous and oral Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) viral load in diagnostic, (formalin fixed, paraffinised) biopsies and patient serum during tumour progression of oral and cutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AKS), and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) by a sensitive and specific quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay.
  • RESULTS: Higher viral load as well as frequency of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)+ tumour spindle cells (SC) and number of LANA granules per SC was found in oral AKS compared to cutaneous AKS.
  • Although few cases were available, serum viral load appeared to decrease compared to tumour tissue during KS progression.
  • Decrease of serum HHV-8 load during KS progression may indicate decreased virus release and/or increased virus clearance.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. DNA, Viral / analysis. Disease Progression. Humans. Mouth / pathology. Mouth / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology. Viral Load


37. Carbone A: KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):626-8
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  • [Title] KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The unusual occurrence of a metastatic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a lymph node affected by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was originally reported when knowledge of the specific virological features of these tumours was lacking.
  • METHODS: The presence of EBV was investigated by in situ hybridisation, whereas KS associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both viruses were analysed in the case reported, in 30 lymph nodes from patients with classic HL, and in 22 skin biopsies from patients with KS.
  • RESULTS: Consistent with the findings in the HL and KS cases analysed, in the case showing features of both HL and KS in the same lymph node, EBV was detectable only in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, but not in KS spindle cells, whereas KSHV/HHV-8 was detectable only in KS spindle cells, and not in RS cells.
  • CONCLUSION: It is probable that the development of KS and HL was related to two independent aetiological cofactors-KSHV/HHV-8 and EBV, respectively-and that the occurrence of the two malignancies in the same patient was merely fortuitous.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / secondary

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38. Sunil M, Reid E, Lechowicz MJ: Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2010 Mar;12(2):147-54
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  • [Title] Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies.
  • The human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative disorders, namely, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • KS is among the most common malignancies seen in HIV-infected patients despite the decreased incidence of KS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Advances in molecular pathology reveal HHV-8 tumorigenesis is mediated through molecular mimicry wherein viral-encoded proteins can activate several cellular signaling cascades while evading immune surveillance.
  • This knowledge has led to the evolution of multiple therapeutic strategies against specific molecular targets.
  • This review summarizes the recent developments in the fields of virus transmission, molecular biology, and treatment of HHV-8-related neoplasms.

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  • [ISSN] 1534-3146
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
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39. Dezube BJ, Sullivan R, Koon HB: Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science. J Cell Physiol; 2006 Dec;209(3):659-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science.
  • This mini-review focuses on the signal transduction pathways of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and on how the knowledge of such pathways has led to the rational development of molecularly targeted pathogenesis-driven therapies.
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related-KS results from co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8), which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of KS.
  • KS is driven by KSHV/HHV8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), and viral chemokine homologues.
  • As a very tangible example of how translational research has led to a marked improvement in patient outcome, the signal transduction inhibitor imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-kit and PDGF) was administered to patients with KS whose tumors were serially biopsied.
  • Recent and future clinical trials of molecularly targeted therapy for the treatment of KS are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how KS is managed.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Protein Biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / metabolism. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / immunology. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Viral Proteins / genetics. Viral Proteins / immunology


40. Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana F, Machigo FG: Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Oct;37(10):907-11
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  • [Title] Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya.
  • HIV-infected patients face a greater risk of developing malignant disease.
  • The most commonly reported neoplasms of the head and neck region include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • A descriptive cross-sectional study including HIV-infected patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was conducted.
  • The prevalence of neoplastic lesions in this study was 27%; 37 (68%) patients had KS, 9 (17%) had SCC, 7 (13%) had NHL and 1 (2%) had Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • More females than males presented with lesions of KS and SCC compared with NHL.
  • The youngest patient presented with SCC at 18 years (mean 35.7 years), followed by KS at 23 years (mean 36.3 years) and NHL at 33 years (mean 43.9 years).
  • Most study participants (97%) were in stage III/IV of the disease and the remaining 3% in stage II.
  • In this study, the most common malignant neoplasms were KS, SCC and NHL, manifesting in a younger age group than in the non-HIV group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cheilitis / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Kenya / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sex Factors. Stomatitis, Aphthous / epidemiology. Young Adult


41. Vanni T, Sprinz E, Machado MW, Santana Rde C, Fonseca BA, Schwartsmann G: Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev; 2006 Oct;32(6):445-55
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  • [Title] Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent type of cancer in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • In contrast, the incidence of KS has been steadily climbing in parallel with the AIDS epidemic in Africa over the past 10-15 years, being the most common cancer in adult men in countries like Uganda and Zimbabwe.
  • AIDS-KS can be diagnosed at any stage of HIV infection, although it more commonly occurs in the setting of severe immune suppression, especially with an elevated viral load.
  • Up to now, AIDS-KS is still an incurable disease.
  • Its clinical course is variable, ranging from very indolent cases, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Various local therapies are available to control small and asymptomatic lesions, while cytotoxic, immunological and biological therapies can be considered for more aggressive disease.
  • Optimal anti-retroviral therapy is a key component of AIDS-KS management.
  • There are still many questions to be answered in the management of patients with AIDS-KS, such as (1) What are the therapeutic agents that should be used in this disease, and in which sequence?
  • The aim of this review is to discuss the systemic management of AIDS-KS, with special focus on the above mentioned questions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


42. Blanco O, Capó V, Rodríguez ME, Dovigny MDC, Cardellá L, Gala A, Jiménez NA, Correa C, Alemán Y, Pérez L, Álvarez A, Hengge U: Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Herpesviridae; 2010 Dec 07;1(1):3
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  • [Title] Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In Cuba, previous reports have shown an increase of epidemic KS, reaching a total of 120 cases by the end of 2007, despite the use of HAART.
  • To evaluate and compare the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) viral loads in different compartments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the genome copy number of HHV-8 in plasma, saliva, tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 AIDS-KS patients.
  • Overall, 98% of AIDS-KS patients harbored detectable HHV-8.
  • HHV-8 could be detected in 91.6% of KS tissue lesions showing the highest viral load (median log = 3.14 copies/100 ng DNA) followed by saliva and PBMC which were positive in 78%, and 69.2%; respectively.
  • Men who had sex with men (MSM) were more likely to have three-times higher HHV-8 genome copies in KS lesions when compared with tissues from heterosexuals individuals (OR 3; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.5).

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  • (PMID = 21429238.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-4280
  • [Journal-full-title] Herpesviridae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herpesviridae
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3050434
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43. Nascimento MC, Wilder N, Pannuti CS, Weiss HA, Mayaud P: Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Virol; 2005 May;33(1):52-9
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), the eighth Herpesvirus found to infect humans.
  • The molecular epidemiology of KSHV is related closely to ethnicity and geographical location of studied populations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize KSHV strains isolated from AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and to examine associations between KSHV subtypes, ethnicity and HIV risk categories.
  • METHODS: AIDS-KS patients were recruited consecutively at the largest AIDS reference hospital in Sao Paulo.
  • Sexual orientation was associated with subtype: 12/14 (86%) patients with subtype A were male homo/bisexual, compared with 3/8 (38%) among patients infected with subtype C (P = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This first detailed report of KSHV subtypes among AIDS-KS patients in Brazil reports the first isolation of KSHV subtype A5 in this country, and suggests KSHV strain transmission between different ethnic groups, and association of specific strains with sexual orientation.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 15797365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY377992/ AY377993/ AY377994/ AY377995/ AY377996/ AY377997/ AY377998/ AY377999/ AY378000/ AY378001/ AY378002/ AY378003/ AY378004/ AY378005/ AY378006/ AY378007/ AY378008/ AY378009/ AY378010/ AY378011/ AY378012/ AY378013/ AY378014/ AY378015/ AY378016/ AY378017/ AY378018/ AY378019/ AY378020/ AY378021/ AY378022/ AY378023/ AY378024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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44. Crum-Cianflone NF, Hullsiek KH, Ganesan A, Weintrob A, Okulicz JF, Agan BK, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program HIV Working Group: Is Kaposi's sarcoma occurring at higher CD4 cell counts over the course of the HIV epidemic? AIDS; 2010 Nov 27;24(18):2881-3
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  • [Title] Is Kaposi's sarcoma occurring at higher CD4 cell counts over the course of the HIV epidemic?
  • We evaluated longitudinal rates of Kaposi's sarcoma and trends in CD4 cell counts at the time of Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis during the HIV epidemic (1985-2008).
  • Although rates of Kaposi's sarcoma have decreased, cases are now occurring at higher CD4 cell counts over time, with more than one-third of cases diagnosed in 2002-2008 occurring at CD4 cell counts of at least 350 cells/μl.
  • These data support future studies evaluating the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation at higher CD4 cell counts to further reduce Kaposi's sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 20827160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / HU0001-05-2-0011; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / Y01 AI005072; United States / PHS HHS / / HU0001-05-2-0011; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / Y1-AI-5072
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS232992; NLM/ PMC2978255
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45. Furlow B: COL-3 benefits patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet Oncol; 2006 May;7(5):368
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  • [Title] COL-3 benefits patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Tetracyclines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16696161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3
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46. Bravo IM, Correnti M, Escalona L, Perrone M, Brito A, Tovar V, Rivera H: Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Jan;11(1):E33-9
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  • [Title] Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population.
  • AIM: To determine the prevalence of oral lesions in a HIV+ group of patients, related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated 75 HIV+ adult patients, attended at the Center of Infectious Diseases, at the Faculty of Dentistry, Central University of Venezuela.
  • In addition, CD4 cell count was determined by flow cytometry, as well as viral load by RT-PCR (Amplicor HIV-RNA, TM test 1.5, Roche).
  • RESULTS: 85% (64/75) of HIV/AIDS patients showed associated HIV lesions.
  • Oral Candidiasis constituted the most common lesion representing a 61% (39/64), followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia 53% (34/64); Oral Leukoplakia 34% (22/64), Melanic Hyperpigmentation 38% (18/64); Papilloma 13 (6/64), Lineal Gingival Erythema 8% (5/64); Aphtous Recurrent Stomatitis 5% (4/64) and Kaposi's Sarcoma 5% (3/64).
  • The patients with a viral load of 30.000 copies/mm3 exhibited oral lesions related with HIV, independent of CD4 cell count, although patients with CD4+ levels of 200 cel/mm3 were more susceptible to develop these lesions.
  • A high viral load was strongly associated to the oral lesions occurrence independently of CD4+ cell count.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Erythema / complications. Erythema / epidemiology. Female. HIV-1 / isolation & purification. Humans. Leukoplakia, Oral / complications. Leukoplakia, Oral / epidemiology. Male. Melanosis / complications. Melanosis / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papilloma / complications. Papilloma / epidemiology. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Stomatitis, Aphthous / complications. Stomatitis, Aphthous / epidemiology. Venezuela / epidemiology. Viral Load


47. Aversa SM, Cattelan AM, Salvagno L, Crivellari G, Banna G, Trevenzoli M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Monfardini S: Treatments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Mar;53(3):253-65
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  • [Title] Treatments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Although Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has decreased in countries where the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen is available, however it remains, after non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, the most common malignancy in HIV+ patients.
  • Advances in the treatment of AIDS-KS have been achieved, even though a gold standard therapy has not been yet defined.
  • With the availability of HAART, a dramatic KS clinical response has been documented, making HAART essential in all patients.
  • In case of aggressive and/or life threatening KS, more complex therapeutic schedules have to be taken into account, including chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy.
  • Finally, the identification of the HHV-8 as a causative agent and new metalloproteinase inhibitors may offer promising targets for the KS treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Management. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15718150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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48. Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K: HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1352-3
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. HIV Infections / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV. Humans. Middle Aged


49. Carbone A, Gloghini A, Vaccher E, Cerri M, Gaidano G, Dalla-Favera R, Tirelli U: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8-positive solid lymphomas: a tissue-based variant of primary effusion lymphoma. J Mol Diagn; 2005 Feb;7(1):17-27
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8-positive solid lymphomas: a tissue-based variant of primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also termed human herpesvirus type 8, is consistently identified in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Here we report four cases of KSHV-bearing solid lymphomas that occurred in AIDS patients (cases 1 to 3) and in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative person (case 4).
  • The patients presented extranodal masses in the abdomen (cases 1, 3, and 4) or skin (case 2), and nodal involvement, together with Kaposi's sarcoma (case 3).
  • Epstein-Barr virus was detected in two of the HIV-related cases.
  • To investigate the relationship of these disorders to PEL and to other AIDS-associated diffuse large cell lymphomas, KSHV-positive solid lymphomas were tested for the expression of a set of genes that were previously shown by gene profiling analysis to define PEL tumor cells.
  • The results showed that expression of this set of genes in KSHV-positive lymphomas is similar to that of PEL but distinct from KSHV-negative AIDS-associated diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Because pathobiological features of KSHV-positive solid lymphomas closely mimic those of PEL, our results suggest that KSHV-positive solid lymphomas should be considered as a tissue-based variant of classical PEL, irrespective of HIV status.

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  • (PMID = 15681470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1578
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA037295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA037295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37295
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1876263
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50. Vanni T, Fonseca BA, Polanczyk CA: Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil. HIV Clin Trials; 2006 Jul-Aug;7(4):194-202
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Economic analyses of agents used in the treatment of AIDS and opportunistic diseases are particularly important in developing countries.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) chemotherapy regimens in Brazil.
  • CONCLUSION: ABV seems to be the most reasonable treatment option for AIDS-KS patients in resource-limited countries like Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / economics. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics

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  • (PMID = 17065031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4336
  • [Journal-full-title] HIV clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HIV Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Liposomes; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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51. Yasuoka A: [Opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS]. Nihon Rinsho; 2010 Mar;68(3):486-90
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  • [Title] [Opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS].
  • The number of diagnosed AIDS and HIV infection is still increasing year by year in Japan.
  • Increment of malignancies such as malignant lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is remarkable in recent years.
  • Although diagnosis and treatment of OIs are almost established, some novel diagnostic tests and treatment option have developed and imploved the clinical outcome of HIV-related OIs.
  • Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is strongly influenced to the OI threapy in relation to the drug interaction, timing of ART and induction of immunoreconstitution syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections


52. Toure G, Roucayrol AM, Meningaud JP, Bertrand JC: Plasmablastic lymphoma: a case report. Quintessence Int; 2007 Feb;38(2):161-3
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  • Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subcategory of non-Hodgkin lymphoma frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Clinically, plasmablastic lymphoma may mislead to a diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8 are very often associated.
  • Awareness of this entity can prevent misdiagnosis with nonlymphoid malignancies, notably Kaposi's sarcoma, because this lesion does not express the conventional B-cell markers.
  • Unfortunately, as for other high-grade lymphomas in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the prognosis is poor.
  • The case of a heterosexual 42-year-old man referred for a right hemifacial neoplasm is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Maxillary Neoplasms / pathology


53. Zeng Y, Zhang X, Huang Z, Cheng L, Yao S, Qin D, Chen X, Tang Q, Lv Z, Zhang L, Lu C: Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling. J Virol; 2007 Mar;81(5):2401-17
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  • [Title] Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection significantly increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurrence in individuals infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • KSHV infection appears to be necessary but not sufficient for KS development without other cofactors.
  • However, factors that facilitate KSHV to cause KS have not been well defined.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the Tat protein of HIV-1 is a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts and viral proteins in BCBL-1 cells.
  • These findings suggest that Tat may participate in KS pathogenesis by inducing KSHV replication and increasing KSHV viral load.
  • These data also suggest that JAK/STAT signaling may be of therapeutic value in AIDS-related KS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Products, tat / physiology. HIV-1 / physiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Janus Kinases / metabolism. STAT Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Callithrix. Cell Line. DNA Primers / genetics. Gene Expression. Genes, tat. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Interleukin-4 / genetics. Interleukin-6 / genetics. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Receptors, Interleukin-6 / genetics. STAT6 Transcription Factor / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Signal Transduction. Virus Replication / genetics. Virus Replication / physiology. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 17151125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / IL4 protein, human; 0 / IL6 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-6; 0 / STAT Transcription Factors; 0 / STAT6 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT6 protein, human; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1865948
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54. Licci S, D'Antonio A, Boscaino A, Morelli L, Piscioli F, Abbate I, Donnorso RP, Del Nonno F: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Acta Haematol; 2007;118(1):47-52
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphomas concurrent with HHV8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node in AIDS and non-AIDS patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma has been described since 1920.
  • METHODS: Two cases of concurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lymph node are described: a diffuse large B cell lymphoma in an AIDS patient and a T cell-rich large B cell lymphoma in a HIV-negative patient, complete with the clinical, immunohistological and molecular features, the latter ones defined after isolation of the different neoplastic areas by laser capture microdissection.
  • RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction assays revealed HHV8 DNA sequences only in the microdissected Kaposi's sarcoma areas and EBV DNA sequences only in the lymphomatous areas in both cases, confirming the HHV8 infection only in the neoplastic sarcomatous cells and evidencing the EBV infection only in the lymphomatous cells.
  • CONCLUSION: This study represents a further confirmation of the supposed different etiopathogenic mechanisms of the 2 neoplasias, suggesting a coincidental occurrence even when localized in the same lymph node, independently from HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17505129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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55. Morton LM, Curtis RE, Linet MS, Bluhm EC, Tucker MA, Caporaso N, Ries LA, Fraumeni JF Jr: Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4935-44
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  • RESULTS: Among patients without HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma, lung cancer risks were significantly elevated after CLL/SLL and FL but not after DLBCL (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], CLL/SLL = 1.42, FL = 1.28, DLBCL = 1.00; Poisson regression P for difference among subtypes, P(Diff) = .001).
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma (n = 932) were predominantly diagnosed with DLBCL and had significantly and substantially elevated risks for second anal cancer (SIR = 120.50) and Kaposi's sarcoma (SIR = 138.90).

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  • (PMID = 20940199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3020697
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56. Nokta M: Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2008 Feb;5(1):5-12
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  • [Title] Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection.
  • Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS.
  • The lesions commonly associated with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi's sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations.
  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the oral diseases associated with HIV infection.
  • This review discusses the oral manifestations associated with HIV disease, the change in the pattern of the disease, and some research questions that need more emphasis from the research community.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / etiology


57. Sahoo S: HIV- and AIDS-related Ocular Manifestations in Tanzanian Patients. Malays J Med Sci; 2010 Jan;17(1):12-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV- and AIDS-related Ocular Manifestations in Tanzanian Patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Although around 70% of HIV+ cases used to have ocular manifestations, the late reporting of cases often results in severe forms of ocular morbidity that would otherwise have been prevented.
  • The objective of this study was to describe the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS-related patients who had been admitted to TM Jafferji Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
  • METHODS: Proven cases of HIV were recruited in this study.
  • RESULTS: Around 90% of the recruited cases were in clinical stage III and IV HIV.
  • The notable ocular manifestations included micro-vasculopathy of the retina in 25%, uveitis in 8%, CMV retinitis in 7%, neuro-ophthalmic manifestation in 6%, Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in 5%, Kaposi's sarcoma in 3% and conjunctival carcinoma in 2% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the cases recruited in our study were in the late stages of HIV.

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  • (PMID = 22135520.001).
  • [ISSN] 2180-4303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3216149
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIDS / CMV retinitis / HIV / medical sciences / micro-vasculopathy
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58. Corti M, Villafañe MF, Souto L, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, Soler Mde D: Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2007 May-Jun;40(3):338-40
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  • [Title] Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma, among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system.
  • We report a case of primary lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17653472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-8682
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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59. Spano JP, Costagliola D, Katlama C, Mounier N, Oksenhendler E, Khayat D: AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 10;26(29):4834-42
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  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges.
  • Despite the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HIV-related mortality, malignancy remains an important cause of death in the current era.
  • Although the advent of cART has resulted in reductions in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-AIDS-defining malignancies present an increased risk for HIV-infected patients, characterized by some common clinical features, generally with a more aggressive behavior and a more advanced disease at diagnosis, which is responsible for poorer patient outcomes.
  • Special considerations of these AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related malignancies and their clinical and therapeutic aspects constitute the subject of this review.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18591544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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60. White T, Hagen M, Gudza I, White IE, Ndemera B, Gwanzura L, Borok M, Campbell TB: Genetic diversity of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K1 protein in AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe. J Clin Virol; 2008 Jun;42(2):165-71
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  • [Title] Genetic diversity of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K1 protein in AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes genetically diverse K1 alleles which have unique geographic distributions.
  • Little is known about K1 genetic diversity in Zimbabwe where acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated KS (AIDS-KS) is epidemic.
  • STUDY DESIGN: K1 nucleotide sequence was determined for AIDS-KS cases in Zimbabwe.
  • RESULTS: Among 65 Zimbabwean AIDS-KS cases, 26 (40%) were K1 subtype A and 39 (60%) were subtype B.
  • Zimbabwean subtype B sequences grouped with multiple intratype African variants: 26 B1 (26%), four B3 (6%) and nine highly divergent B4 (14%).
  • However, there were no significant associations between K1 subtype and the clinical or demographic characteristics of AIDS-KS cases.

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  • (PMID = 18394954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ309696/ DQ309697/ DQ309698/ DQ309699/ DQ309700/ DQ309701/ DQ309702/ DQ309703/ DQ309704/ DQ309705/ DQ309706/ DQ309707/ DQ309708/ DQ309709/ DQ309710/ DQ309711/ DQ309712/ DQ309713/ DQ309714/ DQ309715/ DQ309716/ DQ309717/ DQ309718/ DQ309719/ DQ309720/ DQ309721/ DQ309722/ DQ309723/ DQ309724/ DQ309725/ DQ309726/ DQ309727/ DQ309728/ DQ309729/ DQ309730/ DQ309731/ DQ309732/ DQ309733/ DQ309734/ DQ309735/ DQ309736/ DQ309737/ DQ309738/ DQ309739/ DQ309740/ DQ309741/ DQ309742/ DQ309743/ DQ309744/ DQ309745/ DQ309746/ DQ309747/ DQ309748/ DQ309749/ DQ309750/ DQ309751/ DQ309752/ DQ309753/ DQ309754/ DQ309755/ DQ309756/ DQ309757/ DQ309758/ DQ309759/ DQ309760/ DQ309761/ DQ309762
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-07447; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI054907-019003; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5T32AI07537-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007447; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / R03 TW001123-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI054907; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI007447-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054907-019003; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007447-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007537; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / R03 TW001123; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW001123-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / K1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS55716; NLM/ PMC2556225
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61. Laney AS, Cannon MJ, Jaffe HW, Offermann MK, Ou CY, Radford KW, Patel MM, Spira TJ, Gunthel CJ, Pellett PE, Dollard SC: Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1541-5
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present the largest longitudinal study to date that examines the association between Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) disease progression and the presence and viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
  • METHODS: Ninety-six men were enrolled at HIV clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, who had KS (n = 47) or were without KS but seropositive for HHV-8.
  • Visits occurred at 6-month intervals for 2 years at which the patient's KS status was evaluated and oral fluid and blood were collected for quantification of HHV-8 DNA and antibodies.
  • RESULTS: The presence of HHV-8 DNA in blood was more common (P < 0.001) and the viral load higher (P < 0.001) in men with KS in comparison with men without KS.
  • Mean HHV-8 viral loads in blood and oral fluids were associated with disease status, being highest among patients with progressing KS, intermediate among patients with stable KS, and lowest among patients with regressing KS.
  • Consistent with our previous report high antibody titers to HHV-8 orf 65 were inversely associated with HHV-8 shedding in oral fluid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant association between changes in KS disease severity and the presence and viral load of HHV-8.
  • HHV-8 viral load in blood may provide useful information to clinicians for assessment of the risk of further disease progression in patients with KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Saliva / virology. Severity of Illness Index. Virus Shedding


62. Pyakurel P, Montag U, Castaños-Vélez E, Kaaya E, Christensson B, Tönnies H, Biberfeld P, Heiden T: CGH of microdissected Kaposi's sarcoma lesions reveals recurrent loss of chromosome Y in early and additional chromosomal changes in late tumour stages. AIDS; 2006 Sep 11;20(14):1805-12
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  • [Title] CGH of microdissected Kaposi's sarcoma lesions reveals recurrent loss of chromosome Y in early and additional chromosomal changes in late tumour stages.
  • BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a monoclonal cell proliferation or a polyclonal, hyperplastic, reactive process.
  • Reports on KS cytogenetics are few and restricted to late stage disease and cell lines.
  • METHOD: We analysed 27 KS, early and late, AIDS related (AKS) and endemic (EKS) by laser microdissection, global DNA amplification and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • RESULT: Loss of Y chromosome was detected in 20/23 male KS, which was the only recurrent chromosomal aberration in all nine male early (patch) KS.
  • CONCLUSION: Clonal loss of chromosome Y was detected in all early male KS, while additional chromosomal aberrations appeared during development to late KS.
  • This increase in chromosomal abnormalities during tumour growth indicates genetic instability and the selection of survival cell clones establishing late, aggressive sarcoma growth.
  • Our data support the view that KS (in males) develops into a clonal tumour yet initially is a hyperplastic reactive cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Y / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Male. Microdissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques / methods

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  • (PMID = 16954721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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63. Iregbu KC, Elegba OY: Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma among adult HIV-seropositive patients seen in a designated HIV treatment and care center in Abuja, Nigeria. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2006 Sep;5(3):115-8
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  • [Title] Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma among adult HIV-seropositive patients seen in a designated HIV treatment and care center in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) in Nigeria despite the HIV National seroprevalence of 5% and the occurrence of the disease in people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of AAKS among HIV-seropositive adults seen in an HIV/AIDS treatment and care center in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • METHOD: Medical records of the 1591 patients comprising 857 males and 734 females were reviewed, and relevant data such as age, sex, CD4 count at diagnosis of AAKS were obtained and analyzed.
  • CONCLUSION: Easy access to antiretroviral medications and a well-targeted education and awareness campaign will help reduce the incidence and prevalence of the disease.
  • The inability to perform histologic examinations on all suspected cases calls for a well-designed prospective study to determine the actual prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-seropositive patients in Nigeria.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


64. Bottler T, Kuttenberger J, Hardt N, Oehen HP, Baltensperger M: Non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue. Case report and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Dec;36(12):1218-20
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  • [Title] Non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a frequently seen AIDS-related malignant neoplasm in the head and neck region, especially in the oral cavity, but is rarely described in the HIV-negative and non-immunosuppressed individual.
  • The case of a 76-year-old HIV-negative, non-immunocompromised woman with a solitary Kaposi's sarcoma of the tongue is reported.
  • Diagnosis and therapy are discussed and compared with a review of the contemporary literature.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seronegativity. Immunocompetence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17614259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0901-5027
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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65. Burnside KL, Ryan JT, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Gregory Bruce A, Thouless ME, Tsai CC, Rose TM: RFHVMn ORF73 is structurally related to the KSHV ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor cells. Virology; 2006 Oct 10;354(1):103-15
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  • [Title] RFHVMn ORF73 is structurally related to the KSHV ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor cells.
  • Retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque homolog of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), was first identified in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor lesions of macaques with simian AIDS.
  • We cloned and sequenced the ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of RFHVMn from the pig-tailed macaque.

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  • (PMID = 16879850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE07023; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K02 AI49275; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR13154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
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66. Little RF, Aleman K, Kumar P, Wyvill KM, Pluda JM, Read-Connole E, Wang V, Pittaluga S, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4165-71
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years.
  • Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)).
  • Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline.
  • The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Interleukin-12 / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Chemokine CXCL10 / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17846226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020449
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234790
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67. Di Lorenzo G, Konstantinopoulos PA, Pantanowitz L, Di Trolio R, De Placido S, Dezube BJ: Management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Feb;8(2):167-76
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  • [Title] Management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has lead to a substantial reduction in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Similarly, concomitant advances in chemotherapy and supportive-care protocols have allowed for Kaposi's sarcoma to be managed more effectively in comparison with the pre-HAART era.
  • Furthermore, developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma have identified several molecular targets that can potentially provide new therapeutic strategies.
  • This Review discusses the role of conventional chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma and summarises the current status and future prospects of novel molecularly targeted agents in the treatment of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


68. Venkatarajan S, Glaich AS, Ostler DA, Hsu S: A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(12):6
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  • [Title] A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm commonly seen in HIV patients.
  • In AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, small red papules or nodules initially present on the face, especially on the nose, and the trunk, that then rapidly spread to other areas.
  • We present an unusual case of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


69. Bihl F, Mosam A, Henry LN, Chisholm JV 3rd, Dollard S, Gumbi P, Cassol E, Page T, Mueller N, Kiepiela P, Martin JN, Coovadia HM, Scadden DT, Brander C: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific immune reconstitution and antiviral effect of combined HAART/chemotherapy in HIV clade C-infected individuals with Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2007 Jun 19;21(10):1245-52
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific immune reconstitution and antiviral effect of combined HAART/chemotherapy in HIV clade C-infected individuals with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is endemic in South Africa and the clinical manifestation of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) represents a significant clinical problem.
  • Whereas the positive effects of HAART on the regression of KS have been well established, less is known about the role of herpesvirus-specific cellular immunity in disease improvement.
  • DESIGN: Thirty-three treatment-naive HIV clade C-infected individuals with KS were randomly assigned into two treatment arms (HAART plus systemic chemotherapy versus HAART alone).
  • KSHV-specific cellular immune responses, viral loads and clinical outcome were evaluated.
  • METHODS: KSHV, Epstein-Barr virus and HIV-specific cellular immunity was measured using an IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay in samples obtained at baseline and up to 11 months after treatment initiation.
  • Cell-associated KSHV viremia was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • RESULTS: Robust increases in CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV viral loads were seen in parallel with significant increases in the KSHV-specific cellular immune responses over time.
  • CONCLUSION: The data show a temporal association between the clinical improvement of KS and the re-appearance of KSHV-specific cellular immunity, and demonstrate an effective suppression of KSHV viral replication using combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Immunity, Cellular / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Viremia / immunology. Virus Replication / drug effects. Virus Replication / immunology


70. Schlossbauer T, Schmidt GP, Bogner JR, Sing A, Reiser MF, Becker-Gaab C: Pulmonary radiological characteristics in patients with HIV infection at the time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Eur J Med Res; 2007 Aug 16;12(8):341-6
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  • [Title] Pulmonary radiological characteristics in patients with HIV infection at the time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • OBJECTIVE: To report on radiological and epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary disease in patients with HIV infection in times of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 130 HIV infected adults with acute pulmonary symptoms were compared with findings in chest radiography (n = 130) and computed tomography (CT, n = 42).
  • Disease specific sensitivity was 0.33 compared to 0.70.
  • Bacterial pneumonia (BP, n = 26, 20%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, n = 17, 13%), mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, 6%), Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma (KS and NHL, each 4%), fungal pneumonia (2%), and tuberculosis (TBC, 1%).
  • Only contrast-enhanced computed tomography shows an acceptable disease-specific sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / radiography. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lung Diseases / radiography. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


71. Albini A, Brigati C, Ventura A, Lorusso G, Pinter M, Morini M, Mancino A, Sica A, Noonan DM: Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target. J Transl Med; 2009;7:5
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  • [Title] Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target.
  • We had previously demonstrated that innate immune cells are key targets of angiostatin, however the pathway involved in this immune-related angiogenesis inhibition was not known.
  • RESULTS: Angiostatin inhibts angiogenesis induced by VEGF-TNFalpha or supernatants of Kaposi's Sarcoma cells (a highly angiogenic and inflammation-associated tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor such as angiostatin act on innate immune cells as key targets in inflammatory angiogenesis.
  • Angiostatin proves to be anti-angiogenic as an immune modulator rather than a direct anti-vascular agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / immunology. Angiostatins / immunology. Immune System / immunology. Immunity, Innate / immunology. Interleukin-12 / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19144161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630934
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72. Zhang JA, Anyarambhatla G, Ma L, Ugwu S, Xuan T, Sardone T, Ahmad I: Development and characterization of a novel Cremophor EL free liposome-based paclitaxel (LEP-ETU) formulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2005 Jan;59(1):177-87
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  • [Title] Development and characterization of a novel Cremophor EL free liposome-based paclitaxel (LEP-ETU) formulation.
  • Taxol is a marketed product for the treatment of ovarian, breast, non-small cell lung cancer and AIDS-related Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • However, paclitaxel is only sparingly soluble in water and therefore, intravenous administration depends on the use of the non-ionic surfactant Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil) to achieve a clinically relevant concentrated solution.
  • Unfortunately, Cremophor EL increases toxicity and leads to hypersensitivity reactions in certain individuals.

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  • (PMID = 15567316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Solvents; 6D4M1DAL6O / cremophor EL; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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73. Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ, Hernandez-Barrantes S, Tahan SR, Dabbous MK: Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Dec;33(12):793-8
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumorigenesis.
  • To date, only a few MMPs have been studied in KS lesions.
  • Their role in KS regression has not been investigated.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of multiple MMPs in developing and pharmacologically regressed KS lesions.
  • METHODS: Nine samples of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related and classic cutaneous KS lesions at various histological stages were studied.
  • Regressing KS lesions from three patients treated with systemic therapy were procured after one and two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: KS lesional cells were immunoreactive for all MMPs, except MMP-14.
  • The MMP immunoprofile in residual KS lesional cells was unaltered in regressed lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that developing KS lesional cells express collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-13), gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), and matrilysin (MMP-7) but not the membrane-type MMP-14.
  • This MMP expression profile is retained by residual KS cells and also expressed by infiltrating macrophages in regressed KS lesions.
  • Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / enzymology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


74. Taiwo OO, Okeke EN, Jalo PH, Danfillo IS: Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS in Plateau state indigenes, Nigeria. West Afr J Med; 2006 Jan-Mar;25(1):32-7
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  • [Title] Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS in Plateau state indigenes, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the prevalence of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS involving HIV positive Plateau State indigenous adults attending a Special Treatment Clinic serving referred cases and in-patient cases hospitalized in the Medical wards in JUTH, Jos.
  • RESULTS: A total of 261 patients confirmed for HIV infection were examined.
  • Oral lesions attributable to HIV/ AIDS infection were found in 109 (41.8%) patients, 38 (34.9%) of these patients had multiple lesions.
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma was in 5 (1.9%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions (HIV-ROL) in a hospital based adult population of Plateau State indigenes in Jos is 41.8%.
  • Oral Candidiasis is the most common HIV-ROL detected and this agrees with most reported findings.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Mouth Diseases / diagnosis. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Causality. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disease Transmission, Infectious / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Prevalence. Sex Distribution. Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology


75. Dougan S, Evans BG, Macdonald N, Goldberg DJ, Gill ON, Fenton KA, Elford J: HIV in gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom: 25 years of public health surveillance. Epidemiol Infect; 2008 Feb;136(2):145-56
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  • [Title] HIV in gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom: 25 years of public health surveillance.
  • It is more than 25 years since the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom.
  • National surveillance began the following year, in September 1982, with the notification of deaths and clinical reports of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma plus laboratory reports of opportunistic infections.
  • The introduction of the HIV antibody test in 1984 led to the reporting of HIV-positive tests by laboratories and the establishment of an unlinked anonymous survey in 1990 measuring undiagnosed HIV infection among gay men attending sexual health clinics.
  • The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) since 1996 has averted many deaths among HIV-positive gay men and has also resulted in a large reduction in AIDS cases.
  • This led to a need for an enumeration of gay men with HIV accessing NHS treatment and care services (1995 onwards), more clinical information on HIV diagnoses for epidemiological surveillance (2000 onwards) and the routine monitoring of drug resistance (2001 onwards).
  • Twenty-five years after the first case of AIDS was reported, gay and bisexual men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV in the United Kingdom.
  • Latest estimates suggest that in 2004, 26 500 gay and bisexual men were living with HIV in the United Kingdom, a quarter of whom were undiagnosed.
  • In this review, we examine how national surveillance systems have evolved over the past 25 years in response to the changing epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom as well as advances in laboratory techniques and medical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Bisexuality. HIV Infections / epidemiology. HIV Infections / history. Homosexuality, Male. Population Surveillance / methods

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  • (PMID = 17662168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Epidemiology and infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epidemiol. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 94
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2870809
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76. Kiertiburanakul S, Likhitpongwit S, Ratanasiri S, Sungkanuparph S: Malignancies in HIV-infected Thai patients. HIV Med; 2007 Jul;8(5):322-3
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  • [Title] Malignancies in HIV-infected Thai patients.
  • Of 1416 HIV-infected patients seen at Ramathibodi Hospital over a 5-year period (1999-2003), 42 were diagnosed with malignancies, giving a prevalence of 3%.
  • AIDS-related malignancies were found in 26 patients (62%).
  • The most common AIDS-related malignancies were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (33%), cervical cancer (21%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (5%).
  • Breast cancer was the most common non-AIDS-related malignancy (10%).
  • [MeSH-major] HIV. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / virology


77. Mlombe Y: Management of HIV associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi. Malawi Med J; 2008 Dec;20(4):129-32
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  • [Title] Management of HIV associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a common malignancy in Malawi and is often managed with single agent vincristine.
  • This article outlines feasible combination chemotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi which should be made more widely available.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1. Humans. Malawi


78. Phatak UA, Joshi R, Badakh DK, Gosavi VS, Phatak JU, Jagdale RV: AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Mar;58:159-62
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and effects of anti-retroviral therapy along with cancer chemotherapy on outcome of AIDS associated Cancers in Indian patients.
  • 46 AIDS-associated cancers were identified.
  • HIV status was evaluated by ELISA, Western Blot, viral load and CD4/CD8 counts.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of AIDS-associated cancers was 1.2 percent.
  • AIDS-Defining Cancers (ADC) were seen in 26 (54.35%) while non-AIDS-Defining Cancers (NADC) were observed in 21 (45.65%).
  • Non Hodgkin Lymphoma was the commonest form of AIDS-defining cancers in 21 (84%) patients, cervical cancers in 4 (16%) women while there was not a single case of Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • AIDS associated cancers were common in males.
  • Only 33.5% patients received treatment for HIV and cancers.
  • Development of immune reconstitution syndrome was observed in 9.09% patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-associated cancers are seen in advanced stage of HIV infection.
  • Cervical cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers do not show predictable response to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • Mortality in non-AIDS related cancers was significantly higher than AIDS related cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy


79. Ayers LW, Silver S, McGrath MS, Orenstein JM: The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery. Infect Agent Cancer; 2007;2:7
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  • [Title] The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery.
  • The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators.
  • The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types.
  • Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%).
  • ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens.
  • The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to funded, approved researchers at no fee.

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  • (PMID = 17335575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA066531
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851770
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80. Palmieri C, Treibel T, Large O, Bower M: AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy. QJM; 2006 Dec;99(12):811-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic effect on the natural history of HIV disease, reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma, and improving overall survival.
  • Since HAART became available in 1996, the incidence of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has fallen, and although there has been no change in the clinical features at presentation, the overall survival of patients with AIDS-related NHL has improved.
  • Prognosis is now determined chiefly by lymphoma-associated factors similar to those in the general population (the International Prognostic Index), although serum CD4 count at lymphoma diagnosis is an additional independent prognostic factor.
  • The management of patients with AIDS-related NHL with either infusional chemotherapy or CHOP-like regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) achieves response and survival rates approaching those observed in the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Neutropenia / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy