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1. Baillargeon J, Pollock BH, Leach CT, Gao SJ: The association of neoplasms and HIV infection in the correctional setting. Int J STD AIDS; 2004 May;15(5):348-51
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  • HIV-associated immunosuppression has been linked to an increased risk of a number of cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer.
  • Because prison inmates constitute one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalent populations in the US, understanding the link between HIV infection and cancer in the correctional setting holds particular public health relevance.
  • HIV-associated risk behaviours, including unsafe sexual practices, injection drug use, and prostitution may be associated with cancer-related risk behaviours, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet.

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  • (PMID = 15117507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124332; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132637
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS165931; NLM/ PMC2811392
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2. Bernstein WB, Little RF, Wilson WH, Yarchoan R: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jul;84(1):3-11
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  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease.
  • Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus.
  • With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change.
  • Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality.
  • At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States.
  • With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16867895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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3. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.
  • Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
  • RESULTS: Highly elevated SIRs were confirmed in persons infected with HIV for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) (SIR = 192, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 170 to 217) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 76.4, 95% CI = 66.5 to 87.4).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papillomaviridae. Prospective Studies. Registries. Research Design. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Switzerland / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


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4. Grulich AE: Update: cancer risk in persons with HIV/AIDS in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Read; 2000 Jun;10(6):341-6
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  • [Title] Update: cancer risk in persons with HIV/AIDS in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.
  • The incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections has decreased markedly in persons with HIV who receive combination antiretroviral therapy, but less is known regarding the incidence of cancer.
  • It does appear that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in persons receiving combination therapy has fallen dramatically.
  • Certain other cancers, comprising cervical cancer, Hodgkin disease, anal cancer, and conjunctival cancer, occur at increased rates in some populations with AIDS, but there are few data on incidence trends since the widespread use of combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


5. Ebrahim SH, Abdullah AS, McKenna M, Hamers FF: AIDS-defining cancers in Western Europe, 1994-2001. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2004 Sep;18(9):501-8
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  • [Title] AIDS-defining cancers in Western Europe, 1994-2001.
  • To determine the recent trends in AIDS-defining cancers in Western Europe, we analyzed the June 2002 European Non-Aggregate AIDS Data Set.
  • We obtained the percentage of people with AIDS aged 15 years or older (n = 125,691; males, 99,560, females, 26,131) who had cancers as the initial AIDS-defining illness in 17 European countries.
  • Overall, from 1994 through 2001, declines were noted in the number of people with AIDS (25,324 to 8929), the proportion of people with AIDS who were homosexual/bisexuals (38.8% to 26.6%) or intravenous drug users (male, 41.7% to 34.8%; female, 50.2% to 26.4%).
  • Among males, between 1994 and 2001, the percentage with any AIDS-defining, cancers declined (14.4% to 13.1%, p for trend = 0.091) because of a decline in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS; 10.7% to 7.9%) mostly among homosexual/bisexual men (22.7% to 18.8%) (p for trends < 0.05).
  • Between 1994 and 2001, the percentage of males with all types of lymphomas increased (3.8% to 5.2%, p for trend = 0.012).
  • Among females, AIDS-defining cancers increased (7.3% to 8.5%) due to increase in lymphomas (all types, 2.6% to 4.0%) (p for trend = 0.05).
  • Cervical cancer remained the most common cancer among females, the percentage of which declined between 1994 and 2001 (2.8% to 2.0%, p for trend = 0.37) mostly among women who were 15 to 29 years old, most of whom acquired HIV heterosexually.
  • In summary, declines were noted for the two leading AIDS-defining cancers at initial AIDS diagnosis among certain population groups.
  • Cervical cancer declined among young females and heterosexuals.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission. Homosexuality, Male. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


6. Bonnet F, Lewden C, May T, Heripret L, Jougla E, Bevilacqua S, Costagliola D, Salmon D, Chêne G, Morlat P: Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer; 2004 Jul 15;101(2):317-24
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  • [Title] Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 149 deaths (15%); among these malignancies were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 105 [11%]), noncerebral lymphoma (n = 78 [median CD4 count, 86 x 10(6) per liter; interquartile range [IQR], 35-231 x 10(6) per liter), and primary cerebral lymphoma (n = 27 [median CD4 count, 20 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 4-109 x 10(6) per liter).
  • Kaposi sarcoma was associated with 40 deaths (4%), and cervical carcinoma was associated with 5 (0.5%).
  • Non-AIDS-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 120 deaths (13%); these non-AIDS-related malignancies included 103 solid tumors (50 respiratory tumors, 19 hepatocarcinomas, 9 digestive tumors, and 6 anal tumors; median CD4 count, 218 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 108-380 x 10(6) per liter) and 17 hemopathies (12 Hodgkin lymphomas, 4 myeloid leukemias, and 1 myeloma; median CD4 count, 113 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 56-286 x 10(6) per liter).
  • Whereas lethal hemopathies and Kaposi sarcoma are associated with advanced immunosuppression, lethal solid tumors can occur in patients with controlled HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Adult. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


7. Bower M, Palmieri C, Dhillon T: AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):14-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three cancers in people with HIV denote an AIDS diagnosis: Kaposi's sarcoma, high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer.
  • In addition a number of other cancers occur at increased frequency in this population group but are not AIDS-defining illnesses.
  • This review discusses the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the epidemiology and outcome of AIDS-defining cancers.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of both Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has declined in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the outcome of both tumours has improved.
  • Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy alone produces a response in a majority of antiretroviral-naïve patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In contrast, highly active antiretroviral therapy has had little impact on the incidence of human papilloma virus-associated tumours (cervical and anal cancer) in people with HIV, although it may improve survival by reducing opportunistic infection deaths.
  • As people with HIV live longer with highly active antiretroviral therapy, an increased incidence of other non AIDS-defining cancers that have no known association with oncogenic infections is becoming apparent.
  • SUMMARY: For those with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the good news from the AIDS-defining cancers - particularly Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - may be balanced by the increasing numbers of non AIDS-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


8. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7
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  • Several studies have been carried out with this new drug, and it has been shown to be effective in 28% to 89% of patients with previously intractable hand eczema.
  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Attempts to use the drug in secondary prophylaxis has shown some promise in former tobacco smokers, whereas no effect was seen in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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9. Albu E, Reed M, Pathak R, Niazi M, Sivakumar M, Fernandes E, Mailapur RV, Parithivel VS, Gerst PH: Malignancy in HIV/AIDs: a single hospital experience. J Surg Oncol; 2000 Sep;75(1):11-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancy in HIV/AIDs: a single hospital experience.
  • Intravenous drug abuse and heterosexual exposure are by far the predominant risk factors for HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • METHODS: Of 3,578 patients with HIV infection or AIDS treated between 1993 and 1998, 245 had 1 or more malignancies.
  • Information was collected on age, sex, race, predisposing risk factors for AIDS, malignancies, symptoms at presentation, the time of the onset of AIDS, CD4 cell counts, pathology findings, and mortality.
  • RESULTS: Although aspects of our patients resembled those of previously studied groups of patients with AIDS, there also were ways in which our patients differed from those other groups.
  • 6% had non-AIDS-defining (NAD) invasive malignancies.
  • Among patients having AIDS-defining (AD) malignancies, 55.9% died, a fact that was related to patients' low CD4 cell counts and late presentation.
  • Our 97 patients with Kaposi sarcoma included 22 women, a relatively high number that may be related to the fact that most of our patients were intravenous drug abusers or had become infected by heterosexual transmission of HIV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS is associated with a high risk of malignancy and an unusual spectrum of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Complex / etiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Homosexuality. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology


10. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: [HIV-associated tumors]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):988, 990-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the beginning of the HIV epidemic, Kaposi sarcoma was a common stigma in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of death.
  • While Kaposi sarcoma is seen less frequently since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, lymphoma and other malignancies are an increasing therapeutic challenge.
  • The incidence of HPV-related anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions is rising so dramatically that screening programs as they are already established for cervical carcinoma should be implemented.
  • While fewer patients die from opportunistic infections, we face a growing problem with malignancies in HIV-positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology






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