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1. Sasco AJ, Jaquet A, Boidin E, Ekouevi DK, Thouillot F, Lemabec T, Forstin MA, Renaudier P, N'dom P, Malvy D, Dabis F: The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One; 2010;5(1):e8621
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  • [Title] The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms.
  • A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers.
  • In case-referent studies, odds ratios (OR) were ranging from 21.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 12.5-38.6) to 47.1 (31.9-69.8) for Kaposi sarcoma and from 5.0 (2.7-9.5) to 12.6 (2.2-54.4) for non Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2) to 1.6 (1.1-2.3), whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4) to 17.0 (2.2-134.1).
  • For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9) to 13.0 (4.5-39.4).
  • CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa show that HIV infection is not only strongly associated with AIDS-classifying cancers but also provided some evidence of association for other neoplasia.
  • African countries need now to implement well designed population-based studies in order to better describe the spectrum of AIDS-associated malignancies and the most effective strategies for their prevention, screening and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20066157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799672
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2. Gingues S, Gill MJ: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta. HIV Med; 2006 Sep;7(6):369-77
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  • [Title] The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and outcomes of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia in a well-defined geographical HIV-infected population between 1984 and 2005.
  • METHODS: A clinic database search, chart review and verification with public health records were undertaken for all AIDS-defining cancers diagnosed in Southern Alberta before and after the introduction of HAART.
  • One hundred and forty-three cases of KS, 64 cases of NHL and 11 cases of invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia were identified.
  • KS and NHL together accounted for 15% of clinical presentations with an AIDS-defining illness that led to the HIV diagnosis.
  • The prevalences of KS, NHL and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia have recently stabilized at 3, 1 and 5% of the population, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


3. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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4. Petoumenos K, Hui E, Kumarasamy N, Kerr SJ, Choi JY, Chen YM, Merati T, Zhang F, Lim PL, Sungkanuparph S, Pujari S, Ponnampalavanar S, Ditangco R, Lee CK, Grulich A, Law MG, TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Cancers in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD): a retrospective analysis of risk factors. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010 Dec 10;13:51
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  • For each diagnosis, the following data were recorded: date, type, stage, method of diagnosis, demographic data, medical history, and HIV-related information.
  • Cancers were grouped as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), and non-ADCs.
  • Non-ADCs were further categorized as being infection related (NADC-IR) and unrelated (NADC-IUR).
  • The majority (66%) of cancers were ADCs (16% Kaposi sarcoma, 40% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 9% cervical cancer).
  • One interesting finding was the cases of leiomyosarcoma, a smooth-muscle tumour, usually seen in children and young adults with AIDS, yet overall quite rare.

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  • (PMID = 21143940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-2652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International AIDS Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int AIDS Soc
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01AI069907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019126
  • [Investigator] Mean CV; Saphonn V; Vohith K; Zhang FJ; Zhao HX; Han N; Li PC; Lee MP; Kumarasamy N; Saghayam S; Ezhilarasi C; Pujari S; Joshi K; Makane A; Merati TP; Wirawan DN; Yuliana F; Yunihastuti E; Ramadian O; Oka S; Tanuma J; Honda M; Choi JY; Han SH; Kim JM; Lee CK; Sim BH; David R; Kamarulzaman A; Kajindran A; Tau G; Ditangco R; Chen YM; Wong WW; Kuo LH; Lim PL; Chua A; Foo E; Phanuphak P; Ruxrungtham K; Khongphattanayothin M; Kiertiburanakul S; Sungkanuparph S; Sanmeema N; Sirisanthana T; Chaiwarith R; Kotarathititum W; Chuah J; Sohn AH; Messerschmidt L; Petersen B; Cooper DA; Law MG; Zhou J; JiamsakuL A
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5. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • There are data demonstrating that HAART regimens alone lead to remission of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


6. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Attempts to use the drug in secondary prophylaxis has shown some promise in former tobacco smokers, whereas no effect was seen in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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7. Stein L, Urban MI, O'Connell D, Yu XQ, Beral V, Newton R, Ruff P, Donde B, Hale M, Patel M, Sitas F: The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995-2004. Int J Cancer; 2008 May 15;122(10):2260-5
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A case-control analysis was used to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio, OR) of cancer types known to be AIDS defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 333), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 223) and cancers of the cervix (n = 1,586), and 11 cancer types possibly associated with HIV infection: Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 154), cancers of other anogenital organs (n = 157), squamous cell cancer of the skin (SCC, n = 70), oral cavity and pharynx (n = 319), liver (n = 83), stomach (n = 142), leukemia (n = 323), melanoma (n = 53), sarcomas other than Kaposi's (n = 93), myeloma (n = 189) and lung cancer (n = 363).
  • ORs were adjusted for age, sex (except cervical cancer), year of diagnosis, education and number of sexual partners.
  • Significantly increased risks associated with HIV-1 infection were found for HIV/AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma (OR = 47.1, 95% CI = 31.9-69.8), NHL (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.3-8.1) and cancer of the cervix (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.0); Hodgkin's disease (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.7), cancers of anogenital organs other than the cervix (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.3) and SCC (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-4.9) were also significantly increased.
  • Risks for HIV-related cancers are consistent with previous studies in Africa, and are lower when compared to those observed in developed countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. South Africa / epidemiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors


8. Engels EA, Biggar RJ, Hall HI, Cross H, Crutchfield A, Finch JL, Grigg R, Hylton T, Pawlish KS, McNeel TS, Goedert JJ: Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;123(1):187-94
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Data are limited regarding cancer risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with modest immunosuppression, before the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • We linked HIV/AIDS and cancer registries in Colorado, Florida and New Jersey.
  • Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared cancer risk in HIV-infected persons (initially AIDS-free) during the 5-year period after registration with the general population.
  • Risk was elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (KS, SIR 1,300 [n = 173 cases]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 7.3 [n = 203]), cervical cancer (2.9 [n = 28]) and several non-AIDS-defining malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma (5.6 [n = 36]) and cancers of the lung (2.6 [n = 109]) and liver (2.7 [n = 14]).
  • Non-AIDS-defining cancers comprised 31.4% of cancers in 1991-1995, versus 58.0% in 1996-2002.
  • For KS and NHL, risk was inversely related to CD4 count, but these associations attenuated after 1996.
  • We conclude that KS and NHL incidence declined markedly in recent years, likely reflecting HAART-related improvements in immunity, while incidence of some non-AIDS-defining cancers increased.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Colorado / epidemiology. Female. Florida / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. New Jersey / epidemiology. Poisson Distribution. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18435450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Cáceres W, Cruz-Amy M, Díaz-Meléndez V: AIDS-related malignancies: revisited. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Mar;29(1):70-5
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: revisited.
  • Since the first reports between the association of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and neoplasia, there has been a dramatic change in the incidence and epidemiology of AIDS-related malignancies.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and cervical cancer are classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • However, since the availability of highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), especially protease inhibitors, there has been a steady increase in non- AIDS defining malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), lung cancer, hepatocellular cancer, anal cancer and others and a decline in AIDS-defining neoplasias.
  • Although the emergence of non-AIDS defining cancers could be a result of longer life expectancy and due to a better control of HIV, toxic habits and co-infection with other viruses such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papilloma virus (HPV) could play an important role.
  • The interactions of cART and incomplete immune reconstitution could be other factors explaining the increase in non-AIDS defining cancers.
  • These emerging non-AIDS defining malignancies present a new challenge in the care of patients with HIV infection, and require optimal treatment protocols that take into consideration the interaction between cART and systemic chemotherapy.
  • We review the current status of AIDS-related malignancies, its pathophysiology, epidemiology and management with emphasis in the changing patterns of presentation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology


10. Akanmu AS: AIDS-associated malignancies. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2006 Dec;35 Suppl:57-70
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • Three neoplastic diseases are associated so commonly with HIV infection that each of them has become recognized as an AIDS defining illness.
  • These are Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and Cervical Carcinoma.
  • Both KS and NHL were recognized as AIDS associated cancers from the onset of the epidemic in 1981 but carcinoma of the cervix became AIDS defining in 1993.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18050776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of medicine and medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Med Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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11. Biggar RJ, Chaturvedi AK, Goedert JJ, Engels EA, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2007 Jun 20;99(12):962-72
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer has been declining among persons with AIDS.
  • METHODS: Data from US AIDS registries were linked to local cancer registry data.
  • Cancer incidence per 100,000 person-years was determined for the 4-27 months from the onset of AIDS from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1995--before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available--and from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2002.
  • The relationships between CD4 count at AIDS onset and cancer incidence were assessed by proportional hazards models.
  • RESULTS: Among 325,516 adults with AIDS, the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was lower in 1996-2002 (334.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (1838.9 cases per 100,000 person-years), and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma followed a similar pattern (i.e., 390.1 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1996-2002 and 1066.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1990-1995).
  • In 1996-2002, for each decline in CD4 cell count of 50 cells per microliter of blood, increased risks were found for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 1.50), for central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes (HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.58 to 2.16), and for non-central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.20) but not for non-central nervous system Burkitt lymphoma (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.06).
  • Cervical cancer incidence was higher in 1996-2002 (86.5 per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (64.2 per 100,000 person-years), although not statistically significantly so (relative risk [RR] = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.81 to 2.46).
  • After adjustment for age, race, and sex or mode of HIV exposure, the risks for Kaposi sarcoma (RR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.24) and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.44) were lower in the period of 1996-2002 than in 1990-1995.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both before and after HAART was available, CD4 count was strongly associated with risks for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not for cervical cancer and Burkitt lymphoma.
  • The decreasing incidences of most AIDS-associated cancers in persons with AIDS during the 1990s are consistent with improving CD4 counts after HAART introduction in 1996.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / immunology. Burkitt Lymphoma / virology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 17565153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Chaturvedi AK, Mbulaiteye SM, Engels EA: Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers. Ann Epidemiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers.
  • PURPOSE: Registry-based studies provide valuable data regarding cancer risk among people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA).
  • However, SIR may underestimate RR when HIV/AIDS prevalence in the general population or RR is high.
  • We quantified the extent of this underestimation for 3 AIDS-related cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CNS NHL) and cervical cancer.
  • HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study.
  • (1) SIRs calculated using pre-AIDS era (1973-1979) cancer incidence rates (SIRpre-AIDS) and (2) SIRs calculated after subtraction of cancers known to be among PWHA from general population rates (SIRexclusion).
  • RESULTS: For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs (117.8 and 133.9, respectively) calculated using overall general population rates substantially underestimated both SIRpre-AIDS (19,778 and 3,612, respectively) and SIRexclusion (657.7 and 536.4, respectively).
  • In contrast, the extent of underestimation was negligible for cervical cancer (SIR = 4.9 vs. SIRexclusion = 5.1).
  • However, SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion estimates were more similar, indicating that SIR differences artifactually reflect differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between males and females.
  • For KS and CNS NHL, trends across calendar time were weaker in SIRs than in SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion.
  • SIRs must be interpreted cautiously when HIV/AIDS prevalence is high or varies across groups of interest.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


13. Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura MJ, Sackoff J, Virgo P, Pfeiffer RM: Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jul 1;39(3):293-9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS.
  • The survival of persons with AIDS (PWA) has recently improved because of better antiretroviral therapies.
  • To determine if survival in PWA with cancer has also improved, we compared cancer survival in adults with and without AIDS using data from New York City from 1980 through 2000.
  • Analyses were made for AIDS-related cancers (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) and for 8 non-AIDS-related cancers (lung, larynx, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, prostate, and testis).
  • Death hazard ratios compared survival in PWA with cancer with that in cancer patients without AIDS, adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar-time of cancer occurrence.
  • The 24-month survival rate of PWA with cancer (9015 AIDS cancers and 929 non-AIDS-related cancers of 8 types) improved significantly for most cancer types.
  • By 1996 through 2000, the 24-month survival rate in PWA was 58% for Kaposi sarcoma, 41% for peripheral NHL, 29% for central nervous system NHL, and 64% for cervical cancer.
  • For non-AIDS-related cancers, survival of PWA was lowest for lung cancer (10%) but was >50% for most other cancer types.
  • In 1996 through 2000, significant differences in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS still remained for Hodgkin lymphoma and lung, larynx, and prostate cancers.
  • We conclude that recent improvements in AIDS and cancer care have greatly narrowed the gap in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. New York City / epidemiology. Prognosis. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15980688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, Virgo P, McNeel TS, Scoppa SM, Biggar RJ, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002. AIDS; 2006 Aug 1;20(12):1645-54
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002.
  • BACKGROUND: People with AIDS have heightened cancer risk from immunosuppression.
  • HAART has been available since 1996 and has reduced AIDS-related mortality, but there are few large-scale studies on cancer trends.
  • METHODS: AIDS and cancer registries in 11 US regions (1980-2002) were used to identify cancers in 375 933 people with AIDS.
  • Cancer risk relative to the general population was measured using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), focusing on the 2 years after AIDS onset for those with AIDS in 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (HAART era).
  • RESULTS: Between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002, risk declined for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [(KS) n = 5131; SIR, 22 100 and 3640, respectively; P < 0.0001] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [(NHL) n = 3412; SIR, 53.2 and 22.6, respectively; P < 0.0001].
  • Risk of cervical cancer did not change (n = 64; SIR, 4.2 and 5.3, respectively; P = 0.33).
  • Among non-AIDS malignancies, lung cancer was most common, but risk declined between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (n = 344; SIR, 3.3 and 2.6, respectively; P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic declines in KS and NHL were temporally related to improving therapies, especially introduction of HAART, but those with AIDS remain at marked risk.
  • Among non-AIDS-related cancers, a recent increase in Hodgkin lymphoma was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / immunology. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology


15. Bower M, Palmieri C, Dhillon T: AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):14-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three cancers in people with HIV denote an AIDS diagnosis: Kaposi's sarcoma, high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer.
  • In addition a number of other cancers occur at increased frequency in this population group but are not AIDS-defining illnesses.
  • This review discusses the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the epidemiology and outcome of AIDS-defining cancers.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of both Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has declined in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the outcome of both tumours has improved.
  • Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy alone produces a response in a majority of antiretroviral-naïve patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In contrast, highly active antiretroviral therapy has had little impact on the incidence of human papilloma virus-associated tumours (cervical and anal cancer) in people with HIV, although it may improve survival by reducing opportunistic infection deaths.
  • As people with HIV live longer with highly active antiretroviral therapy, an increased incidence of other non AIDS-defining cancers that have no known association with oncogenic infections is becoming apparent.
  • SUMMARY: For those with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the good news from the AIDS-defining cancers - particularly Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - may be balanced by the increasing numbers of non AIDS-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16374212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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16. Gutiérrez F, Masiá M, Padilla S, Ramos JM, Bernal E, Morales P, Pozo F, Andrada E, Martin-Hidalgo A: Occult lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma associated with severe pulmonary hypertension: A clinical hint about the potential role of HHV-8 in HIV-related pulmonary hypertension? J Clin Virol; 2006 Oct;37(2):79-82
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  • [Title] Occult lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma associated with severe pulmonary hypertension: A clinical hint about the potential role of HHV-8 in HIV-related pulmonary hypertension?
  • PH shares several histopathologic features with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in AIDS patients, and molecular evidence of the vasculotropic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) has been found in the lung tissue of patients with the disease.
  • The clinical presentation of KS was unusual and remained masqueraded for years as an indolent cervical lymphadenopathy, without the typical cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Hypertension, Pulmonary / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


17. Ares C, Allal AS: Long-term complete remission of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma after palliative radiotherapy. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Sep;2(9):473-7; quiz 1 p following 477
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  • [Title] Long-term complete remission of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma after palliative radiotherapy.
  • Physical examination and a cervical CT scan showed several indistinct necrotic right laterocervical lymph nodes of 4 cm maximal diameter, but with no lesions of the respiratory or digestive tracts.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, cervical CT scan, laterocervical lymph node biopsy, laboratory tests, and endoscopy.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Clinical stage 4 AIDS with stage T0 I1 S1 epidemic AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the laterocervical lymph nodes and, subsequently, the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16265016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Bernstein WB, Little RF, Wilson WH, Yarchoan R: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jul;84(1):3-11
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  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease.
  • Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus.
  • With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change.
  • Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality.
  • At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States.
  • With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16867895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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19. Bonnet F, Morlat P: [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?]. Rev Med Interne; 2006 Mar;27(3):227-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality related to neoplasia are increasing in HIV-infected patients.
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND KEY-POINTS: The incidence of AIDS opportunistic infections dramatically decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Among AIDS-cancers, the incidences of Kaposi sarcoma and of cerebral lymphoma decreased in a same way than AIDS infections but the incidences of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma and of cervical cancer decreased less than the others and remain higher than in the general population.
  • The most recent and large studies have also shown a 1.7 to 3 fold increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected patients when compared to the general population without significant impact of HAART on incidence curves.

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  • (PMID = 16337065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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20. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: [HIV-associated tumors]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):988, 990-3
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  • In the beginning of the HIV epidemic, Kaposi sarcoma was a common stigma in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of death.
  • While Kaposi sarcoma is seen less frequently since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, lymphoma and other malignancies are an increasing therapeutic challenge.
  • The incidence of HPV-related anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions is rising so dramatically that screening programs as they are already established for cervical carcinoma should be implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17036250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • RESULTS: Highly elevated SIRs were confirmed in persons infected with HIV for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) (SIR = 192, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 170 to 217) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 76.4, 95% CI = 66.5 to 87.4).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papillomaviridae. Prospective Studies. Registries. Research Design. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Switzerland / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 16;97(6):407-9 [15769998.001]
  • (PMID = 15770006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Clifford GM, Franceschi S: Cancer risk in HIV-infected persons: influence of CD4(+) count. Future Oncol; 2009 Jun;5(5):669-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Whereas Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were recognised as AIDS-defining illnesses early in the HIV epidemic, the influence of declining CD4(+) count on other infection-related cancers has taken longer to establish, undoubtedly because the association is weaker and the dose-response relationship is less steep.
  • However, following improved survival made possible by combined antiretroviral therapy, declining CD4(+) count starts showing an impact on the natural history of various carcinogenic infections and on the risk for an increasingly wide range of cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma, cervical, anal and liver cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19519206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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23. Dubina M, Goldenberg G: Viral-associated nonmelanoma skin cancers: a review. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):561-73
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several types of nonmelanoma skin cancer and precancerous lesions have an associated viral pathogenesis, including epidermodysplasia verruciformis, verrucous carcinoma, bowenoid papulosis, Kaposi sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and, most recently, Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • It is now widely accepted that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play a key role in pathogenesis of cervical and anogenital cancer.
  • They can be divided into genera including alpha, beta, and gamma HPVs, which comprise the majority of cutaneous HPvs. The relationship between viruses and cancer is a popular focus of research in an era of AIDS and organ transplantation, where immunosuppression is not uncommon.
  • The incidence of viral-related malignancies in these populations is increasing.

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jul;32(5):522 [20571349.001]
  • (PMID = 19590418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 195
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24. Bower M, Collins S, Cottrill C, Cwynarski K, Montoto S, Nelson M, Nwokolo N, Powles T, Stebbing J, Wales N, Webb A, AIDS Malignancy Subcommittee: British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2008. HIV Med; 2008 Jul;9(6):336-88
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


25. Cainelli F, Temesgen Z, Vento S: HIV-associated malignancies. J Med Liban; 2006 Apr-Jun;54(2):111-9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology






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