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1. Dhir AA, Sawant S, Dikshit RP, Parikh P, Srivastava S, Badwe R, Rajadhyaksha S, Dinshaw KA: Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Mar;19(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the cancer pattern among HIV positive cancer cases.
  • METHOD: The study group included patients registered in the HIV Cancer clinic at the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai, which is the largest tertiary referral cancer center in India.
  • We used the gender and age-specific proportions of each cancer site of the year 2002 that was recorded in the Hospital Cancer Registry to estimate an expected number of various cancer sites among HIV positive cancer patients during the period 2001-2005.
  • The observed number of site-specific cancer cases was divided by the expected number to obtain proportional incidence ratio (PIR).
  • In males, PIR was increased for anal cancer (PIR = 10.3, 95%CI 4.30-24.83), Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, colon cancer, and few head and neck cancer sites.
  • Among females, the PIRs for cervical cancer (PIR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.90-5.75), vaginal cancer (PIR = 7.7, 95%CI 2.48-23.85), and anal cancer (PIR = 6.5, 95%CI 0.91-45.88) were increased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Kaposi's sarcoma and increased PIRs for certain non-AIDS defining cancers among HIV infected cancer cases indicates a different spectrum of HIV associated malignancies in this region.
  • The raised PIR for cervical cancer emphasizes the urgent need for screening programs for cervical cancer among HIV infected individuals in India.


2. Walsh CD, Gera A, Shah M, Sharma A, Powell JE, Wilson S: Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination. BMC Public Health; 2008;8:368
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  • BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.
  • Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination.
  • Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. England. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Interviews as Topic. Male. Middle Aged. Social Class. Surveys and Questionnaires. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18947430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579427
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3. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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4. McCaffery K, Waller J, Nazroo J, Wardle J: Social and psychological impact of HPV testing in cervical screening: a qualitative study. Sex Transm Infect; 2006 Apr;82(2):169-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Social and psychological impact of HPV testing in cervical screening: a qualitative study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed for inclusion in the UK cervical screening programme.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the social and psychological impact of HPV testing in the context of cervical cancer screening.
  • RESULTS: Testing positive for HPV was associated with adverse social and psychological consequences, relating primarily to the sexually transmitted nature of the virus and its link to cervical cancer.
  • The psychological burden of the infection related to women's relationship status and history, their social and cultural norms and practices around sex and relationships, and their understanding of key features of HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / psychology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


5. Lillo FB, Uberti-Foppa C: Human papillomavirus viral load: a possible marker for cervical disease in HIV-infected women. J Antimicrob Chemother; 2006 May;57(5):810-4
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus viral load: a possible marker for cervical disease in HIV-infected women.
  • Laboratory markers of human papillomavirus infection have been recognized as relevant tools in programmes designed to reduce the burden of cervical cancer.
  • Among the possible virus-related parameters proposed as relevant markers (viral persistence, load, expression, genomic integration capacity) we here analyse the informative value of human papillomavirus viral load measurement as a possible risk marker in this particular clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 16556637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7453
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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6. Tornesello ML, Duraturo ML, Botti G, Greggi S, Piccoli R, De Palo G, Montella M, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM, Italian HPV Working Group: Prevalence of alpha-papillomavirus genotypes in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma in the Italian population. J Med Virol; 2006 Dec;78(12):1663-72
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  • [Title] Prevalence of alpha-papillomavirus genotypes in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma in the Italian population.
  • The aim of the present investigation was to define the spectrum of mucosotropic human papillomaviruses among 414 Italian women with normal cervices (n = 183), low- and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 101 and 65, respectively), and invasive squamous cervical carcinomas (n = 65).
  • The prevalence rates of HPV infections was 19.7%, 63.4%, 80%, and 81.5% in patients with normal cervices, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinomas, respectively.
  • Among the 205 HPV-positive patients, a total of 31 mucosal HPV genotypes were identified of which 16 types, epidemiological classified as high-risk viruses (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 66, 68, 73, and 82), have been found in 16.9%, 50.1%, 69.2%, and 78.5% of normal cervix, low-, and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma groups, respectively.
  • As expected, the HPV16 was the most represented viral type in all groups examined with frequency rates ranging from 8.7% in normal subjects to 58.5% in invasive carcinoma patients.
  • Ten epidemiologically defined low-risk HPV types (HPV6, 11, 42, 54, 61, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83) were detected in 2.7%, 7.9%, and 6.1% of normal cervix, low-, and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, respectively, and in none of invasive carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, five unknown risk viruses were detected in 3% of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HPV30, 32, 67), in 3.1% of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HPV62, 90), and in 1.5% of cervical carcinomas (HPV62).
  • Larger epidemiological screening studies, with PCR amplification and followed by either hybridization-based procedures against sequence targets of all known HPV types or sequence analysis studies, are needed in order to assess the epidemiological risk of less represented HPV types, to identify unknown viruses, and to monitor the future eventual spread of unusual viral types related to vaccination programs and/or population mobility.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / classification. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17063505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Dempsey AF: Human papillomavirus: the usefulness of risk factors in determining who should get vaccinated. Rev Obstet Gynecol; 2008;1(3):122-8
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  • Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) promises to dramatically decrease the incidence of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer.
  • Although this vaccine is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for all age-eligible women, challenges related to the vaccine's high cost and the difficulty in reaching some patients for vaccination may make implementation of this recommendation difficult.
  • As an alternative strategy, some may consider targeting HPV vaccines to specific patients based on their risk for HPV infection or HPV-related disease.

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  • (PMID = 19015763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2797
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582644
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human papillomavirus / Risk factors / Vaccination strategies / Vaccine
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8. Zambrana M, Zurita B, Ramírez Tde J, Coria I: [Hospital expenditures for five diseases of high economic impact]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc; 2008 Jan-Feb;46(1):43-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: to identify by gender and age group, the hospital expenditures of the diseases that have the major economic impact at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social through using the diagnosis related groups (DRG) classification system and by estimating their associated costs.
  • METHODS: DRG system served to estimate hospital expenditures for five diseases: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure, cervical cancer and HIV/AIDS.
  • Chronic renal failure and cervical cancer reached 60.5 % and 72.8 % of the expenditures, which were concentrated in patients aged 59 years or less; HIV/AIDS expenditures were distributed among patients from 20 to 50 years of age, the highest percentage (41.7 %) was in the group of 30 to 39 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus / economics. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Hypertension / economics. Kidney Failure, Chronic / economics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / economics


9. Giacinti C, Giordano A: RB and cell cycle progression. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 28;25(38):5220-7
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  • Functional inactivation of pRb by viral oncoprotein binding is also shown in many neoplasias such as cervical cancer, mesothelioma and AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 16936740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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10. Mullen PD, Allen JD, Glanz K, Fernandez ME, Bowen DJ, Pruitt SL, Glenn BA, Pignone M: Measures used in studies of informed decision making about cancer screening: a systematic review. Ann Behav Med; 2006 Dec;32(3):188-201
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  • [Title] Measures used in studies of informed decision making about cancer screening: a systematic review.
  • Interventions to promote informed decision making (IDM) for cancer screening are increasingly common.
  • We searched standard databases for intervention trials and other studies of screening decisions and decision aids, finding 2,110 unique citations (most with abstracts) that we reduced to 104 full-text articles; 36 studies met inclusion criteria (prostate = 20, colorectal = 9, breast = 6, cervical = 1).
  • Our findings revealed that most studies measured screening (or intention) and knowledge; fewer measured recommended IDM-related constructs and none measured all outcomes proposed for evaluating IDM interventions.
  • Few IDM measures have been developed/carefully adapted from treatment measures and tested for cancer screening or in diverse populations.

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  • (PMID = 17107291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-6612
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Behav Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00043; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00050; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00056; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00057; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00059; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00064; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25CA57713
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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11. Lim EJ, Morgan J, Fielding R: Cervical screening uptake in immunocompromised women in Waikato, New Zealand. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Dec;21(12):835-6
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  • [Title] Cervical screening uptake in immunocompromised women in Waikato, New Zealand.
  • A one-year retrospective case study was undertaken of cervical cytology in two cohorts of immunocompromised women: those with HIV infection or renal transplants in the Waikato region of New Zealand.
  • Uptake of cervical screening in the two groups was compared with national guidelines.
  • The results showed that HIV patients' uptake was close to the national recommendation for annual cytology (84% had a smear in 18 months); they were more likely to have cytology performed in an HIV-related care setting.
  • Local discussions of these results identified potential influencing factors, which included inadequate dissemination of updated guidelines and inadequate documentation of immunocompromised health status on the national cervical screening programme database.
  • This audit supports including cervical cytology as part of an annual review in all immunocompromised patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Early Detection of Cancer / utilization. Immunocompromised Host. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Oct;22(10):614-5 [21998189.001]
  • (PMID = 21297095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Giuliano AR, Tortolero-Luna G, Ferrer E, Burchell AN, de Sanjose S, Kjaer SK, Muñoz N, Schiffman M, Bosch FX: Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in men, cancers other than cervical and benign conditions. Vaccine; 2008 Aug 19;26 Suppl 10:K17-28
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in men, cancers other than cervical and benign conditions.
  • The association of HPV DNA with several different ano-genital cancers other than cervical has been reported for the vulva, vagina, anus and penis.
  • In women, HPV DNA is prevalent in 36-40% vulvar cancer cases and close to 90% of vaginal cancers.
  • There is limited data available on the natural history and HPV-related diseases in the genital tract in men, although studies are ongoing.
  • Among HPV DNA positive ano-genital cancer cases, HPV-16 is the most frequently found followed distantly by HPV-18.
  • In benign HPV-related diseases such as genital warts or recurrent respiratory papillomatosis HPV-6 and 11, the two most frequent non-oncogenic types, are the predominant types detected.
  • In this article we summarize and review studies describing the natural history of HPV infections among men and its impact on HPV related disease in women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 18847554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098803
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 91
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS73638; NLM/ PMC4366004
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13. Dempsey AF, Patel DA: HPV vaccine acceptance, utilization and expected impacts in the U.S.: Where are we now? Hum Vaccin; 2010 Sep 16;6(9)
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  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represent a remarkable opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases.
  • This article describes the burden of HPV infection and related disease in the U.S., and reviews what is currently known about HPV vaccine utilization among adolescent and young adult females in this country.

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  • (PMID = 20855941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-8600
  • [Journal-full-title] Human vaccines
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum Vaccin
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD001438-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA120040; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD001438; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD001438-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Chaturvedi AK, Dumestre J, Gaffga AM, Mire KM, Clark RA, Braly PS, Dunlap K, Beckel TE, Hammons AF, Kissinger PJ, Hagensee ME: Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in women from three clinical settings. J Med Virol; 2005 Jan;75(1):105-13
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  • These data suggest distinct genotypic prevalence profiles in women at diverse risk for cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15543579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R03 CA86378
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Dames DN, Ragin C, Griffith-Bowe A, Gomez P, Butler R: The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Infect Agent Cancer; 2009;4 Suppl 1:S8
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  • [Title] The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
  • INTRODUCTION: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major etiologic agent in the development of cervical cancer and its natural history of infection is altered in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The prevalence of HPV infection and cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females in the Bahamas is not known.
  • Finding out the prevalence would allow for the establishment of protocols to optimize total care of this population and help prevent morbidity and mortality related to cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The Objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of high risk HPV genotypes and the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females attending the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Nassau, Bahamas.
  • METHODS: One hundred consecutive, consenting, non-pregnant, HIV-sero-positive females from the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Nassau, Bahamas were screened for high-risk HPV infections and cervical cytology abnormalities using liquid-based pap smear and signal amplification nucleic acid method for HPV detection.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was 67% and cervical abnormalities were noted in 44% of the study population.
  • High-risk HPV types were more likely to be present in women with CD4+ cell counts less than 400 microl-1 and in women with cervical cytology abnormalities (97%).
  • The most common cervical abnormality was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19208213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2638467
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16. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.
  • METHODS: Patient records were linked between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and Swiss cantonal cancer registries.
  • Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papillomaviridae. Prospective Studies. Registries. Research Design. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Switzerland / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


17. Nijhawan AE, Salloway R, Nunn AS, Poshkus M, Clarke JG: Preventive healthcare for underserved women: results of a prison survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2010 Jan;19(1):17-22
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  • OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the preventive healthcare needs of incarcerated women in the following areas: cervical cancer and breast cancer screening, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, hepatitis screening and vaccination, and smoking cessation.

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  • (PMID = 20088654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-843X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of women's health (2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Womens Health (Larchmt)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32 DA013911; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / MD003501-01; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / T32DA013911; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / L60 MD003501; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / K01 AA020228; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / L60 MD003501-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828235
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18. Insinga RP, Dasbach EJ, Elbasha EH: Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model. BMC Infect Dis; 2009;9:119
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  • BACKGROUND: Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs.
  • (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context;.
  • METHODS: Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts.
  • RESULTS: Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking.
  • In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer cases that become symptomatic by stage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. Female. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Humans. Time Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19640281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 133
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2728100
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19. Buchacz K, Baker RK, Palella FJ Jr, Chmiel JS, Lichtenstein KA, Novak RM, Wood KC, Brooks JT, HOPS Investigators: AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study. AIDS; 2010 Jun 19;24(10):1549-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence and spectrum of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.
  • During 2003-2007, there were no significant changes in annual rates of opportunistic infections or opportunistic malignancies; the leading opportunistic illnesses (rate per 1000 person-years) were esophageal candidiasis (5.2), Pneumocystis pneumonia (3.9), cervical cancer (3.5), Mycobacterium avium complex infection (2.5), and cytomegalovirus disease (1.8); 36% opportunistic illness events occurred at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasms / epidemiology


20. Xi LF, Edelstein ZR, Meyers C, Ho J, Cherne SL, Schiffman M: Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 DNA load in relation to coexistence of other types, particularly those in the same species. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Sep;18(9):2507-12
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  • However, it is unknown whether viral DNA load is related to the coexistence of other types.
  • HPV16 and HPV18 E7 copies per nanogram of cellular DNA in cervical swab samples were measured by real-time PCR in triplicate.
  • RESULTS: Concurrent coinfection was common in this population of women with minor cervical lesions; multiple HPV types were detected in 573 (71.4%) of 802 HPV16-positive women and 227 (74.9%) of 303 HPV18-positive women.

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  • (PMID = 19690188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA084396-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084396; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 84396; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084396-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131775; NLM/ PMC2745080
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21. Aldrich T, Becker D, García SG, Lara D: Mexican physicians' knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Apr;81(2):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mexican physicians' knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess Mexican physicians' knowledge about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer and their opinions and practices related to screening, managing, and counselling women on these topics.
  • With respect to HPV, while 80% of respondents identified the virus as the principal cause of cervical cancer, many lacked detailed knowledge about this association.
  • Nearly all respondents thought that women should be informed that HPV causes cervical cancer; nevertheless, physicians believed that positioning cervical cancer as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) could cause problems in partner relationships (60%), confusion (40%), and unnecessary anxiety among women (32%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mexican physicians support patient education on the HPV-cervical cancer link.
  • However, findings suggest the need to present clear messages to women (emphasising, for example, that only certain types of HPV are oncogenic), to consider the conflicts such information might create for couples, and to further educate physicians about this topic and about overall cervical cancer screening and treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Competence / standards. Family Practice / education. Gynecology / education. Obstetrics / education. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


22. Colón-López V, Ortiz AP, Palefsky J: Burden of human papillomavirus infection and related comorbidities in men: implications for research, disease prevention and health promotion among Hispanic men. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):232-40
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  • [Title] Burden of human papillomavirus infection and related comorbidities in men: implications for research, disease prevention and health promotion among Hispanic men.
  • Over the last two decades, research has established a strong causal link between specific types of HPV infection and cancer, particularly cervical, anal, vulvar/vaginal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer.
  • With the world-wide introduction of two new prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPVs causing cervical cancer, and the recent FDA approval of the quadrivalent vaccine in preventing genital warts in men, there is an urgency to determine the burden of HPV in Hispanic populations before vaccine programs are implemented on a widespread basis.
  • This review article summarizes existing research on HPV infection and HPV-related morbidities in men, with a particular emphasis on Hispanic men in the United States and Puerto Rico.
  • (1) genital warts, (2) HPV and related cancers and (3) biobehavioral and psychosocial factors related to HPV infection and vaccination.

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  • (PMID = 20799510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03 DA027939-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R25CA094186-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / 1 SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA096297; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / SC2 AI090922; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03 DA027939; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003051-21; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003051; United States / PHS HHS / / R03 027939-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03051; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094186-08; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007600; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA096297-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54CA96297
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
  • [Number-of-references] 99
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS266486; NLM/ PMC3038604
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23. Suba EJ, Murphy SK, Donnelly AD, Furia LM, Huynh ML, Raab SS: Systems analysis of real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries. Am J Public Health; 2006 Mar;96(3):480-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systems analysis of real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries.
  • Papanicolaou screening is feasible anywhere that screening for cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries, is appropriate.
  • After documenting that the Vietnam War had contributed to the problem of cervical cancer in Vietnam, we participated in a grass roots effort to establish a nationwide cervical cancer prevention program in that country and performed root cause analyses of program deficiencies.
  • We found that real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries involve people far more than technology and that such obstacles can be appropriately managed through a systems approach focused on programmatic quality rather than through ideological commitments to technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / organization & administration. Public Health Practice. Systems Theory. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


24. Sussman AL, Helitzer D, Sanders M, Urquieta B, Salvador M, Ndiaye K: HPV and cervical cancer prevention counseling with younger adolescents: implications for primary care. Ann Fam Med; 2007 Jul-Aug;5(4):298-304
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  • [Title] HPV and cervical cancer prevention counseling with younger adolescents: implications for primary care.
  • PURPOSE: Primary care clinicians will continue to play an important role in cervical cancer prevention, particularly with regard to administration of the newly licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and continued administration of Papanicolaou tests.
  • Little is known about the factors that influence cervical cancer prevention counseling, particularly in the adolescent encounter.
  • We conducted a qualitative study to better understand the implications for counseling about cervical cancer prevention by primary care clinicians who care for adolescents.
  • RESULTS: Clinicians identified 4 categories of factors related to their counseling experiences with adolescents about HPV:.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings show that conditions of the preadolescent and young adolescent visit pose a challenge to the successful integration of counseling about cervical cancer prevention in primary care.
  • Counseling strategies that are designed to emphasize a preventive focus while including parents in the discussion at the time of vaccination and that are appropriate to populations with different cultural values and beliefs will help to enhance communication about cervical cancer prevention and the particular role of the HPV vaccine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adolescent Behavior / psychology. Adolescent Health Services / standards. Counseling / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Primary Health Care / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


26. Bonnet F, Morlat P: [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?]. Rev Med Interne; 2006 Mar;27(3):227-35
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  • [Title] [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?].
  • PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality related to neoplasia are increasing in HIV-infected patients.
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND KEY-POINTS: The incidence of AIDS opportunistic infections dramatically decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Among AIDS-cancers, the incidences of Kaposi sarcoma and of cerebral lymphoma decreased in a same way than AIDS infections but the incidences of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma and of cervical cancer decreased less than the others and remain higher than in the general population.
  • The most recent and large studies have also shown a 1.7 to 3 fold increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected patients when compared to the general population without significant impact of HAART on incidence curves.


27. Huey NL, Clark AD, Kluhsman BC, Lengerich EJ, ACTION Health Cancer Task Force: HPV vaccine attitudes and practices among primary care providers in Appalachian Pennsylvania. Prev Chronic Dis; 2009 Apr;6(2):A49
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  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cervical cancer in Appalachia exceeds the national rate; rural Appalachian women are at especially high risk.
  • We assessed the attitudes and practices related to human papillomavirus vaccination among providers in primary care practices in a contiguous 5-county area of Appalachian Pennsylvania.

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  • (PMID = 19288992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1151
  • [Journal-full-title] Preventing chronic disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prev Chronic Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114622
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687855
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28. Mortensen GL, Larsen HK: The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health; 2010;10:113
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  • RESULTS: Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes.
  • The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling.The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts.

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  • (PMID = 20205944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848198
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29. Rowhani-Rahbar A, Mao C, Hughes JP, Alvarez FB, Bryan JT, Hawes SE, Weiss NS, Koutsky LA: Longer term efficacy of a prophylactic monovalent human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. Vaccine; 2009 Sep 18;27(41):5612-9
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  • During the extended follow-up period, in the per-protocol susceptible population, none of the vaccine recipients was found to be infected with HPV-16 or developed HPV-16-related cervical lesions; among placebo recipients, 6 women were found to be infected with HPV-16 (vaccine efficacy [VE]=100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-100%) and 3 women developed HPV-16-related cervical lesions (VE=100%; 95% CI: <0-100%).
  • During the combined original trial and extended follow-up period, in the intention-to-treat population, 20 and 22 women developed any cervical lesion regardless of HPV type among the vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively (VE=15%; 95% CI: <0-56%).


30. Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Denny LA, De Souza M, Kuhn L, Goldie SJ: Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening. PLoS One; 2009 May 28;4(5):e5691
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  • [Title] Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening.
  • We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW) home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand.


31. Piketty C, Kazatchkine MD: Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):140-5
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV-infected men who have sex with men remain at high risk of developing anal cancer despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • In HIV-infected women, however, there is some evidence that HAART may be associated with regression of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical disease.
  • So far, epidemiologic data provided by cancer registries have shown no reduction in the incidence of cervical and anal cancer in patients with HIV infection since the initiation of HAART in 1996.
  • Taken together, these lines of evidence support the need for developing anal and cervical cancer screening programs for patients with HIV, whether untreated or on HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology


32. Wienecke R, Brockmeyer NH, Kreuter A: [Human papilloma virus-induced disease in HIV-positive patients]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):994-8
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  • There is an increased incidence of anal and cervical carcinomas, their precancerous lesions such as anal/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and condylomas and oral warts.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / etiology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / etiology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Mouth Diseases / etiology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proctoscopy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Viral Load. Warts / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17051407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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33. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7
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  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Attempts to use the drug in secondary prophylaxis has shown some promise in former tobacco smokers, whereas no effect was seen in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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34. Watson RA: Human Papillomavirus: Confronting the Epidemic-A Urologist's Perspective. Rev Urol; 2005;7(3):135-44
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  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) has long been associated with the development of penile lesions-condyloma acuminatum and verrucous carcinoma of the penis.
  • More recently, HPV has been implicated as an etiology of more serious neoplasias in men-penile carcinoma and other anogenital squamous-cell carcinomas.
  • HPV is now widely recognized as responsible for more than 95% of cervical cancers in women.
  • However, each newly acquired infection has the potential to persist as an incurable, lifelong affliction, generating a significant increase in the long-term risk of cancer for patients and their sexual partners.
  • Many of these HPV-related cancers will not become manifest until decades later.

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  • (PMID = 16985824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1477576
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35. Bernstein WB, Little RF, Wilson WH, Yarchoan R: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jul;84(1):3-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease.
  • Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus.
  • With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change.
  • Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality.
  • At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States.
  • With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16867895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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36. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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37. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers and HIV Infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2005 May;7(3):227-234
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  • [Title] Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers and HIV Infection.
  • With fewer patients now succumbing to infectious complications of AIDS, other HIV-related morbidities such as malignancies have become increasingly important.
  • Apart from Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer, which are considered as AIDS-defining, several additional cancers, referred to as non-AIDS-defining cancers, are also statistically increased in HIV-infected persons.
  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.
  • However, the types of cancer observed at an increased frequency and the relative risks reported vary widely among studies.
  • Although immunosuppression is consistently associated with an increased risk of AIDS-related malignancies, the role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS- defining cancers is controversial.

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  • (PMID = 15847726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3847
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Mammas IN, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr; 2009 Mar;168(3):267-73
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  • The recently introduced HPV vaccination is expected to prevent HPV-related cervical cancer in adulthood; however, HPV infection will continue to affect children.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Recurrence. Respiratory Tract Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Vaccination

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  • (PMID = 19050916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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39. Heard I: Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):68-73
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  • [Title] Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical cancer, caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is the only cancer that is almost preventable through regular screening.
  • In high-resource, as in low-resource and middle-resource countries, women hit by the AIDS epidemic have a high prevalence of infection with HPV and related disease, including cervical cancer.
  • The question whether cervical screening, which helped to reduce dramatically cervical cancer rates through the detection of precancerous lesions in the general population, is as efficient in the setting of HIV is still debated.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The risk for cervical cancer remained high and stable during the last decade in HIV-infected women, and incidence did not decrease with improving CD4 cell counts in women receiving antiviral therapy.
  • Optimal methods to improve both the sensitivity and the specificity of cervical cancer screening are currently evaluated.
  • HPV vaccines, recently available, have no therapeutic effect and might thus not be very useful in preventing cervical cancer in a population highly infected with multiple and persistent HPV.
  • SUMMARY: Cervical cancer prevention remains an important goal in HIV-infected women and specific guidelines are warranted for this increasing population.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. DNA, Viral / analysis. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vaginal Smears


40. McGovern T: Building coalitions to support women's health and rights in the United States: South Carolina and Florida. Reprod Health Matters; 2007 May;15(29):119-29
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  • In-depth research on the status of reproductive health and rights in each state, analysed by race, economic status, county and state policy initiatives relevant to women's health, showed that in both states access to contraception and abortion, cervical and breast cancer screening and treatment, HIV/AIDS-related care and pregnancy care were poor, with African American and Hispanic women faring even worse than white women.

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  • (PMID = 17512383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive health matters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Health Matters
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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41. Lee SH, Vigliotti VS, Pappu S: Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen. BMC Womens Health; 2009;9:8
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  • Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region.
  • However, even a highly specific test for high-risk HPV genotyping may have unacceptably low positive predictive values for precancer lesion in populations with a low cervical cancer prevalence rate.

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  • (PMID = 19358733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6874
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC women's health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Womens Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / E1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 31; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2672071
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42. Winangnon S, Sriamporn S, Senarak W, Saranrittichai K, Vatanasapt P, Moore MA: Use of lay health workers in a community-based chronic disease control program. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):457-61
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  • The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in the developing world, and in particular diabetes, cancer and circulatory diseases, is an unfortunate fact of life.
  • At the same time infection-related diseases, including sexually transmitted HIV-AIDS and HPV-dependent cervical cancer, remain important.

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  • (PMID = 18159987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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43. Little RF, Denicoff AM, Trimble EL: Reversible features of cervical cancer in human immunodeficiency virus infection: impaired access, impaired surveillance, impaired immunity, impaired outcomes. Cancer; 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2627-30
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  • [Title] Reversible features of cervical cancer in human immunodeficiency virus infection: impaired access, impaired surveillance, impaired immunity, impaired outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Female. Humans. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use


44. Lehtovirta P, Paavonen J, Heikinheimo O: Risk factors, diagnosis and prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jan;19(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Risk factors, diagnosis and prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women.
  • The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is high among HIV-infected women.
  • Demographic as well as treatment-related data were derived from medical reports.
  • During the follow-up, 51 subjects (33%) displayed CIN (16% CIN 1 and 18% CIN 2 +), whereas 102 subjects had Pap smear results of normal cells, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or signs of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) but no CIN in histological specimens from the cervix.
  • Only one case of cancer of the uterine cervix was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Incidence. Longitudinal Studies. Papanicolaou Test. Parity. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears. Vaginosis, Bacterial / epidemiology. Viral Load


45. Tornesello ML, Loquercio G, Tagliamonte M, Rossano F, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: Human papillomavirus infection in urine samples from male renal transplant patients. J Med Virol; 2010 Jul;82(7):1179-85
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  • Renal allograft recipients have a well-documented increased incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancies and preventive strategies should be specifically implemented.
  • While in females the use of the Papanicolau test and HPV detection assay are used currently as a screening test for cervical cancer, no diagnostic procedures have been implemented to monitor HPV infection in males.
  • The high prevalence of HPV 16 among renal allograft recipients suggests that an HPV-16-based preventive or therapeutic vaccine may be effective for prevention or treatment of HPV-related neoplasia in this group of immune compromised patients.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20513081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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46. Manfredi R, Fulgaro C, Sabbatani S, Dentale N, Legnani G: Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists. Cancer Detect Prev; 2006;30(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is a very infrequent occurrence in persons aged 55 years or less, and it has been rarely reported in HIV-infected patients (10 overall cases so far); therefore, an increased incidence compared with the general population has not been established, although a younger age seems more frequent among population with HIV disease.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer occurred in a 53-year-old HIV-infected man, admitted due to non-specific signs, and symptoms: impaired general conditions, fever, weight loss, fatigue, and exertional dyspnea.
  • A remarkable anemia and an aortic systolic murmur were the prominent initial findings, while AIDS-related conditions were not suspected due to a sustained CD4+ count and a contained viremia, which never required antiretroviral therapy.
  • During the diagnostic workup for an HIV-associated fever of undetermined origin, a bone marrow biopsy disclosed a metastatic prostatic cancer, with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and acid phosphate levels.
  • A skeleton scintigraphy pointed out multiple hypercaptation (areas of concentrated traces of radioactivity) areas with involvement of cranial, cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae, as well as the pelvis and upper portions of both femurs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The non-specific clinical presentation of our case (mimicking other generalized or focal illnesses), and the final, lethal complication (DIC) pose striking problems related to the differential diagnosis during HIV disease, while the rapid evolution into an advanced, complicated, and widely metastatic disease with extensive bone marrow invasion which preceded the appearance of local signs-symptoms, and the lethal overwhelming DIC, deserves attention by specialists who care for HIV-infected subjects.


47. Kigbu JH, Nyango DD: A critical look on condoms. Niger J Med; 2009 Oct-Dec;18(4):354-9
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  • This is not just to prevent HIV and Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but also to prevent unwanted pregnancy STI-related infertility and negative pregnancy outcomes, and cervical cancer- and most importantly to protect children and for partners to protect each other.
  • Since the beginning of the AIDS epidemics, condom distribution has greatly increased.

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  • (PMID = 20120136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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48. Barbaro G, Barbarini G: HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):1121-6
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  • [Title] HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review).
  • The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
  • However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population.
  • While not classified as AIDS-defining, these malignancies have been referred to as AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count.
  • Studies of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS-associated cancers provided contrasting data.
  • While a significant decrease in the incidence of KS has been observed, HAART has not had a significant impact on NHL incidence, particularly systemic NHL, or on ICC, HD, anal cancers and other non-AIDS-defining cancers.
  • Regardless of whether these cancers are directly related to HIV-induced immunodeficiency, treating cancer in HIV-infected patients remains a challenge because of drug interactions, compounded side effects, and the potential effect of chemotherapy on CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load.


49. Dubina M, Goldenberg G: Viral-associated nonmelanoma skin cancers: a review. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):561-73
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  • Several types of nonmelanoma skin cancer and precancerous lesions have an associated viral pathogenesis, including epidermodysplasia verruciformis, verrucous carcinoma, bowenoid papulosis, Kaposi sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and, most recently, Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • It is now widely accepted that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play a key role in pathogenesis of cervical and anogenital cancer.
  • They can be divided into genera including alpha, beta, and gamma HPVs, which comprise the majority of cutaneous HPvs. The relationship between viruses and cancer is a popular focus of research in an era of AIDS and organ transplantation, where immunosuppression is not uncommon.
  • The incidence of viral-related malignancies in these populations is increasing.

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jul;32(5):522 [20571349.001]
  • (PMID = 19590418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 195
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50. Chaturvedi AK, Mbulaiteye SM, Engels EA: Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers. Ann Epidemiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers.
  • PURPOSE: Registry-based studies provide valuable data regarding cancer risk among people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA).
  • However, SIR may underestimate RR when HIV/AIDS prevalence in the general population or RR is high.
  • We quantified the extent of this underestimation for 3 AIDS-related cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CNS NHL) and cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: We used data on cancer risk among PWHA from the U.S.
  • HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study.
  • (1) SIRs calculated using pre-AIDS era (1973-1979) cancer incidence rates (SIRpre-AIDS) and (2) SIRs calculated after subtraction of cancers known to be among PWHA from general population rates (SIRexclusion).
  • RESULTS: For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs (117.8 and 133.9, respectively) calculated using overall general population rates substantially underestimated both SIRpre-AIDS (19,778 and 3,612, respectively) and SIRexclusion (657.7 and 536.4, respectively).
  • In contrast, the extent of underestimation was negligible for cervical cancer (SIR = 4.9 vs. SIRexclusion = 5.1).
  • However, SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion estimates were more similar, indicating that SIR differences artifactually reflect differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between males and females.
  • For KS and CNS NHL, trends across calendar time were weaker in SIRs than in SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion.
  • SIRs must be interpreted cautiously when HIV/AIDS prevalence is high or varies across groups of interest.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


51. Banura C, Sandin S, van Doorn LJ, Quint W, Kleter B, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mbidde EK, Weiderpass E: Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:7
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  • [Title] Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda.
  • Women answered a questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination at each visit to collect exfoliated cervical cells.
  • The presence of 42 HPV types was evaluated in exfoliated cervical cells by a polymerase chain based (PCR) assay (SPF10-DEIA LiPA).
  • None of the women had a high-grade cervical lesion (HSIL) or cancer.
  • The risk for LSIL appeared to be elevated among women with HPV 18-related types compared to women not infected with those types (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.0 - 11.8).

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  • (PMID = 20380709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873244
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52. Gillison ML: Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):439-44
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  • [Title] Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the principal cause of a distinct form of oropharyngeal cancer (OPCA) that has been rising in incidence in the United States since 1973, particularly among young men.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence rates for HPV-related OPCA increased with age and were strongly influenced by year of birth in the United States (cohort effect).
  • Persons with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk ( approximately two to six-fold) for OPCA relative to the general population.
  • Consistent with a viral attribution, however, is the apparent increase in risk of OPCA with severity of AIDS-related immunosuppression.
  • Analogous to other HPV-related cancers (e.g. cervical and anal cancer), trends over time do not appear to be influenced by highly active antiretroviral (HAART) therapy.
  • SUMMARY: Healthcare providers may encounter HPV-related OPCA more frequently among individuals with HIV/AIDS as this population ages and due to the strong birth cohort effects observed in the general population.
  • However, there is no evidence in support of different incidence trends over time among persons with and without HIV/AIDS.

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  • (PMID = 19587593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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53. Rao D, Gela N, Daley EM, Kattezham R, Rodriguez G, Cella D: Developing a measure of health-related quality of life for women with cervical dysplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Oct;21(10):697-701
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  • [Title] Developing a measure of health-related quality of life for women with cervical dysplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection.
  • To date, there is no measure of health-related quality of life specifically designed to assess symptoms and functioning for people with cervical dysplasia resulting from HPV infection.
  • In the present study, we set out to develop a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life among women with low-grade cervical dysplasia.
  • The result is a preliminary 36-item measure, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD), which sets out to assess the physical and psychological health-related quality-of-life aspects of cervical dysplasia and will be validated in an upcoming study.

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  • (PMID = 21139148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH084551; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH084551-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH084551-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS278606; NLM/ PMC3295597
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54. Shariff-Marco S, Klassen AC, Bowie JV: Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported racism and its association with cancer-related health behaviors. Am J Public Health; 2010 Feb;100(2):364-74
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  • [Title] Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported racism and its association with cancer-related health behaviors.
  • OBJECTIVES: We used population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of self-reported racism across racial/ethnic groups and to evaluate the association between self-reported racism and cancer-related health behaviors.
  • The cancer risk behaviors we assessed were smoking, binge drinking, not walking, being overweight or obese, and not being up to date with screenings for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers.
  • In adjusted analyses, general racism was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight or obese; health care racism was associated with not being up to date with screening for prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Associations between general racism and lifestyle behaviors suggest that racism is a potential stressor that may shape cancer-related health behaviors, and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity.

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  • (PMID = 20019302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA009314-25
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804625
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55. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


56. Kiertiburanakul S, Likhitpongwit S, Ratanasiri S, Sungkanuparph S: Malignancies in HIV-infected Thai patients. HIV Med; 2007 Jul;8(5):322-3
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  • AIDS-related malignancies were found in 26 patients (62%).
  • The most common AIDS-related malignancies were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (33%), cervical cancer (21%) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (5%).
  • Breast cancer was the most common non-AIDS-related malignancy (10%).


57. Mogtomo ML, Malieugoue LC, Djiepgang C, Wankam M, Moune A, Ngane AN: Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Infect Agent Cancer; 2009;4:9
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  • [Title] Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non infected women.
  • In a pilot study, we assessed the relationships among cervical cytology abnormalities associated to Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HIV infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the development of Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs).
  • After obtaining information related to their lifestyle and sexual behaviour, cervicovaginal samples for Pap smears and venous blood for CD4 count were collected and further divided into two groups based upon the presence or absence of cervical cytology abnormalities i.e. those with normal cervical cytology and those with low and high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL).
  • The incidence of HSIL related to HPV infection within the study group independently of HAART initiation was high.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest the need for extension and expansion of the current study in order to evaluate the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and non HIV- infected women in Cameroon.

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  • (PMID = 19493339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701409
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58. Palefsky JM: Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue. J Adolesc Health; 2010 Apr;46(4 Suppl):S12-9
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue.
  • The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer.
  • HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers.
  • The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • Other HPV-related diseases of clinical importance in men include condylomata acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
  • The quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly efficacious in the prevention of genital warts in women and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Adolesc Health. 2010 Jun;46(6):614
  • (PMID = 20307839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1972
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Adolesc Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 91
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180665; NLM/ PMC2871537
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59. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • Cytokines and related molecules (IL10, sCD30) may identify patients at high risk for NHL.
  • SUMMARY: CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV load, germline genetic polymorphisms, cytokine and related molecules, and immunoglobulin light chains all show increasing promise as biomarkers of malignancy in HIV patients.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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60. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • HIV infected subjects are at increased risk of developing cancer and the risk seems to be directly associated with the level of immunodeficiency.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, patients better responded to cancer treatment.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


61. Pelucchi C, Esposito S, Galeone C, Semino M, Sabatini C, Picciolli I, Consolo S, Milani G, Principi N: Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. BMC Public Health; 2010;10:378
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  • METHODS: Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations.
  • The parents' propensity to vaccinate their children against HPV was significantly associated with professing the Catholic religion (odds ratio - OR = 0.61, 95% confidence interval - CI 0.46-0.82, being atheist), the gender of the offspring (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.53-2.30, having at least one daughter), a propensity to vaccinations in general (OR = 23.1, 95% CI 13.7-38.8), a knowledge that HPV vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.69-3.16), and an awareness that HPV could affect their own children (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 2.89-4.29).

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  • (PMID = 20584324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2901377
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62. Gingues S, Gill MJ: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta. HIV Med; 2006 Sep;7(6):369-77
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  • [Title] The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and outcomes of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia in a well-defined geographical HIV-infected population between 1984 and 2005.
  • METHODS: A clinic database search, chart review and verification with public health records were undertaken for all AIDS-defining cancers diagnosed in Southern Alberta before and after the introduction of HAART.
  • One hundred and forty-three cases of KS, 64 cases of NHL and 11 cases of invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia were identified.
  • KS and NHL together accounted for 15% of clinical presentations with an AIDS-defining illness that led to the HIV diagnosis.
  • The prevalences of KS, NHL and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia have recently stabilized at 3, 1 and 5% of the population, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


63. Agrawal T, Vats V, Wallace PK, Salhan S, Mittal A: Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2008;6:46
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  • [Title] Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders.
  • METHODS: Myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) populations in cervical mucosa and peripheral blood were analyzed in controls and Chlamydia positive women with or without fertility disorders with multicoloured flow cytometric analysis.
  • Cervical cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), C-reactive protein levels and sex hormone levels in serum were quantified by ELISA.
  • RESULTS: In cervix of Chlamydia positive women with fertility disorders, significantly high (P < 0.05) numbers of pDCs were present with increased CD80 expression. pDCs correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels in women with fertility disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / immunology. Chlamydia Infections / complications. Cytokines / physiology. Dendritic Cells / physiology. Estradiol / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18828896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Cytokines; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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64. Garland SM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus vaccines: current status and future prospects. Drugs; 2010 Jun 18;70(9):1079-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women.
  • Cervical cancer is the first cancer shown to be caused solely by virological agents: oncogenic genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, which are based on viral-like particle (VLP) technology of HPV, have the capacity to diminish a large proportion of cervical cancer cases worldwide.
  • Despite the excellent efficacy for high-grade dysplasia due to vaccine-related HPV types (near to 100%) and immunogenicity induced against the HPV types 16 and 18 in females naive to those HPV types pre-vaccination, some form of cervical precancer screening will still be necessary.
  • Both these vaccines translate to protection of cervical cancer in the order of 70-75%, which represents the percentage of invasive cancers attributable to HPV-16 and -18.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Diseases / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology


65. Strickler HD, Burk RD, Fazzari M, Anastos K, Minkoff H, Massad LS, Hall C, Bacon M, Levine AM, Watts DH, Silverberg MJ, Xue X, Schlecht NF, Melnick S, Palefsky JM: Natural history and possible reactivation of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Apr 20;97(8):577-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The more moderate association between HIV coinfection and HPV persistence could partly explain why cervical cancer rates have not reached more epidemic proportions in HIV-positive women.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15840880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85178-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00083; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-31834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34994; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01-HD-32632
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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66. Shackelford J, Pagano JS: Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer. BMC Biochem; 2007;8 Suppl 1:S8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer.
  • This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS.
  • The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively.
  • We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system.