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1. Adler DH: The impact of HAART on HPV-related cervical disease. Curr HIV Res; 2010 Oct;8(7):493-7
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Clinical Implications of Immune Reconstitution in AIDS .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of HAART on HPV-related cervical disease.
  • These benefits have clearly extended to some HIV-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The impact of HAART on cervical cancer, however, remains uncertain.
  • The objective of this review is to summarize the last ten years of registry-based and clinical research into the impact of HAART on human papillomavirus (HPV) related cervical disease.
  • RELEVANT FINDINGS: compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, HIV-infected women have an increased prevalence of HPV infection, increased risk of progression of HPV-related cervical disease, and an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer.
  • While the partial immune reconstitution afforded by HAART might be expected to decrease susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical disease, the local effects of improved immunosurveillance on the cervix are uncertain and the increased longevity of patients on HAART may increase risk of exposure to HPV and provide the time required for progression of cervical disease.
  • Registry-based evidence has been consistent in identifying the lack of decrease in cervical cancer incidence in the HAART era.
  • Clinical research on the subject, however, has produced conflicting evidence with regards to both the effect of HAART on HPV infection and its impact on cervical disease progression/regression.
  • SUMMARY: the incidence of cervical cancer has not decreased in the HAART-era.
  • Furthermore, clinical research has not shown a clear benefit of HAART in decreasing HPV-related cervical disease in HIV-infected women.
  • A better understanding of this subject will have an impact on cervical disease surveillance practices.

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  • (PMID = 20946095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. HIV Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI078498-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI077759; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI078498; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI078498-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS293555; NLM/ PMC3108243
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2. Shackelford J, Pagano JS: Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer. BMC Biochem; 2007;8 Suppl 1:S8
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer.
  • This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS.
  • The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively.
  • We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system.

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  • (PMID = 18047745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2091
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ubiquitin
  • [Number-of-references] 119
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2106372
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3. Sasco AJ, Jaquet A, Boidin E, Ekouevi DK, Thouillot F, Lemabec T, Forstin MA, Renaudier P, N'dom P, Malvy D, Dabis F: The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One; 2010;5(1):e8621
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries.
  • The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies for this review were identified from several bibliographical databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Pascal, Web of Science and using keywords "HIV, neoplasia, epidemiology and Africa" and related MesH terms.
  • A clear association was found between HIV infection and AIDS-classifying cancers.
  • The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2) to 1.6 (1.1-2.3), whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4) to 17.0 (2.2-134.1).
  • For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9) to 13.0 (4.5-39.4).
  • Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa show that HIV infection is not only strongly associated with AIDS-classifying cancers but also provided some evidence of association for other neoplasia.
  • African countries need now to implement well designed population-based studies in order to better describe the spectrum of AIDS-associated malignancies and the most effective strategies for their prevention, screening and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20066157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799672
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4. Gingues S, Gill MJ: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta. HIV Med; 2006 Sep;7(6):369-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and outcomes of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia in a well-defined geographical HIV-infected population between 1984 and 2005.
  • METHODS: A clinic database search, chart review and verification with public health records were undertaken for all AIDS-defining cancers diagnosed in Southern Alberta before and after the introduction of HAART.
  • One hundred and forty-three cases of KS, 64 cases of NHL and 11 cases of invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia were identified.
  • KS and NHL together accounted for 15% of clinical presentations with an AIDS-defining illness that led to the HIV diagnosis.
  • The prevalences of KS, NHL and invasive cervical cancer/dysplasia have recently stabilized at 3, 1 and 5% of the population, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


5. Tserenpuntsag B, Kołacińska A, Jabłonowska E: [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):529-34
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  • [Title] [AIDS associated cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Nowotwory zwiazane z AIDS w erze skojarzonego leczenia antyretrowirusowego (HAART).
  • HIV infected subjects are at increased risk of developing cancer and the risk seems to be directly associated with the level of immunodeficiency.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) and invasive cervical cancer are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • It significantly reduced the incidence of AIDS associated events and deaths and even changed treatment regimens ofAIDS associated cancers.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, patients better responded to cancer treatment.
  • HAART allows the use of standard-dose chemotherapies for NON-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV infected pacients and same treatment regimen for invasive cervical cancer in infected patients as non-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


6. Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Denny LA, De Souza M, Kuhn L, Goldie SJ: Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening. PLoS One; 2009 May 28;4(5):e5691
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  • [Title] Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening.
  • We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW) home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand.


7. Leitao MM Jr, White P, Cracchiolo B: Cervical cancer in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Cancer; 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2683-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical cancer in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and CD4 counts in patients infected with HIV with and without cervical cancer.
  • The authors hypothesized that HIV-positive women with cervical cancer would have a greater risk of immune suppression.
  • METHODS: A case-control study was conducted that included all HIV-positive patients who were seen at the authors' institution from January 1, 1995 to April 20, 2006 with invasive cervical cancer (cases) and without invasive cervical cancer (controls).
  • Patients were included only if they had a CD4 count recorded<6 months before or<3 months after their diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer (cases) or at their last gynecologic examination (controls).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with HIV who were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer appeared to have a much greater degree of immunosuppression than women with HIV without invasive cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / complications. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2627-30 [18429005.001]
  • (PMID = 18438877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Suba EJ, Murphy SK, Donnelly AD, Furia LM, Huynh ML, Raab SS: Systems analysis of real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries. Am J Public Health; 2006 Mar;96(3):480-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systems analysis of real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries.
  • Papanicolaou screening is feasible anywhere that screening for cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries, is appropriate.
  • After documenting that the Vietnam War had contributed to the problem of cervical cancer in Vietnam, we participated in a grass roots effort to establish a nationwide cervical cancer prevention program in that country and performed root cause analyses of program deficiencies.
  • We found that real-world obstacles to successful cervical cancer prevention in developing countries involve people far more than technology and that such obstacles can be appropriately managed through a systems approach focused on programmatic quality rather than through ideological commitments to technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / organization & administration. Public Health Practice. Systems Theory. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


9. Cáceres W, Cruz-Amy M, Díaz-Meléndez V: AIDS-related malignancies: revisited. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Mar;29(1):70-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: revisited.
  • Since the first reports between the association of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and neoplasia, there has been a dramatic change in the incidence and epidemiology of AIDS-related malignancies.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and cervical cancer are classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • However, since the availability of highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), especially protease inhibitors, there has been a steady increase in non- AIDS defining malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), lung cancer, hepatocellular cancer, anal cancer and others and a decline in AIDS-defining neoplasias.
  • Although the emergence of non-AIDS defining cancers could be a result of longer life expectancy and due to a better control of HIV, toxic habits and co-infection with other viruses such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papilloma virus (HPV) could play an important role.
  • The interactions of cART and incomplete immune reconstitution could be other factors explaining the increase in non-AIDS defining cancers.
  • These emerging non-AIDS defining malignancies present a new challenge in the care of patients with HIV infection, and require optimal treatment protocols that take into consideration the interaction between cART and systemic chemotherapy.
  • We review the current status of AIDS-related malignancies, its pathophysiology, epidemiology and management with emphasis in the changing patterns of presentation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology


10. Akanmu AS: AIDS-associated malignancies. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2006 Dec;35 Suppl:57-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • HIV induces more profound immunodeficiency state and it should not be difficult to imaging why cancer diagnosis is made in over 40% of HIV infected patients.
  • Impairment of normal function of natural killer cells as a result of lack of helper signals from CD4+ T-lymphocytes may be a major mechanism of increased susceptibility to cancer development in HIV infected patients.
  • Three neoplastic diseases are associated so commonly with HIV infection that each of them has become recognized as an AIDS defining illness.
  • These are Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and Cervical Carcinoma.
  • Both KS and NHL were recognized as AIDS associated cancers from the onset of the epidemic in 1981 but carcinoma of the cervix became AIDS defining in 1993.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18050776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of medicine and medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Med Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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11. Biggar RJ, Chaturvedi AK, Goedert JJ, Engels EA, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2007 Jun 20;99(12):962-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer has been declining among persons with AIDS.
  • We investigated the association between cancer risk and CD4 cell count among such persons.
  • METHODS: Data from US AIDS registries were linked to local cancer registry data.
  • Cancer incidence per 100,000 person-years was determined for the 4-27 months from the onset of AIDS from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1995--before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available--and from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2002.
  • The relationships between CD4 count at AIDS onset and cancer incidence were assessed by proportional hazards models.
  • RESULTS: Among 325,516 adults with AIDS, the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was lower in 1996-2002 (334.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (1838.9 cases per 100,000 person-years), and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma followed a similar pattern (i.e., 390.1 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1996-2002 and 1066.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in 1990-1995).
  • Cervical cancer incidence was higher in 1996-2002 (86.5 per 100,000 person-years) than in 1990-1995 (64.2 per 100,000 person-years), although not statistically significantly so (relative risk [RR] = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.81 to 2.46).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both before and after HAART was available, CD4 count was strongly associated with risks for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not for cervical cancer and Burkitt lymphoma.
  • The decreasing incidences of most AIDS-associated cancers in persons with AIDS during the 1990s are consistent with improving CD4 counts after HAART introduction in 1996.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / immunology. Burkitt Lymphoma / virology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 17565153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Galceran J, Marcos-Gragera R, Soler M, Romaguera A, Ameijide A, Izquierdo A, Borràs J, de Sanjosé S, Casabona J: Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Apr;43(6):1085-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain.
  • HIV infected people and AIDS patients develop cancer more frequently than the general population.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing cancer among 15 to 69 year old AIDS patients from two geographic areas: Tarragona and Girona provinces, in north-eastern Spain.
  • We have studied invasive and in situ cancers (for all sites) among 1659 AIDS patients from +/-5 years around the date of their AIDS diagnosis by matching the population-based Cancer Registries with the AIDS Registry covering these populations.
  • Sex and age-standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of observed-to-expected cancers were calculated by type of cancer as a measure of risk.
  • Compared with the general population, incidence of cancer among AIDS patients (invasive and in situ) increased 22.9 fold in men (n=142) and 21.0 fold in women (n=45).
  • High statistically significant SIRs were found for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (male, 486.4; female, 1030.0), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (male, 126.1; female, 192.8) and invasive cervical cancer (41.8).
  • High risks were also found for Hodgkin's lymphoma (31.1), liver cancer (29.4) and lung cancer (9.4) in men, and in situ cervical cancer (24.4) in women.
  • For all non-AIDS defining malignant neoplasms as a group SIRs were 3.4 in men and 2.5 in women.
  • Among men, homo/bisexuality was strongly related to risk of KS and NHL.
  • The rates of cervical cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver cancer and lung cancer were among the highest ever reported linked to HIV infection.
  • For the cervical cancer this could be attributable to the low incidence of this cancer in the general population and to the high prevalence of intravenous drug users among HIV women and probably due to poor preventive strategies in this population.

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  • (PMID = 17349785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Chaturvedi AK, Mbulaiteye SM, Engels EA: Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers. Ann Epidemiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Underestimation of relative risks by standardized incidence ratios for AIDS-related cancers.
  • PURPOSE: Registry-based studies provide valuable data regarding cancer risk among people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA).
  • However, SIR may underestimate RR when HIV/AIDS prevalence in the general population or RR is high.
  • We quantified the extent of this underestimation for 3 AIDS-related cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma (CNS NHL) and cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: We used data on cancer risk among PWHA from the U.S.
  • HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study.
  • (1) SIRs calculated using pre-AIDS era (1973-1979) cancer incidence rates (SIRpre-AIDS) and (2) SIRs calculated after subtraction of cancers known to be among PWHA from general population rates (SIRexclusion).
  • RESULTS: For KS and CNS NHL, SIRs (117.8 and 133.9, respectively) calculated using overall general population rates substantially underestimated both SIRpre-AIDS (19,778 and 3,612, respectively) and SIRexclusion (657.7 and 536.4, respectively).
  • In contrast, the extent of underestimation was negligible for cervical cancer (SIR = 4.9 vs. SIRexclusion = 5.1).
  • However, SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion estimates were more similar, indicating that SIR differences artifactually reflect differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between males and females.
  • For KS and CNS NHL, trends across calendar time were weaker in SIRs than in SIRpre-AIDS and SIRexclusion.
  • SIRs must be interpreted cautiously when HIV/AIDS prevalence is high or varies across groups of interest.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


14. Dhir AA, Sawant S, Dikshit RP, Parikh P, Srivastava S, Badwe R, Rajadhyaksha S, Dinshaw KA: Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Mar;19(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the cancer pattern among HIV positive cancer cases.
  • METHOD: The study group included patients registered in the HIV Cancer clinic at the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai, which is the largest tertiary referral cancer center in India.
  • We used the gender and age-specific proportions of each cancer site of the year 2002 that was recorded in the Hospital Cancer Registry to estimate an expected number of various cancer sites among HIV positive cancer patients during the period 2001-2005.
  • The observed number of site-specific cancer cases was divided by the expected number to obtain proportional incidence ratio (PIR).
  • In males, PIR was increased for anal cancer (PIR = 10.3, 95%CI 4.30-24.83), Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, colon cancer, and few head and neck cancer sites.
  • Among females, the PIRs for cervical cancer (PIR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.90-5.75), vaginal cancer (PIR = 7.7, 95%CI 2.48-23.85), and anal cancer (PIR = 6.5, 95%CI 0.91-45.88) were increased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Kaposi's sarcoma and increased PIRs for certain non-AIDS defining cancers among HIV infected cancer cases indicates a different spectrum of HIV associated malignancies in this region.
  • The raised PIR for cervical cancer emphasizes the urgent need for screening programs for cervical cancer among HIV infected individuals in India.


15. Phatak UA, Joshi R, Badakh DK, Gosavi VS, Phatak JU, Jagdale RV: AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Mar;58:159-62
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and effects of anti-retroviral therapy along with cancer chemotherapy on outcome of AIDS associated Cancers in Indian patients.
  • 46 AIDS-associated cancers were identified.
  • Patients were treated with different modalities of cancer management and anti-retroviral therapy was discussed with the patient and relatives.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of AIDS-associated cancers was 1.2 percent.
  • AIDS-Defining Cancers (ADC) were seen in 26 (54.35%) while non-AIDS-Defining Cancers (NADC) were observed in 21 (45.65%).
  • Non Hodgkin Lymphoma was the commonest form of AIDS-defining cancers in 21 (84%) patients, cervical cancers in 4 (16%) women while there was not a single case of Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • AIDS associated cancers were common in males.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-associated cancers are seen in advanced stage of HIV infection.
  • Cervical cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers do not show predictable response to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • Mortality in non-AIDS related cancers was significantly higher than AIDS related cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. India / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Young Adult


16. Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura MJ, Sackoff J, Virgo P, Pfeiffer RM: Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Jul 1;39(3):293-9
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS.
  • The survival of persons with AIDS (PWA) has recently improved because of better antiretroviral therapies.
  • Similarly, the prognosis of cancer has also improved.
  • To determine if survival in PWA with cancer has also improved, we compared cancer survival in adults with and without AIDS using data from New York City from 1980 through 2000.
  • Analyses were made for AIDS-related cancers (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) and for 8 non-AIDS-related cancers (lung, larynx, colorectum, anus, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, prostate, and testis).
  • Death hazard ratios compared survival in PWA with cancer with that in cancer patients without AIDS, adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar-time of cancer occurrence.
  • The 24-month survival rate of PWA with cancer (9015 AIDS cancers and 929 non-AIDS-related cancers of 8 types) improved significantly for most cancer types.
  • By 1996 through 2000, the 24-month survival rate in PWA was 58% for Kaposi sarcoma, 41% for peripheral NHL, 29% for central nervous system NHL, and 64% for cervical cancer.
  • For non-AIDS-related cancers, survival of PWA was lowest for lung cancer (10%) but was >50% for most other cancer types.
  • In 1996 through 2000, significant differences in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS still remained for Hodgkin lymphoma and lung, larynx, and prostate cancers.
  • We conclude that recent improvements in AIDS and cancer care have greatly narrowed the gap in survival between cancer patients with and without AIDS.
  • Clinicians should be encouraged by the improving prognosis and be diligent about detecting and treating cancer in PWA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. New York City / epidemiology. Prognosis. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15980688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Chuang P, Tsai CM: [Exploring the issue of cervical cancer prevention and control in women living with HIV/AIDS]. Hu Li Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;57(1):71-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Exploring the issue of cervical cancer prevention and control in women living with HIV/AIDS].
  • As HIV suppresses bodily immune systems, an HIV-positive woman with HPV will likely see a faster progression of cancer cells around the cervix.
  • Therefore, it is important to prevent and control cervical cancer in HIV-positive women.
  • 1) HIV-positive women face a relatively greater risk of: HPV surveillance, contracting high-risk HPV subtypes, contracting more subtypes of HPV, longer HPV clearance time, and acquisition, persistence, progression and relapse of cervical dysplasia and cancer and 2) Factors related to cervical cancer progression in HIV-positive women correlated with lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads, but not with anti-HIV medication.
  • 4) Encourage women with STDs and cervical dysplasia to undergo HIV and HPV testing during pretest counseling and regularly follow Pap smear results; and 5) Enhance HPV prevention in men.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


18. Cuéllar Ponce de León LE Sr, Miranda Rosales LM Sr, Biminchumo Zagástegui C, Rosales Cusichaqui R, Flores C Sr, Mas López L Sr, León Chong J Sr: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cancer in the pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a national cancer center of a resource-limited country: 1988 to 2007. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20550

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cancer in the pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a national cancer center of a resource-limited country: 1988 to 2007.
  • : e20550 Background: The introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the clinical course of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related to cancer.
  • The goals were to describe the the characteristics of AIDS related to cancer before and after HAART in patients in a Hospital of a resource-limited country.
  • The number of invasive cervical cancer (CC) and AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs) increased in the Post HAART era; the number on non-HIV/AIDS related to cancer has decreased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of HAART has reduced the number of non-VIH/AIDS related cancer, but have increased the CC and LNH and improved the survival of patients.

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  • (PMID = 27961054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, Virgo P, McNeel TS, Scoppa SM, Biggar RJ, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002. AIDS; 2006 Aug 1;20(12):1645-54
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002.
  • BACKGROUND: People with AIDS have heightened cancer risk from immunosuppression.
  • HAART has been available since 1996 and has reduced AIDS-related mortality, but there are few large-scale studies on cancer trends.
  • METHODS: AIDS and cancer registries in 11 US regions (1980-2002) were used to identify cancers in 375 933 people with AIDS.
  • Cancer risk relative to the general population was measured using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), focusing on the 2 years after AIDS onset for those with AIDS in 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (HAART era).
  • RESULTS: Between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002, risk declined for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [(KS) n = 5131; SIR, 22 100 and 3640, respectively; P < 0.0001] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [(NHL) n = 3412; SIR, 53.2 and 22.6, respectively; P < 0.0001].
  • Risk of cervical cancer did not change (n = 64; SIR, 4.2 and 5.3, respectively; P = 0.33).
  • Among non-AIDS malignancies, lung cancer was most common, but risk declined between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (n = 344; SIR, 3.3 and 2.6, respectively; P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic declines in KS and NHL were temporally related to improving therapies, especially introduction of HAART, but those with AIDS remain at marked risk.
  • Among non-AIDS-related cancers, a recent increase in Hodgkin lymphoma was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / immunology. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology


20. Heard I: Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):68-73
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention of cervical cancer in women with HIV.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical cancer, caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is the only cancer that is almost preventable through regular screening.
  • In high-resource, as in low-resource and middle-resource countries, women hit by the AIDS epidemic have a high prevalence of infection with HPV and related disease, including cervical cancer.
  • The question whether cervical screening, which helped to reduce dramatically cervical cancer rates through the detection of precancerous lesions in the general population, is as efficient in the setting of HIV is still debated.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The risk for cervical cancer remained high and stable during the last decade in HIV-infected women, and incidence did not decrease with improving CD4 cell counts in women receiving antiviral therapy.
  • Optimal methods to improve both the sensitivity and the specificity of cervical cancer screening are currently evaluated.
  • HPV vaccines, recently available, have no therapeutic effect and might thus not be very useful in preventing cervical cancer in a population highly infected with multiple and persistent HPV.
  • SUMMARY: Cervical cancer prevention remains an important goal in HIV-infected women and specific guidelines are warranted for this increasing population.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. DNA, Viral / analysis. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Vaginal Smears


21. Bower M, Palmieri C, Dhillon T: AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb;19(1):14-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS Medicines.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Three cancers in people with HIV denote an AIDS diagnosis: Kaposi's sarcoma, high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer.
  • In addition a number of other cancers occur at increased frequency in this population group but are not AIDS-defining illnesses.
  • This review discusses the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the epidemiology and outcome of AIDS-defining cancers.
  • In contrast, highly active antiretroviral therapy has had little impact on the incidence of human papilloma virus-associated tumours (cervical and anal cancer) in people with HIV, although it may improve survival by reducing opportunistic infection deaths.
  • As people with HIV live longer with highly active antiretroviral therapy, an increased incidence of other non AIDS-defining cancers that have no known association with oncogenic infections is becoming apparent.
  • SUMMARY: For those with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the good news from the AIDS-defining cancers - particularly Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - may be balanced by the increasing numbers of non AIDS-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16374212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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22. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-defining cancers and HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):146-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-AIDS-defining cancers and HIV infection.
  • With fewer patients now succumbing to infectious complications of AIDS, other HIV-related morbidities, such as malignancies, have become increasingly important.
  • Apart from Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer, which are considered as AIDS-defining, several additional cancers, referred to as non-AIDS-defining cancers, are also statistically increased in HIV-infected persons.
  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.
  • However, the types of cancer observed at an increased frequency and the relative risks reported vary widely among studies.
  • Although immunosuppression is consistently associated with an increased risk of AIDS-related malignancies, the role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS- defining cancers is controversial.

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  • (PMID = 16091262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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23. Piketty C, Kazatchkine MD: Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):140-5
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Non-ARV Adverse Events .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV-infected men who have sex with men remain at high risk of developing anal cancer despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • In HIV-infected women, however, there is some evidence that HAART may be associated with regression of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical disease.
  • So far, epidemiologic data provided by cancer registries have shown no reduction in the incidence of cervical and anal cancer in patients with HIV infection since the initiation of HAART in 1996.
  • Taken together, these lines of evidence support the need for developing anal and cervical cancer screening programs for patients with HIV, whether untreated or on HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology


24. Tornesello ML, Duraturo ML, Botti G, Greggi S, Piccoli R, De Palo G, Montella M, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM, Italian HPV Working Group: Prevalence of alpha-papillomavirus genotypes in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma in the Italian population. J Med Virol; 2006 Dec;78(12):1663-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of alpha-papillomavirus genotypes in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical carcinoma in the Italian population.
  • The aim of the present investigation was to define the spectrum of mucosotropic human papillomaviruses among 414 Italian women with normal cervices (n = 183), low- and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 101 and 65, respectively), and invasive squamous cervical carcinomas (n = 65).
  • The prevalence rates of HPV infections was 19.7%, 63.4%, 80%, and 81.5% in patients with normal cervices, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinomas, respectively.
  • Among the 205 HPV-positive patients, a total of 31 mucosal HPV genotypes were identified of which 16 types, epidemiological classified as high-risk viruses (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 66, 68, 73, and 82), have been found in 16.9%, 50.1%, 69.2%, and 78.5% of normal cervix, low-, and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma groups, respectively.
  • As expected, the HPV16 was the most represented viral type in all groups examined with frequency rates ranging from 8.7% in normal subjects to 58.5% in invasive carcinoma patients.
  • Ten epidemiologically defined low-risk HPV types (HPV6, 11, 42, 54, 61, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83) were detected in 2.7%, 7.9%, and 6.1% of normal cervix, low-, and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, respectively, and in none of invasive carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, five unknown risk viruses were detected in 3% of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HPV30, 32, 67), in 3.1% of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HPV62, 90), and in 1.5% of cervical carcinomas (HPV62).
  • Larger epidemiological screening studies, with PCR amplification and followed by either hybridization-based procedures against sequence targets of all known HPV types or sequence analysis studies, are needed in order to assess the epidemiological risk of less represented HPV types, to identify unknown viruses, and to monitor the future eventual spread of unusual viral types related to vaccination programs and/or population mobility.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / classification. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17063505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Sussman AL, Helitzer D, Sanders M, Urquieta B, Salvador M, Ndiaye K: HPV and cervical cancer prevention counseling with younger adolescents: implications for primary care. Ann Fam Med; 2007 Jul-Aug;5(4):298-304
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV and cervical cancer prevention counseling with younger adolescents: implications for primary care.
  • PURPOSE: Primary care clinicians will continue to play an important role in cervical cancer prevention, particularly with regard to administration of the newly licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and continued administration of Papanicolaou tests.
  • Little is known about the factors that influence cervical cancer prevention counseling, particularly in the adolescent encounter.
  • We conducted a qualitative study to better understand the implications for counseling about cervical cancer prevention by primary care clinicians who care for adolescents.
  • RESULTS: Clinicians identified 4 categories of factors related to their counseling experiences with adolescents about HPV:.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings show that conditions of the preadolescent and young adolescent visit pose a challenge to the successful integration of counseling about cervical cancer prevention in primary care.
  • Counseling strategies that are designed to emphasize a preventive focus while including parents in the discussion at the time of vaccination and that are appropriate to populations with different cultural values and beliefs will help to enhance communication about cervical cancer prevention and the particular role of the HPV vaccine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adolescent Behavior / psychology. Adolescent Health Services / standards. Counseling / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Primary Health Care / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17664495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-1717
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of family medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Fam Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1934965
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26. Aldrich T, Becker D, García SG, Lara D: Mexican physicians' knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Apr;81(2):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mexican physicians' knowledge and attitudes about the human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: a national survey.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess Mexican physicians' knowledge about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer and their opinions and practices related to screening, managing, and counselling women on these topics.
  • With respect to HPV, while 80% of respondents identified the virus as the principal cause of cervical cancer, many lacked detailed knowledge about this association.
  • Nearly all respondents thought that women should be informed that HPV causes cervical cancer; nevertheless, physicians believed that positioning cervical cancer as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) could cause problems in partner relationships (60%), confusion (40%), and unnecessary anxiety among women (32%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mexican physicians support patient education on the HPV-cervical cancer link.
  • However, findings suggest the need to present clear messages to women (emphasising, for example, that only certain types of HPV are oncogenic), to consider the conflicts such information might create for couples, and to further educate physicians about this topic and about overall cervical cancer screening and treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Competence / standards. Family Practice / education. Gynecology / education. Obstetrics / education. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


27. Rao D, Gela N, Daley EM, Kattezham R, Rodriguez G, Cella D: Developing a measure of health-related quality of life for women with cervical dysplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Oct;21(10):697-701

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developing a measure of health-related quality of life for women with cervical dysplasia resulting from human papillomavirus infection.
  • To date, there is no measure of health-related quality of life specifically designed to assess symptoms and functioning for people with cervical dysplasia resulting from HPV infection.
  • In the present study, we set out to develop a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life among women with low-grade cervical dysplasia.
  • The result is a preliminary 36-item measure, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD), which sets out to assess the physical and psychological health-related quality-of-life aspects of cervical dysplasia and will be validated in an upcoming study.

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  • (PMID = 21139148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH084551; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH084551-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K23 MH084551-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS278606; NLM/ PMC3295597
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28. Lim EJ, Morgan J, Fielding R: Cervical screening uptake in immunocompromised women in Waikato, New Zealand. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Dec;21(12):835-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Uterine Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical screening uptake in immunocompromised women in Waikato, New Zealand.
  • A one-year retrospective case study was undertaken of cervical cytology in two cohorts of immunocompromised women: those with HIV infection or renal transplants in the Waikato region of New Zealand.
  • Uptake of cervical screening in the two groups was compared with national guidelines.
  • The results showed that HIV patients' uptake was close to the national recommendation for annual cytology (84% had a smear in 18 months); they were more likely to have cytology performed in an HIV-related care setting.
  • Local discussions of these results identified potential influencing factors, which included inadequate dissemination of updated guidelines and inadequate documentation of immunocompromised health status on the national cervical screening programme database.
  • This audit supports including cervical cytology as part of an annual review in all immunocompromised patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Early Detection of Cancer / utilization. Immunocompromised Host. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Oct;22(10):614-5 [21998189.001]
  • (PMID = 21297095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Shariff-Marco S, Klassen AC, Bowie JV: Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported racism and its association with cancer-related health behaviors. Am J Public Health; 2010 Feb;100(2):364-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported racism and its association with cancer-related health behaviors.
  • OBJECTIVES: We used population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of self-reported racism across racial/ethnic groups and to evaluate the association between self-reported racism and cancer-related health behaviors.
  • The cancer risk behaviors we assessed were smoking, binge drinking, not walking, being overweight or obese, and not being up to date with screenings for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers.
  • In adjusted analyses, general racism was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight or obese; health care racism was associated with not being up to date with screening for prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Associations between general racism and lifestyle behaviors suggest that racism is a potential stressor that may shape cancer-related health behaviors, and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity.

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  • (PMID = 20019302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA009314-25
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804625
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30. Kelly BJ, Leader AE, Mittermaier DJ, Hornik RC, Cappella JN: The HPV vaccine and the media: how has the topic been covered and what are the effects on knowledge about the virus and cervical cancer? Patient Educ Couns; 2009 Nov;77(2):308-13
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The HPV vaccine and the media: how has the topic been covered and what are the effects on knowledge about the virus and cervical cancer?
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of stories did not mention the sexually transmitted nature of the disease and 80% left out information about the need for continued cervical cancer screening after vaccination.
  • Exposure to health-related media content was significantly associated with knowledge about HPV, even controlling for baseline knowledge (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.12-2.35).
  • PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians must consider the potential media source patients are using for HPV-related information in order to correct inaccurate or incomplete information that could affect health behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Mass Media. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19395221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5134
  • [Journal-full-title] Patient education and counseling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Patient Educ Couns
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA095856; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095856; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095856-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS643465; NLM/ PMC4250971
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31. Dames DN, Ragin C, Griffith-Bowe A, Gomez P, Butler R: The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Infect Agent Cancer; 2009;4 Suppl 1:S8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities and human papillomavirus in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
  • INTRODUCTION: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major etiologic agent in the development of cervical cancer and its natural history of infection is altered in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The prevalence of HPV infection and cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females in the Bahamas is not known.
  • Finding out the prevalence would allow for the establishment of protocols to optimize total care of this population and help prevent morbidity and mortality related to cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The Objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of high risk HPV genotypes and the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in the HIV sero-positive females attending the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Nassau, Bahamas.
  • METHODS: One hundred consecutive, consenting, non-pregnant, HIV-sero-positive females from the Infectious Disease Clinic at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Nassau, Bahamas were screened for high-risk HPV infections and cervical cytology abnormalities using liquid-based pap smear and signal amplification nucleic acid method for HPV detection.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk HPV was 67% and cervical abnormalities were noted in 44% of the study population.
  • High-risk HPV types were more likely to be present in women with CD4+ cell counts less than 400 microl-1 and in women with cervical cytology abnormalities (97%).
  • The most common cervical abnormality was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19208213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2638467
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32. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS in Women.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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33. Buchacz K, Baker RK, Palella FJ Jr, Chmiel JS, Lichtenstein KA, Novak RM, Wood KC, Brooks JT, HOPS Investigators: AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study. AIDS; 2010 Jun 19;24(10):1549-59
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence and spectrum of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.
  • During 2003-2007, there were no significant changes in annual rates of opportunistic infections or opportunistic malignancies; the leading opportunistic illnesses (rate per 1000 person-years) were esophageal candidiasis (5.2), Pneumocystis pneumonia (3.9), cervical cancer (3.5), Mycobacterium avium complex infection (2.5), and cytomegalovirus disease (1.8); 36% opportunistic illness events occurred at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20502317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 200-2001-00133; United States / PHS HHS / / 200-2006-18797
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Brooks JT; Buchacz K; Durham M; Wood K; Baker RK; Richardson JT; Hankerson D; Armon C; Palella FJ; Chmiel JS; Studney C; Enyia O; Lichtenstein KA; Stewart C; Hammer J; Young B; Greenberg KS; Widick B; Axinn JD; Yangco BG; Halkias K; Ward DJ; Miller J; Fuhrer J; Ording-Bauer L; Kelly R; Esteves J; Tedaldi EM; Christian RA; Ruley F; Beadle D; Novak RM; Wendrow A
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34. Chamot E, Kristensen S, Stringer JS, Mwanahamuntu MH: Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review. BMC Womens Health; 2010 Apr 01;10:11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Since the mid-1990 s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).
  • In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit.
  • Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long-term reproductive outcomes of treatment.


35. Lehtovirta P, Paavonen J, Heikinheimo O: Risk factors, diagnosis and prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jan;19(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Risk factors, diagnosis and prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women.
  • The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is high among HIV-infected women.
  • Demographic as well as treatment-related data were derived from medical reports.
  • During the follow-up, 51 subjects (33%) displayed CIN (16% CIN 1 and 18% CIN 2 +), whereas 102 subjects had Pap smear results of normal cells, atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, or signs of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) but no CIN in histological specimens from the cervix.
  • Only one case of cancer of the uterine cervix was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Incidence. Longitudinal Studies. Papanicolaou Test. Parity. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears. Vaginosis, Bacterial / epidemiology. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 18275645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Joshi SN, Gopalkrishna V, Kumar BK, Dutta S, Nyaynirgune P, Thakar M, Tripathy S, Mehendale S, Paranjape R: Cervical squamous intra-epithelial changes and human papillomavirus infection in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Pune, India. J Med Virol; 2005 Aug;76(4):470-5
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical squamous intra-epithelial changes and human papillomavirus infection in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Pune, India.
  • In view of the dual burden of HIV infection and cervical cancers in India, this study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of Pap smear abnormalities and human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected women.
  • Written informed consent, demographic information, Pap smears, cervical swabs for HPV typing and a blood sample for CD4+ cell count were collected.
  • Of the 100 random cervical specimens screened for HPV 16 and 18 genotypes, 33% (95 CI 23.9--43.1) were positive for HPV 16/18.
  • In order to prevent thousands of deaths due to cervical cancer in India, there is a need for strengthening the Pap smear screening program and HPV vaccine development.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15977244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. McCaffery K, Waller J, Nazroo J, Wardle J: Social and psychological impact of HPV testing in cervical screening: a qualitative study. Sex Transm Infect; 2006 Apr;82(2):169-74
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Social and psychological impact of HPV testing in cervical screening: a qualitative study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed for inclusion in the UK cervical screening programme.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the social and psychological impact of HPV testing in the context of cervical cancer screening.
  • RESULTS: Testing positive for HPV was associated with adverse social and psychological consequences, relating primarily to the sexually transmitted nature of the virus and its link to cervical cancer.
  • The psychological burden of the infection related to women's relationship status and history, their social and cultural norms and practices around sex and relationships, and their understanding of key features of HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / psychology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


38. Bernstein WB, Little RF, Wilson WH, Yarchoan R: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jul;84(1):3-11
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease.
  • Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus.
  • With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change.
  • Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality.
  • At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States.
  • With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16867895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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39. Lillo FB, Uberti-Foppa C: Human papillomavirus viral load: a possible marker for cervical disease in HIV-infected women. J Antimicrob Chemother; 2006 May;57(5):810-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus viral load: a possible marker for cervical disease in HIV-infected women.
  • Laboratory markers of human papillomavirus infection have been recognized as relevant tools in programmes designed to reduce the burden of cervical cancer.
  • Among the possible virus-related parameters proposed as relevant markers (viral persistence, load, expression, genomic integration capacity) we here analyse the informative value of human papillomavirus viral load measurement as a possible risk marker in this particular clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 16556637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7453
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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40. Mogtomo ML, Malieugoue LC, Djiepgang C, Wankam M, Moune A, Ngane AN: Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Infect Agent Cancer; 2009;4:9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non infected women.
  • In a pilot study, we assessed the relationships among cervical cytology abnormalities associated to Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HIV infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the development of Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs).
  • After obtaining information related to their lifestyle and sexual behaviour, cervicovaginal samples for Pap smears and venous blood for CD4 count were collected and further divided into two groups based upon the presence or absence of cervical cytology abnormalities i.e. those with normal cervical cytology and those with low and high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL).
  • The incidence of HSIL related to HPV infection within the study group independently of HAART initiation was high.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest the need for extension and expansion of the current study in order to evaluate the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and non HIV- infected women in Cameroon.

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  • (PMID = 19493339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701409
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41. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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42. Bonnet F, Morlat P: [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?]. Rev Med Interne; 2006 Mar;27(3):227-35
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Clinical Implications of Immune Reconstitution in AIDS .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cancer and HIV infection: any association?].
  • PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality related to neoplasia are increasing in HIV-infected patients.
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND KEY-POINTS: The incidence of AIDS opportunistic infections dramatically decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Among AIDS-cancers, the incidences of Kaposi sarcoma and of cerebral lymphoma decreased in a same way than AIDS infections but the incidences of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma and of cervical cancer decreased less than the others and remain higher than in the general population.
  • The most recent and large studies have also shown a 1.7 to 3 fold increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected patients when compared to the general population without significant impact of HAART on incidence curves.

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  • (PMID = 16337065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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43. Chirenje ZM: HIV and cancer of the cervix. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Apr;19(2):269-76
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV and cancer of the cervix.
  • Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, and in some low resource countries accounts for the highest cancer mortality in women.
  • The highest burden of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is currently in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than half of the people infected are women who have no access to cervical cancer screening.
  • The association between HIV and invasive cervical cancer is complex, with several studies now clearly demonstrating an increased risk of pre-invasive cervical lesions among HIV-infected women.
  • However, there have not been significantly higher incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer associated with the HIV epidemic.
  • The highest numbers of HIV-infected women are in poorly-resourced countries, where the natural progression of HIV disease in the absence of highly active antiretroviral treatment sometimes results in deaths from opportunistic infections before the onset of invasive cervical cancer.
  • This chapter will discuss the association of HIV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the treatment of pre-invasive lesions, and invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women.
  • The role of screening and the impact of antiretroviral treatment on the progression of pre-invasive and invasive cancer will also be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Developing Countries. HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


44. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


45. Banura C, Sandin S, van Doorn LJ, Quint W, Kleter B, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mbidde EK, Weiderpass E: Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda.
  • Women answered a questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination at each visit to collect exfoliated cervical cells.
  • The presence of 42 HPV types was evaluated in exfoliated cervical cells by a polymerase chain based (PCR) assay (SPF10-DEIA LiPA).
  • None of the women had a high-grade cervical lesion (HSIL) or cancer.
  • The risk for LSIL appeared to be elevated among women with HPV 18-related types compared to women not infected with those types (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.0 - 11.8).

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  • (PMID = 20380709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873244
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46. FUTURE I/II Study Group, Dillner J, Kjaer SK, Wheeler CM, Sigurdsson K, Iversen OE, Hernandez-Avila M, Perez G, Brown DR, Koutsky LA, Tay EH, García P, Ault KA, Garland SM, Leodolter S, Olsson SE, Tang GW, Ferris DG, Paavonen J, Lehtinen M, Steben M, Bosch FX, Joura EA, Majewski S, Muñoz N, Myers ER, Villa LL, Taddeo FJ, Roberts C, Tadesse A, Bryan JT, Maansson R, Lu S, Vuocolo S, Hesley TM, Barr E, Haupt R: Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial. BMJ; 2010 Jul 20;341:c3493
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • [Title] Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).
  • Major exclusion criteria were lifetime number of sexual partners (>4), history of abnormal cervical smear test results, and pregnancy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccine efficacy against cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I and condyloma in a per protocol susceptible population that included subjects who received all three vaccine doses, tested negative for the relevant vaccine HPV types at day 1 and remained negative through month 7, and had no major protocol violations.
  • RESULTS: In the per protocol susceptible population, vaccine efficacy against lesions related to the HPV types in the vaccine was 96% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (95% confidence interval 91% to 98%), 100% for both vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (95% CIs 74% to 100%, 64% to 100% respectively), and 99% for condyloma (96% to 100%).
  • Vaccine efficacy against any lesion (regardless of HPV type) in the generally naive population was 30% (17% to 41%), 75% (22% to 94%), and 48% (10% to 71%) for cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade I, respectively, and 83% (74% to 89%) for condyloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Urogenital Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Condylomata Acuminata / prevention & control. Double-Blind Method. Female. Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Vaginal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Vulvar Neoplasms / prevention & control. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] BMJ. 2010;341:c4455 [20724414.001]
  • (PMID = 20647284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-1833
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00092521/ NCT00092534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907480
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47. Agrawal T, Vats V, Wallace PK, Salhan S, Mittal A: Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2008;6:46
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders.
  • METHODS: Myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) populations in cervical mucosa and peripheral blood were analyzed in controls and Chlamydia positive women with or without fertility disorders with multicoloured flow cytometric analysis.
  • Cervical cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), C-reactive protein levels and sex hormone levels in serum were quantified by ELISA.
  • RESULTS: In cervix of Chlamydia positive women with fertility disorders, significantly high (P < 0.05) numbers of pDCs were present with increased CD80 expression. pDCs correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels in women with fertility disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / immunology. Chlamydia Infections / complications. Cytokines / physiology. Dendritic Cells / physiology. Estradiol / physiology

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  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 18828896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Cytokines; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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48. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • Cytokines and related molecules (IL10, sCD30) may identify patients at high risk for NHL.
  • SUMMARY: CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV load, germline genetic polymorphisms, cytokine and related molecules, and immunoglobulin light chains all show increasing promise as biomarkers of malignancy in HIV patients.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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49. Colón-López V, Ortiz AP, Palefsky J: Burden of human papillomavirus infection and related comorbidities in men: implications for research, disease prevention and health promotion among Hispanic men. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):232-40
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hispanic American Health.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Burden of human papillomavirus infection and related comorbidities in men: implications for research, disease prevention and health promotion among Hispanic men.
  • Over the last two decades, research has established a strong causal link between specific types of HPV infection and cancer, particularly cervical, anal, vulvar/vaginal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer.
  • With the world-wide introduction of two new prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPVs causing cervical cancer, and the recent FDA approval of the quadrivalent vaccine in preventing genital warts in men, there is an urgency to determine the burden of HPV in Hispanic populations before vaccine programs are implemented on a widespread basis.
  • This review article summarizes existing research on HPV infection and HPV-related morbidities in men, with a particular emphasis on Hispanic men in the United States and Puerto Rico.
  • (1) genital warts, (2) HPV and related cancers and (3) biobehavioral and psychosocial factors related to HPV infection and vaccination.

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  • (PMID = 20799510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03 DA027939-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R25CA094186-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / 1 SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA096297; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / SC2 AI090922; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R03 DA027939; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003051-21; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003051; United States / PHS HHS / / R03 027939-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / SC2 AI090922-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03051; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094186-08; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007600; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA096297-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54CA96297
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
  • [Number-of-references] 99
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS266486; NLM/ PMC3038604
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50. Palefsky JM: Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue. J Adolesc Health; 2010 Apr;46(4 Suppl):S12-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue.
  • The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer.
  • HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers.
  • The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • Other HPV-related diseases of clinical importance in men include condylomata acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
  • The quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly efficacious in the prevention of genital warts in women and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Adolesc Health. 2010 Jun;46(6):614
  • (PMID = 20307839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1972
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Adolesc Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 91
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180665; NLM/ PMC2871537
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51. Engels EA, Biggar RJ, Hall HI, Cross H, Crutchfield A, Finch JL, Grigg R, Hylton T, Pawlish KS, McNeel TS, Goedert JJ: Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;123(1):187-94
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer risk in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States.
  • Data are limited regarding cancer risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with modest immunosuppression, before the onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • We linked HIV/AIDS and cancer registries in Colorado, Florida and New Jersey.
  • Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared cancer risk in HIV-infected persons (initially AIDS-free) during the 5-year period after registration with the general population.
  • Risk was elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (KS, SIR 1,300 [n = 173 cases]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 7.3 [n = 203]), cervical cancer (2.9 [n = 28]) and several non-AIDS-defining malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma (5.6 [n = 36]) and cancers of the lung (2.6 [n = 109]) and liver (2.7 [n = 14]).
  • Incidence increased in 1996-2002 compared to 1991-1995 for Hodgkin lymphoma (relative risk 2.7, 95%CI 1.0-7.1) and liver cancer (relative risk infinite, one-sided 95%CI 1.1-infinity).
  • Non-AIDS-defining cancers comprised 31.4% of cancers in 1991-1995, versus 58.0% in 1996-2002.
  • For KS and NHL, risk was inversely related to CD4 count, but these associations attenuated after 1996.
  • We conclude that KS and NHL incidence declined markedly in recent years, likely reflecting HAART-related improvements in immunity, while incidence of some non-AIDS-defining cancers increased.
  • These trends have led to a shift in the spectrum of cancer among HIV-infected persons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Colorado / epidemiology. Female. Florida / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. New Jersey / epidemiology. Poisson Distribution. Registries. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18435450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.
  • METHODS: Patient records were linked between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and Swiss cantonal cancer registries.
  • Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papillomaviridae. Prospective Studies. Registries. Research Design. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Switzerland / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 16;97(6):407-9 [15769998.001]
  • (PMID = 15770006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Barbaro G, Barbarini G: HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):1121-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review).
  • The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
  • However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population.
  • While not classified as AIDS-defining, these malignancies have been referred to as AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count.
  • Studies of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS-associated cancers provided contrasting data.
  • While a significant decrease in the incidence of KS has been observed, HAART has not had a significant impact on NHL incidence, particularly systemic NHL, or on ICC, HD, anal cancers and other non-AIDS-defining cancers.
  • Regardless of whether these cancers are directly related to HIV-induced immunodeficiency, treating cancer in HIV-infected patients remains a challenge because of drug interactions, compounded side effects, and the potential effect of chemotherapy on CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load.

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  • (PMID = 17390054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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54. Stier EA, Baranoski AS: Human papillomavirus-related diseases in HIV-infected individuals. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):541-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Palliative Care of Patients with HIV .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related diseases in HIV-infected individuals.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Studies assessing geographic variations in human papillomavirus types and prevalence in cervical dysplasia and cancer in HIV-infected women suggest that although human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 dominate, multiple other human papillomavirus types may play a role in carcinogenesis.
  • Anal dysplasia and cancer incidence continues to rise in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era; however, data on outcomes following therapy for anal dysplasia (infrared coagulator, high-resolution anoscopy-guided ablation) and anal cancer (chemoradiation and possibly intensity-modulated radiation therapy) have been encouraging.
  • Oral human papillomavirus may be associated with lower genital tract human papillomavirus infection and may have implications in the development of oropharyngeal cancer.
  • SUMMARY: As HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era continue to have high rates of cervical and anal cancer, it is important to continue screening efforts and treatment of preinvasive disease.
  • Treatment options for anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals are expanding and may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality.

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  • (PMID = 19106657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS126311; NLM/ PMC2757652
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55. Mullen PD, Allen JD, Glanz K, Fernandez ME, Bowen DJ, Pruitt SL, Glenn BA, Pignone M: Measures used in studies of informed decision making about cancer screening: a systematic review. Ann Behav Med; 2006 Dec;32(3):188-201
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Measures used in studies of informed decision making about cancer screening: a systematic review.
  • Interventions to promote informed decision making (IDM) for cancer screening are increasingly common.
  • We searched standard databases for intervention trials and other studies of screening decisions and decision aids, finding 2,110 unique citations (most with abstracts) that we reduced to 104 full-text articles; 36 studies met inclusion criteria (prostate = 20, colorectal = 9, breast = 6, cervical = 1).
  • Our findings revealed that most studies measured screening (or intention) and knowledge; fewer measured recommended IDM-related constructs and none measured all outcomes proposed for evaluating IDM interventions.
  • Few IDM measures have been developed/carefully adapted from treatment measures and tested for cancer screening or in diverse populations.

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  • (PMID = 17107291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-6612
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Behav Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00043; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00050; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00056; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00057; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00059; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1-U48 DP00064; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25CA57713
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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56. Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bankier A, Koller A, Salat A, Stingl G, Kirnbauer R: Human papillomavirus type 26 infection causing multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the fingernails in an AIDS patient under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Oct;157(4):788-94
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type 26 infection causing multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the fingernails in an AIDS patient under highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nail unit is a rare disorder.
  • Classification of HPV 26 as high- or intermediate-risk type has been uncertain, due to its rare presence in cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Alphapapillomavirus / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Nails. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 17634082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Austria / Austrian Science Fund FWF / / P 18990
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ EMS55131; NLM/ PMC3935457
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57. Gillison ML: Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):439-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the principal cause of a distinct form of oropharyngeal cancer (OPCA) that has been rising in incidence in the United States since 1973, particularly among young men.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence rates for HPV-related OPCA increased with age and were strongly influenced by year of birth in the United States (cohort effect).
  • Persons with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk ( approximately two to six-fold) for OPCA relative to the general population.
  • Consistent with a viral attribution, however, is the apparent increase in risk of OPCA with severity of AIDS-related immunosuppression.
  • Analogous to other HPV-related cancers (e.g. cervical and anal cancer), trends over time do not appear to be influenced by highly active antiretroviral (HAART) therapy.
  • SUMMARY: Healthcare providers may encounter HPV-related OPCA more frequently among individuals with HIV/AIDS as this population ages and due to the strong birth cohort effects observed in the general population.
  • However, there is no evidence in support of different incidence trends over time among persons with and without HIV/AIDS.

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  • (PMID = 19587593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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58. Clifford GM, Franceschi S: Cancer risk in HIV-infected persons: influence of CD4(+) count. Future Oncol; 2009 Jun;5(5):669-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer risk in HIV-infected persons: influence of CD4(+) count.
  • Whereas Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were recognised as AIDS-defining illnesses early in the HIV epidemic, the influence of declining CD4(+) count on other infection-related cancers has taken longer to establish, undoubtedly because the association is weaker and the dose-response relationship is less steep.
  • However, following improved survival made possible by combined antiretroviral therapy, declining CD4(+) count starts showing an impact on the natural history of various carcinogenic infections and on the risk for an increasingly wide range of cancers, including Hodgkin lymphoma, cervical, anal and liver cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19519206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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59. Dhir AA, Sawant SP: Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):517-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: India has the second largest number of HIV/AIDS patients in the world; however, studies done in the area of HIV-related malignancies are few.
  • With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections, an increase in life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals and an increase in HIV-related malignancies is expected.
  • The purpose of this review is to put forth the Indian scenario of HIV-related malignancies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: About 2.5 million Indians have HIV/AIDS.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical cancer were found to occur in a higher proportion among the HIV-infected individuals in India as compared with non-HIV-infected individuals.
  • The incidence of AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma is low in India.
  • Amongst the non-AIDS defining cancers anal cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, colon cancer and certain head and neck cancer sites in men and vaginal cancers among women were found to occur more frequently.
  • As India is a large country and geographically and culturally diverse, large-scale studies need to be done linking the regional cancer centres with the AIDS centres across the country to evaluate the exact burden of HIV-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19106653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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60. Manfredi R, Fulgaro C, Sabbatani S, Dentale N, Legnani G: Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists. Cancer Detect Prev; 2006;30(1):20-3
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is a very infrequent occurrence in persons aged 55 years or less, and it has been rarely reported in HIV-infected patients (10 overall cases so far); therefore, an increased incidence compared with the general population has not been established, although a younger age seems more frequent among population with HIV disease.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer occurred in a 53-year-old HIV-infected man, admitted due to non-specific signs, and symptoms: impaired general conditions, fever, weight loss, fatigue, and exertional dyspnea.
  • A remarkable anemia and an aortic systolic murmur were the prominent initial findings, while AIDS-related conditions were not suspected due to a sustained CD4+ count and a contained viremia, which never required antiretroviral therapy.
  • During the diagnostic workup for an HIV-associated fever of undetermined origin, a bone marrow biopsy disclosed a metastatic prostatic cancer, with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and acid phosphate levels.
  • A skeleton scintigraphy pointed out multiple hypercaptation (areas of concentrated traces of radioactivity) areas with involvement of cranial, cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae, as well as the pelvis and upper portions of both femurs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The non-specific clinical presentation of our case (mimicking other generalized or focal illnesses), and the final, lethal complication (DIC) pose striking problems related to the differential diagnosis during HIV disease, while the rapid evolution into an advanced, complicated, and widely metastatic disease with extensive bone marrow invasion which preceded the appearance of local signs-symptoms, and the lethal overwhelming DIC, deserves attention by specialists who care for HIV-infected subjects.


61. Rughooputh S, Greenwell P: Trichomonas vaginalis: paradigm of a successful sexually transmitted organism. Br J Biomed Sci; 2005;62(4):193-200
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • With the ability to cause lesions, vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa, TV acts as a potential catalyst in the acquisition of secondary infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), the organism responsible for the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Animals. Female. Humans. Respiratory Tract Infections / parasitology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / parasitology

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  • (PMID = 16411380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-4845
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of biomedical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Biomed. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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62. Torre D, Speranza F, Martegani R: Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on organ-specific manifestations of HIV-1 infection. HIV Med; 2005 Mar;6(2):66-78
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There has been a clear step-wise reduction in the incidence of several opportunistic infections (OIs), particularly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, whereas a nonsignificant reduction in incidence has been observed for other organ-specific diseases, including invasive cervical cancer and Hodgkin disease.
  • Because not all HIV-1 organ-specific manifestations are decreasing in the HAART era, this review will analyse the influence of HAART on several organ-specific manifestations, and in particular OIs related to several organs, cerebral disorders and HIV-1-related neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV-1
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Brain / virology. Cervix Uteri / virology. Female. Gastrointestinal Tract / virology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / virology. Heart / virology. Hodgkin Disease / prevention & control. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Incidence. Kidney / virology. Liver / virology. Lung / virology. Male. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / prevention & control. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / virology. Skin / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


63. Palefsky J: Biology of HPV in HIV infection. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):99-105
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Non-ARV Adverse Events .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The risks for HPV-associated high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (IN) and cancer are also increased.
  • The prevalence of oral, anal, and cervical HPV infection in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative individuals increases with progressively lower CD4+ levels, as does incident high-grade IN.
  • In contrast to IN, development of cancer is not related to lower CD4+ level.
  • With increasing grades of IN and cancer, the proportion of tissues with copy-number abnormalities (CNA) increases, with one of the most common genetic changes being amplification of chromosome 3q.
  • In addition, epigenetic changes occur with increasing frequency in high-grade IN and cancer, such as hypermethylation leading to down-regulation of potential tumor suppressor genes.
  • Persistent high-grade IN and development of cancer may be more strongly related to the cumulative effect of HPV-associated genetic instability and the resulting host genetic changes.
  • There are few data to suggest a direct role for HIV in the pathogenesis of HPV-associated neoplasia, but HIV-associated attenuation of HPV-specific immune responses may allow for persistence of high-grade IN and sufficient time for accumulation of genetic changes that are important in progression to cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Aneuploidy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16672559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-0737
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA54053; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE07946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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64. Walsh CD, Gera A, Shah M, Sharma A, Powell JE, Wilson S: Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination. BMC Public Health; 2008;8:368

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.
  • Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination.
  • Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. England. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Interviews as Topic. Male. Middle Aged. Social Class. Surveys and Questionnaires. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18947430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579427
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65. Strickler HD, Burk RD, Fazzari M, Anastos K, Minkoff H, Massad LS, Hall C, Bacon M, Levine AM, Watts DH, Silverberg MJ, Xue X, Schlecht NF, Melnick S, Palefsky JM: Natural history and possible reactivation of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Apr 20;97(8):577-86
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The more moderate association between HIV coinfection and HPV persistence could partly explain why cervical cancer rates have not reached more epidemic proportions in HIV-positive women.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15840880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85178-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00083; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-31834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34994; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01-HD-32632
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
  •  go-up   go-down


66. Insinga RP, Dasbach EJ, Elbasha EH: Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model. BMC Infect Dis; 2009;9:119
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

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  • BACKGROUND: Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs.
  • (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context;.
  • METHODS: Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts.
  • RESULTS: Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking.
  • In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer cases that become symptomatic by stage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. Female. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Humans. Time Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19640281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 133
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2728100
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67. Zambrana M, Zurita B, Ramírez Tde J, Coria I: [Hospital expenditures for five diseases of high economic impact]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc; 2008 Jan-Feb;46(1):43-50
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  • OBJECTIVE: to identify by gender and age group, the hospital expenditures of the diseases that have the major economic impact at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social through using the diagnosis related groups (DRG) classification system and by estimating their associated costs.
  • METHODS: DRG system served to estimate hospital expenditures for five diseases: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure, cervical cancer and HIV/AIDS.
  • Chronic renal failure and cervical cancer reached 60.5 % and 72.8 % of the expenditures, which were concentrated in patients aged 59 years or less; HIV/AIDS expenditures were distributed among patients from 20 to 50 years of age, the highest percentage (41.7 %) was in the group of 30 to 39 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus / economics. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Hypertension / economics. Kidney Failure, Chronic / economics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / economics


68. Minkoff H, Zhong Y, Strickler HD, Watts DH, Palefsky JM, Levine AM, D'Souza G, Howard AA, Plankey M, Massad LS, Burk R: The relationship between cocaine use and human papillomavirus infections in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol; 2008;2008:587082
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that cocaine has an immunosuppressive effect, but no human studies have been conducted to assess the relation of cocaine use with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the viral cause of cervical cancer.
  • RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression models, censoring women treated for cervical neoplasia, crack/cocaine use within the last six months was associated with prevalent detection of oncogenic HPV DNA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30 (1.09-1.55)), and with oncogenic HPV-positive squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (OR = 1.70 (1.27-2.27)), following adjustment for age, race, HIV-serostatus, and CD4+ T-cell count, the number of sexual partners in the past six months, and smoking.
  • In multivariate Cox models crack/cocaine use was also associated with a trend that approached significance in regard to incident detection of oncogenic HPV-positive SIL (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.99-2.30), and while the rate of oncogenic HPV clearance was not related to cocaine use, the clearance of any SIL was significantly lower in those with versus those without recent crack/cocaine use (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.97).

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  • (PMID = 18437233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-0997
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / UO1-HD-32632; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34989; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR-00083; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI031834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034989; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000071; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034994; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-42590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85178-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-31834; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000083; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR-00071; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD032632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI042590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2324195
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69. Rowhani-Rahbar A, Mao C, Hughes JP, Alvarez FB, Bryan JT, Hawes SE, Weiss NS, Koutsky LA: Longer term efficacy of a prophylactic monovalent human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. Vaccine; 2009 Sep 18;27(41):5612-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

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  • During the extended follow-up period, in the per-protocol susceptible population, none of the vaccine recipients was found to be infected with HPV-16 or developed HPV-16-related cervical lesions; among placebo recipients, 6 women were found to be infected with HPV-16 (vaccine efficacy [VE]=100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-100%) and 3 women developed HPV-16-related cervical lesions (VE=100%; 95% CI: <0-100%).
  • During the combined original trial and extended follow-up period, in the intention-to-treat population, 20 and 22 women developed any cervical lesion regardless of HPV type among the vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively (VE=15%; 95% CI: <0-56%).

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  • (PMID = 19647066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2518
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI038383; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI038383-15; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-A138383
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Placebos; 0 / Vaccines, Virosome
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133715; NLM/ PMC2749988
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70. Huey NL, Clark AD, Kluhsman BC, Lengerich EJ, ACTION Health Cancer Task Force: HPV vaccine attitudes and practices among primary care providers in Appalachian Pennsylvania. Prev Chronic Dis; 2009 Apr;6(2):A49

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cervical cancer in Appalachia exceeds the national rate; rural Appalachian women are at especially high risk.
  • We assessed the attitudes and practices related to human papillomavirus vaccination among providers in primary care practices in a contiguous 5-county area of Appalachian Pennsylvania.

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  • (PMID = 19288992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1151
  • [Journal-full-title] Preventing chronic disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prev Chronic Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114622
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687855
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71. Watson RA: Human Papillomavirus: Confronting the Epidemic-A Urologist's Perspective. Rev Urol; 2005;7(3):135-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) has long been associated with the development of penile lesions-condyloma acuminatum and verrucous carcinoma of the penis.
  • More recently, HPV has been implicated as an etiology of more serious neoplasias in men-penile carcinoma and other anogenital squamous-cell carcinomas.
  • HPV is now widely recognized as responsible for more than 95% of cervical cancers in women.
  • However, each newly acquired infection has the potential to persist as an incurable, lifelong affliction, generating a significant increase in the long-term risk of cancer for patients and their sexual partners.
  • Many of these HPV-related cancers will not become manifest until decades later.

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  • (PMID = 16985824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1477576
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72. Petoumenos K, Hui E, Kumarasamy N, Kerr SJ, Choi JY, Chen YM, Merati T, Zhang F, Lim PL, Sungkanuparph S, Pujari S, Ponnampalavanar S, Ditangco R, Lee CK, Grulich A, Law MG, TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Cancers in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD): a retrospective analysis of risk factors. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010 Dec 10;13:51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: This retrospective survey describes types of cancers diagnosed in HIV-infected subjects in Asia, and assesses risk factors for cancer in HIV-infected subjects using contemporaneous HIV-infected controls without cancer.
  • METHODS: TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) sites retrospectively reviewed clinic medical records to determine cancer diagnoses since 2000.
  • For each diagnosis, the following data were recorded: date, type, stage, method of diagnosis, demographic data, medical history, and HIV-related information.
  • For risk factor analyses, two HIV-infected control subjects without cancer diagnoses were also selected.
  • Cancers were grouped as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), and non-ADCs.
  • Non-ADCs were further categorized as being infection related (NADC-IR) and unrelated (NADC-IUR).
  • RESULTS: A total of 617 patients were included in this study: 215 cancer cases and 402 controls from 13 sites.
  • The majority of cancer cases were male (71%).
  • The majority (66%) of cancers were ADCs (16% Kaposi sarcoma, 40% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 9% cervical cancer).
  • The most common NADCs were lung (6%), breast (5%) and hepatocellular carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma (2% each).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of cancer diagnoses in the Asia region currently does not appear dissimilar to that observed in non-Asian HIV populations.
  • One interesting finding was the cases of leiomyosarcoma, a smooth-muscle tumour, usually seen in children and young adults with AIDS, yet overall quite rare.

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  • (PMID = 21143940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-2652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International AIDS Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int AIDS Soc
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01AI069907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019126
  • [Investigator] Mean CV; Saphonn V; Vohith K; Zhang FJ; Zhao HX; Han N; Li PC; Lee MP; Kumarasamy N; Saghayam S; Ezhilarasi C; Pujari S; Joshi K; Makane A; Merati TP; Wirawan DN; Yuliana F; Yunihastuti E; Ramadian O; Oka S; Tanuma J; Honda M; Choi JY; Han SH; Kim JM; Lee CK; Sim BH; David R; Kamarulzaman A; Kajindran A; Tau G; Ditangco R; Chen YM; Wong WW; Kuo LH; Lim PL; Chua A; Foo E; Phanuphak P; Ruxrungtham K; Khongphattanayothin M; Kiertiburanakul S; Sungkanuparph S; Sanmeema N; Sirisanthana T; Chaiwarith R; Kotarathititum W; Chuah J; Sohn AH; Messerschmidt L; Petersen B; Cooper DA; Law MG; Zhou J; JiamsakuL A
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73. Brandão Vda C, Lacerda HR, Lucena-Silva N, Ximenes RA: Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 2009 Aug;104(5):755-63
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  • Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer.
  • The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143), with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / virology

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  • (PMID = 19820838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-8060
  • [Journal-full-title] Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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74. Minkoff H, Shen X, Watts DH, Leighty R, Hershow R, Palefsky J, Tuomala R, Neu N, Zorrilla CD, Paul M, Strickler H: Relationship of pregnancy to human papillomavirus among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Oct;108(4):953-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because parity is a reported risk factor for cervical cancer, we sought to estimate the effects of pregnancy on the prevalence, incident detection, and copy number of human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, patients at high risk for cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul;110(1):191. Xian, Lin Shen [corrected to Shen, XianLin]
  • (PMID = 17012459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85178-06; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00071; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR-00083; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000188; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000645; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-31834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-42590; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01-HD-32632
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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75. Giacinti C, Giordano A: RB and cell cycle progression. Oncogene; 2006 Aug 28;25(38):5220-7
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Functional inactivation of pRb by viral oncoprotein binding is also shown in many neoplasias such as cervical cancer, mesothelioma and AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 16936740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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76. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7

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  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Attempts to use the drug in secondary prophylaxis has shown some promise in former tobacco smokers, whereas no effect was seen in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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77. Fichorova RN, Zhou F, Ratnam V, Atanassova V, Jiang S, Strick N, Neurath AR: Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 microbicide cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate in a human in vitro model of vaginal inflammation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2005 Jan;49(1):323-35
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is facilitated by inflammation and related epithelial barrier perturbation.
  • Cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate, also named CAP (for "controls AIDS pandemic"), is an anti-HIV-1 microbicide selected from pharmaceutical excipients that are regarded as safe for oral administration but have not been assessed for potential effects on inflammatory factors in the vaginal environment.
  • Within 6 h of exposure, TNF-alpha and N-9 triggered NF-kappaB and AP-1/cFos activation and upregulated interleukins and an array of chemokines by vaginal and polarized cervical epithelial cells.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NONOXYNOLS .
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  • (PMID = 15616312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD041761; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1P01HD041761
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / cellulose acetate 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate; 26027-38-3 / Nonoxynol; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC538889
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78. Chaturvedi AK, Dumestre J, Gaffga AM, Mire KM, Clark RA, Braly PS, Dunlap K, Beckel TE, Hammons AF, Kissinger PJ, Hagensee ME: Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in women from three clinical settings. J Med Virol; 2005 Jan;75(1):105-13
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These data suggest distinct genotypic prevalence profiles in women at diverse risk for cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15543579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R03 CA86378
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Xi LF, Edelstein ZR, Meyers C, Ho J, Cherne SL, Schiffman M: Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 DNA load in relation to coexistence of other types, particularly those in the same species. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Sep;18(9):2507-12
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

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  • However, it is unknown whether viral DNA load is related to the coexistence of other types.
  • HPV16 and HPV18 E7 copies per nanogram of cellular DNA in cervical swab samples were measured by real-time PCR in triplicate.
  • RESULTS: Concurrent coinfection was common in this population of women with minor cervical lesions; multiple HPV types were detected in 573 (71.4%) of 802 HPV16-positive women and 227 (74.9%) of 303 HPV18-positive women.

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