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1. Pineda CE, Welton ML: Management of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):94-101
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  • [Title] Management of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases.
  • Although the natural history of the disease is unknown, there is significant evidence that untreated HSIL progresses to squamous cell carcinoma in 11% of patients and in up to 50% of patients with extensive disease and immunosuppression.
  • Anal cytology and reflex HPV DNA testing are used to screen for disease, particularly among patients with the aforementioned risk factors.

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  • (PMID = 20436833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780238
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal squamous dysplasia / high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions / high-resolution anoscopy
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2. Salit IE, Tinmouth J, Chong S, Raboud J, Diong C, Su D, Sano M, Lytwyn A, Chapman W, Mahony J: Screening for HIV-associated anal cancer: correlation of HPV genotypes, p16, and E6 transcripts with anal pathology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Jul;18(7):1986-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening for HIV-associated anal cancer: correlation of HPV genotypes, p16, and E6 transcripts with anal pathology.
  • BACKGROUND: HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse are at risk for anal cancer.
  • We determined whether human papilloma virus (HPV) biomarkers were correlated with anal pathology in these men.
  • The number of HPV genotypes per anal swab was higher for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2/3 than for normal or AIN 1 histology [median, 5 types (interquartile range) (IQR), 3-7 versus 3.5 (IQR), 2-6; P = 0.0005].
  • In the multivariable logistic regression model, HPV genotypes 16 [odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.31-5.08; P = 0.006] and 31 (odds ratio, 4.74; 95% CI, 2.00-11.22; P = 0.0004), baseline CD4 count < 400 cells/mm(3) (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.46-5.99; P = 0.0025), and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82; P = 0.01) were associated with high-grade histology after adjusting for age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of high-grade anal pathology (AIN 2/3) in HIV-positive men was associated with multiple HPV genotypes, HPV genotypes 16 and 31, and HPV 16 viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Genes, p16. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Genotype. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Risk Factors. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19567510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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3. Roma AA, Goldblum JR, Fazio V, Yang B: Expression of 14-3-3sigma, p16 and p53 proteins in anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(5):419-25
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  • [Title] Expression of 14-3-3sigma, p16 and p53 proteins in anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasm and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • 14-3-3sigma is a p53-regulated G2/M inhibitor involved in numerous cellular signaling pathways related to cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis.
  • Recent studies have showed that 14-3-3sigma was silenced transcriptionally through promoter hypermethylation mainly in HPV-negative vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • However, the expression of 14-3-3sigma protein has not yet been studied in anal SCC and its precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasm (AIN).
  • Fourteen cases of invasive anal SCC were also included in the study, including 8 cases associated with bowenoid AIN and 6 cases associated with differentiated AIN.
  • Weak staining for 14-3-3sigma was seen in anal squamous hyperplasia.
  • In conclusion, two histopathologic types of AIN, bowenoid and differentiated, have distinct immunoprofiles for p16 and p53, which suggests dual molecular pathways during anal carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 18787619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480570
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 14-3-3σ / AIN / Anal intraepithelial neoplasm / Bowenoid / differentiated / p16 / p53 / simplex
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4. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H: Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 May;32(5):314-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) corresponded with changes in anal squamous cell cancer rates among men with AIDS.
  • STUDY: We linked cancer registry data from 1988-2000 and AIDS registry data from 1981-July/2003 for San Diego County.
  • RESULTS: The annual incidence of invasive anal cancer increased from zero per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-226) in 1991 to 224 per 100,000 (95% CI, 102-425) in the year 2000.
  • Pre-HAART, the average annual incidence of invasive anal cancer was 49 per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% CI, 16-114) versus 144 per 100,000 (95% CI, 93-212) post-HAART.
  • The relative risk of invasive anal cancer among men with AIDS compared with men without known HIV/AIDS was 98 (95% CI, 36-264) pre-HAART and 352 (95% CI, 186-669) post-HAART.
  • The increased incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS resulted in an increase in the overall rate of anal cancer among men in San Diego County.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rising incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS may be related to increased longevity with HAART and the consequent increased time at risk for the development of malignancy and/or the result of greater use of cytologic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15849533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K07CA096480-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Chaiyachati K, Cinti SK, Kauffman CA, Riddell J: HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2008 Nov-Dec;7(6):306-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases.
  • We describe 2 patients who had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and who first developed human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma and later, oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  • At the time each patient developed oral cancer, they were responding well to antiretroviral therapy with undetectable viral loads.
  • Careful screening for oral cancers may be indicated in HIV-infected patients with HPV-associated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Papillomavirus Infections / complications


6. Gohy L, Gorska I, Rouleau D, Ghattas G, Pokomandy Ad, Vézina S, Coté P, Macleod J, Allaire G, Hadjeres R, Kornegay JR, Franco E, HIPVIRG Study Group, Coutlée F: Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Sep 1;49(1):32-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in anal biopsies and anal swabs collected from HIV-seropositive men with anal dysplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV-seropositive men.
  • The detection of HPV genotypes in anal biopsies and swabs was compared.
  • METHODS: HPV DNA was detected in anal swabs and biopsies obtained concurrently from 154 HIV-seropositive men [31 without AIN, 60 low-grade AIN (AIN-1), 62 high-grade AIN (AIN-2,3), and 1 indeterminate AIN] under or eligible to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Diseases / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / complications. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. DNA, Viral. HIV Seropositivity / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18667921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Investigator] OAllaire G; Baril JG; Boissonnault M; Charest L; Charron MA; Cote S; Cote P; Coutlee F; de Pokomandy A; Dion H; Dufresne S; Falutz J; Fortin C; Franco E; Ghattas G; Gilmore N; Gorska I; Hadjeres R; Junod P; Klein M; Lalonde R; Laplante F; Leblanc R; Legault D; Lessard B; Longpre D; Mcleod J; Maziade JP; Murphy D; Nguyen VK; O'Brien R; Phaneuf D; Rouleau D; Routy JP; Szabo J; Tessier D; Thomas R; Toma E; Tremblay C; Trepanier JM; Trottier B; Tsoukas C; Turner H; Vezina S
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7. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Treatment methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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8. Buonaguro L, Petrizzo A, Tornesello M, Napolitano M, Martorelli D, Castello G, Beneduce G, De Renzo A, Perrella O, Romagnoli L, Sousa V, De Re V, Dolcetti R, Buonaguro FM: Immune signatures in human PBMCs of idiotypic vaccine for HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. J Transl Med; 2010;8:18
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  • [Title] Immune signatures in human PBMCs of idiotypic vaccine for HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major risk factors for chronic hepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as for type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), which may further evolve into an overt B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).

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  • (PMID = 20170491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulin Idiotypes; 0 / Immunoglobulin Variable Region; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2839974
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9. Kreuter A, Skrygan M, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer NH, Stücker M, Herzler C, Potthoff A, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jun;160(6):1197-205
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS and Infections.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated induction of human beta-defensins in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to analyse expression of AMPs in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal skin lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), a special high-risk group for persistent HPV infections and anal dysplasia.
  • RESULTS: Skin biopsies of 45 HIV-positive MSM with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), anal condylomata acuminata or unaffected anal mucosa, as well as condylomata acuminata of eight HIV-negative MSM, were analysed for AMP mRNA expression.
  • Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis for hBD-2 and hBD-3 was performed in a total of 45 samples. hBD-2 and hBD-3 gene and protein expression was significantly increased in both AIN and condyloma, whereas LL-37, RNase 7 and hBD-1 gene expression did not differ significantly from unaffected anal mucosa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: hBD-2 and hBD-3 expression was shown to be significantly upregulated in HPV-associated anal skin lesions of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. beta-Defensins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / metabolism. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / classification. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19298269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DEFB1 protein, human; 0 / DEFB4A protein, human; 0 / beta-Defensins; 0 / beta-defensin 3, human
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10. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):182-3 [19554737.001]
  • (PMID = 19554736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
  • INTERVENTION: A systematic examination for macroscopic HPV-related lesions through anoscopy with histological confirmation, evaluation of dysplasia and HPV typing.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. HIV Infections / virology. Sexual Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


13. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-defining cancers and HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):146-53
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  • [Title] Non-AIDS-defining cancers and HIV infection.
  • With fewer patients now succumbing to infectious complications of AIDS, other HIV-related morbidities, such as malignancies, have become increasingly important.
  • Apart from Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer, which are considered as AIDS-defining, several additional cancers, referred to as non-AIDS-defining cancers, are also statistically increased in HIV-infected persons.
  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.
  • However, the types of cancer observed at an increased frequency and the relative risks reported vary widely among studies.
  • Although immunosuppression is consistently associated with an increased risk of AIDS-related malignancies, the role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS- defining cancers is controversial.

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  • (PMID = 16091262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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14. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


15. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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16. Nathan M, Hickey N, Mayuranathan L, Vowler SL, Singh N: Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jul;19(7):445-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Warts.

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  • [Title] Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study.
  • Treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal canal disease has been unsatisfactory.
  • The objective of our study was to determine the treatment outcome in our cohort with anal HPV disease.
  • Eighty-eight patients (48.6%) with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 82 patients (45.3%) with low-grade AIN underwent treatment.
  • Contrary to the current view that treatment of HPV-related anal disease is difficult, unrewarding due to recurrences and may lead to substantial morbidity, we demonstrate that effective treatment is possible for both low- and high-grade AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Laser Therapy / utilization. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Warts / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18574114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Williams VM, Metcalf C, French MA, McCloskey JC: Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic. Sex Health; 2010 Sep;7(3):346-51
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: The level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting.
  • METHODS: The results of paired anal cytology and histopathology specimens received between 2002 and 2008 from patients who were referred within the sexual health clinic were retrieved from the anatomical pathology database.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology is highly sensitive for the detection of abnormal squamous cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Medical Audit. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Referral and Consultation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20719226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1448-5028
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexual health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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18. Palefsky JM, Berry JM, Jay N, Krogstad M, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Lee JY: A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1151-5
SciCrunch. DrugBank: Data: Chemical .

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  • [Title] A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test a therapeutic vaccine consisting of a fusion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein and the Mycobacterium bovis heat shock protein 65 (SGN-00101) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN) in HIV-positive individuals.
  • Anal disease was assessed at baseline, 8, 12, 24 and 48 weeks and was classified as the more severe of anal cytology and anal biopsy.
  • Anal HPV DNA was detected using L1 consensus primer-based PCR followed by type-specific probing and dot-blot hybridization (DBH).
  • RESULTS: There were no drug-related serious adverse events or significant changes in HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications

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  • (PMID = 16691066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70047
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / heat-shock protein 65, Mycobacterium; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
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19. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The assumption that visible perianal warts are benign lesions in HIV-positive patients has to be reevaluated since an important number of such lesions could correspond to low-grade anal disease, which in turn could progress to high-grade anal disease or cancer.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Male / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / classification. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


20. Kreuter A, Wieland U, Gambichler T, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, German Network of Competence HIV/AIDS: p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;157(3):523-30
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  • [Title] p16ink4a expression decreases during imiquimod treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and correlates with the decline of lesional high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load.
  • In this context, a drastically increased relative risk for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) exists in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Pilot Projects. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 17573882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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21. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: [HIV-associated tumors]. Hautarzt; 2006 Nov;57(11):988, 990-3
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  • In the beginning of the HIV epidemic, Kaposi sarcoma was a common stigma in AIDS patients and one of the leading causes of death.
  • The incidence of HPV-related anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions is rising so dramatically that screening programs as they are already established for cervical carcinoma should be implemented.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17036250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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22. Ho-Yen C, Chang F, van der Walt J, Lucas S: Gastrointestinal malignancies in HIV-infected or immunosuppressed patients: pathologic features and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Nov;14(6):431-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common internal organ to be involved by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related malignancies.
  • It is the second most common site for Kaposi sarcoma after skin, and the commonest visceral site, for Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients.
  • GI lymphomas have been documented in approximately 25% of AIDS patients with systemic lymphomas.
  • Moreover, GI involvement of AIDS-lymphoma has been associated with poor prognosis and short survival.
  • Several other malignancies that occur in the GI tract are also closely related to HIV-infected or immunosuppressed individuals; these include posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors, anal precancerous lesions, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • As a result of active antiretroviral therapy, patients infected with HIV are living longer and are consequently at increased risk for development of cancer.
  • Therefore, it is possible that the number of AIDS-associated malignancies will rise and the pattern of tumors may change in the future.
  • In this paper, the clinicopathologic features of GI malignancies associated with AIDS patients are reviewed and the differential diagnosis with other mimic lesions is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppression. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18049132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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23. Gormley RH, Kovarik CL: Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2009 Aug;6(3):130-8
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  • Anogenital HPV-related disease includes benign condyloma acuminata, the most common cutaneous manifestation of genital HPV infection; intermediate malignancy or premalignant conditions including giant condyloma acuminata (also called Buschke-Loewenstein tumor), anal intraepithelial neoplasia, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia; and frankly malignant disease including Bowen's disease and invasive anal, penile, or vulvar carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous HPV-related disease in nongenital skin is also increased in HIV-positive patients, in the form of benign common warts, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like skin lesions, and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Humans. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19589298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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24. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Tang B, Horberg MA, Klein D, Quesenberry CP Jr, Towner WJ, Abrams DI: HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause. AIDS; 2009 Nov 13;23(17):2337-45
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  • METHODS: Adult HIV-infected and matched HIV-uninfected members of Kaiser Permanente followed between 1996 and 2007 for incident AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), infection-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs; anal squamous cell, vagina/vulva, Hodgkin's lymphoma, penis, liver, human papillomavirus-related oral cavity/pharynx, stomach) and infection-unrelated NADC (all other NADCs).
  • HIV-infected persons experienced 552 ADC, 221 infection-related NADC, and 388 infection-unrelated NADC.
  • HIV-uninfected persons experienced 179 ADC, 284 infection-related NADC, and 3418 infection-unrelated NADC.
  • The rate ratio for infection-related NADC was 9.2 (95% CI: 7.7-11.1), also with decreases in the rate ratio over time (P < 0.001).
  • These results were largely influenced by anal squamous cell cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Among infection-unrelated NADCs, other anal, skin, other head and neck, and lung cancer rates were higher and prostate cancer rates lower in HIV-infected persons.
  • Among all infection-unrelated NADCs, the rate ratio decreased over time only for lung cancer (P = 0.007).

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  • (PMID = 19741479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016893; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K01 AI071725; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069918-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K01 AI071725-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI069918-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI069918; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K01AI071725; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI071725-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069918
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS198381; NLM/ PMC2863991
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25. Cresti S, Ouaïssi M, Sielezneff I, Chaix JB, Pirro N, Berthet B, Consentino B, Sastre B: Advantage of vacuum assisted closure on healing of wound associated with omentoplasty after abdominoperineal excision: a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:136

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  • BACKGROUND: Primary closure of the perineum with drainage after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum for carcinoma, is widely accepted.
  • Those complications are frequently related to the patients' clinical antecedent (i.e radiotherapy, diabetes, smoking).
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In the present report, vacuum assisted drainage was used after abdominoperineal excision for carcinoma in the very first step due to intraoperative gross septic contamination during tumor resection.
  • The first case: A 57-years old man with a 30-years history of peri-anal Crohn's disease, the adenocarcinoma of the lowest part of the rectum and Crohn colitis with multiple area of severe dysplasia required panproctocolectomy with a perineal resection.
  • The second case: A 51-year-old man, with AIDS.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed for recurrence epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19102785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2621222
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