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1. Krentz HB, Kliewer G, Gill MJ: Changing mortality rates and causes of death for HIV-infected individuals living in Southern Alberta, Canada from 1984 to 2003. HIV Med; 2005 Mar;6(2):99-106
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  • [Title] Changing mortality rates and causes of death for HIV-infected individuals living in Southern Alberta, Canada from 1984 to 2003.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine changes over a 2-year period in both the mortality rate and the causes of death in a geographically defined HIV-infected population.
  • METHODS: A database search of primary care information for the dates and causes of death for all patients documented with HIV infection and living in Southern Alberta between 1984 and 2003 was undertaken.
  • AIDS deaths were reconciled with Public Health Reports.
  • RESULTS: Between 1984 and 2003, there were 560 deaths in the 1987 individuals living with HIV infection in Southern Alberta.
  • In the pre-HAART era, 90% of all deaths were AIDS related whereas only 67% were AIDS related in the current HAART era.
  • The leading causes of AIDS deaths were AIDS multiple causes (31%), Mycobacterium avium complex (18%), Pneumocystis pneumonia (10%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7%).
  • The proportion of non-AIDS related deaths increased from 7% pre-HAART to 32% in the current HAART era.
  • Accidental deaths, including drug overdose (29%), suicide (7%) and violence (3%), hepatic disease (19%), non-AIDS related malignancies (19%), and cardiovascular disease (16%) accounted for the majority of non-AIDS related deaths.
  • A total of 14% of patients dying from AIDS were ARV-naive in contrast to 35% dying from non-HIV related conditions.
  • Of all those dying from AIDS, 23% died<3 months after their initial diagnosis, reflecting late presentation.
  • In the current HAART era, 87% of patients who died from AIDS were extensively treated, reflecting HAART treatment failures due mostly to multiclass drug resistance (42%), inexorable disease progression despite ARV (32%), lack of ability or interest to be maintained on a lifelong HAART programme (21%) and, rarely, drug intolerance (<1%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Deaths from AIDS-related causes have decreased significantly, but deaths from non-AIDS related conditions have increased, both as an absolute number of deaths and as a proportion of all deaths in HIV-infected patients.
  • The increasing age of the HIV population, and the increased mean CD4 count, increased proportion of intravenous drug users, increased hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection rate, and increased history of smoking seen in our population also influenced the mortality rate and causes of death.
  • These factors must also be considered in projecting future trends in mortality of an HIV-infected population.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Alberta. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cause of Death / trends. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / mortality. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / virology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / mortality. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / virology. Socioeconomic Factors. Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Treatment Refusal


2. Balderas V, Spechler SJ: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with AIDS. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Jun;3(6):349-53; quiz following 353
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  • [Title] Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND: A 38-year-old man with AIDS and hepatitis C was admitted to our hospital in January 2005, with complaints of epigastric pain, odynophagia, and melena of 4 days' duration.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach (diffuse large B-cell type) with associated gastric ulceration and bleeding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Hemostasis, Endoscopic. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Male


3. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, Virgo P, McNeel TS, Scoppa SM, Biggar RJ, HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study: Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002. AIDS; 2006 Aug 1;20(12):1645-54
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  • [Title] Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002.
  • BACKGROUND: People with AIDS have heightened cancer risk from immunosuppression.
  • HAART has been available since 1996 and has reduced AIDS-related mortality, but there are few large-scale studies on cancer trends.
  • METHODS: AIDS and cancer registries in 11 US regions (1980-2002) were used to identify cancers in 375 933 people with AIDS.
  • Cancer risk relative to the general population was measured using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), focusing on the 2 years after AIDS onset for those with AIDS in 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (HAART era).
  • RESULTS: Between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002, risk declined for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [(KS) n = 5131; SIR, 22 100 and 3640, respectively; P < 0.0001] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [(NHL) n = 3412; SIR, 53.2 and 22.6, respectively; P < 0.0001].
  • Among non-AIDS malignancies, lung cancer was most common, but risk declined between 1990-1995 and 1996-2002 (n = 344; SIR, 3.3 and 2.6, respectively; P = 0.02).
  • Risk of Hodgkin lymphoma increased substantially over the 1990-2002 period (n = 149; SIR, 8.1 and 13.6, respectively; P = 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dramatic declines in KS and NHL were temporally related to improving therapies, especially introduction of HAART, but those with AIDS remain at marked risk.
  • Among non-AIDS-related cancers, a recent increase in Hodgkin lymphoma was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / immunology. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology


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4. Galceran J, Marcos-Gragera R, Soler M, Romaguera A, Ameijide A, Izquierdo A, Borràs J, de Sanjosé S, Casabona J: Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Apr;43(6):1085-91
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain.
  • HIV infected people and AIDS patients develop cancer more frequently than the general population.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing cancer among 15 to 69 year old AIDS patients from two geographic areas: Tarragona and Girona provinces, in north-eastern Spain.
  • We have studied invasive and in situ cancers (for all sites) among 1659 AIDS patients from +/-5 years around the date of their AIDS diagnosis by matching the population-based Cancer Registries with the AIDS Registry covering these populations.
  • For selected types of cancers, SIRs were also calculated for HIV exposure category.
  • Compared with the general population, incidence of cancer among AIDS patients (invasive and in situ) increased 22.9 fold in men (n=142) and 21.0 fold in women (n=45).
  • High statistically significant SIRs were found for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (male, 486.4; female, 1030.0), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (male, 126.1; female, 192.8) and invasive cervical cancer (41.8).
  • High risks were also found for Hodgkin's lymphoma (31.1), liver cancer (29.4) and lung cancer (9.4) in men, and in situ cervical cancer (24.4) in women.
  • For all non-AIDS defining malignant neoplasms as a group SIRs were 3.4 in men and 2.5 in women.
  • Among men, homo/bisexuality was strongly related to risk of KS and NHL.
  • The rates of cervical cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver cancer and lung cancer were among the highest ever reported linked to HIV infection.
  • For the cervical cancer this could be attributable to the low incidence of this cancer in the general population and to the high prevalence of intravenous drug users among HIV women and probably due to poor preventive strategies in this population.

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  • (PMID = 17349785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Nagai H, Odawara T, Ajisawa A, Tanuma J, Hagiwara S, Watanabe T, Uehira T, Uchiumi H, Yotsumoto M, Miyakawa T, Watanabe A, Kambe T, Konishi M, Saito S, Takahama S, Tateyama M, Okada S: Whole brain radiation alone produces favourable outcomes for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma in the HAART era. Eur J Haematol; 2010 Jun;84(6):499-505
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  • [Title] Whole brain radiation alone produces favourable outcomes for AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma in the HAART era.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a lethal disorder, but the recent application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved prognosis.
  • This retrospective cohort study of AIDS-related PCNSL examined the actual clinical outcomes and prognostic variables affecting overall survival (OS) in the HAART era.
  • Twenty-three newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL at 12 regional centre hospitals for HIV/AIDS in Japan between 2002 and 2008 were consecutively enrolled.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / radiotherapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Haematol. 2010 Sep;85(3):277. Tanuma, Junko [added]
  • (PMID = 20132301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Kreisl TN, Panageas KS, Elkin EB, Deangelis LM, Abrey LE: Treatment patterns and prognosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and primary central system lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Sep;49(9):1710-6
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  • [Title] Treatment patterns and prognosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and primary central system lymphoma.
  • The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has decreased in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, but PCNSL continues to be a prominent AIDS-defining illness.
  • One hundred and eighty-four patients with both HIV and PCNSL were identified.
  • No time trends in treatment patterns were observed, and no sociodemographic factors were associated with receipt of treatment.
  • Despite improved treatment for both diseases over the past decade, survival remains dismal in this cohort of Medicare/Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV-related PCNSL.
  • These results may not apply to the general HIV population.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18661394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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7. Qi Y, Martin MP, Gao X, Jacobson L, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, O'Brien SJ, Trowsdale J, Carrington M: KIR/HLA pleiotropism: protection against both HIV and opportunistic infections. PLoS Pathog; 2006 Aug;2(8):e79
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  • [Title] KIR/HLA pleiotropism: protection against both HIV and opportunistic infections.
  • The compound genotype KIR3DS1/HLA-B Bw4-80I, which presumably favors natural killer cell activation, has been implicated in protection against HIV disease.
  • We show that this genotype confers dual protection over the course of HIV disease; early direct containment of HIV viral load, and late specific defense against opportunistic infections, but not AIDS-related malignancies.
  • The double protection of KIR3DS1/Bw4-80I in an etiologically complex disease such as AIDS, along with the disease specificity of its effects is conceptually novel and underscores the intricacy of host immunogenetics against HIV/AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / genetics. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / genetics. HLA-B Antigens / genetics. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. HIV Seropositivity. HIV-1. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppression. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / genetics. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Receptors, KIR. Receptors, KIR3DS1. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16933987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-7374
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS pathogens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Pathog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R37 DA004334; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R56 DA004334; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA004334; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA04334; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9800943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0401569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
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  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: Editorial comment: plasmablastic lymphoma--a diagnostic and therapeutic puzzle. AIDS Read; 2007 Sep;17(9):448-9
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  • [Title] Editorial comment: plasmablastic lymphoma--a diagnostic and therapeutic puzzle.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / diagnosis. Lymphoma / classification. Mouth Neoplasms / classification

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  • [CommentOn] AIDS Read. 2007 Sep;17(9):446-7 [17902226.001]
  • (PMID = 17902227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
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9. Louie BE, Harlock J, Hosein A, Miller JD: Laser therapy for an obstructing primary tracheal lymphoma in a patient with AIDS. Can Respir J; 2005 Mar;12(2):86-8
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  • [Title] Laser therapy for an obstructing primary tracheal lymphoma in a patient with AIDS.
  • A patient with AIDS presented with progressive dyspnea leading to respiratory failure with near complete airway obstruction due to primary tracheal lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / therapy. Laser Therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Tracheal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15785798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-2241
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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10. Xu D, Coleman T, Zhang J, Fagot A, Kotalik C, Zhao L, Trivedi P, Jones C, Zhang L: Epstein-Barr virus inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication in primary effusion lymphomas. J Virol; 2007 Jun;81(11):6068-78
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication in primary effusion lymphomas.
  • The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are latently infected with both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

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  • (PMID = 17376914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI060547; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108951; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21AI59132; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI059132; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR15635; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U54 AI057160; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015635; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA108951
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1900272
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11. Kumarasamy N, Venkatesh KK, Devaleenol B, Poongulali S, Yephthomi T, Pradeep A, Saghayam S, Flanigan T, Mayer KH, Solomon S: Factors associated with mortality among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in southern India. Int J Infect Dis; 2010 Feb;14(2):e127-31
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  • [Title] Factors associated with mortality among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in southern India.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of mortality among the HIV-infected in southern India in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • METHODS: Analyses of this patient cohort were conducted using the YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education HIV Natural History Observational Database.
  • Close to three-fourths of patients (70%) died from an AIDS-defining illness (ADI).
  • Three patients (4%) died from non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-related events continue to be the major source of mortality among the HIV-infected in southern India in the era of HAART.
  • This mortality pattern justifies increased proactive efforts to identify HIV-infected patients and initiate HAART earlier, before patients present to care with advanced immunodeficiency.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19632872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3511
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069432; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI 069432
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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12. Simonelli C, Tedeschi R, Gloghini A, Talamini R, Bortolin MT, Berretta M, Spina M, Morassut S, Vaccher E, De Paoli P, Carbone A, Tirelli U: Plasma HHV-8 viral load in HHV-8-related lymphoproliferative disorders associated with HIV infection. J Med Virol; 2009 May;81(5):888-96
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  • [Title] Plasma HHV-8 viral load in HHV-8-related lymphoproliferative disorders associated with HIV infection.
  • This is a mono-institutional analysis of the clinical features, immunological and virological findings, and prognostic factors of patients with HIV infection and HHV-8-lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • Patients with Multicentric Castleman Disease and HHV-8-related lymphoma diagnosed and treated from April 1987 to June 2004 were included in the study.
  • HHV-8 and HIV plasma viral load, CD4+ count, hematologic parameters, and general wellbeing (performance status) were assessed at the onset of the diseases and analyzed in order to identify possible prognostic factors.
  • Nine patients with Multicentric Castleman disease, and 16 with HHV-8-related lymphomas (13 primary effusion lymphomas and 3 solid lymphomas), were diagnosed and treated out of 327 HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Four patients with Multicentric Castleman disease received only antiretroviral drugs; 5 HAART plus oral etoposide.
  • Nine patients with primary effusion lymphoma were treated with a CHOP-like regimen (Cyclophosphamide, Prednisone anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, Bleomycin, Etoposide) and HAART; 1 with etoposide and HAART, 1 with HAART alone.
  • The patients with solid lymphoma underwent CHOP-like chemotherapy.
  • Patients with Multicentric Castleman disease showed lower median values of HHV-8 viral load and longer overall survival compared with HHV-8-related lymphomas.
  • In the univariate analysis, HHV-8-related lymphoma, HHV-8 viral load >40,000 cp/ml and performance status >2 were associated with an increased risk of death.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed the diagnosis of lymphoma as an independent predictor of shorter survival.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / blood. Female. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Humans. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / virology. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / complications. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


13. Spitzer TR, Ambinder RF, Lee JY, Kaplan LD, Wachsman W, Straus DJ, Aboulafia DM, Scadden DT: Dose-reduced busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and autologous stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium study 020. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jan;14(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Dose-reduced busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and autologous stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium study 020.
  • Intensive chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has resulted in durable remissions in a substantial proportion of patients.
  • High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (AuSCT), moreover, has resulted in sustained complete remissions in selected patients with recurrent chemosensitive disease.
  • Based on a favorable experience with dose-reduced high-dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and AuSCT for older patients with non-HIV-associated aggressive lymphomas, an AIDS Malignancy Consortium multicenter trial was undertaken using the same dose-reduced busulfan and cyclophosphamide preparative regimen with AuSCT for recurrent HIV-associated NHL and HL.
  • One patient died on day +33 posttransplantation from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and multiorgan failure.
  • No other fatal regimen-related toxicity occurred.
  • This multi-institutional trial demonstrates that a regimen of dose-reduced high-dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and AuSCT is well tolerated and is associated with favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and OS probabilities for selected patients with HIV-associated NHL and HL.

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  • (PMID = 18158962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS281894; NLM/ PMC4524737
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14. Dewan MZ, Uchihara JN, Terashima K, Honda M, Sata T, Ito M, Fujii N, Uozumi K, Tsukasaki K, Tomonaga M, Kubuki Y, Okayama A, Toi M, Mori N, Yamamoto N: Efficient intervention of growth and infiltration of primary adult T-cell leukemia cells by an HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir. Blood; 2006 Jan 15;107(2):716-24
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  • [Title] Efficient intervention of growth and infiltration of primary adult T-cell leukemia cells by an HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir.
  • Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T cells associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection, carries a very poor prognosis because of the resistance of leukemic cells to any conventional regimen, including chemotherapy.
  • We examined the effect of ritonavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, on HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines and primary ATL cells and found that it induced apoptosis and inhibited transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB in these cells.
  • In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID)/gammacnull (NOG) mice, ritonavir very efficiently prevented tumor growth and leukemic infiltration in various organs of NOG mice at the same dose used for treatment of patients with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasms, Experimental. Ritonavir / pharmacology. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cyclin D2. Cyclins / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / physiology. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / pathology. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / virology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16174765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / bcl-X Protein; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
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15. De Socio GV, Simonetti S, Rosignoli D, Minga P, Tomassini GM, Baldelli F: Topical cidofovir for severe warts in a patient affected by AIDS and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Oct;19(10):715-6
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  • [Title] Topical cidofovir for severe warts in a patient affected by AIDS and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We describe a 42-year-old man with AIDS and Hodgkin's lymphoma whose severe and recalcitrant cutaneous warts resolved following treatment with local 1% cidofovir.
  • In advanced HIV disease complicated by additional haematological malignancy, cutaneous warts may be difficult to treat and present a challenge for the attending physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Organophosphonates / administration & dosage. Warts / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18824628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir
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16. Bielen D, Mortelé K, Peters H, Lombard D, Ros R: Small bowel obstruction secondary to disseminated candidiasis in an immunocompromised patient: radiologic-pathologic correlation. JBR-BTR; 2005 Jan-Feb;88(1):20-2
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  • AIDS, leukemia), is increasingly encountered in daily medical practice.
  • We report on a case of a 33-year-old immunocompromised woman with a history of recurrent T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, which presented with abdominal pain.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Enteritis / microbiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15792164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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17. Othman N, Yip CW, Intan HI, Zainuddin Z, Amran F: An abdominal mass owing to Penicillium marneffei in an HIV-infected 7-year-old boy: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr; 2006 Sep;26(3):259-62
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  • [Title] An abdominal mass owing to Penicillium marneffei in an HIV-infected 7-year-old boy: case report.
  • A 7-year-old boy, referred with lymphoma, presented with prolonged fever and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy demonstrated on computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen.
  • The patient was subsequently proven serologically to be positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • A high level of clinical suspicion and awareness is necessary for early diagnosis of penicilliosis, especially in an era of an increasing prevalence of HIV in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Mycoses / diagnosis. Penicillium

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  • (PMID = 16925966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-4936
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical paediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Genebat M, Ruiz-Mateos E, Pulido I, González-Serna A, García-Pergañeda A, Méndez G, Romero-Sánchez MC, Ferrando-Martínez S, Leal M: Long-term immunovirogical effect and tolerability of a maraviroc-containing regimen in routine clinical practice. Curr HIV Res; 2010 Sep;8(6):482-6
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  • OBJECTIVES: to analyze the long-term immunovirological effect and tolerability of a maraviroc-containing antiretroviral therapy in viraemic and pretreated HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection.
  • METHODS: forty-six R5 HIV-infected patients (48% HCV-coinfected) started a maraviroc-containing antiretroviral regimen, including patients with multidrug resistant virus and patients after first virologic failure.
  • One patient developed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma after 36 weeks follow up, despite undetectable viral load and significant CD4+ increase was achieved (the only AIDS-defining event observed).
  • CONCLUSIONS: maraviroc-containing regimen is long-term effective and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical practice and in different clinical scenarios.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclohexanes / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pyrrolidinones / therapeutic use. Raltegravir Potassium. Retrospective Studies. Spain. Time. Viral Load


19. Queiroga EM, Gualco G, Chioato L, Harrington WJ, Araujo I, Weiss LM, Bacchi CE: Viral studies in burkitt lymphoma: association with Epstein-Barr virus but not HHV-8. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Aug;130(2):186-92
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  • [Title] Viral studies in burkitt lymphoma: association with Epstein-Barr virus but not HHV-8.
  • Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, composed of a monomorphic population of medium-sized B cells with a high proliferation rate and a consistent MYC translocation.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with BL with different frequencies depending on the clinical variant.
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), infects a wide range of normal cells, having a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • In secondary immunodeficiencies, such as HIV-1 infection and organ transplantation, HHV-8 is considered an opportunistic pathogen linked to the development of lymphomas in patients with AIDS and HIV + patients.
  • We found no association of BL with HHV-8 in EBV + BL or in EBV-cases, including the HIV + BL group.

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  • (PMID = 18628086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112217-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121935-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA082274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112217-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082274-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082274-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121935-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-016821; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA112217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121935; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-016821
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS125501; NLM/ PMC2718775
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20. Honda M, Morikawa T, Yamaguchi Y, Tani M, Yamaguchi K, Iijima K, Akishita M, Fukayama M, Ouchi Y: [A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2009;46(6):551-6
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  • [Title] [A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly].
  • We report a 90-year-old man who was given a diagnosis of pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) based on the detailed immunochemical and DNA analyses of the pleural effusion.
  • He was bed-ridden and on enteral nutrition due to severe Alzheimer's disease, and also had diabetes mellitus.
  • Most of the atypical cells were CD30 positive, with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated protein.
  • PEL is a rare type of lymphoma confined to the body cavities without any prominent tumor mass, and its pathogenesis is related to HHV-8 infection.
  • PEL develops mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20139653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Epstein JB, Cabay RJ, Glick M: Oral malignancies in HIV disease: changes in disease presentation, increasing understanding of molecular pathogenesis, and current management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2005 Nov;100(5):571-8
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  • [Title] Oral malignancies in HIV disease: changes in disease presentation, increasing understanding of molecular pathogenesis, and current management.
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are associated with a vide variety of morbidities.
  • Local and systemic diseases can develop in association with HIV infection and may manifest themselves as malignancies of the oropharynx.
  • Advances in HIV management, fueled by increasing understanding of molecular pathogenesis, have resulted in marked changes in the prevalence of oral malignant disease.
  • This paper discusses recent trends in the presentation and treatment of malignancies related to HIV and AIDS with an emphasis on malignancies seen in the oral cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Developed Countries. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16243242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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22. Shiels MS, Cole SR, Wegner S, Armenian H, Chmiel JS, Ganesan A, Marconi VC, Martinez-Maza O, Martinson J, Weintrob A, Jacobson LP, Crum-Cianflone NF: Effect of HAART on incident cancer and noncancer AIDS events among male HIV seroconverters. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):485-90
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  • [Title] Effect of HAART on incident cancer and noncancer AIDS events among male HIV seroconverters.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the prevention of AIDS-defining cancers relative to other AIDS-defining events.
  • DESIGN: Prospective cohort study using 2,121 HIV+ male seroconverters (median age: 28 years, 51% white/non-Hispanic) in the Tri-Service AIDS Clinical Consortium (n = 1694) and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (n = 427).
  • METHODS: Poisson regression models, with calendar periods to represent antiretroviral therapy, were extended to analyze first incident AIDS-defining cancers and other first AIDS-defining events as competing risks.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one AIDS-defining cancers (64 Kaposi sarcomas; 17 non-Hodgkin lymphomas) and 343 other AIDS events occurred during 14,483 person-years in 1990-2006.
  • The rate ratio of AIDS-defining cancers during the HAART calendar period was 0.26 (95% confidence limits: 0.15, 0.46) and of other AIDS-defining events was 0.28 (95% confidence limits: 0.21, 0.36) compared with the monotherapy/combination therapy calendar period, adjusting for age, infection duration, race, and cohort.
  • The association of HAART with decreased AIDS incidence seemed to be equal (interaction ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence limits: 0.51, 1.74) for AIDS-defining cancers and other AIDS-defining events.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, HAART seems equally protective against first AIDS-defining cancers and other first AIDS-defining events.

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  • (PMID = 18614916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-11; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / HU0001-05-2-0011; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035041-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK066116; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035039-16; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314-27S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI037984-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043-11; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035043-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314-28S3; United States / PHS HHS / / HU0001-05-2-0011; None / None / / M01 RR000722-23; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009314-26S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039-16; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI037613-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722-23; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314-26S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009314-28S3; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009314
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS165363; NLM/ PMC2805176
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23. Fulco PP, Hynicka L, Rackley D: Raltegravir-based HAART regimen in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Pharmacother; 2010 Feb;44(2):377-82
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  • [Title] Raltegravir-based HAART regimen in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the antiretroviral management of a patient diagnosed simultaneously with HIV/AIDS and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, focusing on the drug-drug interactions between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and concomitant cancer chemotherapy.
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old white man was recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and presented 1 month later with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, double vision, right eye discomfort/swelling, and a 3.6-kg weight loss.
  • An excisional biopsy of a right inguinal lymph node confirmed a new diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • DISCUSSION: HAART improves the chemotherapeutic response in patients with HIV and lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Drug Interactions. HIV Integrase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / etiology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Raltegravir Potassium. Vincristine / therapeutic use


24. Contreras-Galindo R, Kaplan MH, Leissner P, Verjat T, Ferlenghi I, Bagnoli F, Giusti F, Dosik MH, Hayes DF, Gitlin SD, Markovitz DM: Human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) elements in the plasma of people with lymphoma and breast cancer. J Virol; 2008 Oct;82(19):9329-36
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  • [Title] Human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) elements in the plasma of people with lymphoma and breast cancer.
  • Here we show that RNA from human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) (HML-2), a relatively recent entrant into the human genome, can be found in very high titers in the plasma of patients with lymphomas and breast cancer as measured by either reverse transcriptase PCR or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.
  • Finally, using immunoelectron microscopy, we show the presence of HERV-K (HML-2) virus-like particles in the plasma of lymphoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / virology. Endogenous Retroviruses / genetics. Lymphoma / virology. RNA, Viral / blood

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  • (PMID = 18632860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI062248; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI062248
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Triiodobenzoic Acids; 92339-11-2 / iodixanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2546968
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25. Li HJ, Gao YQ, Cheng JL, Zhang YZ: Diagnostic imaging, preautopsy imaging and autopsy findings of. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Sep 20;122(18):2142-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Aquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a challenge to medical researchers because of its unique pathological and clinical picture.
  • The clinical data, particularly autopsy evidence, from China have failed to provide enough pathological and etiological evidence for AIDS diagnosis, which impairs the reliability of the diagnosis and our full understanding of the occurrence and development of AIDS complications.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging and pathologic characteristics of AIDS.
  • METHODS: Autopsy, imaging and pathological data from 8 cases of AIDS were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The autopsy data indicated the presence of parasitic infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and virus infections in AIDS patients.
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, coccobacteria pneumonia, Aspergillus pneumonia, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, toxoplasma encephalitis, lymphoma and cerebrovascular diseases were found in these patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: During the course of AIDS progression, the concurrent multiple infections as well as tumor development may result in multiple organ pathological changes and clinically complex symptoms that further complicate the imaging and pathological manifestations, thus resulting in difficult differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19781300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Khandekar MM, Deshmukh SD, Holla VV, Rane SR, Kakrani AL, Sangale SA, Habbu AA, Pandit DP, Bhore AV, Sastry J, Phadke MA, Bollinger RC: Profile of bone marrow examination in HIV/AIDS patients to detect opportunistic infections, especially tuberculosis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jan;48(1):7-12
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  • [Title] Profile of bone marrow examination in HIV/AIDS patients to detect opportunistic infections, especially tuberculosis.
  • Morphological evaluation of 140 bone marrow aspirations received in haematopathology laboratory with serologically established HIV infection, along with other relevant special haematological tests, was done during 1st Jan 1999 - 31st Dec 2002 at state government run tertiary care General Hospital in Maharashtra state, India.
  • One patient had immunoblastic lymphoma and showed bone marrow infiltration.
  • Findings in this study strongly indicate that in HIV/AIDS, AFB stain should be done on each marrow aspirate to rule out tuberculosis in countries like India; where TB and AIDS are marching together.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Bone Marrow / microbiology. Bone Marrow Examination. HIV Infections / complications. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / isolation & purification. Tuberculosis / diagnosis


27. Porcellini E, Carbone I, Ianni M, Licastro F: Alzheimer's disease gene signature says: beware of brain viral infections. Immun Ageing; 2010;7:16
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  • [Title] Alzheimer's disease gene signature says: beware of brain viral infections.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent findings from a genome wide association investigation in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non demented controls (CTR) showed that a limited set of genes was in a strong association (p > l0-5) with the disease.
  • PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: In this report we suggest that the polymorphism association in 8 of these genes is consistent with a non conventional interpretation of AD etiology.Nectin-2 (NC-2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule- 16 (CEACAM-16), B-cell lymphoma-3 (Bcl-3), translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (T0MM-40), complement receptor-1 (CR-l), APOJ or clusterin and C-type lectin domain A family-16 member (CLEC-16A) result in a genetic signature that might affect individual brain susceptibility to infection by herpes virus family during aging, leading to neuronal loss, inflammation and amyloid deposition.
  • IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that such genetic trait may predispose to AD via complex and diverse mechanisms each contributing to an increase of individual susceptibility to brain viral infections.

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  • (PMID = 21156047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4933
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunity & ageing : I & A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immun Ageing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019140
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28. Clayton G, Omasta-Martin A, Bower M: The effects of HAART on AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J HIV Ther; 2006 Sep;11(3):51-3
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  • [Title] The effects of HAART on AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


29. Goldstein MA, Naidich TP, Silverman ME: Clinical importance of delayed MRI contrast enhancement of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Clinical importance of delayed MRI contrast enhancement of primary central nervous system lymphoma in AIDS.
  • Accurately distinguishing between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), still the most common secondary CNS mass lesion complications of AIDS, has long represented a diagnostic challenge in those with HIV.
  • A young adult male with AIDS presented with evolving ophthalmoplegias, Parinaud's syndrome and gait dysfunction.

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  • (PMID = 21686485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027744
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30. Mallouk A, Pham PT, Pham PC: Concurrent FSGS and Hodgkin's lymphoma: case report and literature review on the link between nephrotic glomerulopathies and hematological malignancies. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Dec;10(4):284-9
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  • [Title] Concurrent FSGS and Hodgkin's lymphoma: case report and literature review on the link between nephrotic glomerulopathies and hematological malignancies.
  • In solid tumors, the NS is most often due to membranous glomerulonephropathy, whereas in common hematological malignancies, minimal-change disease predominates.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is among the least frequently reported renal lesion associated with malignancy.
  • METHODS: We report a case of the simultaneous diagnoses of FSGS and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and review the literature on various nephrotic glomerulonephropathies associated with common leukemia and lymphoma.
  • Nephrotic glomerulonephropathies have also been well documented among patients with lymphomas, in particular, Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • While minimal-change disease is most commonly found in association with Hodgkin's lymphoma, more diverse and complex renal lesions are associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / complications. Hodgkin Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Glomerulonephritis / etiology. Humans. Leukemia / complications. Lymphoma / complications. Male. Nephrotic Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17186334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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31. Hoffmann C, Wolf E, Wyen C, Fätkenheuer G, Van Lunzen J, Stellbrink HJ, Stoehr A, Plettenberg A, Jaeger H, Noppeney R, Hentrich M, Goekbuget N, Hoelzer D, Horst HA: AIDS-associated Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma: short intensive polychemotherapy is feasible and effective. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Sep;47(9):1872-80
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma: short intensive polychemotherapy is feasible and effective.
  • The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a short-term, multi-agent and dose intensive regimen in AIDS patients with Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma (BL/BLL) and to compare its efficacy with that of a conventional regimen.
  • This was a retrospective, multi-center cohort study of all HIV-1-infected patients diagnosed with BL/BLL between 1990 - 2004.
  • In a multi-variable Cox regression analysis, treatment according to the GMALL protocol was significantly associated with prolonged survival with a relative hazard rate of 0.13 (95% CI 0.03 - 0.63, P = 0.01).
  • In conclusion, the short and intensive GMALL protocol for B-ALL/NHL is feasible in patients with AIDS-BL/BLL.
  • In the era of HAART, more intensive chemotherapy regimens should be considered in patients with highly aggressive lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17065000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; CHOP protocol
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32. Suzuki K, Nakazato T, Sanada Y, Mihara A, Tachikawa N, Kurai H, Yoshimura Y, Hayashi H, Yoshida S, Kakimoto T: [Successful treatment with hyper-CVAD and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2010 Mar;51(3):207-12
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  • [Title] [Successful treatment with hyper-CVAD and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma].
  • He was diagnosed as HIV positive.
  • Colonoscopy was performed and histological examination of the colon tumor revealed Burkitt's lymphoma (BL).
  • In the HAART era, the survival of patients with AIDS-related diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) improved dramatically, whereas the survival of similarly treated patients with AIDS-related BL remained poor.
  • Our case suggests that intensive chemotherapy with hyper-CVAD/MTX-Ara-C combined with HAART may be well tolerated and effective in AIDS-related BL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20379116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CVAD protocol; EPOCH protocol
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33. Ho SF, Fink C, Murray PI: Epstein-Barr Virus DNA quantification: an adjunctive diagnostic marker for AIDS-associated lymphoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2005 Dec;13(6):471-3
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr Virus DNA quantification: an adjunctive diagnostic marker for AIDS-associated lymphoma.
  • We report an HIV-positive patient who developed a unilateral retinitis and subsequent intracranial lesions.
  • The finding of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) DNA at a > 1-log greater concentration in the vitreous compared to blood raised the possibility of a primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which was subsequently confirmed on brain biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / genetics. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16321894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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34. Ayers LW, Silver S, McGrath MS, Orenstein JM: The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery. Infect Agent Cancer; 2007;2:7
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  • [Title] The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery.
  • The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators.
  • The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types.
  • Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%).
  • ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens.
  • The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to funded, approved researchers at no fee.

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  • (PMID = 17335575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA066531
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851770
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35. Fukumoto R, Andresen V, Bialuk I, Cecchinato V, Walser JC, Valeri VW, Nauroth JM, Gessain A, Nicot C, Franchini G: In vivo genetic mutations define predominant functions of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus p12I protein. Blood; 2009 Apr 16;113(16):3726-34
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  • [Title] In vivo genetic mutations define predominant functions of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus p12I protein.
  • The human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ORF-I encodes a 99-amino acid hydrophobic membrane protein, p12(I), that affects receptors in different cellular compartments.
  • Genetic analysis of ORF-I from ex vivo samples of HTLV-1-infected patients reveals predominant amino acid substitutions within ORF-I that affect proteolytic cleavage, suggesting that ER-associated functions of p12(I) may contribute to the survival and proliferation of the infected T cells in the host.

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  • (PMID = 18791162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115398; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / IL2RB protein, human; 0 / IL2RG protein, human; 0 / Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor beta Subunit; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Sorting Signals; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0 / Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins; 0 / p12I protein, Human T-lymphotropic virus 1; 139873-08-8 / Calnexin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2670790
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36. Lu C, Zeng Y, Huang Z, Huang L, Qian C, Tang G, Qin D: Human herpesvirus 6 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jan;166(1):173-83
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 6 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a gamma-herpesvirus consistently identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.
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  • (PMID = 15632010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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37. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Tang B, Horberg MA, Klein D, Quesenberry CP Jr, Towner WJ, Abrams DI: HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause. AIDS; 2009 Nov 13;23(17):2337-45
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  • [Title] HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause in HIV-infected persons.
  • METHODS: Adult HIV-infected and matched HIV-uninfected members of Kaiser Permanente followed between 1996 and 2007 for incident AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), infection-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs; anal squamous cell, vagina/vulva, Hodgkin's lymphoma, penis, liver, human papillomavirus-related oral cavity/pharynx, stomach) and infection-unrelated NADC (all other NADCs).
  • RESULTS: We identified 20 277 HIV-infected and 202 313 HIV-uninfected persons.
  • HIV-infected persons experienced 552 ADC, 221 infection-related NADC, and 388 infection-unrelated NADC.
  • HIV-uninfected persons experienced 179 ADC, 284 infection-related NADC, and 3418 infection-unrelated NADC.
  • The rate ratio comparing HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons for ADC was 37.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 31.7-44.8], with decreases in the rate ratio over time (P < 0.001).
  • The rate ratio for infection-related NADC was 9.2 (95% CI: 7.7-11.1), also with decreases in the rate ratio over time (P < 0.001).
  • These results were largely influenced by anal squamous cell cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Among infection-unrelated NADCs, other anal, skin, other head and neck, and lung cancer rates were higher and prostate cancer rates lower in HIV-infected persons.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with those without HIV infection, HIV-infected persons are at particular risk for cancers with a known infectious cause, although the higher risk has decreased in the antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Cancers without a known infectious cause are modestly increased in HIV-infected persons compared with HIV-uninfected persons.


38. Verma N, Chaudhary UB, Costa LJ, Gudena V, Lazarchick J: Primary testicular lymphoma and AIDS. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2010;40(1):75-9
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  • [Title] Primary testicular lymphoma and AIDS.
  • Immunosuppressed patients have an increased risk for developing extranodal lymphoma, including testicular lymphoma.
  • In AIDS patients, primary testicular lymphoma has been reported as an initial manifestation of the disease.
  • These patients typically present at an early age; their lymphomas usually have aggressive histologic appearance and are associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report a testicular lymphoma consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in an AIDS patient and we review the literature on primary testicular lymphoma in AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology


39. Zhang YJ, Wang KY, Stein DA, Patel D, Watkins R, Moulton HM, Iversen PL, Matson DO: Inhibition of replication and transcription activator and latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by morpholino oligomers. Antiviral Res; 2007 Jan;73(1):12-23
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  • [Title] Inhibition of replication and transcription activator and latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by morpholino oligomers.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).
  • The KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA) and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) play key roles in activating KSHV lytic replication and maintaining KSHV latency, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16842866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103612-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103612-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103612-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-103612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA103612-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Morpholinos; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44954; NLM/ PMC2390898
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40. Guiguet M, Boué F, Cadranel J, Lang JM, Rosenthal E, Costagliola D, Clinical Epidemiology Group of the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort: Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Dec;10(12):1152-9
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  • [Title] Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: The relative roles of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the onset of individual cancers have rarely been examined.
  • We examined the effect of these factors on the risk of specific cancers in patients infected with HIV-1.
  • METHODS: We investigated the incidence of both AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, and anal cancer) in 52 278 patients followed up in the French Hospital Database on HIV cohort during 1998-2006 (median follow-up 4.9 years, IQR 2.1-7.9; 255 353 person-years).
  • Compared with patients with CD4 count greater than 500 cells per microL, rate ratios (RR) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for CD4 counts 350-499 cells per microL to 25.2 (17.1-37.0) for counts less than 50 cells per microL for Kaposi's sarcoma (p<0.0001), from 1.3 (0.9-2.0) to 14.8 (9.7-22.6) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 1.2 (0.7-2.2) to 5.4 (2.4-12.1) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 2.2 (1.3-3.6) to 8.5 (4.3-16.7) for lung cancer (p<0.0001), and from 2.0 (0.9-4.5) to 7.6 (2.7-20.8) for liver cancer (p<0.0001).
  • The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma increased for current plasma HIV RNA greater than 100 000 copies per mL compared with patients with controlled viral load (RR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.2, p<0.0001; and 2.9, 2.1-3.9, p<0.0001, respectively), whereas cART was independently associated with a decreased incidence (0.3, 0.2-0.4, p<0.0001; and 0.8, 0.6-1.0, p=0.07, respectively).
  • INTERPRETATION: cART would be most beneficial if it restores or maintains CD4 count above 500 cells per microL, thereby indicating an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection and an earlier treatment initiation.
  • Cancer-specific screening programmes need to be assessed in patients with HIV.
  • FUNDING: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites (ANRS), INSERM, and the French Ministry of Health.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / etiology


41. Villafañe MF, Trione N, Corti M, Mendez N, Gancedo E, Zamora N, Levin M: Primary liver AIDS-related lympoma. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo; 2006 Jul-Aug;48(4):229-31
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  • [Title] Primary liver AIDS-related lympoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are the second most frequent malignancies in AIDS patients.
  • The majority of NHL associated with AIDS involves extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system.
  • Primary liver lymphoma (PLL) is an uncommon neoplasm among these patients.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography scans may be helpful in the diagnosis of focal hepatic lymphoma.
  • Image-guided fine-needle biopsy with histopathology of the liver lesions is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma.
  • We report a case of PLL as the initial manifestation of AIDS in a patient without any previous infection by hepatitis C or B virus, presented as multiple and large hepatic masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17119682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-4665
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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42. O'Hara AJ, Vahrson W, Dittmer DP: Gene alteration and precursor and mature microRNA transcription changes contribute to the miRNA signature of primary effusion lymphoma. Blood; 2008 Feb 15;111(4):2347-53
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  • [Title] Gene alteration and precursor and mature microRNA transcription changes contribute to the miRNA signature of primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based arrays, we determined changes in gene copy number, pre-miRNA, and mature miRNA levels for the largest set of primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) to date.

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  • (PMID = 18079361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234063
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43. Sarkar C, Sharma MC, Deb P, Singh R, Santosh V, Shankar SK: Primary central nervous system lymphoma--a hospital based study of incidence and clinicopathological features from India (1980-2003). J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):199-204
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  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma--a hospital based study of incidence and clinicopathological features from India (1980-2003).
  • All the cases occurred in immunocompetent patients, except one case of HIV positive at NIMHANS, and one case of renal transplant at AIIMS.
  • Majority of the cases were diffuse, high grade, large cell lymphoma, B-cell immunophenotype.
  • The association of PCNSL with HIV/AIDS has been low in India, possibly due to early death in AIDS on account of opportunistic infections.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Lymphoma / pathology

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44. Ruff KR, Puetter A, Levy LS: Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-beta1 and IL-6. BMC Cancer; 2007 Feb 26;7:35
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  • [Title] Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-beta1 and IL-6.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals.
  • Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS) in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus.
  • A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta).
  • The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis.
  • The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6) may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation.
  • Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass.
  • By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines differed in their responsiveness to TGF-beta1 and IL-6.
  • Analysis of a recently derived AIDS-NHL cell line, UMCL01-101, indicated that it represents immunoblastic AIDS-DLCBL.
  • CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that the sensitivity of immunoblastic AIDS- or SAIDS-DLBCL to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition may be overcome through the stimulation of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals by IL-6, particularly through the rapid activation of STAT3.

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  • (PMID = 17324269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074731; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA74731
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1810304
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45. Saloura V, Grivas PD, Mapow D, Kazmi K, Ward K, Styler M: Intracerebral progression of Hodgkin lymphoma in a man with HIV. Postgrad Med; 2009 Nov;121(6):170-5
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  • [Title] Intracerebral progression of Hodgkin lymphoma in a man with HIV.
  • Intracerebral relapse of Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare occurrence, with a reported incidence of < 0.5%.
  • We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive man with disseminated Hodgkin lymphoma who presented with left facial weakness and sensory abnormalities as the only symptoms of disease progression 3 months after chemotherapy-induced disease remission.
  • Because of the relative rarity of the condition, there are no randomized controlled trials or evidence-based strategies for managing patients with HIV and intracerebral Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The diagnostic difficulty of this case emphasizes the necessity for a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of HIV-associated intracerebral lymphoma in the appropriate clinical setting.
  • In the post-genomic era, the development of sophisticated clinical and/or molecular biomarkers could contribute to earlier diagnosis and potentially improve disease prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence


46. Merker JD, Jones CD, Oh ST, Schrijver I, Gotlib J, Zehnder JL: Design and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for quantification of JAK2 V617F and wild-type JAK2 transcript levels in the clinical laboratory. J Mol Diagn; 2010 Jan;12(1):58-64
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  • The somatic mutation JAK2 V617F is associated with BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • Detection of this mutation aids diagnosis of these neoplasms, and quantification of JAK2 V617F may provide a method to monitor response to therapy.
  • The assay characteristics and our initial evaluation indicate this method can be used for the detection and quantification of JAK2 V617F, which should be useful for diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and potentially for monitoring minimal residual disease in future trials of therapies targeted to myeloproliferative neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19959796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7811
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA049605; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2P01CA49605
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.2.1.12 / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating); EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797719
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47. Corti M, Villafañe MF, Trione N, Narbaitz M: [Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection: epidemiologic, clinic and histopathologic findings in 18 patients]. Med Clin (Barc); 2005 Jan 29;124(3):116-7
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  • [Title] [Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection: epidemiologic, clinic and histopathologic findings in 18 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoma de Hodgkin asociado con la infección por VIH-1: análisis epidemiológico, clínico, virológico e histopatológico de 18 pacientes.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections. HIV-1. Hodgkin Disease. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related


48. Johnson RW, Wasner G, Saddier P, Baron R: Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: optimizing management in the elderly patient. Drugs Aging; 2008;25(12):991-1006
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  • HZ incidence is higher in persons who are immunocompromised as a result of disease (e.g. malignancies such as lymphoma, HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus) or treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


49. Ozaras R, Ar C, Ongoren S, Mete B, Tabak F, Mert A, Ozturk R: Acute hepatitis B despite a previous high titer of anti-HBs. Hepatol Int; 2010;4(2):530-2
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  • [Title] Acute hepatitis B despite a previous high titer of anti-HBs.
  • INTRODUCTION: Loss of HBsAg and development of surface and core antibodies represent clinical cure.
  • However, recent evidence suggests that hepatitis B virus (HBV) persists in a latent state even in those with mounted protective antibodies.
  • After significant immunosuppression, anti-HBs may decrease and HBsAg may reappear (reverse seroconversion).
  • Reverse seroconversion of HBV has been observed in association with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, renal transplantation, intensive chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency infection, or rituximab usage.
  • CASE REPORT: We present here a case study of a patient with a previous high titer of anti-HBs who later developed HBV reactivation following intensive chemotherapy for leukemia.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that in immunosuppressed patients with a history of HBV infection may carry a risk for reverse seroconversion and monitoring anti-HBs levels may help recognising this risk.

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  • (PMID = 20827412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0541
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2900550
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatitis B virus / Immunosuppression / Reverse seroconversion
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50. Mounier N, Spina M, Gisselbrecht C: Modern management of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients. Br J Haematol; 2007 Mar;136(5):685-98
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  • [Title] Modern management of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients.
  • Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at greater risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma than the general population and aggressive B-cell lymphoma has become one of the most common of the initial acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses.
  • This review considers the prognostic factors and new approaches to the treatment of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL).
  • As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available, the survival of many ARL patients has become comparable to that of HIV-negative patients.
  • Both developments can also be attributed to new treatment strategies for ARL, such as the use of effective infusional regimens, Rituximab combinations and high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation for relapsed disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Prognosis. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 17229246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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51. Dewan MZ, Tomita M, Katano H, Yamamoto N, Ahmed S, Yamamoto M, Sata T, Mori N, Yamamoto N: An HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir targets the nuclear factor-kappaB and inhibits the tumor growth and infiltration of EBV-positive lymphoblastoid B cells. Int J Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;124(3):622-9
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  • [Title] An HIV protease inhibitor, ritonavir targets the nuclear factor-kappaB and inhibits the tumor growth and infiltration of EBV-positive lymphoblastoid B cells.
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated immunoblastic lymphoma occurs in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS or transplant recipients after primary EBV infection or reactivation of a preexisting latent EBV infection.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ritonavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, on EBV-positive lymphoblastoid B cells in vitro and in mice model.
  • Ritonavir efficiently prevented growth and infiltration of lymphoma cells in various organs of NOD/SCID/gammacnull mice at the same dose used for treatment of patients with AIDS.
  • These data also suggest that this compound may have promise for treatment or prevention of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases that occur in immunocompromised patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. NF-kappa B / drug effects. Ritonavir / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18973272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
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52. Subsai K, Kanoksri S, Siwaporn C, Helen L, Kanokporn O, Wantana P: Neurological complications in AIDS patients receiving HAART: a 2-year retrospective study. Eur J Neurol; 2006 Mar;13(3):233-9
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  • [Title] Neurological complications in AIDS patients receiving HAART: a 2-year retrospective study.
  • The positive role of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in reducing opportunistic infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is well known.
  • In northern Thailand, GPO-vir (Stavudine-D4T + Lamivudine-3TC + Nevirapine-NVP) has been promoted for the treatment of AIDS patients since April 2002, in accordance with the Government Pharmaceutical Organization's guidelines.
  • However, the incidence rates of IRIS affecting nervous system (NIRIS) and non-NIRIS in comparison with the previous incidence of AIDS-defining disease have not been reported.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to review the incidence of NIRIS and non-NIRIS in AIDS patients treated with GPO-vir in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand, between May 2002 and April 2004.
  • Altogether 506 AIDS patients were treated with GPO-vir during the specified period.
  • The overall incidence of NIRIS, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cerebral toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, was lower than the previous incidence of AIDS-defining disease in the pre-HAART era.
  • However, the incidence of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma had increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Nervous System Diseases / etiology


53. Tanaka PY, Pracchia LF, Calore EE: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: the experience of a single center in Brazil. Int J Hematol; 2006 Nov;84(4):337-42
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: the experience of a single center in Brazil.
  • The relative risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared with the general population.
  • We describe a retrospective study of 78 HIV-infected patients with NHL treated between 1999 and 2006 at the Infectology Institute, a reference center for HIV treatment in São Paulo, Brazil.
  • A univariate analysis showed a significant CR rate in patients with respect to the following factors: no acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosis prior to the lymphoma, disease stage of I to II, and an International Prognostic Index (IPI) of low or low-intermediate risk.
  • A multivariate analysis indicated that only a previous AIDS diagnosis and the IPI were significantly related to the CR rate.
  • A median disease-free survival (DFS) time for the patients who achieved a CR was not reached, with a mean survival time of 73 months and a 3-year DFS rate of 77.5%.
  • Our results provide additional information regarding HIV-related lymphoma in Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Brazil. Cyclophosphamide. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • (PMID = 17118760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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54. Uçkay I, Garbino J, Dietrich PY, Ninet B, Rohner P, Jacomo V: Recurrent bacteremia with Helicobacter cinaedi: case report and review of the literature. BMC Infect Dis; 2006;6:86
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  • We describe a case of a patient with lymphoma hospitalized for chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16719920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1482711
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55. Chargari C, Zefkili S, Kirova YM: Potential of helical tomotherapy for sparing critical organs in a patient with AIDS who was treated for Hodgkin lymphoma. Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Mar 1;48(5):687-9
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  • [Title] Potential of helical tomotherapy for sparing critical organs in a patient with AIDS who was treated for Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods


56. Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana F, Machigo FG: Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Oct;37(10):907-11
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  • [Title] Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya.
  • HIV-infected patients face a greater risk of developing malignant disease.
  • The most commonly reported neoplasms of the head and neck region include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • A descriptive cross-sectional study including HIV-infected patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was conducted.
  • The prevalence of neoplastic lesions in this study was 27%; 37 (68%) patients had KS, 9 (17%) had SCC, 7 (13%) had NHL and 1 (2%) had Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Most study participants (97%) were in stage III/IV of the disease and the remaining 3% in stage II.
  • In this study, the most common malignant neoplasms were KS, SCC and NHL, manifesting in a younger age group than in the non-HIV group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cheilitis / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Kenya / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sex Factors. Stomatitis, Aphthous / epidemiology. Young Adult


57. Stein L, Urban MI, O'Connell D, Yu XQ, Beral V, Newton R, Ruff P, Donde B, Hale M, Patel M, Sitas F: The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995-2004. Int J Cancer; 2008 May 15;122(10):2260-5
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  • [Title] The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cancers in a South African black population: results from a case-control study, 1995-2004.
  • The effect of the evolving HIV epidemic on cancer has been sparsely documented in Africa.
  • We report results on the risk of cancer associated with HIV-1 infection using data from an ongoing study.
  • A case-control analysis was used to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio, OR) of cancer types known to be AIDS defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 333), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 223) and cancers of the cervix (n = 1,586), and 11 cancer types possibly associated with HIV infection: Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 154), cancers of other anogenital organs (n = 157), squamous cell cancer of the skin (SCC, n = 70), oral cavity and pharynx (n = 319), liver (n = 83), stomach (n = 142), leukemia (n = 323), melanoma (n = 53), sarcomas other than Kaposi's (n = 93), myeloma (n = 189) and lung cancer (n = 363).
  • The comparison group comprised 3,717 subjects with all other cancer types and 682 subjects with vascular disease.
  • Significantly increased risks associated with HIV-1 infection were found for HIV/AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma (OR = 47.1, 95% CI = 31.9-69.8), NHL (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.3-8.1) and cancer of the cervix (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.0); Hodgkin's disease (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.7), cancers of anogenital organs other than the cervix (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.3) and SCC (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-4.9) were also significantly increased.
  • No significant associations were found between HIV and any of the other cancers examined.
  • Risks for HIV-related cancers are consistent with previous studies in Africa, and are lower when compared to those observed in developed countries.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group. HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. South Africa / epidemiology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors


58. Chaparro I, Sánchez-Bernal ML, Fernández-Alonso J, de Alarcón A: [Fast-growing cervical mass and contralateral extrapleural mass in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin; 2005 Jun-Jul;23(6):383-4
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  • [Title] [Fast-growing cervical mass and contralateral extrapleural mass in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)].
  • [Transliterated title] Masa cervical y extrapleural contralateral de rápido crecimiento en paciente infectado por el VIH.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. POEMS Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15970173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-005X
  • [Journal-full-title] Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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59. Jerez A, del Mar Osma M, Amigo M, Ortuño FJ: Faggot cells in an HIV-positive patient with inv(16)/therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Sep;150(6):646
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  • [Title] Faggot cells in an HIV-positive patient with inv(16)/therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Male

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  • (PMID = 20666775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Langner-Wegscheider BJ, ten Dam-van Loon N, Mura M, Faridpooya K, de Smet MD: Intravitreal ganciclovir in the management of non-AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis. Can J Ophthalmol; 2010 Apr;45(2):157-60
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  • [Title] Intravitreal ganciclovir in the management of non-AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report and evaluate intravitreal ganciclovir injections in non-AIDS patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Two SLE patients and one patient post chemotherapy for a non Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with myelosuppression and persistent cytomegalovirus retinitis despite systemic ganciclovir therapy.
  • One patient had persistent smouldering disease and reached quiescence using an intravitreal ganciclovir implant.


61. Felix F, Gomes GA, Pinto PC, Arruda AM, da Penha Costa Marques M, Tomita S: Nasal histoplasmosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Jan;120(1):67-9
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  • Disseminated histoplasmosis is a disease with a high case-fatality rate, especially in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • The disease can occur in various sites, such as the lungs, eyes, oral cavity, larynx, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and, more rarely, the nasal sinus region.
  • Nasal manifestation of the disease is rare, with only three cases reported in the literature, but it is part of the differential diagnosis for other granulomatous diseases, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, tegumentary leishmaniasis and nasal lymphoma.
  • The authors of this study present a literature review and report a case of nasal histoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS.

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  • (PMID = 16359155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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62. Bhigjee AI: Neurological manifestations of HIV infection in Kwazulu-Natal South Africa. J Neurovirol; 2005;11 Suppl 1:17-21
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  • [Title] Neurological manifestations of HIV infection in Kwazulu-Natal South Africa.
  • South Africa has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world and KwaZulu-Natal, one of its nine provinces, is the epicentre of the epidemic.
  • Of the estimated 5.3 million people infected with HIV in South Africa, 1.2 million reside in KwaZulu-Natal.
  • Transmission of HIV is almost exclusively heterosexual, intravenous drug misuse does not occur and the patients attending state hospitals are antiretroviral drug naive.
  • The neurological complications of HIV infection include bacterial and fungal meningitis, intracranial mass lesions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a variety of spinal cord disorders, and peripheral nerve dysfunction.
  • Multiple bacterial abscesses and tuberculomata are other important causes whilst primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare.
  • Intramedullary tuberculomata, often multiple, and spinal epidural tuberculous abscess without bony disease are seen more commonly than in the pre HIV era.
  • Until the antiretroviral therapy roll out programme is well established the above HIV related neurological complications will continue to be seen for several years.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS Dementia Complex / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15960236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-0284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurovirol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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63. Vieira FO, El Gandour O, Buadi FK, Williams GB, Shires CB, Zafar N: Plasmablastic lymphoma in a previously undiagnosed AIDS patient: a case report. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Jun;2(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Plasmablastic lymphoma in a previously undiagnosed AIDS patient: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an unusual non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) most commonly found in the head and neck region.
  • The majority of cases are seen in adult HIV-positive patients, although PBL has been reported in HIV-negative patients.
  • The diagnosis of PBL serves as an AIDS-defining illness.
  • METHODS: We report a case of PBL localized to the oral cavity in a previously undiagnosed AIDS patient.
  • PBL was confirmed by immunohistochemical profile and subsequent tests confirmed AIDS diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of PBL has a unique immunophenotypic profile and should raise suspicion for AIDS in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20614329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807551
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIDS / HAART / HIV / Non-Hodgkin lymphoma / Plasmablastic lymphoma / Radiotherapy
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64. Bibliography. Current world literature. Cancer in AIDS. Curr Opin Oncol; 2005 Sep;17(5):529-35
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  • [Title] Bibliography. Current world literature. Cancer in AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Neoplasms / virology


65. Levine AM: Stem cell transplantation in AIDS-lymphoma. Blood; 2009 Aug 13;114(7):1284-5
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  • [Title] Stem cell transplantation in AIDS-lymphoma.

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  • [CommentOn] Blood. 2009 Aug 13;114(7):1306-13 [19451551.001]
  • (PMID = 19679696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Corti M, Villafañe MF, Palmieri O, Aisencher D, Sawicki M, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, Soler Mde D: [Ileocolic intussusception due to a large B cell lymphoma in a patient with AIDS]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2008 Mar;38(1):51-5
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  • [Title] [Ileocolic intussusception due to a large B cell lymphoma in a patient with AIDS].
  • [Transliterated title] Invaginación ileocecal como forma de presentación de linfoma no Hodgkin en un paciente con SIDA.
  • Here, we describe a case of an AIDS adult patient who developed an ileocolic intussusception secondary to a large B cell lymphoma of the cecum.
  • [MeSH-major] Cecal Neoplasms / complications. Ileal Diseases / etiology. Intussusception / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications

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  • (PMID = 18533357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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67. Bibas M, Antinori A: EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis; 2009;1(2):e2009032
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  • [Title] EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma.
  • HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency.
  • The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1).
  • Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients.
  • It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin disease (HD), systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC).
  • Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Detailed understanding of the EBV lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein.

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  • (PMID = 21416008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2035-3006
  • [Journal-full-title] Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3033170
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68. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant disorders have been linked to the HIV epidemic from its onset.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 171 HIV-infected adults who were followed in Puerto Rico from May 1992 through December 2005.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.
  • Preventive strategies that include screening tests, vaccination, and lifestyle modification should be routinely applied in HIV-infected patients.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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69. Bower M, Collins S, Cottrill C, Cwynarski K, Montoto S, Nelson M, Nwokolo N, Powles T, Stebbing J, Wales N, Webb A, AIDS Malignancy Subcommittee: British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2008. HIV Med; 2008 Jul;9(6):336-88
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  • [Title] British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


70. Schlossbauer T, Schmidt GP, Bogner JR, Sing A, Reiser MF, Becker-Gaab C: Pulmonary radiological characteristics in patients with HIV infection at the time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Eur J Med Res; 2007 Aug 16;12(8):341-6
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  • [Title] Pulmonary radiological characteristics in patients with HIV infection at the time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • OBJECTIVE: To report on radiological and epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary disease in patients with HIV infection in times of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 130 HIV infected adults with acute pulmonary symptoms were compared with findings in chest radiography (n = 130) and computed tomography (CT, n = 42).
  • Disease specific sensitivity was 0.33 compared to 0.70.
  • Bacterial pneumonia (BP, n = 26, 20%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, n = 17, 13%), mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, 6%), Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma (KS and NHL, each 4%), fungal pneumonia (2%), and tuberculosis (TBC, 1%).
  • Only contrast-enhanced computed tomography shows an acceptable disease-specific sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / radiography. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lung Diseases / radiography. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


71. Kelemen K, Cao W, Peterson LC, Evens AM, Variakojis D: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma in HIV: report of two cases. J Hematop; 2009 Mar;2(1):45-9
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma in HIV: report of two cases.
  • Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma arising in the mediastinum with distinctive clinical and morphological features.
  • Though diffuse large B cell lymphoma is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with AIDS, there are no data available regarding the association of HIV and PMLBCL.
  • We report here two cases of PMLBCL arising in AIDS patients.
  • One of the two patients, a 25-year-old woman who had localized disease and evidence of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoma cells, did not respond to chemotherapy and died of disease progression 5 months after diagnosis.
  • The second patient, a 38-year-old male with disseminated disease, responded to therapy and is disease-free after 9 months of follow-up.

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  • [ISSN] 1868-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hematop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713493
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72. Bellan C, Lazzi S, Hummel M, Palummo N, de Santi M, Amato T, Nyagol J, Sabattini E, Lazure T, Pileri SA, Raphael M, Stein H, Tosi P, Leoncini L: Immunoglobulin gene analysis reveals 2 distinct cells of origin for EBV-positive and EBV-negative Burkitt lymphomas. Blood; 2005 Aug 1;106(3):1031-6
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  • [Title] Immunoglobulin gene analysis reveals 2 distinct cells of origin for EBV-positive and EBV-negative Burkitt lymphomas.
  • The normal counterpart of the neoplastic B cells in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is still unclear.
  • The results of this approach revealed that all cases (15 endemic BL [eBL], 10 sporadic BL [sBL], and 6 AIDS-related BL) harbor mutated V(H) genes, with different mutation ranges among the 3 types of BL.
  • The eBL and AIDS-related forms showed considerably higher mutation rates than the sBL form (5.1%, 5.4%, and 1.5%, respectively).
  • The mutations in eBL and AIDS-related BL also showed signs of antigen selection, whereas no signs of antigen selection were found in sBL.
  • Given that one of the main differences between eBL and AIDS-related BL on the one hand and sBL on the other hand is the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we compared EBV-positive and EBV-negative BLs independently of their geographic origin and HIV status.
  • The different types of C-MYC translocation reported in BL may also be related to the different stages of B-cell maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Burkitt Lymphoma / virology. Genes, Immunoglobulin. Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Gene Rearrangement. Germinal Center / pathology. Humans. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / genetics. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 15840698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
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73. Haynes RA 2nd, Phipps AJ, Yamamoto B, Green P, Lairmore MD: Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Viral Immunol; 2009 Dec;22(6):397-405
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  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus.

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  • (PMID = 19951176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8976
  • [Journal-full-title] Viral immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Viral Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR014324-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100730-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100730-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100730-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100730; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100730-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100730-04S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R01 RR014324-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100730-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100730-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100730-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, env; 0 / Gene Products, tax; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic; 0 / gp46 protein, Human T-cell leukemia virus type I; 0 / tax protein, Human T-lymphotrophic virus 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS175831; NLM/ PMC2852241
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74. Oriol A, Ribera JM, Brunet S, del Potro E, Abella E, Esteve J: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome of AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma or leukemia. Results of the PETHEMA-LAL3/97 study. Haematologica; 2005 Jul;90(7):990-2
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  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome of AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma or leukemia. Results of the PETHEMA-LAL3/97 study.
  • Short, intensive cycles of chemotherapy have resulted in improved survival in BurkittOs lymphoma/leukemia (BL) in adults.
  • The prognosis of patients with immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated BL is considered to be poor, but these patients have seldom been treated with BL-specific protocols.
  • However, a study (PETHEMA-LAL3/97) in which patients with BL were treated regardless of their HIV status failed to find differences between HIV-infected and immunocompetent individuals.
  • Furthermore, patients who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) seemed to have a slightly better disease-free survival than those who did not (p=0.051).
  • We extended the follow-up analysis to elucidate the role of HAART in the survival of HIV-infected patients included in the PETHEMA-LAL3/97 protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Leukemia / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use


75. Dunleavy K, Little RF, Pittaluga S, Grant N, Wayne AS, Carrasquillo JA, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R, Jaffe ES, Wilson WH: The role of tumor histogenesis, FDG-PET, and short-course EPOCH with dose-dense rituximab (SC-EPOCH-RR) in HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood; 2010 Apr 15;115(15):3017-24
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  • [Title] The role of tumor histogenesis, FDG-PET, and short-course EPOCH with dose-dense rituximab (SC-EPOCH-RR) in HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • This is a phase 2 study to assess the role of tumor histogenesis (subtype), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and short-course etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin with dose-dense rituximab (SC-EPOCH-RR) in newly diagnosed HIV-associated CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths or new opportunistic infections during treatment, and patients had sustained CD4 cell count recovery and HIV viral control after treatment.
  • Tumor histogenesis was the only characteristic associated with lymphoma-specific outcome with 95% of germinal center B-cell (GCB) versus 44% of non-GCB diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) progression-free at 5 years.
  • However, new therapeutic advances are needed for non-GCB DLBCL, which remains the important cause of lymphoma-specific death.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. HIV / physiology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Child. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Viral Load. Young Adult


76. Chamberlain MC, Nolan C, Abrey LE: Leukemic and lymphomatous meningitis: incidence, prognosis and treatment. J Neurooncol; 2005 Oct;75(1):71-83
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  • Notwithstanding frequent focal signs and symptoms in NM, NM is a disease affecting the entire neuraxis and therefore staging and treatment need encompass all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments.
  • Treatment of NM involves involved-field radiotherapy of bulky or symptomatic disease sites and intra-CSF drug therapy.
  • In patients with leukemia or lymphoma, prophylaxis of the CNS is used (utilizing a combination of high-dose systemic chemotherapy and intra-CSF chemotherapy) for patients at high risk as defined by specific tumor-related laboratory markers.

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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77. Malíková H, Míková B: [Abdominal tuberculosis in CT imaging]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2007;146(6):557-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Prevalence of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is rising, which is probably caused by the rising prevalence of AIDS.
  • After the colonoscopy, suspicion on the Crohn's disease was expressed.
  • In the differential diagnose, the Crohn's disease and the malignant lymphoma were considered.

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Tuberculosis.
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  • (PMID = 17650598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q1J152VB1P / Bromhexine
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78. Hebbeler AM, Cairo C, Cummings JS, Pauza CD: Individual Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2+ T cells respond to both isopentenyl pyrophosphate and Daudi cell stimulation: generating tumor effectors with low molecular weight phosphoantigens. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2007 Jun;56(6):819-29
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  • To characterize antigen recognition by the Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR, we used the combined approach of spectratyping and CDR3 sequence analysis that measures changes in the TCR repertoire before and after stimulation with a phosphoantigen (isopentenyl pyrophosphate) or an irradiated tumor cell line (Daudi B lymphoma).

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  • [ISSN] 0340-7004
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113261; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007540; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI051212; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113261; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI51212; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113261-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113261-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI051212
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Hemiterpenes; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta; 358-71-4 / isopentenyl pyrophosphate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS239717; NLM/ PMC2948954
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79. Crum-Cianflone N, Quigley M, Utz G, Hale B: BK virus-associated renal failure among HIV patients. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1501-2
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