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1. Aresté C, Blackbourn DJ: Modulation of the immune system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Trends Microbiol; 2009 Mar;17(3):119-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modulation of the immune system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • The most recently identified human herpesvirus is Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • It causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumour occurring most commonly in untreated AIDS patients and the leading cancer of men in certain parts of Africa.
  • KSHV might also contribute to the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • They include homologues of cellular proteins and unique KSHV proteins that can deregulate many aspects of the immune response, including T- and B-cell functions, complement activation, the innate antiviral interferon response and natural killer cell activity.
  • The functions of these proteins and the ways in which they perturb the normal immune response are the subjects of the present review.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Immune System / virology

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  • (PMID = 19230674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-842X
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0400408; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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2. Stebbing J, Sanitt A, Nelson M, Powles T, Gazzard B, Bower M: A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet; 2006 May 6;367(9521):1495-502
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  • [Title] A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma remains common in individuals with HIV-1 infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • We developed a simple model for predicting mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics present at the time of diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: Of 5873 individuals with HIV-1 infection, 326 (6%) developed Kaposi's sarcoma; for 262 (80%) this was their first AIDS-defining illness.
  • We did univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to identify covariates predictive of overall survival and validated our model with an independent data set of 446 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Having Kaposi's sarcoma as the AIDS-defining illness (-3 points) and increasing CD4 count (-1 point for every complete 100 cells per mm3) improved prognosis; age of 50 years or older (2 points) and having another AIDS-associated illness at the same time (3 points) conveyed a poorer prognosis.
  • INTERPRETATION: We identified four prognostic factors that can be used to obtain an accurate prognostic index at diagnosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV-1. Sarcoma, Kaposi


3. Ayena KD, Amedome KM, Agbo AR, Kpetessou-Ayivon AL, Dzidzinyo BK, Djagnikpo PA, Banla M, Balo KP: [Ocular manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo]. Med Trop (Mars); 2010 Apr;70(2):137-40
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  • [Title] [Ocular manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo].
  • [Transliterated title] Atteintes oculaires chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida sous trithérapie au Togo.
  • AIM: The twofold purpose of this study in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV/AIDS) and undergoing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was to determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations and its correlation with CD4 T-cell count.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who attended 2 NGO care centers that manage PLHIV/AIDS in Lomé, Togo between August and October 2005 were recruited.
  • RESULTS: A total of 422 PLHIV/SIDA were recruited including 281 who were undergoing HAART.
  • One case of palpebral and conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma was noted.
  • The most common type of posterior segment involvement was cotton-wool nodules (35.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: A longitudinal study in PLHIV/AIDS will be needed to better evaluate the correlation between ocular manifestations and CD4 T-cell count.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Conjunctivitis / chemically induced. Eye Infections / chemically induced. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Herpes Zoster / etiology


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4. Volkow P, Zinser JW, Correa-Rotter R: Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not". BMC Nephrol; 2007;8:6
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  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not".
  • BACKGROUND: Imatinib is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor; for which there is limited information regarding its effects on AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma and none in patients with transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Sirolimus, an immunosuppressive drug used for kidney transplant, exhibits antiangiogenic activity related to impaired production of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), clinical benefit has been reported in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with renal graft.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of an 80 year old male, who developed Kaposi's Sarcoma nine months after receiving a living non-related donor kidney transplant at age 74.
  • Three years after treatment with different chemotherapeutic agents for progressive cutaneous Kaposi's Sarcoma with no visceral involvement, he was prescribed Imatinib (200 mg/day for two weeks followed by 400 mg/day) after four weeks of treatment he developed anasarca, further progression of KS and agranulocytosis.
  • One year later his immunosuppressive therapy was changed to Sirolimus and regression of the Kaposi's sarcoma occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: The lack of benefit and severe toxicity associated with the use of Imatinib in this patient should alert clinicians of potentially adverse consequence of its use in patients with transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • On the other hand the positive response seen in this patient to Sirolimus even after a long evolution of Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple chemotherapy regimens and extensive cutaneous disease further suggest it therapeutical utility for transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Piperazines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retreatment. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17386117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852096
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5. Tang HJ, Liu YC, Yen MY, Chen YS, Wann SR, Lin HH, Lee SS, Lin WR, Huang CK, Su BA, Chang PC, Li CM, Tseng HH: Opportunistic infections in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a comparison of clinical and autopsy findings. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2006 Aug;39(4):310-5
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  • [Title] Opportunistic infections in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a comparison of clinical and autopsy findings.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many opportunistic infections causing death in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are often not diagnosed prior to death.
  • The objective of this study was to compare the premortem and postmortem diagnoses of opportunistic infections and tumors among 15 AIDS patients treated in a hospital in southern Taiwan.
  • RESULTS: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, candidiasis, lymphoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, toxoplasmosis and salmonellosis were more commonly diagnosed before death than at autopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study found substantial discrepancies between autopsy findings and premortem clinical diagnoses in AIDS patients, especially for CMV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / microbiology. HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Autopsy. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


6. Brandenburg VM, Mahnken AH: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(19-20):615
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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology


7. Thurau M, Marquardt G, Gonin-Laurent N, Weinländer K, Naschberger E, Jochmann R, Alkharsah KR, Schulz TF, Thome M, Neipel F, Stürzl M: Viral inhibitor of apoptosis vFLIP/K13 protects endothelial cells against superoxide-induced cell death. J Virol; 2009 Jan;83(2):598-611
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  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • HHV-8 encodes an antiapoptotic viral Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (vFLIP/K13).
  • The upregulation of MnSOD expression by vFLIP/K13 may support the survival of HHV-8-infected cells in the inflammatory microenvironment in KS.

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  • (PMID = 18987137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proteome; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / viral FLIP protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2612377
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8. de Souza VA, Pierrotti LC, Sumita LM, Freire WS, Segurado AA, Pannuti CS: Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count. J Med Virol; 2007 Oct;79(10):1562-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count.
  • In AIDS/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients, the sensitivity of immunofluorescence assays for detecting antibodies against latent nuclear antigen ranges from 52% to 93%.
  • However, in classic and African KS, sensitivities above 90% have been reported systematically.
  • This study evaluates whether CD4+ T-cell count affects seroreactivity to KSHV LANA and to lytic antigens in AIDS/KS patients.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latent (IFA-LANA) and lytic (IFA-Lytic and ORF65/K8.1 EIA) antibodies were screened in 184 consecutive samples taken from 36 AIDS/KS patients grouped according to their CD4+ counts as follows: <100 (group A), 100-300 (group B), and >300 (group C) cells/mm(3).
  • In conclusion, LANA seroreactivity in AIDS/KS patients, as assessed by an immunofluorescence assay, depends on CD4+ T-cell count, rendering this evaluation important in the interpretation of seroepidemiological studies of KSHV infection in AIDS patients.
  • To evaluate future serological tests based on latency-associated antigens, the selection of sera from KS patients with CD4+ cell count >300 cells/mm(3) as a positive gold standard is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / blood. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. HIV. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Nuclear Proteins / immunology. Phosphoproteins / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


9. Hofheinz RD, Gnad-Vogt SU, Beyer U, Hochhaus A: Liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer drugs. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Aug;16(7):691-707
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  • Several formulations of liposomal anthracyclines are approved, e.g. for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) or AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and liposomal daunorubicin).

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  • (PMID = 16027517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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10. Wang X, He B, Zhang Z, Liu T, Wang H, Li X, Zhang Q, Lan K, Lu X, Wen H: Human herpesvirus-8 in northwestern China: epidemiology and characterization among blood donors. Virol J; 2010;7:62
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  • BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent associated with development of classical, AIDS-related, iatrogenic, and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We surveyed HHV-8 infection among 4461 blood donors in Xinjiang, China, a unique endemic area for HHV-8 and KS.
  • RESULTS: The HHV-8 seroprevalence was higher in local minority groups which comprise most KS cases in China, than in Han people.
  • HHV-8 infection was associated with ethnicity and residence.
  • CONCLUSION: HHV-8 seroprevalence was significantly high among blood donors in Xinjiang, where the prevalence of KS correlates with HHV-8 prevalence and titers in Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups.

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  • (PMID = 20236530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852390
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11. Bower M, Weir J, Francis N, Newsom-Davis T, Powles S, Crook T, Boffito M, Gazzard B, Nelson M: The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2009 Aug 24;23(13):1701-6
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  • [Title] The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with histologically confirmed AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed since the introduction of HAART.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients (96% men) diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma between 1996 and 2008 are included.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis was 39 years and average duration of known HIV seropositivity was 4 years.
  • At Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis, only 19% patients were on HAART and only 7% patients had an undetectable plasma HIV viral load.
  • Seventy-nine (31%) patients had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage T1 disease at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis and 122 (48%) had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage I1 disease (CD4 cell count < 150 cells/microl).
  • Nodular grade Kaposi's sarcoma represented 28% of the tumours and was significantly associated with black African ethnicity and AIDS clinical Trial Group T1 stage disease.
  • One hundred and sixty-three patients were treated with HAART alone for T0 stage Kaposi's sarcoma; only one died of Kaposi's sarcoma and only 37 (22%) required chemotherapy, giving a systemic treatment-free survival at 5 years of 74% (95% confidence interval 67-82) and the overall survival at 5 years is 91% (95% confidence interval 87-95).
  • CONCLUSION: The high success rate of HAART in a large cohort of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma patients over a prolonged period of follow-up will reassure patients and clinicians that this is a well tolerated and effective approach to stage T0 Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Young Adult


12. Grulich AE: Cancer: the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy, and implications for early antiretroviral therapy initiation. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 May;4(3):183-7
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  • [Title] Cancer: the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy, and implications for early antiretroviral therapy initiation.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the immune status of people with HIV has improved, non-AIDS-defining malignancies have become proportionately much more important as causes of morbidity and mortality in this population.
  • This review examines whether the incidence and mortality from cancer is associated with impaired immunity and whether effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce risk of cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is substantially and rapidly reduced by effective ART.
  • Study of other cancer types has been hampered by their relatively infrequent occurrence, but there is emerging evidence that a large range of around 20 cancer types are associated with immune deficiency.
  • SUMMARY: Cancer is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV and at least some of the excess risk in people with HIV may be reversible by earlier ART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19532048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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13. Curry CL, Reed LL, Broude E, Golde TE, Miele L, Foreman KE: Notch inhibition in Kaposi's sarcoma tumor cells leads to mitotic catastrophe through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. Mol Cancer Ther; 2007 Jul;6(7):1983-92
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  • [Title] Notch inhibition in Kaposi's sarcoma tumor cells leads to mitotic catastrophe through nuclear factor-kappaB signaling.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm in untreated AIDS patients and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.
  • We have recently reported that Notch signaling (which plays an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis) is constitutively activated in KS tumor cells.
  • Blockade of this activity using gamma-secretase inhibitors resulted in apoptosis of SLK cells, a KS tumor cell line; however, this apoptosis was preceded by a prolonged G(2)-M cell cycle arrest.
  • Here, we show that Notch inhibition in KS tumor cells using gamma-secretase inhibitors or Notch-1 small interfering RNA resulted in G(2)-M cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe characterized by the presence of micronucleated cells and an increased mitotic index.
  • Taken together, these studies suggest that Notch inhibition can initiate aberrant mitosis by inducing NF-kappaB activity that inappropriately increases cyclin B1 resulting in cell death via mitotic catastrophe.
  • [MeSH-major] Mitosis. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Receptors, Notch / antagonists & inhibitors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Extracts. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. G2 Phase. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Micronucleus Tests. Protein Transport

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  • (PMID = 17604336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108450
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Extracts; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Notch; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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14. Taiwo OO, Hassan Z: The impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the clinical features of HIV - related oral lesions in Nigeria. AIDS Res Ther; 2010;7:19
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  • [Title] The impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the clinical features of HIV - related oral lesions in Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical presentations of HIV related oral lesions (HIV-ROLs) in an adult Nigerian population.
  • METHODS: A 5 month prospective study on HAART naïve HIV positive adults recruited into the HAART program of an AIDS referral centre.
  • HIV-ROLs were diagnosed clinically by the EEC Clearinghouse on oral problems related to HIV infection.
  • Baseline clinical features of HIV-ROLs was documented by clinical photographs using SONY(R) 5.2 M Cybershot digital camera.
  • Prevalence of HIV-ROLs was 43.7%.
  • Oral candidiasis (22.4%) was the most prevalent HIV-ROL.
  • 114 (83.2%) patients had clinical AIDS at presentation (CDC 1993).
  • Parotid gland enlargement, melanotic hyperpigmentation and Kaposi's sarcoma were more persistent and had slower response to HAART.
  • CONCLUSION: HAART has different clinical effects on HIV related oral lesions depending on the size, duration of treatment and etiology of the lesions.
  • HIV-ROLs of fungal origin have the fastest response to HAART.

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  • (PMID = 20579347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6405
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903493
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15. Sunil M, Reid E, Lechowicz MJ: Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2010 Mar;12(2):147-54
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  • [Title] Update on HHV-8-Associated Malignancies.
  • The human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the oncogenic virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative disorders, namely, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • KS is among the most common malignancies seen in HIV-infected patients despite the decreased incidence of KS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Advances in molecular pathology reveal HHV-8 tumorigenesis is mediated through molecular mimicry wherein viral-encoded proteins can activate several cellular signaling cascades while evading immune surveillance.
  • This knowledge has led to the evolution of multiple therapeutic strategies against specific molecular targets.
  • This review summarizes the recent developments in the fields of virus transmission, molecular biology, and treatment of HHV-8-related neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 20461118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-3146
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoal LH, Baptista MS: New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg; 2006 Aug;24(4):528-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS).
  • BACKGROUND DATA: Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients.
  • Laser-based PDT protocols have been applied to treat Sk-AIDS with relative success.
  • METHODS: A single patient with multiple lesions who had undergone chemotherapy without success was treated with several applications of PDT, and the patient was closely evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: This inexpensive PDT protocol, which is based on phenothiazinium compounds and RL50, is efficient to treat Sk-AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Popivanova NI, Chudomirova KN, Baltadzhiev IG, Abadjieva TI: HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with multiple skin-mucosal disseminations following ultraviolet (puva) photochemotherapy. Folia Med (Plovdiv); 2010 Jul-Sep;52(3):56-61
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  • [Title] HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with multiple skin-mucosal disseminations following ultraviolet (puva) photochemotherapy.
  • HIV/AIDS infection in Bulgaria has spread over about 1200 registered patients and it is supposed that the number of the undetected cases is four times higher.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely observed in our country and no cutaneous-mucosal dissemination is reported for the time being.
  • AIM: The aim of the study is to present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV/ AIDS patient who underwent Psoralen--UVA radiation treatment (PUVA) for total alopecia.
  • METHODS: HIV was proved through ELISA and Western blot (InnoLia HIV I/II Score).
  • PCR method (COBAS-Amplicor HIV-1 MT, 1,5) was used to determine viral load (VL).
  • Monitoring was realized by flow-cytometric phenotype analysis of the immune cells.
  • RESULTS: The patient's face, chest, back and upper extremities are covered by more than 50 typical for Kaposi's sarcoma skin tumors and several isolated lesions are found in the oral cavity mucosa.
  • Monitoring of the immune cells and the viral load before and after the application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed CD4+ T cell number = 0.147 x 10(9)/l and VL = 216 000 copies HIV-RNA/ml plasma when the disorder was first detected.
  • CONCLUSION: Disseminated form of Kaposi's sarcoma can be provoked by additional immunosuppressive factors like the implementation of PUVA therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. PUVA Therapy / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cell Count. HIV / genetics. HIV / immunology. HIV / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. RNA, Viral / analysis. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


18. Ayers LW, Silver S, McGrath MS, Orenstein JM: The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery. Infect Agent Cancer; 2007;2:7
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  • [Title] The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery.
  • The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators.
  • The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types.
  • Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%).
  • ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens.
  • The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to funded, approved researchers at no fee.

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  • (PMID = 17335575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA066531
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1851770
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19. Nascimento MC, Wilder N, Pannuti CS, Weiss HA, Mayaud P: Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Virol; 2005 May;33(1):52-9
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), the eighth Herpesvirus found to infect humans.
  • The molecular epidemiology of KSHV is related closely to ethnicity and geographical location of studied populations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize KSHV strains isolated from AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and to examine associations between KSHV subtypes, ethnicity and HIV risk categories.
  • METHODS: AIDS-KS patients were recruited consecutively at the largest AIDS reference hospital in Sao Paulo.
  • Sexual orientation was associated with subtype: 12/14 (86%) patients with subtype A were male homo/bisexual, compared with 3/8 (38%) among patients infected with subtype C (P = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This first detailed report of KSHV subtypes among AIDS-KS patients in Brazil reports the first isolation of KSHV subtype A5 in this country, and suggests KSHV strain transmission between different ethnic groups, and association of specific strains with sexual orientation.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 15797365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY377992/ AY377993/ AY377994/ AY377995/ AY377996/ AY377997/ AY377998/ AY377999/ AY378000/ AY378001/ AY378002/ AY378003/ AY378004/ AY378005/ AY378006/ AY378007/ AY378008/ AY378009/ AY378010/ AY378011/ AY378012/ AY378013/ AY378014/ AY378015/ AY378016/ AY378017/ AY378018/ AY378019/ AY378020/ AY378021/ AY378022/ AY378023/ AY378024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Little RF, Aleman K, Kumar P, Wyvill KM, Pluda JM, Read-Connole E, Wang V, Pittaluga S, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4165-71
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years.
  • Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)).
  • Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline.
  • The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Interleukin-12 / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Chemokine CXCL10 / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17846226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020449
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234790
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21. Venkatarajan S, Glaich AS, Ostler DA, Hsu S: A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(12):6
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  • [Title] A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm commonly seen in HIV patients.
  • In AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, small red papules or nodules initially present on the face, especially on the nose, and the trunk, that then rapidly spread to other areas.
  • We present an unusual case of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


22. Catrina SB, Lewitt M, Massambu C, Dricu A, Grünler J, Axelson M, Biberfeld P, Brismar K: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor activity is essential for Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;92(8):1467-74
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor activity is essential for Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly vascular tumour and is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection.
  • The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the pathophysiology of different tumours led us to evaluate the role of IGF system in KS.
  • The IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) were identified by immunohistochemistry in biopsies taken from patients with different AIDS/HIV-related KS stages and on KSIMM cells (an established KS-derived cell line).
  • In conclusion, IGF-I pathway inhibition is a promising therapeutical approach for KS tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Podophyllotoxin / analogs & derivatives. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Somatomedins / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15812560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0F35AOI227 / picropodophyllin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; L36H50F353 / Podophyllotoxin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2362008
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23. Cantaluppi V, Deregibus MC, Biancone L, Deambrosis I, Bussolati B, Albini A, Camussi G: The expression of CD154 by Kaposi's sarcoma cells mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1-TAT protein. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2006 Jan-Mar;19(1):81-96
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  • [Title] The expression of CD154 by Kaposi's sarcoma cells mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1-TAT protein.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy associated to conditions of immune system impairment such as HIV-1 infection and post-transplantation therapy.
  • Here we report that HIV-1-Tat protein, at concentrations well below those detected in AIDS patients, up-regulates the expression of both CD40 and CD154 on KS cells.
  • This occurred also in the presence of vincristine, that at doses shown to induce apoptosis decreased the expression of both CD40 and CD154 on KS cells.
  • The treatment with a soluble CD40-muIg fusion protein (CD40 fp) that prevents the binding of CD154 with cell surface CD40, as well as the transfection with a vector for soluble CD40 (KS sCD40), decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of Tat.
  • Moreover, Tat-induced motility of KS cells was inhibited by soluble CD40 fp.
  • Tat as well as soluble CD154 (sCD154) prevented vincristine-induced reduction of TRAF-3 in KS cells transfected with a vector for neomycin resistance (KS psv-neo), but not in KS sCD40.
  • These findings indicate that the CD40-CD154 pathway mediates the anti-apoptotic and migratory effects of HIV-1- Tat, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits of blocking CD40 activation in HIV-1-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. CD40 Ligand / biosynthesis. Cell Movement / drug effects. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD40 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD40 / genetics. Blotting, Western. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. HIV-1 / metabolism. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Indicators and Reagents. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Transfection. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 16569346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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24. Albini A, Brigati C, Ventura A, Lorusso G, Pinter M, Morini M, Mancino A, Sica A, Noonan DM: Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target. J Transl Med; 2009;7:5
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  • [Title] Angiostatin anti-angiogenesis requires IL-12: the innate immune system as a key target.
  • We had previously demonstrated that innate immune cells are key targets of angiostatin, however the pathway involved in this immune-related angiogenesis inhibition was not known.
  • RESULTS: Angiostatin inhibts angiogenesis induced by VEGF-TNFalpha or supernatants of Kaposi's Sarcoma cells (a highly angiogenic and inflammation-associated tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor such as angiostatin act on innate immune cells as key targets in inflammatory angiogenesis.
  • Angiostatin proves to be anti-angiogenic as an immune modulator rather than a direct anti-vascular agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / immunology. Angiostatins / immunology. Immune System / immunology. Immunity, Innate / immunology. Interleukin-12 / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19144161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630934
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25. Sun Q, Matta H, Chaudhary PM: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein activates transcription from HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat via the classical NF-kappaB pathway and functionally cooperates with Tat. Retrovirology; 2005 Feb 15;2:9
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein activates transcription from HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat via the classical NF-kappaB pathway and functionally cooperates with Tat.
  • BACKGROUND: The nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB binds to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and is a key regulator of HIV-1 gene expression in cells latently infected with this virus.
  • In this report, we have analyzed the ability of Kaposi's sarcoma associate herpes virus (KSHV, also known as Human Herpes virus 8)-encoded viral FLIP (Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1 beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) K13 to activate the HIV-1 LTR.
  • RESULTS: We present evidence that vFLIP K13 activates HIV-1 LTR via the activation of the classical NF-kappaB pathway involving c-Rel, p65 and p50 subunits.
  • K13-induced HIV-1 LTR transcriptional activation requires the cooperative interaction of all three components of the IKK complex and can be effectively blocked by inhibitors of the classical NF-kappaB pathway.
  • K13 mutants that lacked the ability to activate the NF-kappaB pathway also failed to activate the HIV-1 LTR.
  • K13 could effectively activate a HIV-1 LTR reporter construct lacking the Tat binding site but failed to activate a construct lacking the NF-kappaB binding sites.
  • However, coexpression of HIV-1 Tat with K13 led to synergistic activation of HIV-1 LTR.
  • Finally, K13 differentially activated HIV-1 LTRs derived from different strains of HIV-1, which correlated with their responsiveness to NF-kappaB pathway.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that concomitant infection with KSHV/HHV8 may stimulate HIV-1 LTR via vFLIP K13-induced classical NF-kappaB pathway which cooperates with HIV-1 Tat protein.

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  • (PMID = 15713234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4690
  • [Journal-full-title] Retrovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retrovirology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085177; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85177
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / viral FLIP protein, Human herpesvirus 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC554086
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26. Jacobs SA, Vidnovic N, Patel H, Soma LA, Chang Y, Bass N, Swerdlow SH: Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Jul;26(7):1148-50
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  • [Title] Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate.
  • Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a nonneoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder that has a poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we report a patient with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-(KSHV, human herpesvirus-8) associated MCD that showed expression of viral IL-6.
  • Treatment with methotrexate (MTX) resulted in a complete remission of her disease lasting for 54+ months.
  • Multiple studies have suggested that MCD and rheumatoid arthritis are associated with overexpression of the growth-promoting cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and that MTX downregulates the production of this cytokine in vivo.
  • As such, we suggest that the dramatic improvement in this patient's disease is due to the immunomodulatory properties of MTX.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / virology. Female. HIV Seronegativity. Humans. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Remission Induction / methods


27. Huang WY, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: Unusual Sites of Malignancies: CASE 3. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Mar 20;23(9):2098-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual Sites of Malignancies: CASE 3. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15774799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Ouyang XX, Fu BS, Li BL, Zeng Y, Xu FH, Wang LD: Establishment of an ELISA to detect Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus using recombinant ORF73. Virol Sin; 2010 Jun;25(3):168-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishment of an ELISA to detect Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus using recombinant ORF73.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally related to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a proportion of cases of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Antigens, Viral. Herpesviridae Infections / diagnosis. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Viral Proteins. Virology / methods

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29. Bihl F, Narayan M, Chisholm JV 3rd, Henry LM, Suscovich TJ, Brown EE, Welzel TM, Kaufmann DE, Zaman TM, Dollard S, Martin JN, Wang F, Scadden DT, Kaye KM, Brander C: Lytic and latent antigens of the human gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus induce T-cell responses with similar functional properties and memory phenotypes. J Virol; 2007 May;81(9):4904-8
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  • [Title] Lytic and latent antigens of the human gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus induce T-cell responses with similar functional properties and memory phenotypes.
  • The cellular immunity against Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is poorly characterized and has not been compared to T-cell responses against other human herpesviruses.
  • The data identify a novel HLA-B57- and HLA-B58-restricted epitope in the Orf57 protein and show consistently close parallels in immune phenotypes and functional response patterns between cells targeting lytic or latent KSHV- and EBV-encoded antigens, suggesting common mechanisms in the induction of these responses.

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  • (PMID = 17329344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI060354; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CP / N01 CP 21121; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE 01438-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI 060534
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1900166
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30. McAllister SC, Früh K, Moses AV: Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma. Pharmacogenomics; 2005 Apr;6(3):235-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative disorder affecting the skin, mucosa and viscera of individuals infected with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8; also Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]).
  • KS is the most common neoplasm in AIDS patients; the clinical outcome of AIDS-KS is significantly improved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • However, in Africa, where the severest manifestations of KS occur, there is limited access to these and other effective but expensive drugs.
  • Here we present a review of current efforts to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of KS using functional genomics, with recommendations regarding the development of economically feasible treatments for use in Africa.
  • [MeSH-major] Genomics. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 16013955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-2416
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacogenomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Mesoporphyrins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 493-90-3 / mesoporphyrin IX; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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31. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers and HIV Infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2005 May;7(3):227-234
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers and HIV Infection.
  • With fewer patients now succumbing to infectious complications of AIDS, other HIV-related morbidities such as malignancies have become increasingly important.
  • Apart from Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cervical cancer, which are considered as AIDS-defining, several additional cancers, referred to as non-AIDS-defining cancers, are also statistically increased in HIV-infected persons.
  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.
  • Although immunosuppression is consistently associated with an increased risk of AIDS-related malignancies, the role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS- defining cancers is controversial.
  • Although data regarding the optimal management of these cancers are lacking, current studies suggest that patients with HIV-associated malignancies should be treated with similar approaches to those of their counterparts in the general population.

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  • [ISSN] 1523-3847
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Toschi E, Bacigalupo I, Strippoli R, Chiozzini C, Cereseto A, Falchi M, Nappi F, Sgadari C, Barillari G, Mainiero F, Ensoli B: HIV-1 Tat regulates endothelial cell cycle progression via activation of the Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway. Mol Biol Cell; 2006 Apr;17(4):1985-94
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  • [Title] HIV-1 Tat regulates endothelial cell cycle progression via activation of the Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway.
  • Tat, the transactivator of HIV-1 gene expression, is released by acutely HIV-1-infected T-cells and promotes adhesion, migration, and growth of inflammatory cytokine-activated endothelial and Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
  • Taken together, these data provide novel evidence about the ability of Tat to activate the Ras-ERK cascade which may be relevant for endothelial cell proliferation and for Kaposi's sarcoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Products, tat / physiology. HIV-1 / physiology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. ras Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Endothelial Cells / cytology. Endothelial Cells / enzymology. Endothelial Cells / virology. Enzyme Activation. GRB2 Adaptor Protein / metabolism. Humans. Oligopeptides / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins. Signal Transduction. tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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  • (PMID = 16436505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-1524
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GRB2 Adaptor Protein; 0 / GRB2 protein, human; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 99896-85-2 / arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1415297
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33. Yasuoka A: [Opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS]. Nihon Rinsho; 2010 Mar;68(3):486-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS].
  • The number of diagnosed AIDS and HIV infection is still increasing year by year in Japan.
  • Increment of malignancies such as malignant lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is remarkable in recent years.
  • Although diagnosis and treatment of OIs are almost established, some novel diagnostic tests and treatment option have developed and imploved the clinical outcome of HIV-related OIs.
  • Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is strongly influenced to the OI threapy in relation to the drug interaction, timing of ART and induction of immunoreconstitution syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections


34. Shetty K: Current role of thalidomide in HIV-positive patients with recurrent aphthous ulcerations. Gen Dent; 2007 Nov-Dec;55(6):537-42
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  • [Title] Current role of thalidomide in HIV-positive patients with recurrent aphthous ulcerations.
  • Among patients with HIV/AIDS, mucosal lesions of unknown etiology such as recurrent aphthous ulcerations (RAUs) often are unresponsive to standard therapies, resulting in substantial morbidity.
  • The literature regarding RAUs suggests that the inflammatory response contributes to its pathogenesis; however, the role of cytokines in this mucosal immune response remains largely unknown.
  • Later, it was used as an investigational agent for the treatment of Hansen's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, myelofibrosis, RAUs, and wasting associated with HIV.
  • This article discusses the current status of thalidomide for treating RAUs in HIV-positive patients.

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  • (PMID = 18050580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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35. Schäfer A, Cai X, Bilello JP, Desrosiers RC, Cullen BR: Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. Virology; 2007 Jul 20;364(1):21-7
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  • Here, we report the cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus (RRV), an animal virus model for the pathogenic human gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV).

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  • (PMID = 17451774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI067968; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI063928
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS25519; NLM/ PMC1941761
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36. Marimo C: Epidemiology of oral Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe 1988-1997: a population-based study. Cent Afr J Med; 2008 Jan-Apr;54(1-4):15-9
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of oral Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe 1988-1997: a population-based study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases globally which contrasts with the lack of population-based studies of oral Kaposi's sarcoma (OKS); one of the clinical cardinal signs of HIV/AIDS.
  • To date, no study has investigated the incidence of OKS in African populations affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
  • Histology of the primary (64.5%) and clinical diagnosis (34.6%) were the predominant methods of diagnosis.
  • Among AIDS-associated malignancies, OKS accounted for 98% while the balance comprised Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, haemangiosarcoma and lymphoma not specified.
  • These findings are attributable to the high human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) rates recorded for
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21644423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-9176
  • [Journal-full-title] The Central African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Zimbabwe
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37. Beadsworth MB, Cohen D, Ratcliffe L, Jenkins N, Taylor W, Campbell F, Beeching NJ, Azadeh B: Autopsies in HIV: still identifying missed diagnoses. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Feb;20(2):84-6
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  • [Title] Autopsies in HIV: still identifying missed diagnoses.
  • This study reviews the deaths and autopsies carried out over 23 years, 1983-2005, in a British Infection Unit in HIV patients.
  • Of 115 HIV patients known to have died, we obtained data on 93%.
  • The commonest diagnosis pre- and post-autopsy diagnosis was pneumonia.
  • Primary diagnosis changed in 70%, and 36% of all opportunistic infections were missed.
  • This included six of nine cytomegalovirus, all tuberculosis and 75% of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Autopsy / statistics & numerical data. HIV Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cause of Death. Female. Great Britain. HIV-1. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


38. Lee BS, Lee SH, Feng P, Chang H, Cho NH, Jung JU: Characterization of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 signalosome. J Virol; 2005 Oct;79(19):12173-84
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  • [Title] Characterization of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 signalosome.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angiogenic tumor and appears to be a hyperplastic disorder caused, in part, by local production of inflammatory cytokines.
  • The K1 lymphocyte receptor-like protein of KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) efficiently transduces extracellular signals to elicit cellular activation events through its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM).

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  • (PMID = 16160144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082057; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA091819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106156
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Precursors; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / K1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / NFATC Transcription Factors; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-vav; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / VAV1 protein, human; 0 / Viral Proteins; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Syk kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / lyn protein-tyrosine kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 3.1.3.16 / Protein Phosphatase 1; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.1.4.- / Type C Phospholipases; EC 3.1.4.3 / Phospholipase C gamma; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1211520
  •  go-up   go-down


39. Brinkmann MM, Pietrek M, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Schulz TF: Modulation of host gene expression by the K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol; 2007 Jan;81(1):42-58
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  • [Title] Modulation of host gene expression by the K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) contains several open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins capable of initiating signal transduction pathways.
  • K15 interacts with cellular proteins, TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) and Src kinases, and activates AP-1, NF-kappaB, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) c-jun-N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
  • This signaling activity of K15 is related to phosphorylation of Y(481) of the K15 SH2-B motif Y(481)EEV.
  • We demonstrate that K15 is capable of inducing expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, CCL20, CCL2, CXCL3, and IL-1alpha/beta, as well as expression of Dscr1 and Cox-2.
  • Our study establishes K15 as one of the KSHV lytic genes that are inducing expression of multiple cytokines, which have been shown to play an important role in KSHV-associated pathogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17050609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / K15 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / NFATC Transcription Factors; 0 / RCAN1 protein, human; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797256
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40. Coleman CB, Nealy MS, Tibbetts SA: Immature and transitional B cells are latency reservoirs for a gammaherpesvirus. J Virol; 2010 Dec;84(24):13045-52
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  • Gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68; also known as gammaherpesvirus 68 [γHV68] or murine herpesvirus 4 [MuHV-4]), establish lifelong latency in the resting memory B cell compartment.
  • In the context of a normal immune system, the mature B cell pool is naturally maintained by the renewable populations of developing B cells that arise from hematopoiesis.
  • Further, we show that transitional B cells in the spleen are latently infected and express the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) throughout chronic infection.

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  • (PMID = 20926565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018724; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139984; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA139984; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20-RR018724
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004345
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41. Petre CE, Sin SH, Dittmer DP: Functional p53 signaling in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphomas: implications for therapy. J Virol; 2007 Feb;81(4):1912-22
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  • [Title] Functional p53 signaling in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphomas: implications for therapy.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as primary effusion lymphomas (PEL).
  • However, DNA-damaging drugs such as doxorubicin are clinically efficacious against PEL and KS, suggesting that p53 signaling remains intact despite the presence of KSHV.
  • In contrast, all other PEL containing wild-type p53 showed DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, p53 phosphorylation, and p53 target gene activation.

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  • (PMID = 17121789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA700580; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / nutlin 3; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797584
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42. Tamburini J, Grimaldi D, Chiche JD, Bricaire F, Bossi P: Cytokine pattern in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with immune restoration disease in HIV and tuberculosis co-infected patients. AIDS; 2007 Sep 12;21(14):1980-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokine pattern in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with immune restoration disease in HIV and tuberculosis co-infected patients.
  • VEGF) involved in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma in two patients in whom HIV infection presented with disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
  • They simultaneously developed tuberculosis-associated immune restoration disease and Kaposi's sarcoma shortly after the initiation of HAART.
  • Analysis of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines led us to hypothesize that Kaposi's sarcoma could be promoted by the tuberculosis immune response.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokines / blood. HIV Infections / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Tuberculosis / immunology


43. Carbone A: KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):626-8
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  • [Title] KSHV/HHV-8 associated Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The unusual occurrence of a metastatic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a lymph node affected by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) was originally reported when knowledge of the specific virological features of these tumours was lacking.
  • METHODS: The presence of EBV was investigated by in situ hybridisation, whereas KS associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both viruses were analysed in the case reported, in 30 lymph nodes from patients with classic HL, and in 22 skin biopsies from patients with KS.
  • RESULTS: Consistent with the findings in the HL and KS cases analysed, in the case showing features of both HL and KS in the same lymph node, EBV was detectable only in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, but not in KS spindle cells, whereas KSHV/HHV-8 was detectable only in KS spindle cells, and not in RS cells.
  • CONCLUSION: It is probable that the development of KS and HL was related to two independent aetiological cofactors-KSHV/HHV-8 and EBV, respectively-and that the occurrence of the two malignancies in the same patient was merely fortuitous.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / secondary

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44. Kakabadze T, Rukhadze N, Mshvidobadze K, Lomtadze M, Kandelaki G: Oral lesions in HIV-positive patients in Georgia. Georgian Med News; 2008 Dec;(165):60-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oral lesions in HIV-positive patients in Georgia.
  • To study the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infected patients and its relationship with CD4+ cell count in Georgia 732 HIV positive adult patients who were admitted to the Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center (IDACIRC) since January, 2006 till October, 2008 were evaluated.
  • The investigation revealed oral candidiasis constituted the most common form of oral lesions, representing a 64% (467 patients), followed by HIV associated periodontal diseases in 216 patients (30%), recurrent aphthous like ulcerations in 118 patients (16%), oral hairy leukoplakia in 58 patients (8%), orolabial herpes simplex infection in 50 patients (7%), human papillomavirus (wart like lesions) in 37 patients (5%) and Kaposi's sarcoma in 3 patients (0.4%).
  • Results of this study provide evidence that mucous membrane disorders with HIV infection might serve as an indicator for advanced HIV infection, immunosuppression and decreased CD4 cell counts.
  • The physicians who are taking care of HIV patients have to be familiar with HIV-associated mucocutaneous diseases, their diagnoses, and management.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / immunology. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology


45. Blanco O, Capó V, Rodríguez ME, Dovigny MDC, Cardellá L, Gala A, Jiménez NA, Correa C, Alemán Y, Pérez L, Álvarez A, Hengge U: Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Herpesviridae; 2010 Dec 07;1(1):3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In Cuba, previous reports have shown an increase of epidemic KS, reaching a total of 120 cases by the end of 2007, despite the use of HAART.
  • To evaluate and compare the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) viral loads in different compartments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the genome copy number of HHV-8 in plasma, saliva, tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 AIDS-KS patients.
  • Overall, 98% of AIDS-KS patients harbored detectable HHV-8.
  • HHV-8 could be detected in 91.6% of KS tissue lesions showing the highest viral load (median log = 3.14 copies/100 ng DNA) followed by saliva and PBMC which were positive in 78%, and 69.2%; respectively.
  • Men who had sex with men (MSM) were more likely to have three-times higher HHV-8 genome copies in KS lesions when compared with tissues from heterosexuals individuals (OR 3; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.5).

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  • (PMID = 21429238.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-4280
  • [Journal-full-title] Herpesviridae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herpesviridae
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3050434
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46. Salako AA, Adisa AO, Ojo OS, Arigbabu AO: Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal kaposi's sarcoma - a case report. Indian J Surg; 2007 Oct;69(5):206-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to primary intestinal kaposi's sarcoma - a case report.
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) was previously a relatively rare disease.
  • With the advent of HIV/AIDS pandemic however, AIDS-related KS has been on the increase and so has interest in the disease.
  • Ninety percent of patients with KS present with skin lesions.
  • While the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly common site of metastatic KS, primary gastrointestinal KS is uncommon.
  • The presentation of gastrointestinal KS with severe gastrointestinal bleeding is rarer still.
  • In this report, we present a 56-year-old HIV-negative patient who presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding without any skin lesions.
  • Multiple hemorrhagic polypoidal lesions were found on the walls of the jejunum and ileum as well as the liver at exploratory laparotomy and these were found to be KS on histopathologic examination.

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  • (PMID = 23132985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452586
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIDS / Kaposi’s Sarcoma / Lesions
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47. Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients. Oncology; 2009;77(5):328-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: Several studies have examined the association of codon 72 polymorphism of the TP53 gene, encoding either arginine or proline, in several tumor types but none have investigated its role in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development.
  • METHODS: In this prevalent case-control study, 67 cutaneous lesions of classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic KS from African (n = 22) and Caucasian (n = 45) patients, and blood samples from 150 healthy controls (n = 57 African, n = 93 Caucasian) have been analyzed for arginine and proline allele distribution.
  • No significant differences in arginine and proline allele distribution were observed when the cases were stratified by HIV status/tumor type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that p53 polymorphism at codon 72 does not represent a risk factor for the development of all forms of KS, either among African or among Caucasian populations.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Codon. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Genes, p53. Polymorphism, Genetic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / ethnology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19940524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
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48. Polák P, Snopková S, Husa P, Povolná K, Bohatá S, Moulis M: [Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2010 Oct;16(5):172-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kaposiho sarkom.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual form of tumor which in the era of HIV/AIDS pandemic is increasingly observed outside the original endemic areas.
  • It was shown that the development of KS is in directly related to infection with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • The pathophysiology of KS is complex and is influenced by HIV co-infection and by global cytokine interactions.
  • We provode a review of the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of and therapeutic options for KS and one clinical case.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21191875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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49. Sharma-Walia N, Paul AG, Bottero V, Sadagopan S, Veettil MV, Kerur N, Chandran B: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) induced COX-2: a key factor in latency, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival and invasion. PLoS Pathog; 2010 Feb 12;6(2):e1000777
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) induced COX-2: a key factor in latency, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell survival and invasion.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an enigmatic endothelial cell vascular neoplasm, is characterized by the proliferation of spindle shaped endothelial cells, inflammatory cytokines (ICs), growth factors (GFs) and angiogenic factors.
  • KSHV is etiologically linked to KS and expresses its latent genes in KS lesion endothelial cells.
  • Here, we examined the role of COX-2 in the induction of ICs, GFs, angiogenesis and invasive events occurring during KSHV de novo infection of endothelial cells.
  • A significant amount of COX-2 was detected in KS tissue sections.
  • Collectively, these studies underscore the pivotal role of KSHV induced COX-2/PGE2 in creating KS lesion like microenvironment during de novo infection.
  • Since COX-2 plays multiple roles in KSHV latent gene expression, which themselves are powerful mediators of cytokine induction, anti-apoptosis, cell survival and viral genome maintainence, effective inhibition of COX-2 via well-characterized clinically approved COX-2 inhibitors could potentially be used in treatment to control latent KSHV infection and ameliorate KS.


50. Tarantul VZ: Virus-associated lymphomagenesis. Int J Biomed Sci; 2006 Jun;2(2):101-13
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  • [Title] Virus-associated lymphomagenesis.
  • Lymphomas are one of the best studied cancer types closely associated with a small but definite range of viruses.
  • Numerous data show a close interrelation between lymphomagenesis and infection by such viruses as Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The recognition of virus involvement in lymphomagenesis may facilitate new strategies for cancer therapy, diagnosis and screening and can lead to a reduction in the number of individuals at risk of disease.

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  • (PMID = 23674972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614592
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HIV / HIV virus HIV / epstein-barr virus / epstein-barrvirus / hepatitis b virus / hepatitis cvirus / herpesvirus / lymphoma / oncogenicity / virus
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51. Bagni R, Whitby D: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission and primary infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission and primary infection.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is the causal agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, one of the commonest cancers in HIV-infected individuals.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV and HIV are both common in southern Africa where KSHV infection occurs during childhood via saliva.
  • HIV infection is a major risk factor for KSHV infection.
  • In developed countries, KSHV transmission among men who have sex with men is related to sexual risk factors such as number of sexual partners and to sexual practices involving saliva.
  • Most critically, the role of HIV in increasing risk for KSHV infection and the possible effects on KSHV prevalence, and consequently the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma warrants urgent further study.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa, Southern / epidemiology. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. Brazil. Female. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / transmission. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Indians, South American. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Male. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Saliva / virology

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  • (PMID = 19339936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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52. Lechowicz M, Dittmer DP, Lee JY, Krown SE, Wachsman W, Aboulafia D, Dezube BJ, Ratner L, Said J, Ambinder RF: Molecular and clinical assessment in the treatment of AIDS Kaposi sarcoma with valproic Acid. Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Dec 15;49(12):1946-9
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  • [Title] Molecular and clinical assessment in the treatment of AIDS Kaposi sarcoma with valproic Acid.
  • The AIDS Malignancy Consortium undertook a pilot trial of valproic acid among patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • Treatment was associated with low toxicity, but the KS clinical response and KS herpesvirus lytic induction rates were not sufficiently high to meet predefined criteria for efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081400-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA113239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA066535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA071375; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA113239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA66535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-016805; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070062; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146832; NLM/ PMC2952388
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53. Lepone L, Rappocciolo G, Knowlton E, Jais M, Piazza P, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR: Monofunctional and polyfunctional CD8+ T cell responses to human herpesvirus 8 lytic and latency proteins. Clin Vaccine Immunol; 2010 Oct;17(10):1507-16
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  • Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • It is postulated that CD8(+) T cell responses play an important role in controlling HHV-8 infection and preventing development of disease.
  • In this study, we investigated monofunctional and polyfunctional CD8(+) T cell responses to HHV-8 lytic proteins gB (glycoprotein B) and K8.1 and latency proteins LANA-1 (latency-associated nuclear antigen-1) and K12.
  • These immunogenic regions of viral lytic and latency proteins could be important in T cell control of HHV-8 infection.

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  • (PMID = 20719985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-679X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082053; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 82053; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI065380; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI 35041
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / K8.1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / glycoprotein B, human herpesvirus 8; 0 / kaposin B protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2952991
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54. Lan K, Murakami M, Bajaj B, Kaul R, He Z, Gan R, Feldman M, Robertson ES: Inhibition of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphomas in NOD/SCID mice by gamma-secretase inhibitor. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Nov;8(22):2136-43
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a common cancer in AIDS patients closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • Previously, we showed that KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) stabilizes intracellular activated Notch1 (ICN) involved in maintenance of the malignant phenotype of KSHV infected PEL cells in vitro.
  • Our study provides further evidence to suggest that targeted downregulation of abnormal Notch signaling has therapeutic potential for KSHV related primary effusion lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases / antagonists & inhibitors. Dipeptides / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Notch1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Virus Infections

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Nov;8(22):2144-6 [20068386.001]
  • (PMID = 19783901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / A1067037; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108461; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017338
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)alanyl)phenylglycine tert-butyl ester; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Notch1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 3.4.- / Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
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55. Meer S, Altini M: Cytomegalovirus co-infection in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus co-infection in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The increasing appearance of AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in South Africa may be ascribed to the later start of the HIV epidemic, more patients reaching stages III and IV, and the inaccessibility of most patients to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • The objective of this study was to demonstrate cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection in oral KS and to consider its possible significance.
  • We reviewed 20 cases of oral KS in known HIV-positive patients without active CMV disease.
  • The significance of CMV co-infection in oral KS is unclear.
  • The inclusions suggest active infection, although there is no evidence to support CMV in the pathogenesis of KS.
  • Nonetheless, it is vital that physicians be alerted to active CMV infection, so that timely intervention and careful observation can be instituted, ensuring early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Cytomegalovirus / pathogenicity. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / virology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


56. Acharya S, Ross JD: Kaposi's sarcoma of the recto sigmoid colon in a patient with HIV infection and a high CD4 count. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Jul;18(7):499-500
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma of the recto sigmoid colon in a patient with HIV infection and a high CD4 count.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a well-recognized, HIV-associated opportunistic tumour, which was first described in 1872 by a Hungarian dermatologist, Moritz Kaposi.
  • It predominantly affects homosexual men and heterosexual patients from Africa infected with HIV.
  • Despite a trend towards lower CD4 counts at the time of KS presentation, the use of antiretroviral therapy has been associated with a reduction in mortality compared with the pre-ART era.
  • Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, 40% of people with KS skin lesions were reported to have lesions in the intestine.
  • Conversely, KS can also develop systemically in the absence of skin lesions.
  • We present a case of KS affecting the distal sigmoid colon and rectum in a patient with a relatively preserved CD4 T-cell count, demonstrating that a less common presentation of KS may occur at any CD4 count.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17623511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Singh H, Singh P, Tiwari P, Dey V, Dulhani N, Singh A: Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India. Indian J Dermatol; 2009;54(4):338-41
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  • [Title] Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous disorders during HIV infection are numerous and skin is often the first and only organ affected during most of the course of HIV disease.
  • Some Cutaneous disorders reflect the progression of HIV disease; though the relation is still controversial.
  • AIMS: The objective of this study, conducted at a tertiary care centre in Bastar, Jagdalpur, is to estimate the status of cutaneous manifestation in HIV-infected patients and its relationship with CD4 cell counts.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 137 HIV positive subjects.
  • Most common HIV-related dermatological manifestations were seborrheic dermatitis (74.16%), xerosis (52.5%), generalized skin hyperpigmentation 56 (46.67%), onychomycosis 53 (44.16%), pruritic papular eruption 27 (22.5%), oral candidiasis 21 (17.5%), photo dermatitis 21 (17.5%), and scabies 4 (3.33%).
  • Significant correlation with low CD4+ cell counts was found for oral candidiasis (P < 0.0001) and Kaposi's sarcoma (P = 0.03), while other disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis (P = 0.22), xerosis (P = 0.25), and onychomycosis (P = 0.08) were not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: This study showed high prevalence of dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected subjects, and they occur more frequently with progression of HIV and decline in immune functions.
  • Therefore, early diagnosis and management of skin disorders can improve the quality of life of HIV-infected subjects.

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  • (PMID = 20101334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807709
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human immunodeficiency virus / National Aids Control Organisation / people living with HIV/AIDS
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58. Galceran J, Marcos-Gragera R, Soler M, Romaguera A, Ameijide A, Izquierdo A, Borràs J, de Sanjosé S, Casabona J: Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Apr;43(6):1085-91
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence in AIDS patients in Catalonia, Spain.
  • HIV infected people and AIDS patients develop cancer more frequently than the general population.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing cancer among 15 to 69 year old AIDS patients from two geographic areas: Tarragona and Girona provinces, in north-eastern Spain.
  • We have studied invasive and in situ cancers (for all sites) among 1659 AIDS patients from +/-5 years around the date of their AIDS diagnosis by matching the population-based Cancer Registries with the AIDS Registry covering these populations.
  • Sex and age-standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of observed-to-expected cancers were calculated by type of cancer as a measure of risk.
  • For selected types of cancers, SIRs were also calculated for HIV exposure category.
  • Compared with the general population, incidence of cancer among AIDS patients (invasive and in situ) increased 22.9 fold in men (n=142) and 21.0 fold in women (n=45).
  • High statistically significant SIRs were found for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (male, 486.4; female, 1030.0), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (male, 126.1; female, 192.8) and invasive cervical cancer (41.8).
  • For all non-AIDS defining malignant neoplasms as a group SIRs were 3.4 in men and 2.5 in women.
  • Among men, homo/bisexuality was strongly related to risk of KS and NHL.
  • The rates of cervical cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver cancer and lung cancer were among the highest ever reported linked to HIV infection.
  • For the cervical cancer this could be attributable to the low incidence of this cancer in the general population and to the high prevalence of intravenous drug users among HIV women and probably due to poor preventive strategies in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17349785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Cazorla Jiménez A, Górgolas Hernández-Mora M, Fernández Guerrero M, Renedo Pascual G, Rivas Manga C: [Multicenter Castleman disease in AIDS. Its relationship with HHV-8 or herpes virus associated to Kaposi's sarcoma. Study of two cases]. Rev Clin Esp; 2005 Dec;205(12):607-9
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  • [Title] [Multicenter Castleman disease in AIDS. Its relationship with HHV-8 or herpes virus associated to Kaposi's sarcoma. Study of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Enfermedad de Castleman multicéntrica en sida. Su relación con el VHH-8 o virus herpes asociado al sarcoma de Kaposi. Estudio de dos casos.
  • Castleman disease is considered a reactive lymphadenopathic picture with two clinical forms: one localized, frequent in immunocompetent patients and another multicenter one that is more characteristic in immunodepressed patients.
  • Two cases of Castleman disease multicenter in HIV positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma are presented.
  • Both patients have multiple adenopathies, hepatomegaly and symptoms B on diagnosis.
  • A review of the concept of multicenter Castleman disease and its pathogenic relationship to human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is done.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


60. Adedigba MA, Naidoo S, Ogunbodede EO: Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS. Odontostomatol Trop; 2009 Mar;32(125):17-24
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  • [Title] Cost implications for the treatment of five oral lesions commonly found in HIV/AIDS.
  • The descriptive, retrospective study that investigated the cost implications of the treatment of five oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS: oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases, oral ulcers and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • One hundred and twenty four cases with oral HIV lesions were selected from the list of 181 HIV patients listed in the attendance registers of three hospitals in the selected study sites.
  • A data capture sheet was used to obtain information related to diagnosis, investigations done, staging of the disease, treatment plan and treatment outcome.
  • There was no significant association between staging of the disease and the hospital cost (p > 0.05), but the CD4 count significantly influenced the hospital cost (p<0.05).
  • Governments should endeavour to provide antiretroviral and other relevant drugs, at no cost, to HIV/AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Costs. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / economics. Hospital Costs. Mouth Diseases / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / economics. Female. Hospitalization. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / economics. Male. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / complications. Oral Ulcer / economics. Periodontal Diseases / complications. Periodontal Diseases / economics. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


61. Meibodi NT, Nahidi Y, Mahmoudi M, Javidi Z, Rastin M, Sheikh A, Esmaeeli HA: Evaluation of coexistence of the Human Herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) infection and pemphigus. Int J Dermatol; 2010 Jul;49(7):780-3
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  • [Title] Evaluation of coexistence of the Human Herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) infection and pemphigus.
  • BACKGROUND: Human Herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is a new member of the herpes virus family, first found in the tissue of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 20618497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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62. Bakken T, He M, Cannon ML: The phosphatase Shp2 is required for signaling by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral GPCR in primary endothelial cells. Virology; 2010 Feb 20;397(2):379-88
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  • [Title] The phosphatase Shp2 is required for signaling by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral GPCR in primary endothelial cells.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-related endothelial cell malignancy that is the most common cancer in central and southern Africa.
  • The KSHV viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) is a viral oncogene that conveys a survival advantage to endothelial cells and causes KS-like tumors in mouse models.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20004456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0341
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI053971-06; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K08 AI053971; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K08 AI053971-06; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K08-AI53971
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / G protein-coupled receptor, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; EC 2.7.11.25 / MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS164856; NLM/ PMC2822116
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63. Udhrain A, Skubitz KM, Northfelt DW: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Nanomedicine; 2007;2(3):345-52
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  • [Title] Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor of skin and viscera first described in 1872.
  • Prior to the 1980s, this disease was rarely seen in the Western world, but was quite prevalent in Sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Since the onset of the HIV pandemic in the 1980s, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has increased markedly in Africa and continues to be a significant problem in association with AIDS in Western countries.
  • Many therapies have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, including alitretinoin gel, interferon alpha, and various forms of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • However, as reviewed in this report, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has been established as the treatment of choice for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Western countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Herpesvirus 8, Human / drug effects. Liposomes / chemistry. Nanostructures / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18019833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of nanomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Nanomedicine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676669
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64. Laney AS, Peters JS, Manzi SM, Kingsley LA, Chang Y, Moore PS: Use of a multiantigen detection algorithm for diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. J Clin Microbiol; 2006 Oct;44(10):3734-41
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  • [Title] Use of a multiantigen detection algorithm for diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.
  • The ability to readily and accurately diagnose Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) infection in individuals remains a demanding task.

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  • (PMID = 17021103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-1137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA067391; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA67931; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI35041
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1594766
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65. Matsumura S, Fujita Y, Gomez E, Tanese N, Wilson AC: Activation of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus major latency locus by the lytic switch protein RTA (ORF50). J Virol; 2005 Jul;79(13):8493-505
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  • [Title] Activation of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus major latency locus by the lytic switch protein RTA (ORF50).
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) maintains a latent infection in primary effusion lymphoma cells but can be induced to enter full lytic replication by exposure to a variety of chemical inducing agents or by expression of the KSHV-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein.
  • During latency, only a few viral genes are expressed, and these include the three genes of the so-called latency transcript (LT) cluster: v-FLIP (open reading frame 71 [ORF71]), v-cyclin (ORF72), and latency-associated nuclear antigen (ORF73).
  • These studies highlight the fact that induction method can influence the precise program of viral gene expression during early events in reactivation and also suggest a mechanism by which RTA contributes to establishment of latency during de novo infections.

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  • (PMID = 15956592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM061139; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61139-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1143749
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66. Sissolak G, Abayomi EA, Jacobs P: AIDS defining lymphomas in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): an African perspective. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):63-70
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  • [Title] AIDS defining lymphomas in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): an African perspective.
  • The intermediate to high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are now one of three malignant AIDS defining conditions.
  • The others being Kaposi's sarcoma and cervical carcinoma.
  • While co-infection with oncogenic agents including the human herpes 8 or Epstein-Barr virus offer targets in preventive treatment strategies for these AIDS defining lymphomas (ADL), administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy leading to immune reconstitution permits use of standard or even high-dose cytotoxic drug regimens with curative intent.
  • Socio-economic considerations have an impact especially in resource limited settings while availability of tools for appropriate geno-phenotypic diagnosis and immunological monitoring such as the CD4 cell count will play an important role in the risk stratification as well as disease management.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa / epidemiology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Male. Rituximab. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Socioeconomic Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


67. Buja A, Lange JH, Perissinotto E, Rausa G, Grigoletto F, Canova C, Mastrangelo G: Cancer incidence among male military and civil pilots and flight attendants: an analysis on published data. Toxicol Ind Health; 2005 Nov;21(10):273-82
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  • In male cabin attendants, meta-SIR was 21.5 (2.25-205.8) for Kaposi's sarcoma and 2.49 (1.03-6.03) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • AIDS, which was the most frequent single cause of death in this occupational category, likely explains the excess of the latter two tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16463960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-2337
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and industrial health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Ind Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Dhrif AS, Kilani B, Ammari L, Kanoun F, Tiouri H, Ben Chaaben T: [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):494-9
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  • [Title] [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Kaposi associee au SIDA: etude de 22 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy.
  • Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic findings in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed between 1991 and 2005.
  • Epidemiological data, the stage of human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) infection, clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma, treatment rendered and outcome were collected.
  • They were 17 men and 5 females (sex-ratio=3.4/ 1) with a mean age of 33.6 years at the diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma appeared after a period varying between 0 and 10 years.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma uncovered the infection in 5 cases.
  • The mean rate of CD4 was 216 21/mm3 at the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Mucocutaneous lesions were isolated in 12 cases and associated with visceral involvement in 10 cases; lung (10 cases), gastrointestinal tract (5 cases), lymphadenopathy (5 cases), liver (4 cases), spleen (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe condition because of visceral localisations and the field of immunodeficiency.
  • It requires a precocious diagnosis and collaboration.
  • The identification of HHV8 in the aetiopathogenic mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to the development new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Splenic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tunisia / epidemiology


69. Lin L, Lee JY, Kaplan LD, Dezube BJ, Noy A, Krown SE, Levine AM, Yu Y, Hayward GS, Ambinder RF: Effects of chemotherapy in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA in blood. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15):2496-502
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  • [Title] Effects of chemotherapy in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA in blood.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the relative frequency with which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/HHV-8 (KSHV) DNA is detected in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in plasma of patients with AIDS-KS and AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; AIDS-NHL); to determine whether the presence of viral DNA in plasma reflects lysis of tumor cells or reflects the presence of viremia (ie, virion-encapsidated DNA); and to determine the effect of lymphoma therapy on KSHV DNA.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from patients enrolled in AIDS Malignancy Consortium clinical trials and from healthy donors.
  • RESULTS: In patients with AIDS-KS, KSHV DNA was detected in PBMC (54%) and in plasma (62%).
  • In patients with AIDS-NHL, KSHV DNA was detected in PBMC (19%) and in plasma (22%).
  • In six patients with AIDS-NHL who were treated with chemotherapy (with or without rituximab), KSHV copy number declined in PBMC and in plasma.
  • CONCLUSION: KSHV DNA is sometimes detected in PBMC or in plasma of patients with AIDS-NHL without KS.
  • Among patients with KSHV DNA detected in PBMC or in plasma, copy number does not distinguish between patients with AIDS-NHL and AIDS-KS.