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1. Sivakumar R, Sharma-Walia N, Raghu H, Veettil MV, Sadagopan S, Bottero V, Varga L, Levine R, Chandran B: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications. J Virol; 2008 Feb;82(4):1759-76
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces sustained levels of vascular endothelial growth factors A and C early during in vitro infection of human microvascular dermal endothelial cells: biological implications.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, is characterized by spindle-shaped endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, cytokines, growth and angiogenic factors, and angiogenesis.
  • KS spindle cells are believed to be of the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) type.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically linked to KS, and in vitro KSHV infection of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades, sustained expression of latency-associated genes, transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, sustained induction of NF-kappaB and several cytokines, and growth and angiogenic factors.
  • Collectively, these studies show that the in vitro microenvironments of KSHV-infected endothelial cells are enriched, with VEGF-A and -C molecules playing key roles in KSHV biology, such as increased infection and gene expression, as well as in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, thus recapitulating the microenvironment of early KS lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18057235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099925
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258737
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2. Mosam A, Cassol E, Page T, Bodasing U, Cassol S, Dawood H, Friedland GH, Scadden DT, Aboobaker J, Jordaan JP, Lalloo UG, Esterhuizen TM, Coovadia HM: Generic antiretroviral efficacy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS; 2005 Mar 4;19(4):441-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Generic antiretroviral efficacy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • We report on 50 patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma treated with generic fixed-dose highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Drugs, Generic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


3. Martró E, Esteve A, Schulz TF, Sheldon J, Gambús G, Muñoz R, Whitby D, Casabona J, Euro-Shaks study group: Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;120(5):1129-35
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  • [Title] Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study.
  • We aimed to identify risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) among HIV-positive patients and behaviors associated with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection, as well as to assess KS incidence and mortality rates longitudinally.
  • To fulfill the first objective, a European case-control study was designed in the early 1990s (each KS case was matched to 2 controls with another AIDS indicative disease).
  • After the discovery of HHV-8, serology testing enabled us to assess risk factors for KS development among HHV-8 and HIV-1 coinfected men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as risk factors for HHV-8 infection.
  • Assessment of risk factors for KS development and HHV-8 infection was performed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively.
  • A low CD4 count was the only significant risk factor for KS.
  • HHV-8 infection was most strongly linked to the number of life-time sex partners, and multiple body fluids such as saliva and semen are quite likely involved in sexual transmission.
  • Longitudinal follow up showed a significant protective role for highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) both on KS development and mortality of KS patients.
  • Although more conclusive data from cohort studies are needed to better define specific transmission mechanisms for HHV-8, our results contribute to explain why KS incidence is higher among MSM, and the decreasing KS incidence trend observed in countries with universal access to HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Homosexuality, Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


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4. Ranganathan K, Hemalatha R: Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview. Adv Dent Res; 2006 Apr 01;19(1):63-8
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  • [Title] Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview.
  • HIV infection is a major global health problem affecting developing and developed countries alike.
  • Oral lesions that are associated with this disease are important, since they affect the quality of life of the patient and are useful markers of disease progression and immunosuppression.
  • Oral lesions in HIV infection have been well-documented in developed countries, but there are fewer reports on oral lesions from developing countries.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported only from Africa and Latin America, while histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were reported in patients with advanced disease from Thailand.
  • HIV-associated salivary gland disease has a high prevalence in Africa and Latin America, especially in the pediatric group.
  • It is clear that there are considerable regional variations in the oral manifestations of HIV infection, depending both on the populations studied and on the clinical expertise available, among other factors.
  • Well-designed and -documented studies are necessary for the correct assessment of the nature and magnitude of the problem in developing countries, if oral health measures are to be effectively formulated for the HIV-infected.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Diseases / complications. Mouth Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Africa / epidemiology. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Child. Female. Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative / complications. Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative / epidemiology. Humans. India / epidemiology. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / epidemiology. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Salivary Gland Diseases / complications. Salivary Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. South America / epidemiology. Thailand / epidemiology


5. Adang LA, Parsons CH, Kedes DH: Asynchronous progression through the lytic cascade and variations in intracellular viral loads revealed by high-throughput single-cell analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. J Virol; 2006 Oct;80(20):10073-82
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  • [Title] Asynchronous progression through the lytic cascade and variations in intracellular viral loads revealed by high-throughput single-cell analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus-8) is frequently tumorigenic in immunocompromised patients.
  • The average intracellular viral copy number within infected cells, however, varies markedly by tumor type.
  • Since the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers viral episomes to host heterochromatin and displays a punctate pattern by fluorescence microscopy, we investigated whether accurate quantification of individual LANA dots is predictive of intracellular viral genome load.
  • Applying image-based flow cytometry to KSHV culture models, we found that de novo infection results in highly varied levels of intracellular viral load and that lytic induction of latently infected cells likewise leads to a heterogeneous population at various stages of reactivation.

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  • (PMID = 17005685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007267; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM 07267-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124343-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA103858-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103858-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA044579; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA124343; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088768; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA103858; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01 CA 88768; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA124343-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08-1 CA 103858-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 44579
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / K8.1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Syndecans; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1617294
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6. Nascimento MC, Wilder N, Pannuti CS, Weiss HA, Mayaud P: Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Virol; 2005 May;33(1):52-9
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), the eighth Herpesvirus found to infect humans.
  • The molecular epidemiology of KSHV is related closely to ethnicity and geographical location of studied populations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize KSHV strains isolated from AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and to examine associations between KSHV subtypes, ethnicity and HIV risk categories.
  • METHODS: AIDS-KS patients were recruited consecutively at the largest AIDS reference hospital in Sao Paulo.
  • Sexual orientation was associated with subtype: 12/14 (86%) patients with subtype A were male homo/bisexual, compared with 3/8 (38%) among patients infected with subtype C (P = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This first detailed report of KSHV subtypes among AIDS-KS patients in Brazil reports the first isolation of KSHV subtype A5 in this country, and suggests KSHV strain transmission between different ethnic groups, and association of specific strains with sexual orientation.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 15797365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY377992/ AY377993/ AY377994/ AY377995/ AY377996/ AY377997/ AY377998/ AY377999/ AY378000/ AY378001/ AY378002/ AY378003/ AY378004/ AY378005/ AY378006/ AY378007/ AY378008/ AY378009/ AY378010/ AY378011/ AY378012/ AY378013/ AY378014/ AY378015/ AY378016/ AY378017/ AY378018/ AY378019/ AY378020/ AY378021/ AY378022/ AY378023/ AY378024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Mark L, Lee WH, Spiller OB, Villoutreix BO, Blom AM: The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus complement control protein (KCP) binds to heparin and cell surfaces via positively charged amino acids in CCP1-2. Mol Immunol; 2006 Apr;43(10):1665-75
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  • [Title] The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus complement control protein (KCP) binds to heparin and cell surfaces via positively charged amino acids in CCP1-2.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) complement control protein (KCP) inhibits the human complement system, and is similar in structure and function to endogenous complement inhibitors.
  • This might indicate that KCP at the surface of viral particles aids in the primary attachment to the target cells, which is known to involve binding to heparan sulfate.

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  • (PMID = 16442624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5890
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids, Basic; 0 / Complement C4b-Binding Protein; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / KSHV complement control protein, Herpesvirus 8; 0 / Viral Proteins; 9005-49-6 / Heparin; 9050-30-0 / Heparitin Sulfate
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8. Sharma-Walia N, Raghu H, Sadagopan S, Sivakumar R, Veettil MV, Naranatt PP, Smith MM, Chandran B: Cyclooxygenase 2 induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during in vitro infection of target cells plays a role in the maintenance of latent viral gene expression. J Virol; 2006 Jul;80(13):6534-52
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase 2 induced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during in vitro infection of target cells plays a role in the maintenance of latent viral gene expression.
  • Infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells in vitro by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) provides an excellent in vitro model system to study viral latency.
  • KSHV infection is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades; sustained expression of the latency-associated open reading frame 73 (ORF73) (LANA-1), ORF72, and K13 genes; transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, including the lytic cycle switch ORF50 (replication and transcription activator) gene; and reprogramming of host transcriptional machinery regulating a variety of cellular processes, including several proinflammatory responses.

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  • (PMID = 16775340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075911; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 75911
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 123653-11-2 / N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1488986
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9. Jiang Y, Xu D, Zhao Y, Zhang L: Mutual inhibition between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication initiators in dually-infected primary effusion lymphoma. PLoS One; 2008 Feb 06;3(2):e1569
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  • [Title] Mutual inhibition between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication initiators in dually-infected primary effusion lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are members of the human gamma herpesvirus family: each is associated with various human cancers.
  • The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are co-infected with both KSHV and EBV.
  • Our data about putative interactions between EBV and KSHV would be applicable to the majority of AIDS-associated PELs and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of PELs.

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  • (PMID = 18253508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108951; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR15635; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI059132; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR015635; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108951; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI59132
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2215330
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10. Vanousová D, Jilich D, Machala L, Hósová M, Pock L, Rozsypal H, Stanková M, Hercogová J: [Diagnostic pitfalls of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(5):285-92
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic pitfalls of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Uskalí diagnostiky Kaposiho sarkomu sdruzeného s HIV infekcí.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma was one of the very first diseases which indicated the advent of the AIDS pandemic.
  • Despite the marked fall in its occurrence thanks to the introduction of the cART, Kaposi's sarcoma remains the most frequent tumour in HIV-positive patients and still represents a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem.
  • Particularly in the early stages both the macroscopic and histopathological picture of Kaposi's sarcoma may be very atypical, which can cause diagnostic difficulties right at the time when an early therapy may be most successful.
  • In order to improve both the diagnostics and therapy of Kaposi's sarcoma, close collaboration between physicians taking care of HIV-positive patients--mainly infectologists, dermatologists and pathologists, is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21061678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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11. Dittmer DP, Krown SE: Targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Sep;19(5):452-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and the implications of these findings for Kaposi's sarcoma treatment.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Although reduced in incidence in developed countries since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, Kaposi's sarcoma incidence is still markedly increased in HIV-infected patients in resource-rich areas of the world and is a major complication among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway has emerged as a major driving force in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In addition, the roles of p53, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral cyclin and nuclear factor-kappaB in the development and progression of Kaposi's sarcoma are being further clarified, and therapeutic agents are being developed that may target these pathogenetic mechanisms.
  • New Kaposi's sarcoma treatments should be considered that target the molecular interface between virus and host.
  • SUMMARY: The growing knowledge of Kaposi's sarcoma biology provides multiple opportunities for rational targeted therapies.
  • Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma develops and to develop therapeutic strategies that prevent resistance to treatment.

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  • (PMID = 17762570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS191348; NLM/ PMC2855645
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12. Chang H, Wachtman LM, Pearson CB, Lee JS, Lee HR, Lee SH, Vieira J, Mansfield KG, Jung JU: Non-human primate model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. PLoS Pathog; 2009 Oct;5(10):e1000606
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  • [Title] Non-human primate model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.
  • Since Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) was first identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions of HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, the basic biological understanding of KSHV has progressed remarkably.
  • Remarkably, one orally infected marmoset developed a KS-like skin lesion with the characteristic infiltration of leukocytes by spindle cells positive for KSHV DNA and proteins.
  • These results demonstrate that human KSHV infects common marmosets, establishes an efficient persistent infection, and occasionally leads to a KS-like skin lesion.

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  • [ISSN] 1553-7374
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS pathogens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Pathog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082057; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31363; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115284; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115284; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA031363
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2745662
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13. Autier J, Picard-Dahan C, Marinho E, Grossin M, Yeni P, Leport C, Vildé JL, Crickx B, Descamps V: Docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a retrospective study. Br J Dermatol; 2005 May;152(5):1026-9
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  • [Title] Docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a potentially life-threatening multifocal neoplasm.
  • Despite the significant decline in the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), some patients, even those with a good immune restoration, still have aggressive disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: We studied the efficacy and tolerance of docetaxel in the treatment of AIDS-related KS after pretreatment with anthracycline.
  • Nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were treated from 1997 to 2002 with docetaxel.
  • Tumour response was evaluated using the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) staging criteria.
  • AIDS status with HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count were measured at the beginning and at the end of the treatment.
  • RESULTS: A major (complete or partial) response and a stabilization of the disease were demonstrated in seven and two patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel has a good and rapid efficacy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with severe AIDS-related KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use


14. Petre CE, Sin SH, Dittmer DP: Functional p53 signaling in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphomas: implications for therapy. J Virol; 2007 Feb;81(4):1912-22
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  • [Title] Functional p53 signaling in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphomas: implications for therapy.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as primary effusion lymphomas (PEL).
  • However, DNA-damaging drugs such as doxorubicin are clinically efficacious against PEL and KS, suggesting that p53 signaling remains intact despite the presence of KSHV.
  • In contrast, all other PEL containing wild-type p53 showed DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, p53 phosphorylation, and p53 target gene activation.

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  • (PMID = 17121789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA700580; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / nutlin 3; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797584
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15. Schäfer A, Cai X, Bilello JP, Desrosiers RC, Cullen BR: Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus. Virology; 2007 Jul 20;364(1):21-7
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  • Here, we report the cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus (RRV), an animal virus model for the pathogenic human gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV).

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  • (PMID = 17451774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI067968; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI067968-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI067968-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063928-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI063928-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI063928; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R56 AI063928
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS25519; NLM/ PMC1941761
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16. Grulich AE: Cancer: the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy, and implications for early antiretroviral therapy initiation. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 May;4(3):183-7
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  • [Title] Cancer: the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy, and implications for early antiretroviral therapy initiation.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the immune status of people with HIV has improved, non-AIDS-defining malignancies have become proportionately much more important as causes of morbidity and mortality in this population.
  • This review examines whether the incidence and mortality from cancer is associated with impaired immunity and whether effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce risk of cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is substantially and rapidly reduced by effective ART.
  • Study of other cancer types has been hampered by their relatively infrequent occurrence, but there is emerging evidence that a large range of around 20 cancer types are associated with immune deficiency.
  • SUMMARY: Cancer is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV and at least some of the excess risk in people with HIV may be reversible by earlier ART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19532048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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17. Célestin Schartz NE, Chevret S, Paz C, Kerob D, Verola O, Morel P, Lebbé C: Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Apr;58(4):585-91
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  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a virus-associated neoplasm, can be treated locally or systemically with interferon alfa.
  • Therefore, imiquimod, an immune response modifier able to induce interferon-alpha secretion in situ, could prove a good local treatment for KS skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream for the topical treatment of classic or endemic KS skin lesions in patients who are HIV negative.
  • The main efficacy end points were the safety of topical imiquimod and the overall clinical response in patients evaluated on the basis of modified AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria at 36 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical imiquimod 5% cream had antitumor activity in about half the patients with classic and endemic KS and was generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. HIV Seronegativity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18068265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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18. Yarchoan R, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Aleman K, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Little RF: Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Crit Rev Immunol; 2007;27(5):401-14
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  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity.
  • In this article, we review the preliminary evidence for the activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) against Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and discuss these results in the context of the biology of IL-12 and KS.
  • IL-12 is a cytokine that enhances type 1 immunity, induces production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and mediates antiangiogenic effects.
  • In addition, it can downregulate a constitutively active G protein coupled receptor that is encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the causative agent of KS.
  • These factors suggested that IL-12 might be worth exploring as a potential anti-KS agent.
  • In an initial phase I pilot study, IL-12 was found to have anti-KS activity when used alone in patients with AIDS-associated KS who were on a stable regimen of antiretroviral therapy.
  • In preliminary results from a subsequent study of the combination of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin along with highly active antiretroviral therapy, remissions were obtained in a substantial percentage of patients with advanced AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cytokines / immunology. Cytokines / metabolism. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans


19. de Souza VA, Pierrotti LC, Sumita LM, Freire WS, Segurado AA, Pannuti CS: Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count. J Med Virol; 2007 Oct;79(10):1562-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count.
  • In AIDS/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients, the sensitivity of immunofluorescence assays for detecting antibodies against latent nuclear antigen ranges from 52% to 93%.
  • However, in classic and African KS, sensitivities above 90% have been reported systematically.
  • This study evaluates whether CD4+ T-cell count affects seroreactivity to KSHV LANA and to lytic antigens in AIDS/KS patients.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latent (IFA-LANA) and lytic (IFA-Lytic and ORF65/K8.1 EIA) antibodies were screened in 184 consecutive samples taken from 36 AIDS/KS patients grouped according to their CD4+ counts as follows: <100 (group A), 100-300 (group B), and >300 (group C) cells/mm(3).
  • In conclusion, LANA seroreactivity in AIDS/KS patients, as assessed by an immunofluorescence assay, depends on CD4+ T-cell count, rendering this evaluation important in the interpretation of seroepidemiological studies of KSHV infection in AIDS patients.
  • To evaluate future serological tests based on latency-associated antigens, the selection of sera from KS patients with CD4+ cell count >300 cells/mm(3) as a positive gold standard is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / blood. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. HIV. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Nuclear Proteins / immunology. Phosphoproteins / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


20. Dhillon T, Stebbing J, Bower M: Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Apr;5(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • The management of early stage cutaneous AIDS-KS has been revolutionized by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy and for most patients highly active antiretroviral therapy alone will control early stage AIDS-KS.
  • However, patients with advanced stage Kaposi's sarcoma with visceral disease, tumor-associated edema or extensive oral disease require systemic chemotherapy in addition to antiretrovirals.
  • For patients with refractory or recurrent AIDS-KS, treatment algorithms are less well defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15877519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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21. Murray JF: Pulmonary complications of HIV-1 infection among adults living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2005 Aug;9(8):826-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary complications of HIV-1 infection among adults living in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa, which has just over 10% of the world's population, is home to more than 25 million people living with HIV/AIDS-two thirds of the global total.
  • Opportunistic pulmonary infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in the subcontinent.
  • Of these diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is by far the most prevalent and serious, and in some countries it causes one third or more of all AIDS-related deaths.
  • Because it is so frequent and a major public health problem, TB tops the list of differential diagnoses of people-with or without coexisting HIV infection-who present to the health care system with chronic cough and other pulmonary symptoms.
  • As HIV-induced immunosuppression worsens, the clinical and radiographic manifestations of TB become increasingly atypical.
  • Second among HIV/AIDS-associated pulmonary complications is community-acquired pneumonia, most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually responds to standard beta-lactam antimicrobial agents.
  • Pulmonary nocardiosis, cryptococcosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, and (possibly) histoplasmosis appear to be infrequent, but probably underdiagnosed.
  • Improved diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of all these diseases are urgently needed, but a greatly expanded antiretroviral treatment program will help most of all.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1 / pathogenicity. Public Health. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa / epidemiology. Community-Acquired Infections. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / etiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / pathology. Prevalence


22. Power DG, Mulholland PJ, O'Byrne KJ: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with a normal CD4 count. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Feb;20(1):97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with a normal CD4 count.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology


23. Dhir AA, Sawant S, Dikshit RP, Parikh P, Srivastava S, Badwe R, Rajadhyaksha S, Dinshaw KA: Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Mar;19(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Spectrum of HIV/AIDS related cancers in India.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the cancer pattern among HIV positive cancer cases.
  • METHOD: The study group included patients registered in the HIV Cancer clinic at the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai, which is the largest tertiary referral cancer center in India.
  • We used the gender and age-specific proportions of each cancer site of the year 2002 that was recorded in the Hospital Cancer Registry to estimate an expected number of various cancer sites among HIV positive cancer patients during the period 2001-2005.
  • RESULTS: No case of Kaposi's sarcoma was observed.
  • In males, PIR was increased for anal cancer (PIR = 10.3, 95%CI 4.30-24.83), Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, colon cancer, and few head and neck cancer sites.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Kaposi's sarcoma and increased PIRs for certain non-AIDS defining cancers among HIV infected cancer cases indicates a different spectrum of HIV associated malignancies in this region.
  • The raised PIR for cervical cancer emphasizes the urgent need for screening programs for cervical cancer among HIV infected individuals in India.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries


24. Marquart KH: Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;29(2):85-93
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  • [Title] Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Biopsied tissue specimens from 40 cases of classic, atypical classic, endemic, and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were investigated by electron microscopy.
  • To search for ultrastructural differences between non-AIDS-associated KS and AIDS-associated KS, the occurrence of the following 2 ultrastructural abnormalities of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in KS cells was evaluated semi-quantitatively: tubuloreticular structures (TRS) and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions (IPI).
  • These peculiar structures were found in 23 of the 40 KS cases.
  • LTRS were observed in endothelial cells of tissue from all the different epidemiological types of KS.
  • CTRS were confined to AIDS-associated KS.
  • IPI were present in endothelial tumor cells of only 3 non-AIDS-associated KS cases.
  • The study shows that in cells of KS tissue only CTRS, but not LTRS, are an ultrastructural marker for AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough / ultrastructure. Endothelium, Vascular / ultrastructure. Inclusion Bodies / ultrastructure. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood supply. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16028665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Villinger F, Ansari AA: Role of IL-12 in HIV infection and vaccine. Eur Cytokine Netw; 2010 Sep;21(3):215-8
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  • [Title] Role of IL-12 in HIV infection and vaccine.
  • Among cytokines that dictate the fate of developing immune responses, IL-12 represents an important nexus for the development of type I cell-mediated immune responses (CMI).
  • This factor is primarily produced by monocytic cell lineages in response to stimuli such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, dictating the development of naive T cells as they differentiate into antigen-specific T cells.
  • HIV infection results in an early loss of effective TH1 prototype CMI when such responses appear to be precisely the type of CMI needed to control the virus and a host of opportunistic pathogens.
  • Besides CD4 T cell loss, much of the muted IL-12 response has been attributed to direct effects of HIV or its proteins on antigen-presenting cells, while T and NK cell responses to IL-12 appear maintained during chronic HIV infection.
  • However, while IL-12 therapy is unlikely to provide major benefits in the context of an established HIV infection, IL-12 preconditioning of monkeys during acute SIV infection markedly delayed disease progression.
  • These findings suggest that IL-12 may serve as a critical vaccine adjuvant, and as treatment for particular opportunistic agents or neoplasm such as Kaposi's sarcoma; it has already shown promising results in the context of HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS Vaccines / immunology. Interleukin-12 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20719709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1952-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] European cytokine network
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Cytokine Netw.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI078773
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIDS Vaccines; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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26. Monini P, Sgadari C, Grosso MG, Bellino S, Di Biagio A, Toschi E, Bacigalupo I, Sabbatucci M, Cencioni G, Salvi E, Leone P, Ensoli B: Clinical course of classic Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-negative patients treated with the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir. AIDS; 2009 Feb 20;23(4):534-8
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  • [Title] Clinical course of classic Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-negative patients treated with the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir.
  • HIV protease inhibitors have been shown to exert antiangiogenic and antitumor actions independently from their antiretroviral effect.
  • Based on these studies, HIV-seronegative patients with classic Kaposi's sarcoma were treated with indinavir and followed for clinical evolution, drug pharmacokinetics and Kaposi's sarcoma biomarkers.
  • A favorable clinical course was associated with high drug plasma levels, reduced production of basic fibroblast growth factor, lower numbers of circulating endothelial cells, and a decrease in antibody titers against human herpesvirus 8.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Indinavir / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. HIV Seronegativity. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


27. Jensen KK, Manfra DJ, Grisotto MG, Martin AP, Vassileva G, Kelley K, Schwartz TW, Lira SA: The human herpes virus 8-encoded chemokine receptor is required for angioproliferation in a murine model of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Immunol; 2005 Mar 15;174(6):3686-94
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  • [Title] The human herpes virus 8-encoded chemokine receptor is required for angioproliferation in a murine model of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpes virus 8 is considered the etiological agent of KS, a highly vascularized neoplasm that is the most common tumor affecting HIV/AIDS patients.
  • The KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 open reading frame 74 encodes a constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor known as vGPCR that binds CXC chemokines with high affinity.
  • In this study, we show that conditional transgenic expression of vGPCR by cells of endothelial origin triggers an angiogenic program in vivo, leading to development of an angioproliferative disease that resembles KS.
  • Finally, we show that continued vGPCR expression is essential for progression of the KS-like phenotype and that down-regulation of vGPCR expression results in reduced expression of angiogenic factors and regression of the lesions.
  • Together, these findings implicate vGPCR as a key element in KS pathogenesis and suggest that strategies to block its function may represent a novel approach for the treatment of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Receptors, Chemokine / physiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Viral Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Doxycycline / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Mice, Transgenic. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Pregnancy Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis

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  • (PMID = 15749907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109259
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Pregnancy Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor BB; 144589-93-5 / placenta growth factor; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, mouse; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
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28. Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Loquercio G, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era. Virology; 2010 Mar 15;398(2):280-9
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) variants have been found heterogeneously distributed among human populations living in diverse geographic regions, but their differential pathogenicity in Kaposi's sarcoma development remains controversial.
  • In the present study, HHV-8 variant distribution has been analyzed in classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) during pre-AIDS and AIDS period (1971-2008) in countries with different KS incidence rate.
  • DNA samples from cutaneous KS lesions of 68 patients living in Africa (n=23, Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda), Europe (n=34, Greece and Italy) and North America (n=11) have been subjected to PCR amplification of HHV-8 ORF 26, T0.7, K1 and K14.1/15, followed by direct nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
  • In conclusion, comparison of the HHV-8 sequences from classic or endemic versus AIDS-associated KS showed a strong linkage of the HHV-8 variants with specific populations, which has not changed during AIDS epidemic.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


29. Chandriani S, Xu Y, Ganem D: The lytic transcriptome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reveals extensive transcription of noncoding regions, including regions antisense to important genes. J Virol; 2010 Aug;84(16):7934-42
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  • [Title] The lytic transcriptome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reveals extensive transcription of noncoding regions, including regions antisense to important genes.
  • Although the transcription of individual genes of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been well studied, little is known of the architecture of the viral transcriptome on a genomewide scale.
  • Here we have employed a genomewide tiling array to examine the lytic transcriptome of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, KSHV.

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  • (PMID = 20534856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Untranslated; 0 / RNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2916530
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30. Olweny CL, Borok M, Gudza I, Clinch J, Cheang M, Kiire CF, Levy L, Otim-Oyet D, Nyamasve J, Schipper H: Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):632-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is currently the most common tumor in Zimbabwe.
  • In addition, our study was to determine whether a disease-specific module has greater sensitivity to group differences than a generic QOL questionnaire and to determine the most pragmatic approach to treating epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) in Zimbabwe.
  • Histologically confirmed HIV-positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were randomized to receive supportive care only or supportive care plus either radiotherapy, oral Etoposide or a 3-drug combination consisting of actinomycin-D, vincristine and bleomycin.
  • The primary outcome was QOL measured by the functional living index-cancer (FLI-C) and supplemented by the Kaposi's sarcoma module (KSM).
  • The study underscores the value of undertaking studies in areas of disease prevalence and the necessity of selecting appropriate outcome measures.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Quality of Life. Sarcoma, Kaposi / psychology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy


31. Malope-Kgokong BI, Macphail P, Mbisa G, Ratshikhopha E, Maskew M, Stein L, Sitas F, Whitby D: Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:14
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  • [Title] Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water.
  • We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa.
  • METHODS: We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001".
  • Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity.
  • RESULTS: KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73) was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%).
  • HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV.
  • Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7).
  • Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4), no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission.

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  • (PMID = 20807396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941481
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32. Makombe SD, Harries AD, Yu JK, Hochgesang M, Mhango E, Weigel R, Pasulani O, Fitzgerald M, Schouten EJ, Libamba E: Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi. Trop Doct; 2008 Jan;38(1):5-7
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  • [Title] Outcomes of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma who start antiretroviral therapy under routine programme conditions in Malawi.
  • AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa, with a generally unfavourable prognosis.
  • We report on six-month and 12-month cohort treatment outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive KS patients and HIV-positive non-KS patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector facilities in Malawi.
  • Between July and September 2005, 7905 patients started ART-488 (6%) with a diagnosis of KS and 7417 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • Between January and March 2005, 4580 patients started ART-326 (7%) with a diagnosis of KS and 4254 with a non-KS diagnosis.
  • At six-months and 12-months, significantly fewer KS patients were alive and significantly more had died or defaulted compared to non-KS patients.
  • HIV-positive KS patients on ART in Malawi have worse outcomes than other patients on ART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality


33. Horenstein MG, Moontasri NJ, Cesarman E: The pathobiology of Kaposi's sarcoma: advances since the onset of the AIDS epidemic. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:40-4
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  • [Title] The pathobiology of Kaposi's sarcoma: advances since the onset of the AIDS epidemic.
  • Since the perplexing early Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) observations at the dawn of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic, KS has been extensively studied, revealing a complex disease.
  • The identification and complete elucidation of the genome of its causal agent, the KS-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, have shed important insights into the pathobiology of this disease.
  • The purpose of this review is to describe the scientific advances and understanding of KS over the past three decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Outbreaks. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans


34. Pierrotti LC, Etzel A, Sumita LM, Braga PE, Eluf-Neto J, de Souza VA, Segurado AA: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in HIV/AIDS patients from Santos, Brazil: seroprevalence and associated factors. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 Jan;32(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection in HIV/AIDS patients from Santos, Brazil: seroprevalence and associated factors.
  • GOAL: The goal of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among HIV-infected individuals from Brazil and the associated risk factors.
  • STUDY: A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 497 HIV/AIDS outpatients attending the local AIDS Reference Center in Santos (southeastern Brazil) between February 1997 and January 1998 had serum samples screened for anti-HHV-8 antibodies.
  • According to the mode of HIV acquisition among males, seroprevalence of HHV-8 infection was significantly higher in men who have sex with men when compared with the other groups (32.4% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001).
  • Multivariate logistic regression revealed HHV-8 infection among men to be independently associated with sexual orientation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.5 for homosexuals; AOR, 2.8 for bisexuals).
  • No significant risk factor for HHV-8 infection could be demonstrated for HIV-infected women in this cohort, CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that men who have sex with men are at higher risk of HHV-8 infection and shows that the epidemiologic pattern of this infection among HIV/AIDS patients from Santos, Brazil, is similar to that described in other countries with a low incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 15614122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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35. Duprez R, Kassa-Kelembho E, Plancoulaine S, Brière J, Fossi M, Kobangue L, Minsart P, Huerre M, Gessain A: Human herpesvirus 8 serological markers and viral load in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Central African Republic. J Clin Microbiol; 2005 Sep;43(9):4840-3
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 serological markers and viral load in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Central African Republic.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the most frequent types of cancer in several African countries; however, very few data are available on human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) markers in KS patients from Central Africa.
  • In a series of 36 AIDS-KS cases from Central African Republic, we showed, using a real-time PCR quantitative assay, the high frequency (82%) of detectable HHV-8 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. DNA, Viral / blood. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Viral / immunology. Central African Republic. Child. Female. HIV Infections. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / virology

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  • (PMID = 16145154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-1137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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36. Dyson OF, Ford PW, Chen D, Li YQ, Akula SM: Raman tweezers provide the fingerprint of cells supporting the late stages of KSHV reactivation. J Cell Mol Med; 2009 Aug;13(8B):1920-32
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has both latent and lytic phases of replication.

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  • (PMID = 18752634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006483-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006483-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006483; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB006483-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21EB006483; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006483-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS90700; NLM/ PMC2819606
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37. Coleman CB, Nealy MS, Tibbetts SA: Immature and transitional B cells are latency reservoirs for a gammaherpesvirus. J Virol; 2010 Dec;84(24):13045-52
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  • Gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68; also known as gammaherpesvirus 68 [γHV68] or murine herpesvirus 4 [MuHV-4]), establish lifelong latency in the resting memory B cell compartment.
  • In the context of a normal immune system, the mature B cell pool is naturally maintained by the renewable populations of developing B cells that arise from hematopoiesis.
  • Further, we show that transitional B cells in the spleen are latently infected and express the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) throughout chronic infection.

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  • (PMID = 20926565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR018724; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139984; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA139984; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20-RR018724
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004345
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38. Dongre A, Montaldo C: Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 May-Jun;75(3):290-2
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in an HIV-positive person successfully treated with paclitaxel.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the malignant neoplasms, which can develop in HIV-infected patients.
  • Although the prevalence of HIV infection is reported to be high in Asian countries, Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely reported.
  • We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma involving the skin and oral mucosa along with extensive bilateral lymphedema of lower extremities, treated successfully with paclitaxel and antiretrovirals.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19439884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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39. Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoal LH, Baptista MS: New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg; 2006 Aug;24(4):528-31
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  • [Title] New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS).
  • BACKGROUND DATA: Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients.
  • Laser-based PDT protocols have been applied to treat Sk-AIDS with relative success.
  • METHODS: A single patient with multiple lesions who had undergone chemotherapy without success was treated with several applications of PDT, and the patient was closely evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: This inexpensive PDT protocol, which is based on phenothiazinium compounds and RL50, is efficient to treat Sk-AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Ben M'barek L, Fardet L, Mebazaa A, Thervet E, Biet I, Kérob D, Morel P, Lebbe C: A retrospective analysis of thalidomide therapy in non-HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Dermatology; 2007;215(3):202-5
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  • [Title] A retrospective analysis of thalidomide therapy in non-HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Several studies have suggested its interest for treating AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of thalidomide, an antiangiogenic agent, for the treatment of non-HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • RESULTS: Three patients achieved a partial response and 4 had a stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a true although modest interest of thalidomide in non-HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma and prompt us to evaluate less toxic thalidomide analogues for this indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. HIV Infections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • [CommentIn] Dermatology. 2007;215(3):171-2 [17823510.001]
  • (PMID = 17823515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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41. Kaleeba JA, Berger EA: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT. Science; 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1921-4
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and other lymphoproliferative syndromes often associated with HIV/AIDS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Fusion. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Complementary. Humans. Immune Sera. Mice. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection


42. Majerciak V, Yamanegi K, Allemand E, Kruhlak M, Krainer AR, Zheng ZM: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 functions as a viral splicing factor and promotes expression of intron-containing viral lytic genes in spliceosome-mediated RNA splicing. J Virol; 2008 Mar;82(6):2792-801
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 functions as a viral splicing factor and promotes expression of intron-containing viral lytic genes in spliceosome-mediated RNA splicing.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 facilitates the expression of both intronless viral ORF59 genes and intron-containing viral K8 and K8.1 genes (V.
  • In this study, we showed that disruption of ORF57 in a KSHV genome led to increased accumulation of ORF50 and K8 pre-mRNAs and reduced expression of ORF50 and K-bZIP proteins but had no effect on latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA).
  • Although Epstein-Barr virus EB2, a closely related homolog of ORF57, had a similar activity in the cotransfection assays, herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 was inactive.

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  • (PMID = 18184716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA013106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13106; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2258979
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43. Campo-Trapero J, Del Romero-Guerrero J, Cano-Sánchez J, Rodríguez-Martín C, Martínez-González JM, Bascones-Martínez A: Relationship between oral Kaposi 's sarcoma and HAART: contribution of two case reports. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2008 Nov;13(11):E709-13
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  • [Title] Relationship between oral Kaposi 's sarcoma and HAART: contribution of two case reports.
  • Two HIV infected patients not receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) presented with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity.
  • One patient initially refused HAART, but when the lesion became large enough to be noticeable he agreed to HAART associated with excision of the intraoral lesion by CO2 laser.
  • The other patient developed KS and progressed to AIDS at two years after ceasing HAART due to adverse effects; he was referred to hospital for renewed administration of HAART.
  • In both cases, the lesions observed in the oral cavity were the first clinical manifestation of AIDS.
  • These reports underline the close relationship between the use of HAART and the control of KS lesions, highlighting the important role of the dentist in the identification and early diagnosis of these oral lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / prevention & control


44. Jacobs SA, Vidnovic N, Patel H, Soma LA, Chang Y, Bass N, Swerdlow SH: Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Jul;26(7):1148-50
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  • [Title] Durable remission of HIV-negative, Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus-associated multicentric Castleman disease in patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate.
  • Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a nonneoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder that has a poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we report a patient with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-(KSHV, human herpesvirus-8) associated MCD that showed expression of viral IL-6.
  • Treatment with methotrexate (MTX) resulted in a complete remission of her disease lasting for 54+ months.
  • Multiple studies have suggested that MCD and rheumatoid arthritis are associated with overexpression of the growth-promoting cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and that MTX downregulates the production of this cytokine in vivo.
  • As such, we suggest that the dramatic improvement in this patient's disease is due to the immunomodulatory properties of MTX.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / virology. Female. HIV Seronegativity. Humans. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Remission Induction / methods


45. Whitman AG, Bryan BA, Dyson OF, Patel DK, Ramasamy D, Anantharaman S, Reber AJ, Akula SM: AIDS related viruses, their association with leukemia, and Raf signaling. Curr HIV Res; 2005 Oct;3(4):319-27
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  • [Title] AIDS related viruses, their association with leukemia, and Raf signaling.
  • Over time, this expanding population of poorly/non- functional white blood cells overwhelms the normal function of the body's blood and immune systems.
  • In this review, we present an update on the role of AIDS related viruses as an etiology for leukemia.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 and -2 (HIV-1; -2) are the cause for the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are specifically implicated in AIDS associated malignancies.
  • However, there are other viruses that are associated to a lesser extent with the AIDS condition and they are Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6).
  • Of these viruses, HTLV-1 has been etiologically associated with leukemia.
  • Raf signaling has been shown to aid in the infection and pathogenesis of many of these viruses, making Raf pathway components good potential targets for the treatment of leukemia induced by AIDS related viruses.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Leukemia / virology. raf Kinases / metabolism


46. Molho-Pessach V, Lotem M: Viral carcinogenesis in skin cancer. Curr Probl Dermatol; 2007;35:39-51
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  • The skin is an organ in which direct contact with viruses, solar UV irradiation and increased susceptibility to immune suppression gather to support viral tumorigenesis.
  • Viral proteins may directly act as oncogenes that drive cells to proliferate or generate inflammatory responses and cause regeneration of injured cells that eventually lead to malignant transformation.
  • Accelerated viral carcinogenesis is observed in the immune-deficient host.
  • Three pathogenic human viruses associated with skin neoplasms are described: human papilloma virus (HPV), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.
  • The role of HPV in nonmelanoma skin cancer of immune competent hosts is more difficult to prove.
  • The discovery of human herpesvirus 8 as the causative pathogen of KS was made following the AIDS epidemic, and its role in all clinical variants of this tumor was confirmed.
  • KS-associated herpesvirus exerts its tumorigenic effect through a wide repertoire of genes that regulate angiogenesis, inflammation, and cell cycle.
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 causes adult T-cell leukemia and is often associated with skin eruptions that share common features with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 17641489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-5721
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Probl. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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47. Bagni R, Whitby D: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission and primary infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus transmission and primary infection.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is the causal agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, one of the commonest cancers in HIV-infected individuals.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV and HIV are both common in southern Africa where KSHV infection occurs during childhood via saliva.
  • HIV infection is a major risk factor for KSHV infection.
  • In developed countries, KSHV transmission among men who have sex with men is related to sexual risk factors such as number of sexual partners and to sexual practices involving saliva.
  • Most critically, the role of HIV in increasing risk for KSHV infection and the possible effects on KSHV prevalence, and consequently the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma warrants urgent further study.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa, Southern / epidemiology. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. Brazil. Female. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / transmission. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Indians, South American. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Male. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Saliva / virology

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  • (PMID = 19339936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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48. Cornejo-Juárez P, Volkow-Fernández P, Avilés-Salas A, Calderón-Flores E: AIDS and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Experience at an oncological center in Mexico. Rev Invest Clin; 2008 Sep-Oct;60(5):375-81
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  • [Title] AIDS and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Experience at an oncological center in Mexico.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with HIV became an AIDS-defining condition early in the epidemic and remains the second most common malignancy in patients with AIDS.
  • With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence and mortality of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma has fallen dramatically, this trend is not observed so clearly for NHL.
  • Our objective was to review the clinical spectrum of patients with AIDS-associated NHL and to analyze the impact of HAART on survival at an oncological tertiary center.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed all medical records and histopathologic tissue of patients with HIV-associated NHL seen from January 1990 to September 2007 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City.
  • Survival or follow-up time was calculated from date of diagnosis to death, or to the date on which the patient was last seen.
  • RESULTS: Eighty seven HIV-positive patients were diagnosed with NHL (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma n=69; Burkitt-like n=8; pleomorphic large cell n=7; low-grade n=2, and angiocentric n=1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with NHL-HIV who were able to receive treatment with HAART and were sufficiently healthy to receive optimal chemotherapy treatment showed a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / statistics & numerical data. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19227434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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49. Betkowska-Prokop A, Sułowicz J, Sobaszek-Pitas M, Sulowicz W: [Kaposi's sarkoma in solid organ recipients]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(7):475-8
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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarkoma in solid organ recipients].
  • Kaposi's sarkoma (KS) is a malignancy with hyperplastic angio-proliferative lesions with inflammatory changes usually associated with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection.
  • Cutaneous changes may be associated with visceral involvement, which as a isolated form is rare.
  • KS is not frequent disease in general population however risk of its development is substantially increased in immunocompromised patients including AIDS or receiving immunosuppression transplant organ recipients.
  • The potency of immunosuppression is a highly relevant factor in the development of KS after transplantation.
  • Patients receiving more intense immunosuppression are at a significantly higher risk of developing post transplant KS.
  • Localized disease may be treated by surgery, kriotherapy or radiotherapy while widespread envolvement usually needs systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Organ Transplantation / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Transplants / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21387759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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50. Wu TT, Blackman MA, Sun R: Prospects of a novel vaccination strategy for human gamma-herpesviruses. Immunol Res; 2010 Dec;48(1-3):122-46
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  • Due to the oncogenic potential associated with persistent infection of human gamma-herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV-4) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV-8), vaccine development has focused on subunit vaccines.
  • However, the results using an animal model of mouse infection with a related rodent virus, murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68, γHV-68, or MuHV-4), have shown that the only effective vaccination strategy is based on live attenuated viruses, including viruses engineered to be incapable of establishing persistence.

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  • (PMID = 20717741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0755
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunologic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / RC2 CA148250; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI42927; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R21 DE018337; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA148250; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE19085; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015752; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083525; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI049823; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE18337; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE15752; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI49823; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI042927; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / F32AI084327; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / F32 AI084327
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Herpesvirus Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, Attenuated
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS554424; NLM/ PMC3931126
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51. White T, Hagen M, Gudza I, White IE, Ndemera B, Gwanzura L, Borok M, Campbell TB: Genetic diversity of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K1 protein in AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe. J Clin Virol; 2008 Jun;42(2):165-71
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  • [Title] Genetic diversity of the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus K1 protein in AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes genetically diverse K1 alleles which have unique geographic distributions.
  • Little is known about K1 genetic diversity in Zimbabwe where acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated KS (AIDS-KS) is epidemic.
  • STUDY DESIGN: K1 nucleotide sequence was determined for AIDS-KS cases in Zimbabwe.
  • RESULTS: Among 65 Zimbabwean AIDS-KS cases, 26 (40%) were K1 subtype A and 39 (60%) were subtype B.
  • Zimbabwean subtype B sequences grouped with multiple intratype African variants: 26 B1 (26%), four B3 (6%) and nine highly divergent B4 (14%).
  • However, there were no significant associations between K1 subtype and the clinical or demographic characteristics of AIDS-KS cases.

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  • (PMID = 18394954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ309696/ DQ309697/ DQ309698/ DQ309699/ DQ309700/ DQ309701/ DQ309702/ DQ309703/ DQ309704/ DQ309705/ DQ309706/ DQ309707/ DQ309708/ DQ309709/ DQ309710/ DQ309711/ DQ309712/ DQ309713/ DQ309714/ DQ309715/ DQ309716/ DQ309717/ DQ309718/ DQ309719/ DQ309720/ DQ309721/ DQ309722/ DQ309723/ DQ309724/ DQ309725/ DQ309726/ DQ309727/ DQ309728/ DQ309729/ DQ309730/ DQ309731/ DQ309732/ DQ309733/ DQ309734/ DQ309735/ DQ309736/ DQ309737/ DQ309738/ DQ309739/ DQ309740/ DQ309741/ DQ309742/ DQ309743/ DQ309744/ DQ309745/ DQ309746/ DQ309747/ DQ309748/ DQ309749/ DQ309750/ DQ309751/ DQ309752/ DQ309753/ DQ309754/ DQ309755/ DQ309756/ DQ309757/ DQ309758/ DQ309759/ DQ309760/ DQ309761/ DQ309762
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-07447; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI054907-019003; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5T32AI07537-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007447; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / R03 TW001123-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI054907; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI007447-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054907-019003; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007447-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007537; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / R03 TW001123; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW001123-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / K1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS55716; NLM/ PMC2556225
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52. Lan K, Murakami M, Bajaj B, Kaul R, He Z, Gan R, Feldman M, Robertson ES: Inhibition of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphomas in NOD/SCID mice by gamma-secretase inhibitor. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Nov;8(22):2136-43
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a common cancer in AIDS patients closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • Previously, we showed that KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) stabilizes intracellular activated Notch1 (ICN) involved in maintenance of the malignant phenotype of KSHV infected PEL cells in vitro.
  • Our study provides further evidence to suggest that targeted downregulation of abnormal Notch signaling has therapeutic potential for KSHV related primary effusion lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases / antagonists & inhibitors. Dipeptides / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Notch1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Virus Infections

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Nov;8(22):2144-6 [20068386.001]
  • (PMID = 19783901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / A1067037; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108461; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017338
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)alanyl)phenylglycine tert-butyl ester; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Notch1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 3.4.- / Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
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53. Vanni T, Fonseca BA, Polanczyk CA: Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil. HIV Clin Trials; 2006 Jul-Aug;7(4):194-202
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Economic analyses of agents used in the treatment of AIDS and opportunistic diseases are particularly important in developing countries.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) chemotherapy regimens in Brazil.
  • CONCLUSION: ABV seems to be the most reasonable treatment option for AIDS-KS patients in resource-limited countries like Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / economics. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics

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  • (PMID = 17065031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4336
  • [Journal-full-title] HIV clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HIV Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Liposomes; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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54. Sun Q, Matta H, Chaudhary PM: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein activates transcription from HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat via the classical NF-kappaB pathway and functionally cooperates with Tat. Retrovirology; 2005 Feb 15;2:9
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein activates transcription from HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat via the classical NF-kappaB pathway and functionally cooperates with Tat.
  • BACKGROUND: The nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB binds to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and is a key regulator of HIV-1 gene expression in cells latently infected with this virus.
  • In this report, we have analyzed the ability of Kaposi's sarcoma associate herpes virus (KSHV, also known as Human Herpes virus 8)-encoded viral FLIP (Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1 beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) K13 to activate the HIV-1 LTR.
  • RESULTS: We present evidence that vFLIP K13 activates HIV-1 LTR via the activation of the classical NF-kappaB pathway involving c-Rel, p65 and p50 subunits.
  • K13-induced HIV-1 LTR transcriptional activation requires the cooperative interaction of all three components of the IKK complex and can be effectively blocked by inhibitors of the classical NF-kappaB pathway.
  • K13 mutants that lacked the ability to activate the NF-kappaB pathway also failed to activate the HIV-1 LTR.
  • K13 could effectively activate a HIV-1 LTR reporter construct lacking the Tat binding site but failed to activate a construct lacking the NF-kappaB binding sites.
  • However, coexpression of HIV-1 Tat with K13 led to synergistic activation of HIV-1 LTR.
  • Finally, K13 differentially activated HIV-1 LTRs derived from different strains of HIV-1, which correlated with their responsiveness to NF-kappaB pathway.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that concomitant infection with KSHV/HHV8 may stimulate HIV-1 LTR via vFLIP K13-induced classical NF-kappaB pathway which cooperates with HIV-1 Tat protein.

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  • (PMID = 15713234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4690
  • [Journal-full-title] Retrovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retrovirology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085177; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85177
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / viral FLIP protein, Human herpesvirus 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC554086
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55. Bihl F, Berger C, Chisholm JV 3rd, Henry LM, Bertisch B, Trojan A, Nadal D, Speck RF, Flepp M, Brander C, Mueller NJ, Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Cellular immune responses and disease control in acute AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2009 Sep 10;23(14):1918-22
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  • [Title] Cellular immune responses and disease control in acute AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) specific T cell responses and KSHV viremia were analyzed in seven HIV-infected patients with active Kaposi's sarcoma lesions who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy, and were compared between patients with improved Kaposi's sarcoma and those with progressive Kaposi's sarcoma requiring further systemic chemotherapy.
  • Patients with controlled Kaposi's sarcoma disease demonstrated undetectable Kaposi's sarcoma viremia together with KSHV-specific CD8 T cells secreting interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas progressors showed increasing viremia with weak or no T-cell responses.
  • These data point toward a potential role of KSHV-specific immunity in the control of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19609199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cattacin S; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux C; Gorgievski M; Günthard H; Hirsch H; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert Ch; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Martinez B; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schüpbach J; Speck R; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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56. Chang PC, Fitzgerald LD, Van Geelen A, Izumiya Y, Ellison TJ, Wang DH, Ann DK, Luciw PA, Kung HJ: Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5681-9
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  • [Title] Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, a major AIDS-associated malignancy, and to hematologic malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Understanding the molecular details associated with this transition from latency to lytic replication is key to controlling virus spread and can affect the development of intervention strategies.
  • Here, we report that Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 (KAP-1)/transcriptional intermediary factor 1beta, a cellular transcriptional repressor that controls chromosomal remodeling, participates in the process of switching viral latency to lytic replication.
  • In cells harboring latent KSHV, KAP-1 was associated with the majority of viral lytic-gene promoters.

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  • (PMID = 19584288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-03; None / None / / R01 CA111185-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114575-S1; None / None / / P30 CA093373-010001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-02; None / None / / R01 CA111185-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111185; None / None / / P01 DE019085-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108459-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-01A2; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114575; None / None / / R01 CA111185-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-02; None / None / / R01 CA111185-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085-020002; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01 DE019085-010002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111185-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108459; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019085-020002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111185-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373-010001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins; 0 / TRIM28 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS119615; NLM/ PMC2731626
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57. Kouri V, Liang X, Rodriguez ME, Capo V, Resik S, Barrios J, Mantecon B, Blanco O, Means R, Jung JU, Lee BS, Hengge UR: Molecular epidemiology and KSHV K1 subtypes in a Cuban AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma population. AIDS; 2005 Jun 10;19(9):984-7
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  • [Title] Molecular epidemiology and KSHV K1 subtypes in a Cuban AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma population.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is detected consistently in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We found a diverse array of KSHV subtypes A1, A2, A3, A5, B1, B2, and C3 in 23 Cuban KS samples containing several novel sporadic insertions/deletions in subtypes A and C.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


58. Zeng Y, Li Y, Chen RS, He X, Yang L, Li W: Overexpression of xCT induces up-regulation of 14-3-3beta in Kaposi's sarcoma. Biosci Rep; 2010 Aug;30(4):277-83
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  • [Title] Overexpression of xCT induces up-regulation of 14-3-3beta in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus), or HHV-8 (human herpesvirus 8), is associated with the pathogenesis of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. xCT (functional subunit of the cystine/glutamate transporter xc- system) is known as the HHV-8 fusion-entry receptor as well as an oncogenic protein.
  • We found that xCT was overexpressed in KS tissues and HHV-8-positive BCBL-1 cells.
  • These results suggest that 14-3-3beta is a downstream effector of xCT in KS to mediate the cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism. Amino Acid Transport System y+ / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20100173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4935
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Amino Acid Transport System y+; 0 / SLC7A11 protein, human; 0 / Slc7a11 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2860696
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59. Mosam A, Hurkchand HP, Cassol E, Page T, Cassol S, Bodasing U, Aboobaker J, Dawood H, Friedland GH, Coovadia HM: Characteristics of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among women and men in South Africa. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jun;19(6):400-5
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  • [Title] Characteristics of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among women and men in South Africa.
  • Despite the increase of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), little is known about HIV-associated KS in the African setting, particularly among women.
  • A descriptive study of the demographic, clinical, immunological and virological features of AIDS-associated KS from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was undertaken.
  • Consecutively, recruited patients were clinically staged; CD4/CD8 cell counts, HIV-1 viral loads and clinical parameters were evaluated.
  • Females were significantly younger (P = 0.02) and had poorer disease prognosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-5.4, P = 0.003) and were more likely to have extensive cutaneous KS when compared with males (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.7, P = 0.003).
  • One-third of patients had coexisting HIV-related disease, most commonly tuberculosis, and these were more frequent in females (56.7 vs. 43.3%).
  • In conclusion, HIV-associated KS in South Africans has an equal female-to-male ratio.
  • Females are younger and have more severe disease than males.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. HIV Infections / virology. HIV-1 / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Male. South Africa / epidemiology


60. Pérez-Blázquez EE, Redondo M, García T: [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view]. An Sist Sanit Navar; 2008;31 Suppl 3:69-81
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  • [Title] [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view].
  • [Transliterated title] Sida y oftalmología: una visión actual.
  • The appearance of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) meant a revolution in medicine, which has also affected Ophthalmology: the routine presence of ophthalmological pathologies which until then had been exceptional, such as retinitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the appearance of other new pathologies such as progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN).
  • The generalised use of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the second half of the 1990s represented a turning point, since when the immunological improvement of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) resulted in a fall in the cases with ophthalmological pathology associated to immunodepression (HIV retinopathy, retinitis due to CMV, PORN...), and the spontaneous improvement of symptoms which until then had had a torpid evolution (Kaposi's ocular sarcoma, Palpebral Molluscum...).
  • New ophthalmological alterations also appear that are related to HAART: uveitis due to immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis in complete remission and the enophthalmos due to the atrophy of orbital fat in the context of lipodystrophy, associated with antiretrovirals.
  • If they also show HIV retinopathy, a monthly check up is advisable until immune recovery, given the greater risk of infection by CMV.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / virology


61. Noguchi K, Fukazawa H, Murakami Y, Takahashi N, Yamagoe S, Uehara Y: Gamma-herpesviruses and cellular signaling in AIDS-associated malignancies. Cancer Sci; 2007 Sep;98(9):1288-96
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  • [Title] Gamma-herpesviruses and cellular signaling in AIDS-associated malignancies.
  • gamma-Herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV/HHV-4) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), are involved in human carcinogenesis, particularly in immunocompromised patients.
  • Virus-associated malignancies are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related malignancies is an important field in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Detailed understanding of the EBV and KSHV lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy.
  • The present review gives a simple outline of the functional interactions between KSHV- and EBV-viral gene products and host cell deregulated signaling pathways as possible targets of chemotherapy against AIDS-related malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 4, Human / pathogenicity. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / metabolism. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17640300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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62. Carbone A, Gloghini A: AIDS-related lymphomas: from pathogenesis to pathology. Br J Haematol; 2005 Sep;130(5):662-70
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  • [Title] AIDS-related lymphomas: from pathogenesis to pathology.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphomas include:.
  • (1) lymphomas also occurring, although sporadically, in the absence of HIV infection.
  • (2) unusual lymphomas occurring more specifically in HIV-positive patients and include two rare entities, namely 'primary effusion lymphoma' (PEL) and 'plasmablastic lymphoma' of the oral cavity.
  • The pathological heterogeneity of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) reflects the heterogeneity of their associated molecular lesions.
  • In AIDS-BL, the molecular lesions involve activation of cMYC, inactivation of P53, and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • AIDS-IBL infected with EBV are characterised by frequent expression of latent membrane protein 1--an EBV oncoprotein.
  • The biological heterogeneity of AIDS-NHL is highlighted by their histogenetic differences.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8)-associated lymphomas, which often develop in persons with advanced AIDS, present predominantly as PEL.
  • The KSHV/HHV8-associated solid lymphomas are (1) unusual lymphomas that occur more specifically in HIV-positive patients;.
  • (2) extracavitary and arise in nodal and/or extranodal sites; and (3) histologically, they usually display a PEL-like morphology and plasma cell-related phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans


63. Seybold U, Mayr D, Degenhart C, Bogner JR: HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Infection; 2008 Feb;36(1):96-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18231715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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64. Qian LW, Greene W, Ye F, Gao SJ: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus disrupts adherens junctions and increases endothelial permeability by inducing degradation of VE-cadherin. J Virol; 2008 Dec;82(23):11902-12
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus disrupts adherens junctions and increases endothelial permeability by inducing degradation of VE-cadherin.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor of proliferative endothelial cells caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection.
  • Aberrant vascular permeability is a hallmark of KS manifested as multifocal edematous skin and visceral lesions with dysregulated angiogenesis and vast inflammatory infiltrations.
  • KSHV-induced permeability was associated with the disruption of adherens junctions and the degradation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) protein.
  • Both the inactivation of KSHV virions by UV irradiation and the blockage of de novo protein synthesis with cycloheximide failed to reverse the KSHV-induced disruption of adherens junctions.

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  • (PMID = 18815301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124332; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119889; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096512; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124332
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / cadherin 5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2583667
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65. Kovaleva M, Bussmeyer I, Rabe B, Grötzinger J, Sudarman E, Eichler J, Conrad U, Rose-John S, Scheller J: Abrogation of viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6)-induced signaling by intracellular retention and neutralization of vIL-6 with an anti-vIL-6 single-chain antibody selected by phage display. J Virol; 2006 Sep;80(17):8510-20
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  • Viral interleukin (vIL-6) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma as well as primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Therefore, vIL-6 is a promising target for novel therapies directed against HHV-8-associated diseases.

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  • (PMID = 16912301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulin Variable Region; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Peptide Library; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563863
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66. Su CC, Lu JJ, Perng CL, Yu FT, Chiu CH: Evolution of human herpesvirus type 8-associated gastric Kaposi's sarcoma following corticosteroid treatment for asthma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Feb;105(2):155-9
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  • [Title] Evolution of human herpesvirus type 8-associated gastric Kaposi's sarcoma following corticosteroid treatment for asthma.
  • The association of gastric Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) may be found in immunosuppressed patients such as those with AIDS or transplant recipients.
  • A 64-year-old man with a 2-year history of corticosteroid treatment was admitted due to the impression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with secondary infection.
  • KS was not diagnosed until a third endoscopic biopsy was performed.
  • Both of these methods seemed more sensitive in diagnosing KS than histologic examination of small biopsied specimens.
  • This case suggests the existence of a relationship between gastric KS and HHV-8 infection.

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Asthma.
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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.
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  • (PMID = 16477336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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67. Xie J, Pan H, Yoo S, Gao SJ: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 during primary infection mediated by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Virol; 2005 Dec;79(24):15027-37
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 during primary infection mediated by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is an angioproliferative disseminated tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • Together, these results demonstrate that KSHV induces AP-1 and IL-6 during primary infection by modulating multiple MAPK pathways.

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  • (PMID = 16306573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096512; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1316010
  •  go-up   go-down


68. Aresté C, Blackbourn DJ: Modulation of the immune system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Trends Microbiol; 2009 Mar;17(3):119-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modulation of the immune system by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
  • The most recently identified human herpesvirus is Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • It causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumour occurring most commonly in untreated AIDS patients and the leading cancer of men in certain parts of Africa.
  • KSHV might also contribute to the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • They include homologues of cellular proteins and unique KSHV proteins that can deregulate many aspects of the immune response, including T- and B-cell functions, complement activation, the innate antiviral interferon response and natural killer cell activity.
  • The functions of these proteins and the ways in which they perturb the normal immune response are the subjects of the present review.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Immune System / virology