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1. Morerio C, Acquila M, Rapella A, Tassano E, Rosanda C, Panarello C: Inversion (11)(p15q22) with NUP98-DDX10 fusion gene in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Dec;171(2):122-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inversion (11)(p15q22) with NUP98-DDX10 fusion gene in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The inv(11)(p15q22), a rare but recurrent chromosome abnormality that creates a NUP98-DDX10 fusion gene, is associated with de novo or secondary myeloid malignancies.
  • We report a case of acute monocytic leukemia presenting this rearrangement, studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Inversion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. DEAD-box RNA Helicases / genetics. Gene Fusion. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data

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  • (PMID = 17116492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AB040537/ AB040538
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins; 0 / Nup98 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / DDX10 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.13 / DEAD-box RNA Helicases
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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2. Dorantes-Acosta E, Chávez-González A, Santos JI, Medina-Sanson A, Mayani H: Defective in vitro growth of primitive hematopoietic cells from pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Dec;51(6):741-6
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  • [Title] Defective in vitro growth of primitive hematopoietic cells from pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a neoplastic hematologic disorder that arises at the level of a primitive stem/progenitor cell.
  • Most studies on the biology of the hematopoietic system in AML have focused on cells from adult patients; much less is known about hematopoietic cells from childhood AML.
  • PROCEDURE: By using a negative immunoselection system, we have obtained a primitive cell population (enriched for CD34(+) Lin(-) cells) from the bone marrow (BM) of 17 pediatric AML patients and characterized its proliferation, expansion, and differentiation potentials in liquid cultures supplemented with a mixture of 8 different recombinant stimulatory cytokines.
  • RESULTS: The proportion of CD34(+) cells in AML patients was extremely heterogeneous, ranging from 0% to 74%.
  • Regardless of their CD34(+) cell content, and in contrast to normal cells, AML cells showed a deficient capacity to proliferate even in the presence of the stimulatory cytokines.
  • AML progenitors were unable to generate new progenitor cells, indicating their inability to expand.
  • Interestingly, AML cells were able to differentiate in culture, giving rise to morphologically recognizable precursors.
  • A major difference, however, as compared to hematopoietic progenitors from normal subjects, was the fact that whereas in cultures of normal cells both myeloid and erythroid precursors were produced, in AML cultures the vast majority of the cells generated corresponded to myeloid cells, mostly mature macrophages.
  • CONCLUSION: As compared to their normal counterparts, primitive hematopoietic cells from pediatric patients with AML possess impaired proliferation, expansion, and differentiation potentials in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD34 / blood. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytokines / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male

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  • (PMID = 18680148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Cytokines
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3. Rubnitz JE, Inaba H, Dahl G, Ribeiro RC, Bowman WP, Taub J, Pounds S, Razzouk BI, Lacayo NJ, Cao X, Meshinchi S, Degar B, Airewele G, Raimondi SC, Onciu M, Coustan-Smith E, Downing JR, Leung W, Pui CH, Campana D: Minimal residual disease-directed therapy for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the AML02 multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jun;11(6):543-52
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  • [Title] Minimal residual disease-directed therapy for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: results of the AML02 multicentre trial.
  • BACKGROUND: We sought to improve outcome in patients with childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) by applying risk-directed therapy that was based on genetic abnormalities of the leukaemic cells and measurements of minimal residual disease (MRD) done by flow cytometry during treatment.
  • METHODS: From Oct 13, 2002, to June 19, 2008, 232 patients with de-novo AML (n=206), therapy-related or myelodysplasia-related AML (n=12), or mixed-lineage leukaemia (n=14) were enrolled at eight centres.
  • Other analyses were limited to the 216 patients with AML, excluding those with mixed-lineage leukaemia.
  • INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the use of targeted chemotherapy and HSCT, in the context of a comprehensive risk-stratification strategy based on genetic features and MRD findings, can improve outcome in patients with childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytogenetic Analysis. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jun;11(6):502-3 [20522371.001]
  • (PMID = 20451454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00136084
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115422-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 93NS566KF7 / gemtuzumab; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; DAV regimen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS319127; NLM/ PMC3171799
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4. Choi HW, Shin MG, Sawyer JR, Cho D, Kee SJ, Baek HJ, Kook H, Kim HJ, Shin JH, Suh SP, Hwang TJ, Ryang DW: Unusual type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in a pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia with 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22). Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jun;167(2):172-6
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  • [Title] Unusual type of TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript in a pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia with 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22).
  • We report on a case of pediatric acute myelocytic leukemia showing 47,XX,+10,t(16;21)(p11;q22) that resulted in an unusual TLS/FUS-ERG chimeric transcript.
  • The leukemic cells showed erythrophagocytosis, positive reactions for myeloperoxidase and Sudan black B stains, and negative reactions for periodic acid-Schiff and alpha-naphtyl butyrate esterase stains as well as expression of myeloid antigens.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. RNA-Binding Protein FUS / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Female. Humans. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 16737920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein FUS; 0 / TLS-ERG fusion protein, human
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5. Bellezza I, Tucci A, Minelli A: 2-Chloroadenosine and human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2008 Oct;8(7):783-9
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  • Cladribine, i.e.2-deoxy-Chloroadenosine is currently in use as chemotherapeutic agent in chronic lymphoid malignancies and pediatric acute myelogenous leukemia whereas the structurally related counterpart, 2-Chloroadenosine, has been less studied.

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  • (PMID = 18855579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1871-5206
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-23; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1; 146-77-0 / 2-Chloroadenosine
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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6. Zwaan CM, den Boer ML, Kazemier KM, Hählen K, Loonen AH, Reinhardt D, Creutzig U, Kaspers GJ, Pieters R: Does modulation of P-glycoprotein have clinical relevance in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia? Blood; 2006 Jun 15;107(12):4975-6; author reply 4976-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does modulation of P-glycoprotein have clinical relevance in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia?
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclosporine / pharmacology. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Male. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Remission Induction

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  • [CommentOn] Blood. 2006 Feb 15;107(4):1315-24 [16254147.001]
  • (PMID = 16754781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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7. Harrison CJ, Hills RK, Moorman AV, Grimwade DJ, Hann I, Webb DK, Wheatley K, de Graaf SS, van den Berg E, Burnett AK, Gibson BE: Cytogenetics of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: United Kingdom Medical Research Council Treatment trials AML 10 and 12. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 01;28(16):2674-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytogenetics of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: United Kingdom Medical Research Council Treatment trials AML 10 and 12.
  • PURPOSE: Karyotype is an independent indicator of prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is widely applied to risk-adapted therapy.
  • Because AML is rare in children, the true prognostic significance of individual chromosomal abnormalities in this age group remains unclear.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cytogenetic study of 729 childhood patients classified them into 22 subgroups and evaluated their incidence and risk.
  • Abnormalities of 3q and complex karyotypes, in the absence of favorable-risk features, have been associated with an adverse outcome in adults, but the results were not significant in this childhood series.
  • CONCLUSION: Because the spectrum of chromosomal changes and their risk association seem to differ between children and adults with AML, biologic differences are emerging, which will contribute to the redefinition of risk stratification for different age groups in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorescence. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karyotyping. Logistic Models. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United Kingdom


8. Styczynski J, Wysocki M, Dluzniewska A, Juraszewska E, Balwierz W, Czyzewski K, Wieczorek M, Olejnik I, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kuzmicz M, Kowalczyk J, Stefaniak J, Badowska W, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepanski T, Matysiak M, Stanczak E, Malinowska I, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Gil L, Balcerska A, Kapuscinska L, Szczepanek J, Kolodziej B, Rafinska B, Kubicka M: Prognostic impact of combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2008 May-Jun;28(3B):1927-31
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  • [Title] Prognostic impact of combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of cellular drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not yet been established.
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the clinical value of ex vivo drug resistance in pediatric AML.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 90 children with de novo AML were assayed for drug resistance profile by the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and prognostic model of in vitro drug sensitivity was analyzed.
  • A combined in vitro drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone (FTM score) was defined and it had an independent prognostic significance for disease free survival in pediatric AML.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile to possibly may be used for better stratification of children with AML or indicate the necessity for additional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Busulfan / administration & dosage. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18630483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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9. Roman E, Cooney E, Harrison L, Militano O, Wolownik K, Hawks R, Foley S, Satwani P, Unal E, Bhatia M, Bradley B, Del Toro G, George D, Garvin J, van de Ven C, Cairo MS: Preliminary results of the safety of immunotherapy with gemtuzumab ozogamicin following reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplant in children with CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 1;11(19 Pt 2):7164s-7170s
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  • [Title] Preliminary results of the safety of immunotherapy with gemtuzumab ozogamicin following reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplant in children with CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been successful in the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but may be associated with significant toxicity and recurrent disease.
  • Reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT may offer a less toxic approach to patients with AML.
  • Targeted immunotherapy with gemtuzumab ozogamicin has been shown to be safe, well tolerated in children, and, as a single agent, gemtuzumab ozogamicin has induced responses in 30% of patients with recurrent CD33+ AML.
  • Therefore, we explored the feasibility and toxicity of targeted immunotherapy following reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT in children with CD33+ AML.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eight patients with CD33+ AML received a reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT following fludarabine 30 mg/m2 for 6 days and busulfan 3.2 mg/kg (<4 years, 4 mg/kg/d) for 2 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The administration of gemtuzumab ozogamicin post reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT in children with average risk AML is feasible and well tolerated with minimal toxicity.
  • The maximal tolerated dose has yet to be determined for gemtuzumab ozogamicin post reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT in children with CD33+ AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Immunotherapy / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Busulfan / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Infant. Male. Pilot Projects. Recurrence. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Time Factors. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16203817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL07968
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 0 / gemtuzumab; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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10. Ashfaq K, Yahaya I, Hyde C, Andronis L, Barton P, Bayliss S, Chen YF: Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Dec;14(54):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-141
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  • [Title] Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute leukaemia is a group of rapidly progressing cancers of bone marrow and blood classified as either acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • OBJECTIVES: A systematic overview of the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCT in the treatment of acute leukaemia.
  • Included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and donor versus no donor (DvND) studies were mapped to the evidence covered in existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses according to a framework of 12 decision problems (DPs): DP1 related to SCT in adults with AML in first complete remission (CR1); DP2 to adults with AML in second or subsequent remission or with refractory disease (CR2+); DP3 to children with AML in CR1; DP4 to children with AML in CR2+; DP5 to adults with ALL in CR1; DP6 to adults with ALL in CR2+; DP7 to children with ALL in CR1; DP8 to children with ALL in CR2+; DP9 to comparison of different sources of stem cells in transplantation; DP10 to different conditioning regimens; DP11 to the use of purging in autologous SCT; and DP12 to the use of T-cell depletion in allogeneic SCT.
  • Although there is a wealth of information on costs and some information on cost-effectiveness of allogeneic SCT in adults with AML (DPs 1 and 2), there is very limited evidence on relative costs and cost-effectiveness for other DPs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bearing in mind the limitations, existing evidence suggests that sibling donor allogeneic SCT may be more effective than chemotherapy in adult AML (except in good-risk patients) in CR1, childhood AML in CR1 and adult ALL in CR1, and that autologous SCT is equal to or less effective than chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Humans


11. Sung L, Gamis A, Alonzo TA, Buxton A, Britton K, Deswarte-Wallace J, Woods WG: Infections and association with different intensity of chemotherapy in children with acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;115(5):1100-8
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  • [Title] Infections and association with different intensity of chemotherapy in children with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives were to compare infections during different intensities of therapy in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: Subjects were children enrolled in Children's Cancer Group 2891 with AML.
  • This information sheds insight into the mechanisms behind susceptibility and outcome of infections in pediatric AML.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19156894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA095861-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA095861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; None / None / / U10 CA098413-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA095861-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095861-06; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS107661; NLM/ PMC2677372
  •  go-up   go-down


12. Klingebiel T, Reinhardt D, Bader P, EBMT Paediatric Diseases Working Party: Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Oct;42 Suppl 2:S7-9
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  • [Title] Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML.
  • This short review focuses on the role of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in childhood AML.
  • Data on haploidentical HSCT and on cord blood HSCT are still lacking in the case of AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Living Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Remission Induction. Siblings. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18978749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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13. Shah M, Agarwal B: Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Indian J Pediatr; 2008 Aug;75(8):831-7
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  • [Title] Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common childhood malignancy.
  • AML has therapeutically been difficult to treat.
  • In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with the Society for Hematopathology and the European Association of Hematopathology, published a new classification for myeloid neoplasms.
  • A number of chromosomal abnormalities are used to predict outcome and stratify therapeutic risk groups in children with AML.
  • Recently, alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphatases and in oncogenes such as RAS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AML.
  • This article aims to review the recent development in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of AML.
  • Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of AML has led to the development of target-specific therapies.
  • The role of allogenic SCT, particularly whether it should be done during first CR or reserved for second remission, remains the most controversial issue in pediatric AML.
  • There is a need of collaboration with international pediatric cooperative oncology groups and definitive clinical trials in order to establish use of these newer molecules in pediatric populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / blood. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18769895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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14. Marques-Salles Tde J, Mkrtchyan H, Leite EP, Soares-Ventura EM, Muniz MT, Silva EF, Liehr T, Silva ML, Santos N: Complex karyotype defined by molecular cytogenetic FISH and M-FISH in an infant with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and neurofibromatosis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Jul 15;200(2):167-9
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  • [Title] Complex karyotype defined by molecular cytogenetic FISH and M-FISH in an infant with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and neurofibromatosis.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia in childhood is a heterogeneous group of diseases, and different epidemiologic factors are involved in the etiopathogenesis.
  • Genetic syndromes are one of the predisposing factors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including Down syndrome, Bloom syndrome, and neurofibromatosis.
  • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is the main subtype in Down syndrome infants, and acquired chromosomal anomalies are closely related to the physiopathology of the illness.
  • [MeSH-major] In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genes, p53. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Infant. Karyotyping. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20620601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL protein, human; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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15. Oliansky DM, Rizzo JD, Aplan PD, Arceci RJ, Leone L, Ravindranath Y, Sanders JE, Smith FO 3rd, Wilmot F, McCarthy PL Jr, Hahn T: The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia in children: an evidence-based review. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2007 Jan;13(1):1-25
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  • [Title] The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia in children: an evidence-based review.
  • Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review.
  • Treatment recommendations based on the evidence are presented in the table entitled "Summary of Treatment Recommendations Made by the Expert Panel for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia" and were reached unanimously by a panel of experts in AML.
  • The identified priority areas of needed future research in pediatric AML include: What is the role of risk group stratification, including the role of cytogenetics, in selection of patients for allogeneic SCT, especially those in first CR?
  • and What is the role of biologically targeted agents (ie, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, farnesyl transferase inhibitors, Flt-3 inhibitors, etc) in the treatment of AML, including induction, consolidation, conditioning regimens, and after SCT?
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Remission Induction / methods. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 17222748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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16. Mehta PA, Gerbing RB, Alonzo TA, Elliott JS, Zamzow TA, Combs M, Stover E, Ross JA, Perentesis JP, Meschinchi S, Lange BJ, Davies SM: FAS promoter polymorphism: outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. A children's oncology group report. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7896-9
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  • [Title] FAS promoter polymorphism: outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. A children's oncology group report.
  • Previous work has shown increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adult patients with a variant allele at this site.
  • The same authors have shown that the presence of an adenine residue rather than a guanine residue at -1,377 bp significantly attenuates transcription factor stimulatory protein 1 binding and may contribute to a reduction in FAS expression and ultimately to the enrichment of apoptosis-resistant clones in AML.
  • We hypothesized that FAS genotype by altering susceptibility to apoptosis might affect outcome of childhood AML therapy.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Four hundred forty-four children treated for de novo AML on a uniform protocol were genotyped for FAS 1377.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FAS 1377 genotype does not alter outcome of de novo AML in children.

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  • (PMID = 19047119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093552-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093552; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 76326-01; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093552-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS103099; NLM/ PMC2787450
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17. Castellino SM, Alonzo TA, Buxton A, Gold S, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213.
  • BACKGROUND: The majority of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients lack a matched-related bone marrow transplant (BMT) donor in first remission.
  • PROCEDURE: Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and post-relapse outcome were evaluated for children with de novo AML on CCG 213 and the standard timing (ST) and intensive timing (IT) induction arms of CCG 2891 who were randomized to (intent-to-treat, ITT) or who received (as-treated, AT) only chemotherapy intensification.
  • Overall survival for childhood AML in the absence of BMT in CR1 is influenced by duration of CR1 and by race.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17252564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kardos G, Zwaan CM, Kaspers GJ, de-Graaf SS, de Bont ES, Postma A, Bökkerink JP, Weening RS, van der Does-van den Berg A, van Wering ER, Korbijn C, Hählen K: Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2063-71
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  • [Title] Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials.
  • This report describes the long-term follow-up data of three consecutive Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia (AML) protocols.
  • A total of 303 children were diagnosed with AML, of whom 209 were eligible for this report.
  • The first study was the AML-82 protocol.
  • Study AML-87 was based on the BFM-87 protocol, with prophylactic cranial irradiation in high-risk patients only, and without maintenance therapy.
  • The subsequent study AML-92/94 consisted of a modified BFM-93 protocol, that is, without maintenance therapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation.
  • Our results demonstrate that outcome in childhood AML is still unsatisfactory, and that further intensification of therapy carries the risk of enhanced toxicity.
  • Our patients are currently included in the MRC AML studies, based on the results of their AML 10 trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Velardi A, Ruggeri L, Mancusi A, Aversa F, Christiansen FT: Natural killer cell allorecognition of missing self in allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation: a tool for immunotherapy of leukemia. Curr Opin Immunol; 2009 Oct;21(5):525-30
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  • [Title] Natural killer cell allorecognition of missing self in allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation: a tool for immunotherapy of leukemia.
  • Donor-versus-recipient natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity has been established as a key therapeutic element in HLA haplotype mismatched hematopoietic transplants in adult AML and pediatric ALL and as a possible beneficial effector in cord blood transplant for AML.
  • At present NK cell allotherapy for leukemia is deployed through stem cell transplantation (and ensuing NK cell reconstitution) across KIR ligand mismatches.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Child. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 19717293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 PO1 CA100265
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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20. Shimada A, Taki T, Kubota C, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Hanada R, Tsukimoto I, Hayashi Y: No nucleophosmin mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Leukemia; 2007 Jun;21(6):1307
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  • [Title] No nucleophosmin mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan. Karyotyping. Mutation


21. Willasch AM, Gruhn B, Coliva T, Kalinova M, Schneider G, Kreyenberg H, Steinbach D, Weber G, Hollink IH, Zwaan CM, Biondi A, van der Velden VH, Reinhardt D, Cazzaniga G, Bader P, Trka J, European Study Group on WT1 Expression in Childhood AML: Standardization of WT1 mRNA quantitation for minimal residual disease monitoring in childhood AML and implications of WT1 gene mutations: a European multicenter study. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1472-9
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  • [Title] Standardization of WT1 mRNA quantitation for minimal residual disease monitoring in childhood AML and implications of WT1 gene mutations: a European multicenter study.
  • A standardized, sensitive and universal method for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still pending.
  • Although hyperexpression of Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene transcript has been frequently proposed as an MRD marker in AML, wide comparability of the various methods used for evaluating WT1 expression has not been given.
  • In a series of quality-control rounds, we analyzed 69 childhood AML samples and 47 normal bone marrow (BM) samples from 4 participating centers.
  • In AML samples, the median WT1/1E+04 Abelson (ABL) expression was 3.5E+03 compared with that of 2.3E+01 in healthy BM samples.
  • As 11.5% of childhood AML samples in this cohort harbored WT1 mutations in exon 7, the effect of mutations on WT1 expression has been investigated, showing that mutated cases expressed significantly higher WT1 levels than wild-type cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Examination / standards. Genes, Wilms Tumor. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Primers. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm, Residual. Sensitivity and Specificity. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19322206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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22. Fazlina N, Maha A, Jamal R, Zarina AL, Cheong SK, Hamidah H, Ainoon O, Zulkifli SZ, Hamidah NH: Expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and in vitro drug resistance in acute leukemias. Hematology; 2007 Feb;12(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins and in vitro drug resistance in acute leukemias.
  • The expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence the outcome of treatment in patients with acute leukemia.
  • A total of 82 newly diagnosed acute leukemia cases (43 adult myeloid leukaemia, AML cases and 39 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL cases) and 16 relapsed cases (8 AML cases and 8 ALL cases) were studied.
  • In newly diagnosed cases, we found that childhood ALL samples showed higher IC50 values of dnr (0.040 +/- 2.320) compared to adult AML samples (0.021 +/- 0.158).
  • In contrast, newly diagnosed adult AML samples showed higher IC50 values of ara-C (0.157 +/- 0.529) compared to childhood ALL samples (0.100 +/- 2.350).
  • In relapsed cases, two samples of childhood ALL showed IC50 values of dnr (0.910 +/- 1.760) and ara-C (1.310 +/- 2.390), which was higher compared to childhood AML samples (0.129 +/- 0.214 and 0.210 +/- 0.003, respectively).
  • In conclusion, we found that MTS assay is an easy, rapid and non laborious method to study in vitro drug resistance in acute leukaemia cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. P-Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Survival. Child. Child, Preschool. Coloring Agents / analysis. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Male. Methylphenazonium Methosulfate / pharmacology. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Recurrence. Staining and Labeling / methods. Tetrazolium Salts / analysis. Thiazoles / analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17364990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 138169-43-4 / 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium; 299-11-6 / Methylphenazonium Methosulfate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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23. Shimada A, Ichikawa H, Taki T, Kubota C, Hongo T, Sako M, Morimoto A, Tawa A, Tsukimoto I, Hayashi Y: Low frequency of KIT gene mutation in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13q22): a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Int J Hematol; 2007 Oct;86(3):289-90
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  • [Title] Low frequency of KIT gene mutation in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13q22): a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Inversion. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Rate


24. Lehrnbecher T, Bernig T, Hanisch M, Koehl U, Behl M, Reinhardt D, Creutzig U, Klingebiel T, Chanock SJ, Schwabe D: Common genetic variants in the interleukin-6 and chitotriosidase genes are associated with the risk for serious infection in children undergoing therapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia; 2005 Oct;19(10):1745-50
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  • [Title] Common genetic variants in the interleukin-6 and chitotriosidase genes are associated with the risk for serious infection in children undergoing therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Infectious complications represent a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Since it has been shown that alterations in innate immune pathways contribute to the risk for serious infections, we analyzed well-characterized variants in innate immune genes (TNF, IL6, IL8, MPO, CHIT, FCGR2A, TLR2, and TLR4) to determine their possible contribution to infectious complications during therapy for pediatric AML.
  • The study population consisted of 168 North European Caucasian children enrolled on the clinical trial AML-BFM 93.
  • Our data suggest that variant alleles of both IL6 and CHIT could influence susceptibility to infection with Gram-negative bacteria in children undergoing therapy for AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / etiology. Hexosaminidases / genetics. Interleukin-6 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Alleles. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Genetic Variation. Genotype. Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 16107886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; EC 3.2.1.- / Hexosaminidases; EC 3.2.1.- / chitotriosidase
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25. Brown P, Smith FO: Molecularly targeted therapies for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: progress to date. Paediatr Drugs; 2008;10(2):85-92
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  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapies for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: progress to date.
  • While acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is significantly less common than acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood, it is significantly more deadly with only half as many children likely to be cured with standard therapy.
  • In addition, the typical treatment for AML is among the most toxic of treatments for pediatric cancer; it includes intensive multiagent chemotherapy and, often, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • Given the poor prognosis of pediatric AML and the significant toxicity of standard AML therapy, novel therapies are needed.
  • Improved understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of leukemia has facilitated the development of molecularly targeted therapies.
  • In this article, we review progress to date with agents that are showing promise in the treatment of pediatric AML including targeted immunoconjugates, inhibitors of signaling molecules (e.g.
  • For the specific agents in each of these classes, we summarize the published preclinical data and the clinical trials that have been completed, are in progress, or are being planned for children with AML.
  • Finally, we discuss potential challenges to the success of molecularly targeted therapy including demonstrating adequate targeting of leukemia stem cells, developing synergistic and tolerable combinations of agents, and designing adequately powered clinical trials to test efficacy in molecularly defined subsets of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute

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  • (PMID = 18345718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA111728
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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26. Bachas C, Schuurhuis GJ, Hollink IH, Kwidama ZJ, Goemans BF, Zwaan CM, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, de Bont ES, Reinhardt D, Creutzig U, de Haas V, Assaraf YG, Kaspers GJ, Cloos J: High-frequency type I/II mutational shifts between diagnosis and relapse are associated with outcome in pediatric AML: implications for personalized medicine. Blood; 2010 Oct 14;116(15):2752-8
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  • [Title] High-frequency type I/II mutational shifts between diagnosis and relapse are associated with outcome in pediatric AML: implications for personalized medicine.
  • Although virtually all pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve a complete remission after initial induction therapy, 30%-40% of patients will encounter a relapse and have a dismal prognosis.
  • To determine relevance of established AML type I/II mutations that may serve as therapeutic targets, we assessed frequencies of these mutations and their persistence during disease progression in a large group (n = 69) of paired diagnosis and relapse pediatric AML specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Precision Medicine
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Base Sequence. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, Wilms Tumor. Genes, ras. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2010 Oct 14;116(15):2622-3 [20947687.001]
  • (PMID = 20592250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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27. Lee DH, Kwon YJ, Lim J, Kim Y, Han K, Chung NG, Jeong DC, Cho B, Kim HK: Comparable outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-identical sibling donor bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. Pediatr Transplant; 2009 Mar;13(2):210-6
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  • [Title] Comparable outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-identical sibling donor bone marrow transplantation for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.
  • We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated BMT (MU-BMT, n = 13) and HLA-identical sibling donor BMT (MS-BMT, n = 17) for childhood AML in CR1 between June 2002 and August 2005.
  • The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD and any chronic GVHD at three yr was not different between MS-BMT and MU-BMT.
  • The outcome of HLA-matched unrelated BMT is comparable to that of HLA-identical sibling BMT for childhood AML in CR1.
  • HLA-matched unrelated BMT may be recommended for patients who have AML in CR1 without an HLA-matched sibling donor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Platelets / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Living Donors. Male. Neutrophils / metabolism. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Siblings. Treatment Outcome


28. Mizushima Y, Taki T, Shimada A, Yui Y, Hiraumi Y, Matsubara H, Watanabe M, Watanabe K, Kamitsuji Y, Hayashi Y, Tsukimoto I, Kobayashi R, Horibe K, Tawa A, Nakahata T, Adachi S: Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):831-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • High BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic) gene expression may indicate an adverse prognosis for adults who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a normal karyotype, but its prognostic significance for pediatric AML cases is unclear.
  • Newly diagnosed AML patients with normal karyotype who were treated by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Treatment Protocol AML 99 were analyzed in terms of their BAALC expression levels (n = 29), BAALC isoforms (n = 29), and CEBPA mutations (n = 49).
  • Thus, 1-5-6-8 isoform expression may be associated with an adverse prognosis in pediatric AML with normal karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics


29. Mehta PA, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Elliott JS, Wilke TA, Kennedy RJ, Ross JA, Perentesis JP, Lange BJ, Davies SM, Children's Oncology Group: XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism in the etiology and outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group report. Blood; 2006 Jan 1;107(1):39-45
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  • [Title] XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism in the etiology and outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group report.
  • Polymorphisms in XPD, a member of the nucleotide excision repair pathway, have been associated with development of treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and with poor outcome of AML in elderly patients.
  • We hypothesized that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism may play a role in causation of AML in children and, as shown in adults, may affect the outcome of childhood AML therapy.
  • Genotyping of 456 children treated for de novo AML was performed at XPD exon 23.
  • Gene frequencies in AML patients and healthy controls were similar.
  • There were no significant differences in overall survival (P = .82), event-free survival (P = .78), treatment-related mortality (P = .43), or relapse rate (RR) (P = .92) between patients with XPD751AA versus 751AC versus 751CC genotypes, in contrast to reports in adult AML.
  • These data, representing the only data in pediatric AML, suggest that XPD genotype does not affect the etiology or outcome of childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Frequency. Genetic Testing. Genotype. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mutation, Missense. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16150943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.4.12 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein; EC 5.99.- / ERCC2 protein, human
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30. Hiçsönmez G: A novel approach to treatment in childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with high-dose methylprednisolone as a differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing agent of myeloid leukemic cells. Turk J Haematol; 2010 Mar 5;27(1):1-7
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  • [Title] A novel approach to treatment in childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with high-dose methylprednisolone as a differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing agent of myeloid leukemic cells.
  • [Transliterated title] Çocukluk yaşı akut myeloblastik lösemi ve myelodisplastik sendromunda myeloid lösemik hücrelerde farklılaşma ve apoptosisi sağlayan yüksek doz metilprednizolon ile yeni bir tedavi yaklaşımı.
  • Differentiation-inducing therapy with all-trans retinoic acid significantly improved the outcome in children with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Based on the experimental studies in mice, we have shown that short-course high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) treatment can induce terminal differentiation of leukemic cells in children with various subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M1,-M2,-M3,-M4,-M7).
  • It has also been shown to induce apoptosis of myeloid leukemic cells with or without differentiation.
  • Administration of HDMP as a single agent resulted in a rapid clinical improvement, a marked decrease in blast cells in both peripheral blood and bone marrow and dramatic decreases in the size of extramedullary leukemic mass in children with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

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  • (PMID = 27265790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7777
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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31. Walter RB, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Ho PA, Smith FO, Raimondi SC, Hirsch BA, Gamis AS, Franklin JL, Hurwitz CA, Loken MR, Meshinchi S: High expression of the very late antigen-4 integrin independently predicts reduced risk of relapse and improved outcome in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the children's oncology group. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 10;28(17):2831-8
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  • [Title] High expression of the very late antigen-4 integrin independently predicts reduced risk of relapse and improved outcome in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the children's oncology group.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of the integrin cell adhesion molecule very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Subgroup analyses indicated that the prognostic role of VLA-4 expression was most prominent in patients with standard-risk AML, in whom low VLA-4 expression was associated with inferior DFS (34% +/- 16% v 69% +/- 14% for high expression; P = .011) and higher RR (61% +/- 16% v 26% +/- 14% for high expression; P = .009).
  • CONCLUSION: High VLA-4 expression is associated with better clinical outcome in pediatric AML and is an independent predictor of relapse that may refine our abilities to stratify patients without identifiable cytogenetic or molecular risk factors.

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  • (PMID = 20421533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA114766; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA137161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114563; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543
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  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ho PA, Zeng R, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Miller KL, Pollard JA, Stirewalt DL, Heerema NA, Raimondi SC, Hirsch B, Franklin JL, Lange B, Meshinchi S: Prevalence and prognostic implications of WT1 mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood; 2010 Aug 05;116(5):702-10
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  • [Title] Prevalence and prognostic implications of WT1 mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • Recent studies of WT1 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mostly report an association with unfavorable clinical outcome.
  • We screened 842 patients treated on 3 consecutive pediatric AML trials for WT1 zinc-finger mutations.
  • In current risk stratification schemes incorporating cytogenetics and FLT3/ITD status, the presence of WT1 mutations has no independent prognostic significance in predicting outcome in pediatric AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Wilms Tumor. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karyotyping. Male. Prevalence. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Tandem Repeat Sequences / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20413658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00002798/ NCT00070174
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114563; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA10262-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2918327
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33. Mulrooney DA, Dover DC, Li S, Yasui Y, Ness KK, Mertens AC, Neglia JP, Sklar CA, Robison LL, Davies SM, Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Twenty years of follow-up among survivors of childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer; 2008 May 1;112(9):2071-9
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  • [Title] Twenty years of follow-up among survivors of childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
  • BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the comprehensive assessment of late medical and social effects experienced by survivors of childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: This analysis included 272 5-year AML survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS).
  • The cumulative incidence of recurrent AML was 6.6% at 10 years (95% CI, 3.7%-9.6%) and 8.6% at 20 years (95% CI, 5.1%-12.1%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival from childhood AML > or =5-years after diagnosis was favorable.

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  • (PMID = 18327823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K12 RR023247; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA055727; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1 K12 RR 023247; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA 55727
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Robison LL; Hudson M; Armstrong G; Perkins J; O'Leary M; Friedman D; Pendergrass T; Greffe B; Odom L; Ruccione K; Mulvihill J; Ginsberg J; Meadows A; Tersak J; Ritchey A; Blatt J; Reaman G; Packer R; Davies S; Bhatia S; Qualman S; Hammond S; Termuhlen A; Ruymann F; Diller L; Grier H; Li F; Meacham L; Mertens A; Leisenring W; Potter J; Greenberg M; Nathan PC; Boice J; Rodriguez V; Smithson WA; Gilchrist G; Sklar C; Oeffinger K; Finklestein J; Anderson B; Inskip P; Vik TA; Weetman R; Green DM; Hayashi R; Vietti T; Marina N; Donaldson SS; Link MP; Dreyer Z; Whelan K; Sande J; Berkow R; Yasui Y; Casallis J; Zeltzer L; Goldsby R; Ablin A; Hutchinson R; Neglia J; Deapen D; Breslow N; Bowers D; Tomlinson G; Buchanan GR; Strong L; Stovall M
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34. Schultz KA, Chen L, Chen Z, Zeltzer LK, Nicholson HS, Neglia JP: Health and risk behaviors in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;55(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Health and risk behaviors in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face increased risks of chronic disease and secondary malignancies.
  • PROCEDURES: Participants were diagnosed with AML at <21 years of age and survived > or =5 years following diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 20232426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA055727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA78960; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA55727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA007306-39; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-08; None / None / / U10 CA098543-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA078960-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA007306-39; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413-08; None / None / / U10 CA098413-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA07306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078960-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS166508; NLM/ PMC3152207
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35. Belson M, Kingsley B, Holmes A: Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review. Environ Health Perspect; 2007 Jan;115(1):138-45
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  • [Title] Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review.
  • Although overall incidence is rare, leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer.
  • Within this population, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs approximately five times more frequently than acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and accounts for approximately 78% of all childhood leukemia diagnoses.
  • Epidemiologic studies of acute leukemias in children have examined possible risk factors, including genetic, infectious, and environmental, in an attempt to determine etiology.
  • Only one environmental risk factor (ionizing radiation) has been significantly linked to ALL or AML.
  • Most environmental risk factors have been found to be weakly and inconsistently associated with either form of acute childhood leukemia.
  • Our review focuses on the demographics of childhood leukemia and the risk factors that have been associated with the development of childhood ALL or AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Communicable Diseases / complications. Environmental Exposure. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17366834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 145
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1817663
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36. Yeh TC, Liu HC, Wang LY, Chen SH, Lin WY, Liang DC: The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Dec;29(12):826-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan.
  • From November 1, 1995 to July 31, 2004, 49 children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were treated at our institution.
  • In total, 48 patients with de novo AML were enrolled in this study.
  • Forty-two patients with AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (non-APL) were treated consecutively with 2 novel protocols: Mackay Memorial Hospital (MMH)-AML-96, designed as a pilot phase, and Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-AML-97A, on the basis of MMH-AML-96 with minor modifications.
  • The 5-year overall survival was 64%+/-6.9% (SE), and the 5-year event-free survival was 60%+/-7.1%; for non-APL AML, the rates were 62%+/-7.5% and 59%+/-7.6%; for APL, 83+/-15.2 and 67+/-19.3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Rate. Survivors. Taiwan


37. Bierings M, Nachman JB, Zwaan CM: Stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia and myelodysplasia: state of the art and current challenges. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2007 Jan;2(1):53-63
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  • [Title] Stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia and myelodysplasia: state of the art and current challenges.
  • The role of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of leukemia and myelodysplasia (MDS) in children has changed over the past decade.
  • In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the overall cure-rate is high with conventional chemotherapy.
  • In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the role of allo-HSCT in CR1 is declining, due to better outcome with modern multi-agent chemotherapy.
  • In relapsed AML patients, allo-HSCT still seems indispensable.
  • Targeted therapy may change the role of HSCT, in particular in chronic myeloid leukemia, where the role of allografting is changing in the imatinib era.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


38. Kaspers GJ, Creutzig U: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: international progress and future directions. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2025-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: international progress and future directions.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Forecasting. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16304569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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39. Mantadakis E, Samonis G, Kalmanti M: A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children. Acta Haematol; 2008;119(2):73-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children.
  • The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has substantially improved since the successful introduction of tretinoin, and nowadays combining tretinoin with chemotherapy is potentially curative for at least 70-75% of patients with newly diagnosed APL.
  • In most pediatric series, APL represents < or = 10% of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18285695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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40. Liu CF, Liu GL, Zhang LP, Cheng YF, Lu AD, Tian KG, Liu YR, Qin YZ: [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;13(1):76-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction].
  • Fourteen AML1/ETO positive children out of 52 AML children were selected.
  • It is concluded that real-time RT-PCR is a suitable approach for quantifying AML1/ETO transcripts in monitoring of AML patients with t(8;21) during/after chemotherapy and provides data of diagnostic relevance.

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  • (PMID = 15748440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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41. Wang J, Ouyang J, Zhou R, Chen B, Yang Y: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Acta Haematol; 2010;124(2):61-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.
  • METHODS: A meta-analysis evaluating autologous SCT versus further chemotherapy or no treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) was completed.
  • Four studies were in pediatric patients and 9 were in adults.
  • For adults, AML in CR1 compared with non-SCT, lower relapse and higher transplantation-related mortality were associated with autologous SCT, a significant disease-free survival benefit of autologous SCT was documented, and there was no difference in overall survival when studies were pooled.
  • For pediatric AML in CR1, there were no differences in relapse, transplantation-related mortality, disease-free survival and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support the conclusion that autologous SCT should not be considered as the first-line post-remission therapy for AML patients in CR1.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / mortality. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


42. Cazzaniga G, Dell'Oro MG, Mecucci C, Giarin E, Masetti R, Rossi V, Locatelli F, Martelli MF, Basso G, Pession A, Biondi A, Falini B: Nucleophosmin mutations in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia with normal karyotype. Blood; 2005 Aug 15;106(4):1419-22
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  • [Title] Nucleophosmin mutations in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia with normal karyotype.
  • Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein involved in leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations, and it regulates the alternate reading frame (ARF)-p53 tumor-suppressor pathway.
  • Cytoplasmic NPM was detected in 35% of adult patients with primary non-French-American-British (FAB) classification M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), associated mainly with normal karyotype.
  • We evaluated the prevalence of the NPM1 gene mutation in non-M3 childhood AML patients enrolled in the ongoing Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP-AML02) protocol in Italy.
  • Thus, the NPM1 mutation is a frequent abnormality in AML patients without known genetic marker; the mutation may represent a new target to monitor minimal residual disease in AML and a potential candidate for alternative and targeted treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Base Sequence. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / chemistry. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Molecular Sequence Data


43. Xie C, Edwards H, Xu X, Zhou H, Buck SA, Stout ML, Yu Q, Rubnitz JE, Matherly LH, Taub JW, Ge Y: Mechanisms of synergistic antileukemic interactions between valproic acid and cytarabine in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 15;16(22):5499-510
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of synergistic antileukemic interactions between valproic acid and cytarabine in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the possibility of synergistic antileukemic activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with cytarabine combined with valproic acid (VPA; a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a Food and Drug Administration-licensed drug for treating both children and adults with epilepsy) in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The type and extent of antileukemic interactions between cytarabine and VPA in clinically relevant pediatric AML cell lines and diagnostic blasts from children with AML were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram analyses.
  • RESULTS: We showed synergistic antileukemic activities between cytarabine and VPA in four pediatric AML cell lines and nine diagnostic AML blast samples. t(8;21) AML blasts were significantly more sensitive to VPA and showed far greater sensitivities to combined cytarabine and VPA than non-t(8;21) AML cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results establish global synergistic antileukemic activity of combined VPA and cytarabine in pediatric AML and provide compelling evidence to support the use of VPA in the treatment of children with this deadly disease.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20889917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120772-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120772; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120772; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120772-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS238223; NLM/ PMC3018695
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44. Styczynski J: Drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Pharm Biotechnol; 2007 Apr;8(2):59-75
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  • [Title] Drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Therapy results in childhood AML differ from those of ALL.
  • The development of drug resistance is the limiting factor in the therapy of AML.
  • Different problems of drug resistance in childhood AML, with emphasis to age and in comparison to adult AML are presented.
  • Taking into account both children and adults, it seems that age is adversely related to therapy outcome in AML, and the percentage of patients with favorable cytogenetics decreases with age; however, age is positively correlated with multi-drug resistance and the proportion of patients with unfavorable cytogenetics.
  • AML is considered a stem cell disease.
  • Cellular drug resistance in AML cells seems to be similar throughout all other age groups, however the higher the age, the worse the outcome.
  • In childhood AML, no drug is more effective in comparison to ALL, and cellular drug resistance is partially related to chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Pediatric AML is equally resistant as adult AML.
  • Pediatric and adult AML, respectively, are possibly equally drug resistant on initial diagnosis and at relapse.
  • In contrast to ALL, the prognostic value of in vitro drug resistance in childhood AML has not been well documented yet.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control


45. Nebral K, König M, Schmidt HH, Lutz D, Sperr WR, Kalwak K, Brugger S, Dworzak MN, Haas OA, Strehl S: Screening for NUP98 rearrangements in hematopoietic malignancies by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Haematologica; 2005 Jun;90(6):746-52
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of rearrangements of NUP98 (the gene coding for nucleoporin 98kDa protein) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and selected patients with 11p13-15 rearrangements.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Screening of 59 consecutive patients enrolled in the Austrian AML-BFM93 clinical trial was performed by dual-color FISH.
  • RESULTS: Among the 59 AML patients, one NUP98-NSD1 positive case (1.7%) was detected.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The observed frequency of 1.7% confirmed the low incidence of NUP98 rearrangements in childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Inversion. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15951287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins; 0 / nuclear pore complex protein 98
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46. Castagnola E, Rossi MR, Cesaro S, Livadiotti S, Giacchino M, Zanazzo G, Fioredda F, Beretta C, Ciocchello F, Carli M, Putti MC, Pansini V, Berger M, Licciardello M, Farina S, Caviglia I, Haupt R: Incidence of bacteremias and invasive mycoses in children with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a multi-center Italian study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1103-7
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  • [Title] Incidence of bacteremias and invasive mycoses in children with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a multi-center Italian study.
  • BACKGROUND: Data on the epidemiology of bacteremias and invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are scarce.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: In a multi-center, retrospective study, we analyzed proportion, rate per 1,000 person-days at risk, and cumulative risk of bacteremias and IFD in children with AML.
  • RESULTS: Between January 1998 and December 2005, 240 children were treated for AML at 8 Italian Centers, for a total of 521 treatment courses and 63,232 person-days at risk.
  • The epidemiology of bacteremias and IFD was different during front-line therapy for M3 as compared to other types of AML, but the differences were not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Severe infectious complications are frequent during the treatment of pediatric AML, especially during relapse treatment, and bacteremias are more frequent than IFD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bacteremia / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / microbiology. Mycoses / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / microbiology. Retrospective Studies


47. Cloos J, Goemans BF, Hess CJ, van Oostveen JW, Waisfisz Q, Corthals S, de Lange D, Boeckx N, Hählen K, Reinhardt D, Creutzig U, Schuurhuis GJ, Zwaan ChM, Kaspers GJ: Stability and prognostic influence of FLT3 mutations in paired initial and relapsed AML samples. Leukemia; 2006 Jul;20(7):1217-20
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  • [Title] Stability and prognostic influence of FLT3 mutations in paired initial and relapsed AML samples.
  • In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), activating mutations in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene predict poor prognosis.
  • We determined FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3/ITD) and D835 point mutations in paired initial and relapse samples from 80 pediatric and adult AML patients.
  • One D835 point mutation was found in an initial pediatric AML sample.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Point Mutation. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Genetic Markers. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / genetics. Prognosis. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Tandem Repeat Sequences

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  • (PMID = 16642044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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48. Burjanivova T, Madzo J, Muzikova K, Meyer C, Schneider B, Votava F, Marschalek R, Stary J, Trka J, Zuna J: Prenatal origin of childhood AML occurs less frequently than in childhood ALL. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:100
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  • [Title] Prenatal origin of childhood AML occurs less frequently than in childhood ALL.
  • BACKGROUND: While there is enough convincing evidence in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the data on the pre-natal origin in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are less comprehensive.
  • Our study aimed to screen Guthrie cards (neonatal blood spots) of non-infant childhood AML and ALL patients for the presence of their respective leukemic markers.
  • In AML patients (n = 13, age 1-14 years) PML/RARalpha (n = 4), CBFbeta/MYH11 (n = 3), AML1/ETO (n = 2), MLL/AF6 (n = 1), MLL/AF9 (n = 1) and MLL/AF10 (n = 1) fusion genes and/or internal tandem duplication of FLT3 gene (FLT3/ITD) (n = 2) were used as clonotypic markers.
  • We did not find patient-specific molecular markers in any patient with AML.
  • CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort examined so far we used identical approach for the backtracking of non-infant childhood ALL and AML.
  • Our data suggest that either the prenatal origin of AML is less frequent or the load of pre-leukemic cells is significantly lower at birth in AML compared to ALL cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. Fetal Blood / chemistry. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Leukemia, Myeloid / embryology. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / embryology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells / chemistry. Cohort Studies. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / blood. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Female. Gene Duplication. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / blood. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Neonatal Screening. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tandem Repeat Sequences. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / blood. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16630339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CBFbeta-MYH11 fusion protein; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLL-AF10 fusion protein, human; 0 / MLL-AF6 fusion protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / TEL-AML1 fusion protein; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1463004
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49. Manola KN: Cytogenetics of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Eur J Haematol; 2009 Nov;83(5):391-405
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  • [Title] Cytogenetics of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease accounting for 15-20% of all childhood acute leukemias, while it is responsible for more than half of the leukemic deaths in these patients.
  • This article focuses on the significance of cytogenetic analysis in pediatric AML supporting the importance of cytogenetic analysis in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, follow-up and treatment selection in childhood AML.
  • Furthermore, it discusses the association of specific chromosome rearrangements with prenatal exposure to carcinogenic agents or therapeutic agents and highlights the ongoing and future research on pediatric AML in the evolving field of Cytogenetics.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytogenetics / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19563518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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50. Zhang H, Luo XQ, Zhang P, Huang LB, Zheng YS, Wu J, Zhou H, Qu LH, Xu L, Chen YQ: MicroRNA patterns associated with clinical prognostic parameters and CNS relapse prediction in pediatric acute leukemia. PLoS One; 2009;4(11):e7826
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  • [Title] MicroRNA patterns associated with clinical prognostic parameters and CNS relapse prediction in pediatric acute leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent reports have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies, and regulations in the progress of adult leukemia.
  • The role of miRNAs in pediatric leukemia still needs to be established.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pediatric acute leukemia and demonstrate miRNA patterns that are pediatric-specific and prognostic parameter-associated.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 111 pediatric bone marrow samples, including 99 patients and 12 normal donors, were enrolled in this study.
  • Of those samples, 36 patients and 7 normal samples were used as a test cohort for the evaluation of miRNA profiling; 63 pediatric patients and 5 normal donors were used as a validation cohort to confirm the miRNA differential expression.
  • Pediatric ALL- and AML-specific microRNA expression patterns were identified in this study.
  • The most highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric ALL were miR-34a, miR-128a, miR-128b, and miR-146a, while the highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric AML were miR-100, miR-125b, miR-335, miR-146a, and miR-99a, which are significantly different from those reported for adult CLL and AML. miR-125b and miR-126 may serve as favorable prognosticators for M3 and M2 patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing pediatric-associated and prognostic parameter-associated miRNAs that are independent of cell lineage and could provide therapeutic direction for individual risk-adapted therapy for pediatric leukemia patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / pathology. MicroRNAs
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19915715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773830
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51. Evrard AS, Hémon D, Billon S, Laurier D, Jougla E, Tirmarche M, Clavel J: Childhood leukemia incidence and exposure to indoor radon, terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation. Health Phys; 2006 Jun;90(6):569-79
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  • [Title] Childhood leukemia incidence and exposure to indoor radon, terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the ecological association between terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation, indoor radon, and acute leukemia incidence among children under 15 y of age.
  • From 1990 to 2001, 5,330 cases of acute leukemia were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma.
  • There was no evidence of an ecological association between terrestrial gamma dose (range: 0.22-0.90 mSv y) or total gamma dose (range: 0.49-1.28 mSv y) and childhood acute leukemia incidence, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in univariate or multivariate regression analyses including indoor radon.
  • A significant positive association between indoor radon (range: 22-262 Bq m) and AML incidence among children was observed and remained significant in multivariate regression analyses including either terrestrial gamma dose [SIR per 100 Bq m = 1.29 (1.09-1.53)] or total gamma dose [SIR per 100 Bq m = 1.29 (1.09-1.53)].
  • The study showed no ecological association between terrestrial gamma radiation and childhood leukemia for the range of variation in gamma dose rates observed in France.
  • The moderate ecological association between childhood AML incidence and indoor radon does not appear to be confounded by terrestrial gamma dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis. Cosmic Radiation. Environmental Exposure / statistics & numerical data. Gamma Rays. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Radon / analysis. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Burden. Child. Child, Preschool. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Radiation Dosage. Registries. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16691105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Health physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q74S4N8N1G / Radon
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52. Rubnitz JE, Razzouk BI, Lensing S, Pounds S, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Prognostic factors and outcome of recurrence in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer; 2007 Jan 1;109(1):157-63
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and outcome of recurrence in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Outcome after recurrence of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is poor.
  • We performed this study to identify prognostic factors for recurrence and for survival after recurrence of AML.
  • METHODS: The clinical characteristics, biological features, treatment modalities, and outcomes of children with de novo AML who were enrolled on 3 consecutive clinical protocols from 1987 to 2002 at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital were studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival after recurrence was poor in children with AML.
  • Novel therapies are urgently needed to prevent or to treat recurring AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Sex Factors. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17133407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. van der Velden VH, van der Sluijs-Geling A, Gibson BE, te Marvelde JG, Hoogeveen PG, Hop WC, Wheatley K, Bierings MB, Schuurhuis GJ, de Graaf SS, van Wering ER, van Dongen JJ: Clinical significance of flowcytometric minimal residual disease detection in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients treated according to the DCOG ANLL97/MRC AML12 protocol. Leukemia; 2010 Sep;24(9):1599-606
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of flowcytometric minimal residual disease detection in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients treated according to the DCOG ANLL97/MRC AML12 protocol.
  • Analysis of minimal residual disease (MRD) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may predict for clinical outcome.
  • MRD levels were assessed by flowcytometric immunophenotyping in 94 children with AML enrolled into a single trial (United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML12 and similar Dutch Childhood Oncology Group ANLL97).
  • In conclusion, flowcytometric MRD detection is possible in children with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Clinical Protocols. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Probability. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 20668473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300133
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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54. Urbanová D, Bubanská E, Hrebík M, Mladosievicová B: [Severe heart failure in consequence of late anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity--case report]. Klin Onkol; 2009;22(1):34-7
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  • The patient was treated for childhood acute myeloid leukemia by chemotherapy containing anthracyclines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Heart Transplantation. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Male

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  • (PMID = 19534438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
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55. Meyer C, Kowarz E, Hofmann J, Renneville A, Zuna J, Trka J, Ben Abdelali R, Macintyre E, De Braekeleer E, De Braekeleer M, Delabesse E, de Oliveira MP, Cavé H, Clappier E, van Dongen JJ, Balgobind BV, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Beverloo HB, Panzer-Grümayer R, Teigler-Schlegel A, Harbott J, Kjeldsen E, Schnittger S, Koehl U, Gruhn B, Heidenreich O, Chan LC, Yip SF, Krzywinski M, Eckert C, Möricke A, Schrappe M, Alonso CN, Schäfer BW, Krauter J, Lee DA, Zur Stadt U, Te Kronnie G, Sutton R, Izraeli S, Trakhtenbrot L, Lo Nigro L, Tsaur G, Fechina L, Szczepanski T, Strehl S, Ilencikova D, Molkentin M, Burmeister T, Dingermann T, Klingebiel T, Marschalek R: New insights to the MLL recombinome of acute leukemias. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1490-9
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  • [Title] New insights to the MLL recombinome of acute leukemias.
  • Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL gene are associated with high-risk pediatric, adult and therapy-associated acute leukemias.
  • Genomic DNA was isolated from individual acute leukemia patients to identify and characterize chromosomal rearrangements involving the human MLL gene.
  • A total of 760 MLL-rearranged biopsy samples obtained from 384 pediatric and 376 adult leukemia patients were characterized at the molecular level.
  • The distribution of MLL breakpoints for clinical subtypes (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, pediatric and adult) and fused translocation partner genes (TPGs) will be presented, including novel MLL fusion genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Recombination, Genetic. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / chemistry. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child. Chromosome Breakage. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / ultrastructure. Computational Biology. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Duplication. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19262598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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56. Larson RA: Micro-RNAs and copy number changes: new levels of gene regulation in acute myeloid leukemia. Chem Biol Interact; 2010 Mar 19;184(1-2):21-5
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  • [Title] Micro-RNAs and copy number changes: new levels of gene regulation in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Together with epigenetic alterations, these result in dysplasia, clonal expansion, and ultimately myeloid leukemia.
  • Combinations of lesions are required to induce overt leukemia.
  • Recent studies have shown that cytogenetically normal (CN-) AML is quite heterogeneous at the molecular level.
  • Patients with CN-AML harboring mutations in NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, WT1 or expressing high levels of BAALC, ERG, or MN1 have distinctly different clinical outcomes.
  • NPM1 mutations are independently associated with higher remission rates and longer disease-free and overall survival in AML.
  • Fewer CNAs have been detected in AML than in pediatric ALL.
  • Distinctive genome-wide miR expression profiles have been associated with different subsets of AML.
  • A miR signature that is associated with clinical outcome in patients with high-risk molecular features of AML (those who have FLT3-ITD or wild-type NPM1) has been reported.
  • This subgroup constitutes approximately 65% of patients with CN-AML and one-third of all patients with AML <60 years old.
  • Down-regulation of the miR-181 family contributes to an aggressive leukemia phenotype through mechanisms associated with the activation of pathways of innate immunity mediated by toll-like receptors and interleukin-1beta.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19822134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemico-biological interactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Biol. Interact.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA40046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA031946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA031946-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040046-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA031946-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA040046-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS156571; NLM/ PMC2846194
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57. Ghosh I, Thulkar S, Arora R, Bakhshi S: Multifocal osteomyelitis as a presenting manifestation of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jan;31(1):75-6
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  • [Title] Multifocal osteomyelitis as a presenting manifestation of childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Osteomyelitis / diagnosis


58. Stasevich I, Utskevich R, Kustanovich A, Litvinko N, Savitskaya T, Chernyavskaya S, Saharova O, Aleinikova O: Translocation (10;11)(p12;q23) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: incidence and complex mechanism. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Sep;169(2):114-20
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  • [Title] Translocation (10;11)(p12;q23) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: incidence and complex mechanism.
  • This translocation represented 28% of all cases of childhood AML treated at our center in 2004, and 63% of AML with rearrangements of 11q23.
  • The median event-free survival of patients was 8.1 months, and we conclude that the t(10;11)(p12;q23) is associated with unfavorable prognosis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Banding. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Karyotyping. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16938568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Petridou E, Mantzoros CS, Dessypris N, Dikalioti SK, Trichopoulos D: Adiponectin in relation to childhood myeloblastic leukaemia. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jan 16;94(1):156-60
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  • [Title] Adiponectin in relation to childhood myeloblastic leukaemia.
  • Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein known to induce apoptosis, has been reported to be inversely related to breast and endometrial cancers and recently found to inhibit proliferation of myeloid but not lymphoid cell lines.
  • We hypothesised that adiponectin may be inversely associated with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), but not with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of B (ALL-B) or T (ALL-T) cell origin in children.
  • Blood samples and clinical information were collected over the period 1996-2000 from 201 children (0-14 years old) with leukaemia (22 AML, 161 ALL-B and 18 ALL-T cases) through a national network of childhood Hematology-Oncology units in Greece and from 201 controls hospitalised for minor pediatric ailments.
  • Adiponectin was inversely associated with AML (OR=0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.94), whereas it was not significantly associated with either ALL-B (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.10) or ALL-T (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.67-1.72).
  • Biological plausibility and empirical evidence point to the importance of this hormone in the pathogenesis of childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / physiopathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adiponectin / analysis. Adiponectin / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Apoptosis. Body Height. Body Weight. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Greece. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Leukemia, B-Cell. Leukemia, T-Cell. Male. Odds Ratio

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  • (PMID = 16404369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOQ protein, human; 0 / Adiponectin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361080
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60. Lin CH, Hung GY, Chang CY, Chien JC: Subdural hemorrhage in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as subtle headache. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Sep;68(9):437-40
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  • [Title] Subdural hemorrhage in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as subtle headache.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is rare in children (< 10% of childhood AML).
  • We report a 12-year-old child with APL who suffered a subdural hemorrhage and initially presented with a subtle headache mistaken as the side effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA).
  • Blood component therapy and a pediatric dosage of ATRA (25 mg/m2/day) combined with idarubicin as induction chemotherapy were administered in the first week, but the bleeding diathesis persisted and DIC profiles showed no improvement.
  • This case suggests that the ATRA dosage for pediatric APL patients must be modified according to clinical condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache / etiology. Hematoma, Subdural / etiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / complications. Humans. Male. Partial Thromboplastin Time. Prothrombin Time. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16187602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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61. Aoyama Y, Endo Y, Ebara T, Murase T, Shin YS, Podskarbi T, Ozer I, Demirkol M, Gökçay G, Okubo M: Novel AGL mutation in a Turkish patient with glycogen storage disease type IIIa. Pediatr Int; 2010 Feb;52(1):145-7
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  • [Title] Novel AGL mutation in a Turkish patient with glycogen storage disease type IIIa.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Consanguinity. Diagnosis, Differential. Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage. Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage. Exons / genetics. Genes, Recessive. Haplotypes / genetics. Homozygote. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 20158661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-200X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 0 / Dietary Proteins; 0 / Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System
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62. Liang DC, Shih LY, Huang CF, Hung IJ, Yang CP, Liu HC, Jaing TH, Wang LY, Chang WH: CEBPalpha mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia; 2005 Mar;19(3):410-4
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  • [Title] CEBPalpha mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • CEBPalpha: mutations have been described in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and conferred a favorable prognosis.
  • We investigated 117 children with de novo AML using DNA PCR assay followed by sequencing for each PCR product.
  • Our results showed that CEBPalpha mutations occurred in 6% of childhood AML and most exhibited combined mutations in both N-terminal part and bZIP domain.
  • [MeSH-major] CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Gene Frequency. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods


63. Abdel Rahman H, Farrag SA, El-Attar IA: AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Mar;19(1):39-47
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  • [Title] AML1/ETO Fusion Gene in de novo Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications.
  • The characterization of leukemia-associated chromosome translocations has contributed relevant insights into our understanding of leukemia pathogenesis and has provided new specific tumor markers essential in prognostic assessment and minimal residual disease studies.
  • The aim of this work is to study the frequency of AML1/ETO fusion gene in a series of Egyptian childhood AML cases.
  • The clinical significance and prognostic implications of this aberration, including CR rate, duration of first CR, extramedullary leukemia (EML), and survival are investigated as well.
  • Peripheral blood and/or bone marrow mononuclear cells were available for analysis from 78 children, all newly diagnosed with AML.
  • Patients with de novo AML were treated by 2 courses of induction chemotherapy, followed by 4 courses of consolidation treatment if the patient achieved complete remission (CR).
  • Lymph nodes were enlarged in 8/15 cases (53.34%), hepatomegly was observed in 4/15 cases (26.67%), splenomegaly in 8/15 cases (53.34%), purpura in 6/15 cases (40%), while pallor was observed in all fifteen cases.Extramedullary leukemia occurred in 4/15 cases (26.67%).
  • In conclusion, we report a frequency of 19.2% of AML1/ETO fusion gene in our newly diagnosed pediatric AML cases.
  • Key Words: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia , AML1/ETO fusion gene , RT-PCR , Clinical outcome , Prognostic significance.

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  • (PMID = 18839034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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64. Meyer S, Barber LM, White DJ, Will AM, Birch JM, Kohler JA, Ersfeld K, Blom E, Joenje H, Eden TO, Malcolm Taylor G: Spectrum and significance of variants and mutations in the Fanconi anaemia group G gene in children with sporadic acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2006 May;133(3):284-92
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  • [Title] Spectrum and significance of variants and mutations in the Fanconi anaemia group G gene in children with sporadic acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is uncommon.
  • Children with Fanconi anaemia (FA), however, have a very high risk of developing AML.
  • To address to what extent FANCG variants contribute to sporadic childhood AML, we determined the spectrum of FANCG sequence variants in 107 children diagnosed with sporadic AML, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing methodologies.
  • R513Q, which affects a semi-conserved amino acid, was carried in two additional children with AML.
  • Although not significant, the frequency of R513Q was higher in children with AML than unselected cord bloods.
  • While FANCG mutation carrier status does not predispose to sporadic AML, the identification of unrecognised FA patients implies that FA presenting with primary AML in childhood is more common than suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Fanconi Anemia / complications. Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Sequence Alignment

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  • (PMID = 16643430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein
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65. Meyer S, Fergusson WD, Whetton AD, Moreira-Leite F, Pepper SD, Miller C, Saunders EK, White DJ, Will AM, Eden T, Ikeda H, Ullmann R, Tuerkmen S, Gerlach A, Klopocki E, Tönnies H: Amplification and translocation of 3q26 with overexpression of EVI1 in Fanconi anemia-derived childhood acute myeloid leukemia with biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 disruption. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2007 Apr;46(4):359-72
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  • [Title] Amplification and translocation of 3q26 with overexpression of EVI1 in Fanconi anemia-derived childhood acute myeloid leukemia with biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 disruption.
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital abnormalities and an extreme risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Genetic events occurring during malignant transformation in FA and the biology of FA-associated AML are poorly understood, but are often preceded by the development of chromosomal aberrations involving 3q26-29 in bone marrow of FA patients.
  • We report here the molecular cytogenetic characterization of FA-derived AML cell lines SB1685CB and SB1690CB by conventional and array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and SKY.
  • We identified gains of a 3.7 MB chromosomal region on 3q26.2-26.31, which preceded transformation to overt leukemia.
  • Rearrangements of 3q, which are rare in childhood AML, commonly result in overexpression of EVI1, which determines specific gene expression patterns and confers poor prognosis.
  • We detected overexpression of EVI1 in all three FA-derived AML.
  • We hypothesize that constitutional or acquired FA defects might be a common factor for the development of 3q abnormalities in AML.
  • In addition, cryptic imbalances as detected here might account for overexpression of EVI1 in AML without overt 3q26 rearrangements.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Fanconi Anemia / genetics. Gene Amplification. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Cell Line. Child. Humans


66. Yuan J, McDonough C, Kulharya A, Ramalingam P, Manaloor E: Isolated trisomy 10 in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia: a case report and review of literature. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(7):718-22
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  • [Title] Isolated trisomy 10 in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia: a case report and review of literature.
  • Trisomy 10 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in AML is rare, with an incidence rate of < 0.5%.
  • It tends to affect the elderly and is extremely rare in pediatric patients.
  • Compared to the two other reported pediatric cases, our patient has some unique features such as much younger age and additional findings such as bilineage dysplasia and bone marrow fibrosis.
  • Both reported cases and our case were classified as AML-M2 indicating that this may be a common subtype in pediatric patients.
  • These findings suggest that isolated trisomy 10 may be associated with distinct clinicopathologic features in pediatric AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Trisomy / genetics. Trisomy / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1999 Nov;115(1):47-51 [10565299.001]
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  • (PMID = 20830243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933392
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CD13 / CD33 / CD34 / CD7 / Trisomy 10 / acute myeloid leukemia / infant / review
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67. Zou Y, Wang H, Chen XJ, Wang SC, Zhang L, Chen YM, Zhu XF: [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;27(9):621-5
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  • [Title] [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical outcome and the prognostic factor of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: Disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox regression with SPSS in 141 childhood AML in our hospital from August 1995 to July 2004.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups: acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as group A and AML other than APL as group B.
  • The cumulative 5 year DFS and OS rate for group B patients were (28.4 +/- 9.0)% and (35.5 +/- 6.3)%, the 51 group A patients were (94.3 +/- 4.0)% and (81.4 +/- 5.7)%, and for total 141 AML patients were (56.9 +/- 6.3)% and (53.3 +/- 4.8)% respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher bone marrow blast cell percentage at diagnosis, CR after more than one course of chemotherapy and less than six courses of consolidation chemotherapy were risk prognostic factors in childhood AML other than APL (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of childhood APL is better, while of childhood t(8;21) AML is no better than other FAB subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17278430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. Kar B, Nandhini B, Revathi R: Ring chromosome 8 and trisomy 8 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus; 2009 Mar;25(1):30-2
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  • [Title] Ring chromosome 8 and trisomy 8 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We describe a child with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML M7) with trisomy 8 and ring chromosome 8.
  • Ring chromosome 8 associated with AML is uncommon and is reported to have a poor outcome.
  • Bone marrow aspirate confirmed the presence of myeloid blasts positive only for CD 41 and CD 61 on flow cytometry.
  • The child was treated as per UK MRC AML protocol (ADE 10+3+5).
  • Cytogenetic sub grouping in AML patients provides guidelines for the choice of optimal treatment strategy.
  • She developed acute myelofibrosis soon after the second cycle of chemotherapy with swinging fever and rapidly enlarging spleen.
  • This case illustrates the poor outcome in paediatric AML with trisomy and ring chromosome 8.

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  • (PMID = 23100969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-4502
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3453485
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute myeloid leukemia / Ring chromosome 8 / Trisomy 8
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69. Tan RM, Quah TC, Aung L, Liang S, Kirk RC, Yeoh AE: Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: The introduction of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML 10) protocol incorporating high-dose anthracycline therapy has improved outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In this study, we review the results of childhood AML therapy in a Singapore university hospital over the last 17 years emphasizing toxicity and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis revealed 34 children with AML between 1988 and 2003.
  • From September 1996, all but one of 15 children received MRC AML 10 treatment.
  • MRC AML 10-treated patients (n = 14) had significantly better 3-year overall, event-free, and disease-free survival (74% vs. 35%, 77% vs. 20%, 83% vs. 31%; P = 0.019, P = 0.002, and P = 0.010, respectively) and were likelier to achieve complete remission (CR) than non-MRC AML 10 patients (P = 0.102).
  • Among patients who achieved CR, MRC AML 10-treated patients were significantly more likely to achieve CR after only one cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MRC AML 10 treatment results in significantly superior survival, without excess toxicity.
  • Future studies should attempt to elucidate the relative importance of individual MRC AML 10 components and reduce the high cumulative anthracycline dose without compromising outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Acute Disease. Amsacrine / administration & dosage. Amsacrine / adverse effects. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Azacitidine / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / adverse effects. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Evaluation. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infant. Infection / etiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16602120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 00DPD30SOY / Amsacrine; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; MRC AML 10 protocol; POG-8498 protocol
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70. Liang DC, Chan TT, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Chen SH, Liu HC, Lin MT, Lee MT, Shu SG, Chang TK, Chen JS, Hsiao CC, Hung IJ, Hsieh YL, Chen RL, Cheng SN, Chang WH, Lee CH, Lin KS: Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):136-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
  • To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used.
  • From January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002, 141 children younger than 17 years old with de novo AML were enrolled.
  • In total, 117 patients with non-APL AML were treated with induction therapy of idarubicin and cytarabine (Ara-C), postremission therapy with high-dose Ara-C - containing regimens for four monthly courses, and moderate-dose therapy with idarubicin and Ara-C for four monthly courses.
  • The remission rate in the AML-97A study was 90%, the 5-year survival 51 +/- 5.3% (s.e.) and the 5-year event-free survival 50 +/- 4.8%; for APL, these were 100%, 86 +/- 7.0, and 75 +/- 9.8%.
  • The AML-97A regimen was well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome


71. Shih LY, Liang DC, Fu JF, Wu JH, Wang PN, Lin TL, Dunn P, Kuo MC, Tang TC, Lin TH, Lai CL: Characterization of fusion partner genes in 114 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and MLL rearrangement. Leukemia; 2006 Feb;20(2):218-23
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  • [Title] Characterization of fusion partner genes in 114 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia and MLL rearrangement.
  • The fusion transcripts of MLL rearrangement [MLL(+)] in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their clinicohematologic correlation have not be well characterized in the previous studies.
  • We used Southern blot analysis to screen MLL(+) in de novo AML.
  • MLL(+) was identified in 114 (98 adults) of 988 AML patients.
  • MLL-PTD was rare in childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Duplication. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16341046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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72. Sánchez-Medina J, Gonzalez-Ramella O, Gallegos-Castorena S: The effect of dexrazoxane for clinical and subclinical cardiotoxicity in children with acute myeloid leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;32(4):294-7
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  • [Title] The effect of dexrazoxane for clinical and subclinical cardiotoxicity in children with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) protocols use anthracyclines.
  • Fifty pediatric AML patients were treated with a Medical Research Council AML 10 modified protocol with dexrazoxane previous to any anthracycline dose.
  • The event-free survival was 53%, 15.7% died of disease, and 11.8% died free of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / adverse effects. Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Razoxane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


73. Meshinchi S, Arceci RJ: Prognostic factors and risk-based therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Oncologist; 2007 Mar;12(3):341-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and risk-based therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has posed significant therapeutic challenges to pediatric oncologists.
  • Despite intensive therapy, half of the children with AML relapse and die from their disease.
  • Efforts to identify risk factors in AML are directed toward defining populations who may benefit from alternative therapies.
  • Management of high-risk patients may prove more difficult, as the nearly myeloablative nature of AML therapy leaves little room for therapy escalation short of stem cell transplantation.
  • This review evaluates prognostic factors in pediatric AML and discusses the feasibility of using these factors in risk-adapted therapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17405900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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74. Ünal E, Sahdev I: Use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of pediatric relapsed/ refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Turk J Haematol; 2008 Mar 5;25(1):36-41
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  • [Title] Use of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of pediatric relapsed/ refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
  • [Transliterated title] Pediatrik relaps/refraktor akut myeloid lösemi tedavisinde gemtuzumab ozogamisin kullanımı.
  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO, MylotargTM) is an antibody-targeted chemotherapy agent that has been studied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at first relapse in adults.
  • There is limited experience in pediatric patients.
  • We report six patients with refractory/relapsed CD33+AML who were treated with GO on compassionate-use basis.
  • GO should be used cautiously in chemotherapy-refractory AML pediatric patients due to the high incidence of VOD.

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  • (PMID = 27264148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7777
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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75. Gesundheit B, Shapira MY, Resnick IB, Amar A, Kristt D, Dray L, Budowski E, Or R: Successful cell-mediated cytokine-activated immunotherapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Hematol; 2009 Mar;84(3):188-90
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  • [Title] Successful cell-mediated cytokine-activated immunotherapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an extremely aggressive disease with a high relapse rate even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • We report the successful outcome of cell-mediated cytokine-activated immunotherapy in a high-risk pediatric AML patient who relapsed shortly after allogeneic HSCT.
  • Donor lymphocyte infusion along with interferon induced a graft-versus-leukemia effect, presenting as a reversible episode of graft-versus-host disease, which led to stable complete donor chimerism and total eradication of AML for over 24 months, at the time of this report.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lymphocyte Transfusion. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Graft vs Host Disease. Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Immunotherapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Male. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 19105234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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76. Lafiura KM, Bielawski DM, Posecion NC Jr, Ostrea EM Jr, Matherly LH, Taub JW, Ge Y: Association between prenatal pesticide exposures and the generation of leukemia-associated T(8;21). Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Oct 15;49(5):624-8
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  • [Title] Association between prenatal pesticide exposures and the generation of leukemia-associated T(8;21).
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between prenatal pesticide exposures and the generation of leukemia-associated t(8;21)(q22;q22), one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Similar heterogeneity in the fusion transcripts was detected in the t(8;21) positive cord blood samples as in our previous study with t(8;21) AML patients.
  • They suggest that prenatal pesticide exposures may be causal factors for the generation of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia / etiology. Propoxur / analysis. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Oct 15;49(5):607-8 [17712841.001]
  • (PMID = 17610268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA92308; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD039428
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pesticides; BFH029TL73 / Propoxur
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77. de Jonge HJ, Weidenaar AC, Ter Elst A, Boezen HM, Scherpen FJ, Bouma-Ter Steege JC, Kaspers GJ, Goemans BF, Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Kamps WA, de Bont ES: Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Feb 1;14(3):924-30
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  • [Title] Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: We hypothesized that downstream effects of endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor signaling on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell survival resulted in increased in vitro cellular drug resistance and a longer time to kill most leukemic cells in vivo upon drug exposure.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In primary AML cells from pediatric patients, VEGFA and VEGFC mRNA expression and in vitro cellular resistance to nine cytotoxic drugs were studied.
  • As in vivo equivalents for in vitro drug resistance, in vivo AML blast reduction upon drug exposure, measured as blast cell reduction on day 15 in the bone marrow and as time in days from diagnosis to complete remission (CR) were used.
  • RESULTS: Increased endogenous VEGFC levels significantly correlated with increased in vitro resistance for six typical AML drugs in primary AML cells from pediatric patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest for the first time that higher endogenous VEGFC levels of AML cells are related to decreased in vitro and in vivo drug responsiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Karyotyping. Male. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18245556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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78. Abdelhaleem M: Frequent but nonrandom expression of lymphoid markers on de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Exp Mol Pathol; 2007 Oct;83(2):259-63
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  • [Title] Frequent but nonrandom expression of lymphoid markers on de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Lymphoid marker expression in 59 cases of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was as follows: CD2 (15.5%), CD4 (73.8%), CD7 (25.8%), CD19 (22%) and CD56 (28.9%).
  • Individual marker expression, as well as co-expression with other lymphoid markers, could be correlated with the FAB subtype of leukemia and the presence and type of certain leukemia fusion gene transcripts.
  • The data showed that the expression of lymphoid markers in childhood de novo AML was common but nonrandom and was likely a reflection of the biological differences between various types of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD19 / genetics. Antigens, CD2 / genetics. Antigens, CD4 / genetics. Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD7 / genetics. Child. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans


79. Jain M, Bakhshi S, Shukla AA, Chauhan SS: Cathepsins B and L in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: potential poor prognostic markers. Ann Hematol; 2010 Dec;89(12):1223-32
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  • [Title] Cathepsins B and L in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: potential poor prognostic markers.
  • However, their significance in acute leukemias is lacking.
  • This study was planned to investigate expression and significance of these proteases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • CTSL and CTSB activities were assayed in PBMCs of 24 children with AML and ten healthy controls by spectrofluorimetry.
  • CTSL and CTSB protease activity and their mRNA expression were significantly higher in AML patients compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001).
  • Cystatin expression though significantly high (p ≤ 0.001) in AML was negatively correlated with CTSL (r = -0.920; p ≤ 0.001) and CTSB (r = -0.580, p ≤ 0.001) expression.
  • AML patients with higher CTSL and CTSB activity exhibited an inferior EFS (CTSL: p = 0.045; CTSB: p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; CTSL: p = 0.05; CTSB: p = 0.004) compared to patients with lower levels of these proteases.
  • This is the first report demonstrating increased expression of CTSL and CTSB in AML, mechanism of their increased expression in relation to VEGF, and their association with poor EFS and OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cathepsin B / metabolism. Cathepsin L / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / enzymology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystatin C / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20567828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0584
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cystatin C; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L
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80. Horan JT, Alonzo TA, Lyman GH, Gerbing RB, Lange BJ, Ravindranath Y, Becton D, Smith FO, Woods WG, Children's Oncology Group: Impact of disease risk on efficacy of matched related bone marrow transplantation for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec 10;26(35):5797-801
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  • [Title] Impact of disease risk on efficacy of matched related bone marrow transplantation for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: the Children's Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: There is considerable variation in the use of HLA-matched related bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: We combined data from four cooperative group clinical trials: Pediatric Oncology Group 8821, Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 2891, CCG 2961, and Medical Research Council 10.
  • RESULTS: The data set included 1,373 pediatric patients with AML in first CR.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that HLA-matched related BMT is an effective treatment for pediatric patients with intermediate-risk AML in first CR.


81. Razzouk BI, Estey E, Pounds S, Lensing S, Pierce S, Brandt M, Rubnitz JE, Ribeiro RC, Rytting M, Pui CH, Kantarjian H, Jeha S: Impact of age on outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a report from 2 institutions. Cancer; 2006 Jun 1;106(11):2495-502
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  • [Title] Impact of age on outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a report from 2 institutions.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of age among pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was investigated.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the outcome of 424 patients who were <or=21 years of age at the time of diagnosis of AML (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia) between 1983 and 2002 at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (n=288) or the M. D.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that age is an independent prognostic factor in childhood AML and that children younger than 10 years benefit more than older children from newer intensive therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Age Factors. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16639734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. La Spina M, Russo G: Presentation of childhood acute myeloid leukemia with erythema nodosum. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Sep 1;25(25):4011-2
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  • [Title] Presentation of childhood acute myeloid leukemia with erythema nodosum.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythema Nodosum / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / pathology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Physical Examination

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  • (PMID = 17761986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Niewerth D, Creutzig U, Bierings MB, Kaspers GJ: A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2205-14
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  • [Title] A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Survival of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved considerably over the past decades.
  • However, it remains controversial whether allo-SCT is superior to chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed AML.
  • This review summarizes phase 3 clinical trials that compared allo-SCT with chemotherapy (including autologous SCT) in pediatric AML, excluding studies that did not use the intention-to-treat analysis or correct for time-to-transplantation.
  • Because allo-SCT also gives more severe side effects and results more often in secondary malignancies than chemotherapy, we do not recommend allo-SCT in first remission for pediatric AML in general.
  • Further research should focus on the possibility that subgroups might benefit from allo-SCT, aiming at further improvements in the prognosis of pediatric AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


84. Absalon MJ, Smith FO: Treatment strategies for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2009 Jan;10(1):57-79
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  • [Title] Treatment strategies for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Therapeutic strategies utilized in recently completed Phase III clinical trials in children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia have led to long-term disease-free survival in 50 - 60% of children.
  • Future improvements in the treatment of children with acute myeloid leukemia will depend on a better understanding of the biology of the disease, targeted therapeutic approaches directed to specific biologic targets, selective use of allogeneic transplantation and innovative clinical trial designs that will allow for the testing of an increasing number of new agents in increasingly small numbers of patients in defined risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Humans


85. Inaba H, Fan Y, Pounds S, Geiger TL, Rubnitz JE, Ribeiro RC, Pui CH, Razzouk BI: Clinical and biologic features and treatment outcome of children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis. Cancer; 2008 Aug 1;113(3):522-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biologic features and treatment outcome of children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with hyperleukocytosis often is associated with early complications.
  • To the authors' knowledge, no recently published study has evaluated the management and clinical course in this regard, especially in relation to pediatric patients.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed 579 patients with newly diagnosed pediatric AML who were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 1968 to 2002 and carefully examined 106 patients with initial leukocyte counts > or = 100 x 10(9)/L and French-American-British (FAB) AML subtypes other than M3.
  • These patients with hyperleukocytosis were divided into 2 groups-'before' (early period; 70 patients) and 'after' (late period; 36 patients) the initiation of the AML-83 protocol-to address potential differences in supportive measures (including leukoreduction).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With improved management, including supportive care, early mortality in patients with AML and hyperleukocytosis decreased remarkably in the more recent period.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18484648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Radtke I, Mullighan CG, Ishii M, Su X, Cheng J, Ma J, Ganti R, Cai Z, Goorha S, Pounds SB, Cao X, Obert C, Armstrong J, Zhang J, Song G, Ribeiro RC, Rubnitz JE, Raimondi SC, Shurtleff SA, Downing JR: Genomic analysis reveals few genetic alterations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Aug 4;106(31):12944-9
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  • [Title] Genomic analysis reveals few genetic alterations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Pediatric de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy with current therapy resulting in cure rates of only 60%.
  • To better understand the cause of the marked heterogeneity in therapeutic response and to identify new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets a comprehensive list of the genetic mutations that underlie the pathogenesis of AML is needed.
  • To approach this goal, we examined diagnostic leukemic samples from a cohort of 111 children with de novo AML using single-nucleotide-polymorphism microarrays and candidate gene resequencing.
  • Our data demonstrate that, in contrast to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), de novo AML is characterized by a very low burden of genomic alterations, with a mean of only 2.38 somatic copy-number alterations per leukemia, and less than 1 nonsynonymous point mutation per leukemia in the 25 genes analyzed.
  • The only exception to the presence of few mutations was acute megakaryocytic leukemias, with the majority of these leukemias being characterized by a high number of copy-number alterations but rare point mutations.
  • These data reflect a remarkably low burden of genomic alterations within pediatric de novo AML, which is in stark contrast to most other human malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19651601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCDC26 protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MLLT4 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RUNX1T1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.1.- / Kinesin; EC 3.6.4.1 / Myosins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716382
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87. Perel Y, Auvrignon A, Leblanc T, Michel G, Reguerre Y, Vannier JP, Dalle JH, Gandemer V, Schmitt C, Méchinaud F, Lejars O, Piguet C, Couillaud G, Pautard B, Landman-Parker J, Thuret I, Aladjidi N, Baruchel A, Leverger G, French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group: Treatment of childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: dose intensification improves outcome and maintenance therapy is of no benefit--multicenter studies of the French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2082-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: dose intensification improves outcome and maintenance therapy is of no benefit--multicenter studies of the French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Follow-Up Studies. France. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16121218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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88. Bakhshi S, Singh P, Swaroop C: Outpatient consolidation chemotherapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective analysis. Hematology; 2009 Oct;14(5):255-60
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  • [Title] Outpatient consolidation chemotherapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: To assess the outcomes of outpatient high dose cytosine arabinoside consolidation cycles in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in comparison to inpatient treatment.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 90 cycles of AML consolidation given to 30 patients between July 2003 and July 2007.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient AML consolidation therapy is safe and feasible in children.
  • To our knowledge, this report is the first of its kind looking specifically at outpatient consolidation chemotherapy in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Leukocyte Count. Male. Neutropenia / blood. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Platelet Count. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19843379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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89. Johnston DL, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Risk factors and therapy for isolated central nervous system relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 20;23(36):9172-8
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  • [Title] Risk factors and therapy for isolated central nervous system relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: CNS relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an infrequent occurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of 886 patients with de novo AML were reviewed, and patients who entered remission at the end of one course of therapy and developed an isolated CNS relapse as their first event were analyzed (n = 690).
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16361619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Entz-Werle N, Suciu S, van der Werff ten Bosch J, Vilmer E, Bertrand Y, Benoit Y, Margueritte G, Plouvier E, Boutard P, Vandecruys E, Ferster A, Lutz P, Uyttebroeck A, Hoyoux C, Thyss A, Rialland X, Norton L, Pages MP, Philippe N, Otten J, Behar C, EORTC Children Leukemia Group: Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2072-81
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  • [Title] Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report.
  • The first EORTC (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer) acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) pilot study (58872) was conducted between January 1988 and December 1991.
  • It indicated that mitoxantrone could be substituted for conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of childhood AML without inducing cardiotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16136166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-35
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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91. Krstovski N, Tosic N, Janic D, Dokmanovic L, Kuzmanovic M, Spasovski V, Pavlovic S: Incidence of FLT3 and nucleophosmin gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: Serbian experience and the review of the literature. Med Oncol; 2010 Sep;27(3):640-5
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  • [Title] Incidence of FLT3 and nucleophosmin gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: Serbian experience and the review of the literature.
  • Mutations in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene (internal tandem duplication (ITD) and point mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain, FLT3/D835) as well as the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene are the most common abnormalities in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Their significance in pediatric AML is still unclear.
  • In this study we evaluated the frequency of FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in childhood AML.
  • FLT3 and NPM1 mutations were analysed in 42 and 37 childhood AML patients, respectively, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing.
  • Here we report the results of the study of FLT3 and NPM1 gene mutations in childhood AML patients in Serbia.
  • Comparative study of data on NPM1 mutations in childhood AML revealed that various NPM1 gene mutation types are associated with childhood AML.
  • Our findings as well as previously reported data, contributes to a hypothesis of different biology and etiology of adult and childhood AML.
  • More extensive studies of NPM1 and FLT3 mutations in childhood AML are needed to determine their biological and clinical importance.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Serbia

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  • (PMID = 19557552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
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92. Rubnitz JE: Childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):95-105
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  • [Title] Childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: Despite the use of intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, approximately one-third of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still suffer relapse of their disease.
  • Instead, advances in the treatment of children with AML will require a greater understanding of the biology of the disease, with particular attention to the genetic abnormalities underlying leukemogenesis and drug resistance.
  • More important, we must develop alternative treatment approaches, such as agents that target specific leukemia-associated abnormalities and agents that selectively eradicate leukemic stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans


93. Cheng J, Sakamot KM: Topics in pediatric leukemia--acute myeloid leukemia. MedGenMed; 2005;7(1):20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topics in pediatric leukemia--acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16369325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1681379
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94. Rubnitz JE, Crews KR, Pounds S, Yang S, Campana D, Gandhi VV, Raimondi SC, Downing JR, Razzouk BI, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1410-6
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  • [Title] Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial.
  • Because cladribine can increase cytarabine triphosphate levels, we tested a cladribine-cytarabine combination in the St Jude AML97, trial in which this combination was administered before standard chemotherapy to 96 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Our results suggest that cladribine in combination with continuous-infusion cytarabine is effective therapy for childhood AML.

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  • (PMID = 19242495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS90802; NLM/ PMC2726271
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95. Tsukimoto I, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tabuchi K, Kigasawa H, Tsuchida M, Yabe H, Nakayama H, Kudo K, Kobayashi R, Hamamoto K, Imaizumi M, Morimoto A, Tsuchiya S, Hanada R: Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug 20;27(24):4007-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To improve the prognosis in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by introducing a dose-dense intensive chemotherapy regimen and an appropriate risk stratification system.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty children with de novo AML were treated with continuous cytarabine-based induction therapy and stratified to three risk groups based on the initial treatment response, age, and WBC at diagnosis and cytogenetics.
  • CONCLUSION: A high survival rate, 75.6% at 5 years, was achieved for childhood with de novo AML in the AML99 trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Male. Transplantation, Homologous


96. Sung L, Aplenc R, Zaoutis T, Groll AH, Gibson B, Lehrnbecher T: Infections in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: lessons learned and unresolved questions. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):458-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infections in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: lessons learned and unresolved questions.


97. Phillips CL, Gerbing R, Alonzo T, Perentesis JP, Harley IT, Meshinchi S, Bhatla D, Radloff G, Davies SM: MDM2 polymorphism increases susceptibility to childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):248-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MDM2 polymorphism increases susceptibility to childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • PROCEDURE: We genotyped children (n = 575) with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated on three Children's Oncology Group protocols (CCG 2941/2961/AAML 03P1) for the presence of SNP309.
  • RESULTS: The variant G/G genotype was associated with an increased susceptibility to AML (OR 1.5; P = 0.049).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The variant SNP 309 influences susceptibility to pediatric AML, but does not impact overall response to therapy.