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1. Patel AP, Ghatak SB, Patel JA: Long term survival in aggressive NK cell leukemia. Indian Pediatr; 2010 Sep;47(9):807-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long term survival in aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a rare type of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian Pediatr. 2011 Jan;48(1):79-80 [21317480.001]
  • (PMID = 21048272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7559
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Ichikawa S, Fukuhara N, Yamamoto J, Suzuki M, Nakajima S, Okitsu Y, Kohata K, Onishi Y, Ishizawa K, Kameoka J, Harigae H: Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive NK cell leukemia. Intern Med; 2010;49(17):1907-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a highly aggressive lymphoproliferative disease.
  • An appropriate therapeutic strategy for ANKL remains to be established, but a few case reports have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can be curative.
  • Intensive remission induction chemotherapy followed by conventional myeloablative allo-HCT is a promising approach for long-term remission in cases of this aggressive malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / surgery. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20823655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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3. Yoo EH, Kim HJ, Lee ST, Kim WS, Kim SH: Frequent CD7 antigen loss in aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia: a useful diagnostic marker. Korean J Lab Med; 2009 Dec;29(6):491-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent CD7 antigen loss in aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia: a useful diagnostic marker.
  • BACKGROUND: Aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia (ANKL) is a rare neoplasm characterized by systemic proliferation of NK cells.
  • However, the differential diagnosis of NK lymphoproliferative disorders is difficult because of the absence of a distinct diagnostic hallmark.
  • The immunophenotype of the leukemic NK-cells was cytoplasmic CD3(+), surface CD3(-), CD16/56(+), CD2(+), and CD5(-).
  • In conjunction with the cytogenetic findings, this characteristic immunophenotypic finding can serve as a reliable marker for the timely diagnosis of ANKL.
  • Therefore, immunophenotypic analysis of CD7 expression should be included in the diagnosis of NK cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD7 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytogenetics. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20046078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD7; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Shah MV, Zhang R, Irby R, Kothapalli R, Liu X, Arrington T, Frank B, Lee NH, Loughran TP Jr: Molecular profiling of LGL leukemia reveals role of sphingolipid signaling in survival of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Blood; 2008 Aug 1;112(3):770-81
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of LGL leukemia reveals role of sphingolipid signaling in survival of cytotoxic lymphocytes.
  • T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is characterized by clonal expansion of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells.
  • Leukemic LGLs correspond to terminally differentiated effector-memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that escape Fas-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD) in vivo.
  • The gene expression signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 LGL leukemia patients showed profound dysregulation of expression of apoptotic genes and suggested uncoupling of activation and apoptotic pathways as a mechanism for failure of AICD in leukemic LGLs.
  • Collectively, these results show a role for sphingolipid-mediated signaling as a mechanism for long-term survival of CTLs.
  • Therapeutic targeting of this pathway, such as use of FTY720, may have efficacy in LGL leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 18477771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94872
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; 0 / Sphingolipids; EC 3.2.1.47 / Galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2481553
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5. Skorupa A, Chaudhary UB, Lazarchick J: Cold agglutinin induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia and NK-cell leukemia: a new association. Am J Hematol; 2007 Jul;82(7):668-71
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  • [Title] Cold agglutinin induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia and NK-cell leukemia: a new association.
  • Cold agglutinin induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia is uncommonly associated with leukemia and lymphomas.
  • We present a case of a young Mexican female presenting with a cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia with expression of a rare Pr antigen specificity and an aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune / metabolism. Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / metabolism. Leukemia / pathology


6. Alekshun TJ, Sokol L: Diseases of large granular lymphocytes. Cancer Control; 2007 Apr;14(2):141-50
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  • [Title] Diseases of large granular lymphocytes.
  • BACKGROUND: Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are rare lymphoproliferative malignancies that arise from either mature T-cell (CD3+) or natural killer (NK)-cell (CD3-) lineages.
  • They manifest a distinct biologic behavior that ranges from indolent to very aggressive.
  • METHODS: We discuss four distinct diseases involving LGLs: indolent T-cell LGL leukemia, aggressive T-cell LGL leukemia, chronic NK-cell leukemia, and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • RESULTS: Sustained LGLs, characteristic immunophenotype, clonal origin of leukemic cells, and clinical presentation are the most important features that distinguish indolent from aggressive subtypes of LGL leukemia and guide the selection of therapy.
  • Patients with symptomatic indolent T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemia are usually treated with immunosuppressive therapies in contrast to aggressive T-cell and NK-cell LGL leukemia, which require intensive chemotherapy induction regimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Future scientific advances focusing on the delineation of molecular pathogenic mechanisms and the development of new targeted therapies for each distinct LGL leukemia entity should lead to improved outcomes of patients with these disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD3. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17387299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-2748
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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7. Sawada A, Sato E, Koyama M, Higuchi B, Kusuki S, Kim JY, Takeshita Y, Sakata A, Sakata N, Okamura T, Yasui M, Inoue M, Kawa K: NK-cell repertoire is feasible for diagnosing Epstein-Barr virus-infected NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease and evaluating the treatment effect. Am J Hematol; 2006 Aug;81(8):576-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] NK-cell repertoire is feasible for diagnosing Epstein-Barr virus-infected NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease and evaluating the treatment effect.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occasionally infects T and NK cells and causes EBV-infected T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which comprises chronic active EBV infection, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, mosquito allergy, hydroa vacciniforme, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, and NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • The diagnosis is proven by the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected T or NK cells, which is a time-consuming and complicated method.
  • T-cell monoclonality is helpful for the screening of EBV-infected T-cell LPD in patients with EBV-genome burden and is easily shown with T-cell-receptor rearrangement or the T-cell repertoire, whereas NK-cell monoclonality is difficult to prove due to its lacking such rearranged receptors.
  • We investigated a set of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and also CD94-NKG2 heterodimers on NK cells, namely the NK-cell repertoire.
  • Skewed repertoires were seen in all patients with EBV-infected NK-cell LPD, but not in any patients with EBV-infected T-cell LPD and were restored only after successful treatment.
  • The normal KIR repertoire is variable for each individual and it seems difficult to detect minimal residual EBV-infected lymphocytes.
  • However, the NK-cell repertoire is feasible for identifying EBV-infected NK-cell LPD and evaluating the treatment effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / virology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / immunology. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16823820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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8. Sino-US Shanghai Leukemia Cooperative Group: [Aggressive NK-cell leukemia: report of nine cases and review of literature]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;27(2):116-9
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  • [Title] [Aggressive NK-cell leukemia: report of nine cases and review of literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL).
  • The disease had an aggressive clinical course.
  • (2) Neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia with high number of circulating large granular lymphocytes;.
  • (3) large granular lymphocytes infiltrated in bone marrow aspirate and core biopsy;.
  • No T-cell receptor (TCR) genes rearrangement;.
  • (6) No unique karyotypic abnormality, sometimes del (6) (q21q25);.
  • (7) Exclusion of other diseases with large granular lymphocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16732967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Ino K, Masuya M, Nakamori Y, Suzuki K, Mizutani M, Sekine T, Yamaguchi M, Nakase K, Kaida K, Ogawa H, Katayama N: [Aggressive NK-cell leukemia with sustained relapse-free survival after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2010 Apr;51(4):258-63
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  • [Title] [Aggressive NK-cell leukemia with sustained relapse-free survival after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].
  • A bone marrow examination showed several hemophagocytic macrophages, and a diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome was made.
  • A repeat bone marrow examination demonstrated that 28.4% of marrow nucleated cells were atypical lymphocytes, which were positive for CD2, CD7, CD16, CD56, and HLA-DR.
  • Clonality of these proliferating NK cells was confirmed by an analysis of EB virus terminal repeat sequence and cytogenetic analysis, and final diagnosis of aggressive NK-cell leukemia was made.
  • He received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from his one locus mismatched son, and is alive with no evidence of disease 20 months after transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation


10. Petterson TE, Bosco AA, Cohn RJ: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):654-7
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  • [Title] Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a very rare condition and when reported occurs almost exclusively in adults.
  • We report a pediatric case of ANKL that presented with hemophagocytic syndrome, preceding the onset of leukemia by 12 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / complications. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / etiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17853464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8
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11. Suzuki R, Suzumiya J, Yamaguchi M, Nakamura S, Kameoka J, Kojima H, Abe M, Kinoshita T, Yoshino T, Iwatsuki K, Kagami Y, Tsuzuki T, Kurokawa M, Ito K, Kawa K, Oshimi K, NK-cell Tumor Study Group: Prognostic factors for mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms: aggressive NK cell leukemia and extranodal NK cell lymphoma, nasal type. Ann Oncol; 2010 May;21(5):1032-40
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms: aggressive NK cell leukemia and extranodal NK cell lymphoma, nasal type.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms, aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL) and extranodal NK cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), have poor outcome.
  • The purpose of this study is to draw a prognostic model of total NK cell neoplasms.
  • Using these four variables, an NK prognostic index was successfully constructed.
  • CONCLUSION: The current prognostic model successfully stratified patients with NK cell neoplasms with different outcomes.


12. Makishima H, Ito T, Momose K, Nakazawa H, Shimodaira S, Kamijo Y, Nakazawa Y, Ichikawa N, Ueno M, Kobayashi H, Kitano K, Saito H, Kiyosawa K, Ishida F: Chemokine system and tissue infiltration in aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Leuk Res; 2007 Sep;31(9):1237-45
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  • [Title] Chemokine system and tissue infiltration in aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • NK cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes can be subdivided into aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) and chronic NK-cell lymphocytosis (CNKL).
  • [MeSH-major] Chemokines / blood. Fas Ligand Protein / metabolism. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / blood. Lymphocytosis / blood

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  • (PMID = 17123604.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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13. Makishima H, Ito T, Asano N, Nakazawa H, Shimodaira S, Kamijo Y, Nakazawa Y, Suzuki T, Kobayashi H, Kiyosawa K, Ishida F: Significance of chemokine receptor expression in aggressive NK cell leukemia. Leukemia; 2005 Jul;19(7):1169-74
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  • [Title] Significance of chemokine receptor expression in aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell-type lymphoproliferative diseases of granular lymphocytes can be subdivided into aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL) and chronic NK cell lymphocytosis (CNKL).
  • The mechanisms of cell trafficking associated with the chemokine system have been investigated in NK cells.
  • To clarify the mechanism of systemic migration of leukemic NK cells, we enrolled nine ANKL and six CNKL cases, and analyzed the expression profiles and functions of chemokine receptors by flowcytometry and chemotaxis assay.
  • CXCR1 was detected on NK cells in all groups, and CCR5 was positive in all ANKL cells.
  • Proliferating NK cells were simultaneously positive for CXCR1 and CCR5 in all ANKL patients examined, and NK cells with this phenotype did not expand in CNKL patients or healthy donors.
  • These results indicated that the chemokine system might play an important role in the pathophysiology of ANKL and that chemokine receptor profiling might be a novel tool for discriminating ANKL cells from benign NK cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / genetics. Lymphocytosis / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / physiology. Chemokines / pharmacology. Child. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Receptors, CCR5 / genetics. Receptors, CCR5 / physiology. Receptors, Interleukin-8A / genetics. Receptors, Interleukin-8A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15902300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Receptors, CCR5; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-8A
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14. Ryder J, Wang X, Bao L, Gross SA, Hua F, Irons RD: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia: report of a Chinese series and review of the literature. Int J Hematol; 2007 Jan;85(1):18-25
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  • [Title] Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia: report of a Chinese series and review of the literature.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated fulminating disease that is widely disseminated at diagnosis.
  • Because of its typically extranodal presentation, differing degrees of NK cell involvement, and varying bone marrow pathology, ANKL can be confused with a reactive process.
  • All cases were positive for EBV early region protein and negative for latent membrane protein 1, and all had a germline T-cell receptor gene configuration.
  • Peripheral blood counts were variable, with severe thrombocytopenia being the most frequently encountered abnormality (7 of 9 cases).
  • Because of its aggressive course, rapid and accurate diagnosis of ANKL is essential for a better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / virology. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, T-Cell / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Cell Count. Bone Marrow Diseases / pathology. China. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Thrombocytopenia

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  • (PMID = 17261497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Oka K, Nagayama R, Mori N: Epstein-Barr virus-associated proliferative disorder presenting as Hodgkin's lymphoma and developing as aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia 19 years later: a case report of composite lymphoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(10):730-4
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus-associated proliferative disorder presenting as Hodgkin's lymphoma and developing as aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia 19 years later: a case report of composite lymphoma.
  • We describe a patient who was diagnosed as having classic Hodgkin's lymphoma at 29 years of age, and aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia at 48 years.
  • Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph node expressed CD30, CD15, T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1), perforin, granzyme B, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER).
  • Natural killer-cell leukemia cells in the bone marrow expressed cytoplasmic CD3epsilon, TIA-1, perforin, granzyme B, and EBER, and some neoplastic cells expressed CD56 (123C3).
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that neoplastic cells expressed CD56.
  • Neither a rearrangement band of the T-cell receptor gene nor that of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19269751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Nakashima Y, Tagawa H, Suzuki R, Karnan S, Karube K, Ohshima K, Muta K, Nawata H, Morishima Y, Nakamura S, Seto M: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization of natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia: different genomic alteration patterns of aggressive NK-cell leukemia and extranodal Nk/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Nov;44(3):247-55
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  • [Title] Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization of natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia: different genomic alteration patterns of aggressive NK-cell leukemia and extranodal Nk/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas/leukemias are highly aggressive lymphoid malignancies, but little is known about their genomic alterations, and thus there is an urgent need for identification and analysis of NK cell lymphomas/leukemias.
  • We performed an array CGH analysis for 27 NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia cases that were classified into two disease groups based on the World Health Organization Classification (10 aggressive NK-cell leukemia cases and 17 extranodal NK/T-cell [NK/T] lymphomas, nasal type).
  • The recurrent regions characteristic of the aggressive NK-cell leukemia group compared with those of the extranodal NK/T lymphoma, nasal-type group, were gain of 1q and loss of 7p15.1-p22.3 and 17p13.1.
  • Recurrent regions characteristic of the extranodal NK/T lymphoma, nasal-type group, compared with those of the other group were gain of 2q, and loss of 6q16.1-q27, 11q22.3-q23.3, 5p14.1-p14.3, 5q34-q35.3, 1p36.23-p36.33, 2p16.1-p16.3, 4q12, and 4q31.3-q32.1.
  • Our results can be expected to provide further insights into the genetic basis of lymphomagenesis and the clinicopathologic features of NK-cell lymphomas/leukemias.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Genome, Human. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, T-Cell / genetics. Nose Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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17. Suzuki R: Treatment of advanced extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal-type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2010 Dec;92(5):697-701
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  • [Title] Treatment of advanced extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal-type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) with advanced stage and aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) are highly aggressive neoplasms with a dismal clinical outcome.
  • This is a major reason for the refractoriness to conventional chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant lymphoma containing anthracycline.
  • Optimal treatment scheme using such effective agents for these unfavorable NK-cell tumors should further be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21116747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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18. Osuji N, Matutes E, Morilla A, Del Giudice I, Wotherspoon A, Catovsky D: Prolonged treatment response in aggressive natural killer cell leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 May;46(5):757-63
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  • [Title] Prolonged treatment response in aggressive natural killer cell leukemia.
  • We describe a case of natural killer (NK) cell leukemia with acute presentation, systemic symptoms and hepatosplenomegaly.
  • The uniform and aberrant phenotype of NK cells with infiltration of bone marrow and spleen was in keeping with a malignant diagnosis.
  • Aggressive presentation was demonstrated by marked constitutional symptoms and significant tumor burden (liver, spleen, blood, bone marrow).
  • We discuss the difficulties in the diagnosis of this condition, explore possible causes of cytopenia(s), and highlight the role of immunosuppression in controlling disease manifestations in large granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16019515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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19. Kothapalli R, Nyland SB, Kusmartseva I, Bailey RD, McKeown TM, Loughran TP Jr: Constitutive production of proinflammatory cytokines RANTES, MIP-1beta and IL-18 characterizes LGL leukemia. Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):529-35
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  • [Title] Constitutive production of proinflammatory cytokines RANTES, MIP-1beta and IL-18 characterizes LGL leukemia.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disease often associated with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • However, a comprehensive analysis of constitutive chemokine and lymphokine production in LGL leukemia has not previously been reported.
  • RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, IL-1beta, IL-10, IL-12 p35, IL-18, IFN-gamma and IL-1Ra were the cytokine transcripts expressed in elevated levels from RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of LGL leukemia patients.
  • Confirmatory ELISAs indicated that sera from LGL leukemia patients have elevated levels of RANTES, MIP-1beta, IL-18, and to a lesser extent IL-8 and IL-1Ra.
  • This pattern of cytokine upregulation is similar to that seen in some chronic infections or in autoimmune diseases, thus characterizing LGL leukemia as a proinflammatory disorder.

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  • (PMID = 15645140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CCL3; 0 / Chemokine CCL4; 0 / Chemokine CCL5; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / IL1RN protein, human; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; 0 / Interleukin-18; 0 / Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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20. Ko YH, Park S, Kim K, Kim SJ, Kim WS: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia: is Epstein-Barr virus negativity an indicator of a favorable prognosis? Acta Haematol; 2008;120(4):199-206

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia: is Epstein-Barr virus negativity an indicator of a favorable prognosis?
  • Aggressive natural killer (NK) cell leukemia (ANKL) is a prototype of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid malignancy, which is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a median survival interval <2 months.
  • In conclusion, EBV-negative ANKL is an uncommon malignancy that pursues a less aggressive clinical course than EBV-positive ANKL.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Leukemia, T-Cell / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Recurrence. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19153474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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21. Duong YT, Jia H, Lust JA, Garcia AD, Tiffany AJ, Heneine W, Switzer WM: Short communication: Absence of evidence of HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 in patients with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2008 Dec;24(12):1503-5
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  • [Title] Short communication: Absence of evidence of HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 in patients with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia.
  • Clonal disorders of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) result in leukemia due to the expansion of a discrete subset of either CD3(+) T cells or natural killer (NK) cells.
  • The possible involvement of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in this disease has been studied but no conclusive evidence has linked either virus with LGL leukemia.
  • In this study, we examined whether HTLV-3 or HTLV-4, two newly identified HTLV groups discovered in Central Africa in primate hunters, is involved in LGL leukemia.
  • We developed two specific real-time PCR quantitative assays that are highly sensitive, capable of detecting 10 copies of HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 pol sequences in a background of 1 microg of DNA from human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL).
  • We tested PBL DNA samples from 40 LGL leukemia patients in the United States and found that all samples were negative for HTLV-3 or HTLV-4 infection.
  • These results suggest that HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 are not the causative agent of LGL leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV / isolation & purification. HIV-2 / isolation & purification. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphocytes / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. United States

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  • (PMID = 19102684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-8405
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Bourgault-Rouxel AS, Loughran TP Jr, Zambello R, Epling-Burnette PK, Semenzato G, Donadieu J, Amiot L, Fest T, Lamy T: Clinical spectrum of gammadelta+ T cell LGL leukemia: analysis of 20 cases. Leuk Res; 2008 Jan;32(1):45-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum of gammadelta+ T cell LGL leukemia: analysis of 20 cases.
  • We report on the clinico-biological characteristics of 20 cases of gammadelta T cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia.
  • All the data were compared to that of 196 cases with alphabeta T cell subtype, which represents the majority of T cell LGL leukemias.
  • Gammadelta LGL predominantly expressed a CD3+/CD4-/CD8+/CD16+/CD57+ phenotype, in 50% of cases.
  • gammadelta and alphabeta T cell LGL leukemia harbor a very similar clinico-biological behavior and represent part of an antigen-driven T cell lymphoproliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Clone Cells. Female. Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Leukopenia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta. Splenomegaly / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17544120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
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23. Choi YL, Moriuchi R, Osawa M, Iwama A, Makishima H, Wada T, Kisanuki H, Kaneda R, Ota J, Koinuma K, Ishikawa M, Takada S, Yamashita Y, Oshimi K, Mano H: Retroviral expression screening of oncogenes in natural killer cell leukemia. Leuk Res; 2005 Aug;29(8):943-9
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  • [Title] Retroviral expression screening of oncogenes in natural killer cell leukemia.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is an intractable malignancy that is characterized by the outgrowth of NK cells.
  • To identify transforming genes in ANKL, we constructed a retroviral cDNA expression library from an ANKL cell line KHYG-1.
  • Mutation-specific PCR analysis indicated that the KRAS mutation was present only in KHYG-1 cells, not in another ANKL cell line or in clinical specimens (n=8).
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Genetic Testing / methods. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. Leukemia / genetics. Oncogenes. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Retroviridae / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 3T3 Cells. Animals. Cell Line. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Gene Library. Humans. Mice. Mutation. Transfection. ras Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15978945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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24. Thomas A, Perzova R, Abbott L, Benz P, Poiesz MJ, Dube S, Loughran T, Ferrer J, Sheremata W, Glaser J, Leon-Ponte M, Poiesz BJ: LGL leukemia and HTLV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2010 Jan;26(1):33-40
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  • [Title] LGL leukemia and HTLV.
  • Samples were obtained from 53 large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL) patients and 10,000 volunteer blood donors (VBD).
  • [MeSH-major] HIV-2 / isolation & purification. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / isolation & purification. Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 / isolation & purification. Human T-lymphotropic virus 3 / isolation & purification. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Blotting, Western / methods. Cross Reactions. Endogenous Retroviruses / immunology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. Humans. Leukemia Virus, Bovine / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20047475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-8405
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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25. Jaccard A, Petit B, Girault S, Suarez F, Gressin R, Zini JM, Coiteux V, Larroche C, Devidas A, Thiéblemont C, Gaulard P, Marin B, Gachard N, Bordessoule D, Hermine O: L-asparaginase-based treatment of 15 western patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and leukemia and a review of the literature. Ann Oncol; 2009 Jan;20(1):110-6
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  • [Title] L-asparaginase-based treatment of 15 western patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and leukemia and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and aggressive NK-cell leukemia are highly aggressive diseases with a poor outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: These data, although retrospective, confirm the excellent activity of L-asparaginase-containing regimens in refractory extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • First-line L-asparaginase combination therapy for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and aggressive NK-cell leukemia should be tested in prospective trials.

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  • (PMID = 18701429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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26. Bonkobara M, Saito T, Yamashita M, Tamura K, Yagihara H, Isotani M, Sato T, Washizu T: Blastic natural killer cell leukaemia in a dog--a case report. Vet J; 2007 Nov;174(3):659-62
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  • [Title] Blastic natural killer cell leukaemia in a dog--a case report.
  • A case of canine non-T, non-B lymphoid leukaemia was determined to be of natural killer (NK) cell lineage by detecting specific expression of canine CD56 mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • Although NK cells are usually considered to be morphologically large granular lymphocytes, the malignant NK cells in this case were agranular and blast-like, resembling human blastic NK cell leukaemia.
  • The prognosis of human NK cell leukaemia is usually poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17113799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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27. Lee AJ, Kim SG, Jeon CH, Suh HS, Yoon GS, Seo AN: A case of natural killer cell leukemia misdiagnosed as tuberculous lymphadenopathy. Korean J Lab Med; 2009 Jun;29(3):194-8
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  • [Title] A case of natural killer cell leukemia misdiagnosed as tuberculous lymphadenopathy.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are a group of rare but highly malignant tumors.
  • We report here one case of NK cell leukemia.
  • Because of the absence of the markers of T-cell, B-cell, and myeloid lineage-specific antigens, we added CD16/56 for the immunophenotyping and the blasts were positive (94%).
  • The tumor cells of biopsied lymph node were only positive for CD56, consistent with NK cell lymphoma.
  • Thus this patient was diagnosed with blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia involving bone marrow and lymph node.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Bone Marrow / pathology. Female. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19571615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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28. Gogia A, Kakar A, Byotra SP, Bhargav M: Aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia: a rare and fatal disorder. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Nov;58:702-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia: a rare and fatal disorder.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms, which include extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal and extra-nasal) and aggressive NK cell leukaemia, are generally rare, but they are more common in people of Oriental, Mexican and South American descent.
  • These neoplasms are highly aggressive, and show a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukaemia affects younger patients, who present with poor general condition, fever, and disseminated disease; they often die within a short time from systemic disease or complications such as multi-organ failure.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukaemia must be distinguished from T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukaemia and indolent NK cell lympho-proliferative disorder, both of which are indolent.
  • We present a case of young Asian male with aggressive NK cell leukaemia who presented with a poor general condition and disseminated disease.
  • The patient had a rapidly progressive disease and died within weeks of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21510468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic; 0 / anti-IgG
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29. Sokol L, Loughran TP Jr: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Oncologist; 2006 Mar;11(3):263-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Clonal disorders of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) represent a spectrum of biologically distinct lymphoproliferative diseases originating either from mature T cells (CD3+) or natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-).
  • Both subtypes, T-cell and NK-cell LGL leukemia, can manifest as indolent or aggressive disorders.
  • The majority of patients with T-cell LGL leukemia have a clinically indolent course with a median survival time >10 years.
  • Several cases of an aggressive variant (CD3+ CD56+) of T-cell LGL leukemia with a poor prognosis have also been reported.
  • Aggressive NK-cell LGL leukemia is usually a rapidly progressive disorder associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), with a higher prevalence in Asia and South America.
  • Chronic NK-cell leukemia/lymphocytosis is a rare EBV-negative disorder with an indolent clinical course.
  • The malignant origin of this subtype is uncertain because clonality is difficult to determine in LGLs of NK-cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, T-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Autoimmune Diseases / etiology. Cytogenetic Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematologic Diseases / etiology. Humans. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 16549811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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30. Ito T, Makishima H, Nakazawa H, Kobayashi H, Shimodaira S, Nakazawa Y, Kitano K, Matsuda K, Hidaka E, Ishida F: Promising approach for aggressive NK cell leukaemia with allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation. Eur J Haematol; 2008 Aug;81(2):107-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Promising approach for aggressive NK cell leukaemia with allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVES: Aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia (ANKL) is a malignant disorder of mature NK cells with a poor prognosis, for which no effective therapeutic approach has been established.
  • We investigated the role of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantion (allo-HCT) in ANKL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 18462253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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31. Osuji N, Del Giudice I, Matutes E, Morilla A, Owusu-Ankomah K, Morilla R, Dunlop A, Catovksy D: CD52 expression in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia--implications for treatment with alemtuzumab. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 May;46(5):723-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD52 expression in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia--implications for treatment with alemtuzumab.
  • Few reports on the successful treatment of T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with the humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab are emerging in the literature.
  • Using semi-quantitative 2- and 3-color flow cytometry, we documented the expression of CD52 in 100% of abnormal cells in T-cell LGL leukemia (n = 11) and natural killer (NK) cell LGL leukemia (n = 2), and showed no significant difference in CD52 expression between T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and T-cell LGL leukemia.
  • Higher CD52 expression has been noted in responders to alemtuzumab in T-cell PLL and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a B-cell disorder.
  • The strong and consistent expression of CD52 shown here highlights the potential role of alemtuzumab in the treatment of refractory T-cell LGL leukemia and possibly aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphoid / immunology. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16019510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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32. Greer JP, Mosse CA: Natural killer-cell neoplasms. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2009 Oct;4(4):245-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer-cell neoplasms.
  • The natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms are rare, representing less than 1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, except in Asia and Latin America, where they represent 3% to 6%.
  • NK-cell neoplasms include immature acute leukemias; a blastic NK-cell lymphoma, which is obsolete because of its plasmacytoid dendritic-cell origin; and mature NK neoplasms, comprising extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal-type; aggressive NK-cell leukemia; and chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, which are often reactive.
  • Epstein-Barr virus is usually detected in tumor cells of ENKL and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • The latter two mature NK neoplasms are relatively chemoresistant because of the frequent expression of P-glycoprotein.
  • Stem cell transplantation is recommended for advanced disease, owing to a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Lineage. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20425414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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33. Kitchen BJ, Boxer LA: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL) in a child with hyper IgM syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):142-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL) in a child with hyper IgM syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Flow cytometry of the peripheral blood revealed the presence of a marked predominance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, shown to be clonal, with concomitant natural killer (NK) antigen expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune / complications. Hyper-IgM Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / complications


34. Ham MF, Ko YH: Natural killer cell neoplasm: biology and pathology. Int J Hematol; 2010 Dec;92(5):681-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer cell neoplasm: biology and pathology.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasm is a heterogeneous disease group.
  • In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (2008), disease entities considered as NK-cell derivation include NK-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, and extranodal NK-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.
  • Despite recent advances in NK-cell research, which have expanded our understanding of the biology of NK-cell neoplasm, it cannot yet be sharply delineated from myeloid neoplasms and T-cell neoplasms even in some "well-known" entity, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • This review describes current knowledge of the biology of NK cells and pathology of NK neoplasms as classified in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21132576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Yonescu R, Hristov AC, Ahmad A, Overby A, Thomas GH, Griffin CA: Cytogenetic characterization of natural killer cell leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jun;183(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytogenetic characterization of natural killer cell leukemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are rare neoplasms characterized by cells with NK characteristics.
  • Karyotype of the unstimulated peripheral blood at diagnosis was 46,XX,i(7)(q10),der(17)t(1;17)(q21;p11.1),-18,+mar[15].
  • Notably, a single cell with only an i(7q) was found, suggesting that this was the primary chromosomal abnormality in the neoplasm.
  • The abnormalities seen in chromosomes 7 and 17 are consistent with previous reports of chromosomal abnormalities in NK-cell lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 18503833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Gross SA, Zhu X, Bao L, Ryder J, Le A, Chen Y, Wang XQ, Irons RD: A prospective study of 728 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma from a single laboratory in Shanghai, China. Int J Hematol; 2008 Sep;88(2):165-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective study of 728 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma from a single laboratory in Shanghai, China.
  • Diagnosis and classification was established in a single laboratory according to the 2001 WHO classification system.
  • The frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was 87.6% (n = 728) and Hodgkin lymphoma was 12.4% (n = 103).
  • The most prevalent NHL subtypes diagnosed using WHO criteria were diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL).
  • Although a low incidence has been reported in some Asian populations, CLL/SLL was commonly encountered, indicating that chronic lymphoid neoplasms are not rare in Shanghai.
  • Consistent with previous reports, our findings indicate a decrease in the frequency of follicular lymphoma and an increase in T cell neoplasms compared to the West.
  • Precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, anaplastic large T cell lymphoma, aggressive NK cell leukemia, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma and peripheral T cell lymphoma were prominent subtypes of T cell NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / classification. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / ethnology

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  • (PMID = 18648906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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37. Shah MV, Zhang R, Loughran TP Jr: Never say die: survival signaling in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009;9 Suppl 3:S244-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Never say die: survival signaling in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a rare disorder of mature cytotoxic T or natural killer cells.
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of cytotoxic cells in blood and infiltration in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen.
  • Herein, we review clinical features of LGL leukemia.
  • We focus our discussion on known survival signals believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of LGL leukemia and their potential therapeutic implications.

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  • (PMID = 19778848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94872
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 88
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS671956; NLM/ PMC4377229
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38. Kwong YL: Natural killer-cell malignancies: diagnosis and treatment. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2186-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer-cell malignancies: diagnosis and treatment.
  • Natural killer (NK)-cell malignancies are uncommon diseases.
  • Previously known as polymorphic reticulosis or angiocentric T-cell lymphomas, they are classified by the World Health Organization as NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • Pathologically, NK-cell lymphomas show a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with an angioinvasive and angiodestructive pattern.
  • Lymphoma cells are characteristically CD2+, CD56+ and cytoplasmic CD3epsilon+.
  • T-cell receptor gene is germline, and clonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is almost invariably.
  • Clinically, they can be divided into nasal, non-nasal, and aggressive lymphoma/leukemia subtypes.
  • Most nasal NK-cell lymphomas present with stage I/II disease, and frontline radiotherapy is the most important key to successful treatment.
  • Chemotherapy is indicated for advanced nasal NK-cell lymphoma, and the non-nasal and aggressive subtypes.
  • High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be beneficial to selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia. Lymphoma

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  • (PMID = 16179910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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39. Ishida F, Kwong YL: Diagnosis and management of natural killer-cell malignancies. Expert Rev Hematol; 2010 Oct;3(5):593-602
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of natural killer-cell malignancies.
  • Natural killer (NK)-cell malignancies are uncommon neoplasms, which have been referred to as polymorphic reticulosis or angiocentric T-cell lymphomas in the past.
  • In the current WHO classification, they are categorized as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia.
  • NK-cell malignancies show a geographical predilection for Asian and South American populations and are rare in the west.
  • Pathologically, NK-cell lymphomas show a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angioinvasion and angiodestruction.
  • The lymphoma cells are CD2(+), cytoplasmic CD3ε(+) and CD56(+), with germline T-cell receptor gene.
  • Clinically, NK-cell lymphomas can be classified into nasal, non-nasal and aggressive lymphoma/leukemia subtypes.
  • Most nasal NK-cell lymphomas present with stage I/II disease.
  • Chemotherapy is indicated for stage III/IV nasal NK-cell lymphoma, and the non-nasal and aggressive subtypes.
  • High-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells may be beneficial to selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD. Asia / epidemiology. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence. Severity of Illness Index. South America / epidemiology. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 21083476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-4094
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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40. Huang Q, Chang KL, Gaal KK, Weiss LM: An aggressive extranodal NK-cell lymphoma arising from indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Nov;29(11):1540-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An aggressive extranodal NK-cell lymphoma arising from indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.
  • Indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, also known as chronic natural killer (NK) cell large granular lymphocytosis (leukemia), is a very rare entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic & Lymphoid Tissues.
  • Unlike aggressive NK-cell leukemia, which is malignant, the WHO does not specify whether indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder is reactive or neoplastic.
  • Patients with indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder are usually asymptomatic older adults who have a nonprogressive, very stable clinical course.
  • We report an unusual case of an aggressive extranodal NK-cell lymphoma, non-nasal type, which presented as a subcutaneous tissue mass, which apparently transformed from a preexisting, untreated indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in an 65-year-old otherwise healthy white man.
  • The extranodal NK-cell lymphoma and the NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in the blood and bone marrow share a distinctive and identical NK-cell immunophenotype and genotype: CD56/CD8/TIA-1-positive and surface CD3-negative, negative for Epstein-Barr virus infection, and no evidence of T-cell and B-cell receptor gene rearrangements.
  • To the best of our knowledge, such aggressive lymphomatous transformation in an indolent NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications

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  • (PMID = 16224224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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41. Lazaro E, Caubet O, Menard F, Pellegrin JL, Viallard JF: [Large granular lymphocyte leukemia]. Presse Med; 2007 Nov;36(11 Pt 2):1694-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Large granular lymphocyte leukemia].
  • [Transliterated title] Leucémies à grands lymphocytes granuleux.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal proliferation of cytotoxic cells, either CD3(+) (T-cell) or CD3(-) (natural killer, or NK).
  • Both subtypes can manifest as indolent or aggressive disorders.
  • T-LGL leukemia is associated with cytopenias and autoimmune diseases and most often has an indolent course and good prognosis.
  • NK-LGL leukemias can be more aggressive.
  • LGL expansion is currently hypothesized to be a virus (Ebstein Barr or human T-cell leukemia viruses) antigen-driven T-cell response that involves disruption of apoptosis.
  • The diagnosis of T-LGL is suggested by flow cytometry and confirmed by T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies.
  • Clonality is difficult to determine in NK-LGL but use of monoclonal antibodies specific for killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) has improved this process.
  • Treatment is required when T-LGL leukemia is associated with recurrent infections secondary to chronic neutropenia.
  • NK-LGL leukemias may be more aggressive and refractory to conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic

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  • (PMID = 17596907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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42. Liang X, Graham DK: Natural killer cell neoplasms. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1425-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer cell neoplasms.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell tumors are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of disorders.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classified mature NK cell neoplasms into 2 types:.
  • 1) extranodal NK cell lymphoma, nasal type and 2) aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • The mature NK cell tumors are prevalent in Asia and Central and South America.
  • Although blastic NK cell lymphoma, currently referred to as CD4+/CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm, also was included in the NK cell lymphoma category in the WHO classification scheme, existing evidence indicates a plasmacytoid dendritic cell derivation as opposed to an NK cell origin.
  • These tumors are characterized by blastic appearance, CD3-/CD4-/CD56+/CD13-/CD33- phenotype, T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin genes in germline configuration, and no evidence of EBV, suggesting a true immature NK cell derivation.
  • For this article, the authors reviewed the recent concepts and progress in clinicopathologic features, pathogenesis, genetic characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment approaches, and outcomes of all subtypes of NK cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18286525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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43. Alekshun TJ, Tao J, Sokol L: Aggressive T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Hematol; 2007 Jun;82(6):481-5
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  • [Title] Aggressive T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The majority of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia will have an indolent clinical course.
  • Herein, we report a case of an aggressive T-cell LGL leukemia in a previously healthy 42-year-old Caucasian male who presented with acute onset of B-symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphocytosis, moderate anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • Immunophenotypically, the malignant cells co-expressed CD3(+)CD8(+)CD56(+) markers and the T-cell receptor beta (TCR beta) gene demonstrated clonal rearrangement.
  • A systematic review of all available English literature revealed 12 well-described cases of aggressive T-cell LGL leukemia suggesting that this variant is a new and distinct entity in the spectrum of LGL disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17205534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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44. Franco G, Palazzolo R, Liardo E, Tripodo C, Mancuso S: T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia in association with Sjögren's syndrome. Acta Haematol; 2010;124(1):5-8
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  • [Title] T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia in association with Sjögren's syndrome.
  • T cell large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare condition accounting for 2-3% of all mature lymphoid leukemias.
  • Hematological assessment revealed the presence of a T cell LGL leukemia.
  • At the time of T cell LGL leukemia diagnosis, the patient developed xerophthalmia and xerostomia, and a diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome was made following salivary gland biopsy.
  • The finding of large granular lymphocytes in the context of autoimmune disorders is well-known, though it often occurs with rheumatoid arthritis or in association with a positive autoantibody titer in the absence of an overt clinical picture.
  • The concomitant presentation of T cell LGL leukemia with Sjögren's syndrome is a rare event which is worth reporting.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20501987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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45. Liang X, Greffe B, Garrington T, Graham DK: Precursor natural killer cell leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Apr;50(4):876-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Precursor natural killer cell leukemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell tumors are a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders.
  • Immature NK cell tumors are less common, and are less recognized and defined than mature NK cell tumors.
  • There is insufficient experience of diagnosis and treatment with immature NK cell tumors, especially in pediatric patients.
  • Here we describe a pediatric patient with precursor NK cell leukemia and review the literature of the previously reported cases in children to further help characterize the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17417789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Yamaguchi M, Suzuki R, Kwong YL, Kim WS, Hasegawa Y, Izutsu K, Suzumiya J, Okamura T, Nakamura S, Kawa K, Oshimi K: Phase I study of dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, and etoposide (SMILE) chemotherapy for advanced-stage, relapsed or refractory extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma and leukemia. Cancer Sci; 2008 May;99(5):1016-20
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  • [Title] Phase I study of dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, and etoposide (SMILE) chemotherapy for advanced-stage, relapsed or refractory extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma and leukemia.
  • Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and aggressive NK-cell leukemia are rare, and their standard therapy has not been established.
  • At level 1, six patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, were enrolled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18294294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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47. Shah A, Diehl LF, St Clair EW: T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with rheumatoid arthritis and neutropenia. Clin Immunol; 2009 Aug;132(2):145-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with rheumatoid arthritis and neutropenia.
  • T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is a disease characterized by clonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs).
  • We present herein a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neutropenia, large granular lymphocytosis, and an expanded clonal population of peripheral blood CD3(+)CD8(+)TCRalphabeta CTLs, consistent with the diagnosis of T-LGL.
  • T-LGL is part of a spectrum of large granular lymphocytic (LGL) disorders, which includes the more common indolent variety of this disease (as illustrated by the case herein), an aggressive but rare form of this leukemia, natural killer (NK) cell LGL leukemia, Felty's syndrome (FS), and chronic large granular lymphocytosis.
  • T-LGL appears to be a relatively rare disease, but the true prevalence is not known.
  • Thus, T-LGL leukemia and FS with LGL expansion in the setting of RA is classically distinguished by the clonality of the CTL population, with monoclonality in T-LGL and polyclonality in FS.
  • Despite this difference, T-LGL and FS are often similar in their clinical and biological behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis. Neutropenia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Flow Cytometry. Humans. Lymphocytosis / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Review Literature as Topic. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology


48. Osuji N, Matutes E, Wotherspoon A, Catovsky D: Lessons from a case of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia suggesting that immunomodulatory therapy is more effective than intensive treatment. Leuk Res; 2005 Feb;29(2):225-8
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  • [Title] Lessons from a case of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia suggesting that immunomodulatory therapy is more effective than intensive treatment.
  • Leukemia treatment strives to eradicate the malignant clone.
  • With T-cell large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia, the onus of treatment appears to be modification of the disease rather than eradication of the clone.
  • We describe a case of T-cell LGL leukemia where aggressive, eradicative type therapy proved ineffective.
  • The patient achieved hematological response to low dose oral methotrexate after failing to respond to and/or tolerate eight previous treatments including CAMPATH-1H and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • We highlight the resistant nature of the LGL clone and discuss the relative merits of immunomodulatory type therapy in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Methotrexate / pharmacology. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Res. 2005 Feb;29(2):123-5 [15607357.001]
  • (PMID = 15607372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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49. Kawamata N, Inagaki N, Mizumura S, Sugimoto KJ, Sakajiri S, Ohyanagi-Hara M, Oshimi K: Methylation status analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes (p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1 and p73) in natural killer cell disorders. Eur J Haematol; 2005 May;74(5):424-9
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  • [Title] Methylation status analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes (p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1 and p73) in natural killer cell disorders.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell disorders are rare diseases.
  • In this study we analyze the methylation status of the genes associated with cell cycle regulation, including p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p21/Waf1/Cip1, p27/Kip1, p73, and p14ARF, by methylation specific (MS) PCR and/or bisulfite sequencing.
  • We examined 29 cases of NK cell disorders (five aggressive NK cell leukemia/lymphoma, three blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia, five nasal NK cell lymphoma, three myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia, 13 chronic NK lymphocytosis).
  • We found methylation of the first exon of the p16INK4A gene in two cases (one aggressive, one blastic), and methylation of the p14ARF gene in one aggressive NK cell leukemia.
  • MS-PCR suggested that the p73 and p21 genes were methylated in seven cases, respectively (p73: one blastic, one nasal, five chronic; p21: one myeloid/NK, one aggressive, one nasal, and four chronic); bisulfite sequencing confirmed that methylated alleles of these genes were dominant in the samples except three cases (one myeloid/NK, one aggressive, and one chronic) in which methylated alleles of the p21 genes were less than 34% of all alleles.
  • These results suggested that inactivation of the cell cycle regulatory genes by DNA methylation could be associated with tumorigenesis in NK cell disorders, not only aggressive subtypes but also chronic subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Killer Cells, Natural / physiology. Leukemia / genetics. Lymphoma / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15813917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN2B protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tumor suppressor protein p73
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50. Epling-Burnette PK, Sokol L, Chen X, Bai F, Zhou J, Blaskovich MA, Zou J, Painter JS, Edwards TD, Moscinski L, Yoder JA, Djeu JY, Sebti S, Loughran TP Jr, Wei S: Clinical improvement by farnesyltransferase inhibition in NK large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with imbalanced NK receptor signaling. Blood; 2008 Dec 1;112(12):4694-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical improvement by farnesyltransferase inhibition in NK large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with imbalanced NK receptor signaling.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is commonly associated with poor hematopoiesis.
  • The first case of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) was observed in a 57-year-old woman with natural killer (NK)-LGL leukemia and transfusion-dependent anemia.
  • Using a genetic approach, we demonstrated that killing of pulmonary endothelial cells by patient NK cells was mediated by dysregulated balance in activating and inhibitory NK-receptor signaling.
  • Elevated pulmonary artery pressure and erythroid differentiation improved after disrupting the NK-receptor signaling pathway with 4 courses of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, tipifarnib.
  • Coincidental association between PAH and LGL leukemia suggest a causal relationship between the expanded lymphocyte population and these clinical manifestations.

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  • (PMID = 18791165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019397; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI056213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94872; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54RR019397-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11211201; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI056213
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / Receptors, Natural Killer Cell; 192185-72-1 / tipifarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597136
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51. Yang J, Liu X, Nyland SB, Zhang R, Ryland LK, Broeg K, Baab KT, Jarbadan NR, Irby R, Loughran TP Jr: Platelet-derived growth factor mediates survival of leukemic large granular lymphocytes via an autocrine regulatory pathway. Blood; 2010 Jan 7;115(1):51-60
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  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor mediates survival of leukemic large granular lymphocytes via an autocrine regulatory pathway.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia results from chronic expansion of cytotoxic T cells or natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Recent network modeling analyses identified platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) as a key master switch in controlling these survival pathways in T-cell LGL leukemia.
  • Here we show that an autocrine PDGF regulatory loop mediates survival of leukemic LGLs of both T- and NK-cell origin.
  • We found high levels of circulating PDGF-BB in platelet-poor plasma samples from LGL leukemia patients.
  • Leukemic cells expressed much higher levels of PDGFR-beta transcripts than purified normal CD8(+) T cells or NK cells.
  • We observed that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase), Src family kinase (SFK), and downstream protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT pathways were constitutively activated in both T- and NK-LGL leukemia.
  • Neutralizing antibody to PDGF-BB inhibited PKB/AKT phosphorylation induced by LGL leukemia sera.
  • These results suggest that targeting of PDGF-BB, a pivotal regulator for the long-term survival of leukemic LGLs, may be an important therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Autocrine Communication. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / pathology. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Neutralizing / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Lymphocytes / enzymology. Lymphocytes / pathology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. src-Family Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19880494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112112
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neutralizing; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor BB; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803691
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52. Yang J, Epling-Burnette PK, Painter JS, Zou J, Bai F, Wei S, Loughran TP Jr: Antigen activation and impaired Fas-induced death-inducing signaling complex formation in T-large-granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood; 2008 Feb 1;111(3):1610-6
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  • [Title] Antigen activation and impaired Fas-induced death-inducing signaling complex formation in T-large-granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Clonal T-cell expansion in patients with T-large-granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia occurs by an undefined mechanism that may be related to Fas apoptosis resistance.
  • We show that cells from LGL leukemia patients express increased levels of c-FLIP and display resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis and abridged recruitment of proteins that comprise the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), including the Fas-associated protein with death-domain (FADD) and caspase-8.
  • Exposure to interleukin-2 (IL-2) for only 24 hours sensitized leukemic LGL to Fas-mediated apoptosis with enhanced formation of the DISC, and increased caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities.
  • We observed dysregulation of c-FLIP by IL-2 in leukemic LGL, suggesting a role in Fas resistance.
  • Our results demonstrate that expanded T cells in patients with LGL leukemia display both functional and phenotypic characteristics of prior antigen activation in vivo and display reduced capacity for Fas-mediated DISC formation.

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  • (PMID = 17993614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112112; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01-AI056213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA94872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA112112; United States / CSRD VA / CX / I01 CX000114; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI056213
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2214759
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53. Friedman J, Schattner A, Shvidel L, Berrebi A: Characterization of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with Sjogren's syndrome-an important but under-recognized association. Semin Arthritis Rheum; 2006 Apr;35(5):306-11
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  • [Title] Characterization of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with Sjogren's syndrome-an important but under-recognized association.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with T-cell (CD3+) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia have a high prevalence of autoantibodies and associated autoimmune diseases.
  • We set to determine the prevalence of Sjogren's syndrome in LGL leukemia and its cytokine profile.
  • METHODS: Every patient with a confirmed diagnosis of LGL leukemia diagnosed at a single academic medical center over the last 15 years was evaluated for Sjogren's syndrome by questioning about sicca symptoms.
  • Supernatants obtained from T-LGL leukemic cells following phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activation were analyzed for cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and patients with or without Sjogren's syndrome were compared with controls.
  • Supernatants of T-LGL leukemia cells incubated with PHA revealed markedly increased levels of multiple cytokines (especially soluble interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, IL-8) compared with healthy controls.
  • However, this increase was common to LGL leukemia patients with or without Sjogren's syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sjogren's syndrome was commonly identified in the patients with T-cell LGL leukemia in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, T-Cell / epidemiology. Sjogren's Syndrome / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Autoantibodies / immunology. Cytokines / immunology. Female. Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 16616153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-0172
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Cytokines
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54. Sokol L, Loughran TP Jr: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2007 Oct;2(4):278-82
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  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Clonal diseases of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) represent a spectrum of clinically rare lymphoproliferative malignancies arising from either mature T-cell (CD3(+)) or natural killer (NK)-cell (CD3(-)) lineages.
  • The clinical behavior of these disorders ranges from indolent to very aggressive.
  • Patients with symptomatic indolent T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemia are usually treated with immunosuppressive therapies; in contrast, aggressive T-cell or NK-cell LGL leukemias require intensive chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / complications. Leukemia, T-Cell / epidemiology. Leukemia, T-Cell / immunology. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Neutropenia / etiology. Opportunistic Infections / etiology. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20425381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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55. Yu J, Ershler M, Yu L, Wei M, Hackanson B, Yokohama A, Mitsui T, Liu C, Mao H, Liu S, Liu Z, Trotta R, Liu CG, Liu X, Huang K, Visser J, Marcucci G, Plass C, Belyavsky AV, Caligiuri MA: TSC-22 contributes to hematopoietic precursor cell proliferation and repopulation and is epigenetically silenced in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood; 2009 May 28;113(22):5558-67
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  • [Title] TSC-22 contributes to hematopoietic precursor cell proliferation and repopulation and is epigenetically silenced in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Here we demonstrate that the TSC-22 promoter is methylated in primary mouse T or natural killer (NK) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia and this is associated with down-regulation or silencing of TSC-22 expression.
  • The TSC-22 deregulation was reversed in vivo by a 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine therapy of T or NK LGL leukemia, which significantly increased survival of the mice bearing this disease.
  • Ectopic expression of TSC-22 in mouse leukemia or lymphoma cell lines resulted in delayed in vivo tumor formation.
  • Collectively, our data suggest that TSC-22 normally contributes to the regulation of HPC function and is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is hypermethylated and silenced in T or NK LGL leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 19329776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA93548; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA101956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093548; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA68458; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA068458; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA095426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA068458
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tgfb1i4 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689053
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56. Marx A, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hartmann M, Geissinger E, Zettl A, Adam P, Rüdiger T: [Lymphomas of the spleen]. Pathologe; 2008 Mar;29(2):136-42
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  • The spleen is commonly affected by malignant lymphomas and the macroscopic findings of the spleen correlate with different lymphoma entities.
  • Exceptions include splenic marginal zone lymphomas and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphomas that are typically diagnosed from histological findings.
  • In addition, hairy-cell leukemia, LGL leukemia and T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia typically show characteristic patterns of infiltration in the spleen which may be diagnostically useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Leukemia, Hairy Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Splenectomy

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  • (PMID = 18214484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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57. Ishmael J, Dugard PH: A review of perchloroethylene and rat mononuclear cell leukemia. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2006 Jul;45(2):178-84
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  • [Title] A review of perchloroethylene and rat mononuclear cell leukemia.
  • Mononuclear cell leukemia (MNCL) is an extremely common spontaneous disease of ageing F344 rats accompanied by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukemic infiltration (initially of the spleen, liver, and lung).
  • MNCL cells possess natural killer (NK) cell characteristics and apparently, the neoplastic cells derive from large granular lymphocytes (LGL), hence the alternative name of LGL leukemia.
  • LGL leukemia is uncommon in man and occurs in two forms: T-LGL leukemia which has a chronic course, and the much rarer NK-LGL leukemia.
  • In addition to cell type, the latter resembles F344 LGL leukemia being acute in course and involving more pronounced splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia.
  • Chemically related increases in MNCL in F344 rats have not been associated with induction of human LGL leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens, Environmental / toxicity. Leukemia, Lymphoid / chemically induced. Tetrachloroethylene / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 16684583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; TJ904HH8SN / Tetrachloroethylene
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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58. Duarte AF, Nogueira A, Mota A, Baudrier T, Canelhas A, Cancela J, Lima M, Azevedo F: Leg ulcer and thigh telangiectasia associated with natural killer cell CD56(-) large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a patient with pseudo-Felty syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Mar;62(3):496-501
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  • [Title] Leg ulcer and thigh telangiectasia associated with natural killer cell CD56(-) large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a patient with pseudo-Felty syndrome.
  • Clonal disorders of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) represent a rare spectrum of biologically distinct lymphoproliferative diseases originating either from mature T cells or natural killer cells.
  • Both subtypes can manifest as indolent or aggressive disorders.
  • Because of the association of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly, and nonspecific neutropenia, the diagnosis of Felty syndrome was initially made.
  • Further investigation allowed the diagnosis of a CD56(-) natural killer-cell LGL leukemia and documented skin infiltration by natural killer cells.
  • Cutaneous manifestations of LGL leukemia have been rarely reported.
  • This report of pseudo-Felty syndrome with CD56(-) LGL leukemia, presenting with a leg ulcer and telangiectasia, enhances the role of dermatology in the diagnosis of hematologic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leg Ulcer / pathology. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / pathology. Telangiectasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Felty Syndrome / diagnosis. Felty Syndrome / pathology. Female. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Neutropenia / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19962215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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59. Reddy LH, Ferreira H, Dubernet C, Mouelhi SL, Desmaele D, Rousseau B, Couvreur P: Squalenoyl nanomedicine of gemcitabine is more potent after oral administration in leukemia-bearing rats: study of mechanisms. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Nov;19(10):999-1006
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  • [Title] Squalenoyl nanomedicine of gemcitabine is more potent after oral administration in leukemia-bearing rats: study of mechanisms.
  • In an earlier report, we demonstrated the superior anticancer efficacy of orally administered squalenoyl gemcitabine (SQdFdC) nanomedicine over its parent drug gemcitabine on rats bearing RNK-16 large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia.
  • In the present communication, we investigated the mechanisms behind this observation both at the cell and tissue level.
  • The mechanisms were investigated by performing cytotoxicity, cell uptake, and biodistribution experiments.
  • In the presence of cytidine deaminase, SQdFdC nanoassemblies resisted deamination and exerted significant anticancer activity in vitro against RNK-16 LGL leukemia cells, whereas the cytotoxicity of free gemcitabine decreased by approximately 83-fold, indicating its degradation due to deamination.
  • The resistance to deamination, followed by the improved pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution, and greater accumulation and retention at the level of cancer cells, are the key factors for the superiority of SQdFdC nanoassemblies over free gemcitabine against RNK-16 LGL leukemia in rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia, Experimental / drug therapy. Nanomedicine. Squalene / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 18827565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(N)-tris-nor-qualenoyl-gemcitabine; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 7QWM220FJH / Squalene; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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60. Hodge DL, Yang J, Buschman MD, Schaughency PM, Dang H, Bere W, Yang Y, Savan R, Subleski JJ, Yin XM, Loughran TP Jr, Young HA: Interleukin-15 enhances proteasomal degradation of bid in normal lymphocytes: implications for large granular lymphocyte leukemias. Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;69(9):3986-94
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  • [Title] Interleukin-15 enhances proteasomal degradation of bid in normal lymphocytes: implications for large granular lymphocyte leukemias.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal proliferative disease of T and natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Interleukin (IL)-15 is important for the development and progression of LGL leukemia and is a survival factor for normal NK and T memory cells.
  • Using an adoptive transfer model, we show that NK cells from Bid-deficient mice survive longer than cells from wild-type control mice when transferred into IL-15-null mice.
  • In normal human NK cells, IL-15 significantly reduces Bid accumulation.
  • In primary leukemic LGLs, Bid levels are low but are reversed with bortezomib treatment with subsequent increases in LGL apoptosis.
  • Overall, these data provide a novel molecular mechanism for IL-15 control of Bid that potentially links this cytokine to leukemogenesis through targeted proteasome degradation of Bid and offers the possibility that proteasome inhibitors may aid in the treatment of LGL leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 19366803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA BC009283-25
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / Bid protein, mouse; 0 / Interleukin-15; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161038; NLM/ PMC2786937
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61. Osuji N, Matutes E, Catovsky D, Lampert I, Wotherspoon A: Histopathology of the spleen in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: a comparative review. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jul;29(7):935-41
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  • [Title] Histopathology of the spleen in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: a comparative review.
  • We review retrospectively the spleen histology in 8 patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia and 4 with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) to identify characteristic patterns of involvement and to distinguish such patterns from those described in other low grade B- and T-cell malignancies.
  • Moderate splenic enlargement with red pulp expansion due to lymphocytic infiltration was characteristic of LGL leukemia.
  • Abnormal lymphocytes expressed cytotoxic granule proteins and were consistently CD45RO and CD5 negative in contrast to normal red pulp T cells.
  • Unlike in hairy cell leukemia, the main differential diagnosis for red pulp lymphocytosis, the white pulp was not only preserved in T-cell LGL leukemia but showed germinal center hyperplasia with expansion of the mantle zones.
  • T-PLL lymphocytes, unlike LGLs, were more invasive, infiltrating the spleen capsule as well as white pulp areas.
  • T-cell prolymphocytes did not express cytotoxic granule proteins or NK-cell markers, were CD5+, CD45RO+ like normal spleen T cells, were CD2+, CD3+, CD45+, CD43+, TCRbeta+, but CD25-, CD30-, ALK-1-, TRAP-, DBA44-, and TdT-.
  • These observations on the morphologic and immunohistochemical appearances of the spleen in T-cell LGL leukemia and T-PLL may aid diagnosis of these uncommon T-cell disorders, particularly T-cell LGL leukemia, where presentation may be cryptic and where unique pathognomonic features, are absent.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / pathology. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15958859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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62. Tanaka Y, Matsui K, Yamashita K, Matsuda K, Shinohara K, Matsutani A: T-gamma delta large granular lymphocyte leukemia preceded by pure red cell aplasia and complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Intern Med; 2006;45(9):631-5
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  • [Title] T-gamma delta large granular lymphocyte leukemia preceded by pure red cell aplasia and complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • A 51-year-old man developed anemia, and was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia through the absence of erythroid progenitors.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with the T-cell gamma delta phenotype evolved after 6 months showing CD2+, CD3+, CD8- and CD56- with the T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangement, clonalities of gamma and delta genes and complex chromosome abnormality simultaneously with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).
  • In the present patient, it seemed that lymphoproliferative disease of large granular lymphocytes (LDGL) manifested initially as PRCA, gammadelta LGL leukemia evolved, and finally fatal HPS become complicated, presumably caused by the EBV reactivation in the immunodeficiency state with the administration of immunosuppressants.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Leukemia, Lymphoid / complications. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / complications. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / virology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / metabolism. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure / complications


63. Ma R, Xu YG, Yang XH, Hu XM, Li L, Tang XD, Zhang SS, Xu S, Wang HZ, Liu F: [Immunophenotypic features in leukemia of NK cell series]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;14(1):35-8
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  • [Title] [Immunophenotypic features in leukemia of NK cell series].
  • The aim was to investigate the immunophenotypes of NK series leukemia.
  • Immunophenotypes of 297 cases of acute leukemia (AL) were measured by flow cytometry, and these immucopenotypic features were analyzed.
  • 6 cases were NK series leukemia and 37 cases were acute myelogenous leukemia with CD56 expressed.
  • One patient has been diagnosed as myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia, two patients were blastic NK cell leukemia, one was supposed to be NK-like T-cell lymphoma/leukemia, while another one was large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL).
  • It is concluded that almost all of CD56 positive leukemia were acute myelogenous leukemia with CD56 expressed.
  • The immunophenotypes of NK series leukemia were antigens from hematopoietic stem cells to T/NK progenitor cells with meyloid antigen positive, and through NK progenitors to mature NK cells.
  • The immunophenotypes of heterogeneous NK leukemia cells are different, that should be carefully distinguished.

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  • (PMID = 16584587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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64. Choi YL, Park JH, Kim WS, Lee DY, Lee JH, Yang JM, Lee ES: Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia associated with reactive haemophagocytic syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2006 Jan;31(1):83-5
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  • [Title] Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia associated with reactive haemophagocytic syndrome.
  • We report a case of aggressive NK-cell leukaemia associated with reactive haemophagocytic syndrome in a 29-year-old Korean woman who had several small purpuric patches on both thighs.
  • Laboratory tests revealed pancytopenia and deranged liver function, and atypical lymphocytes containing toxic granules were detected from peripheral blood and bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia / immunology. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16309492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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65. Ahmad E, Kingma DW, Jaffe ES, Schrager JA, Janik J, Wilson W, Stetler-Stevenson M: Flow cytometric immunophenotypic profiles of mature gamma delta T-cell malignancies involving peripheral blood and bone marrow. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 Sep;67(1):6-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flow cytometric immunophenotypic profiles of mature gamma delta T-cell malignancies involving peripheral blood and bone marrow.
  • BACKGROUND: In this study we compared clinical findings with flow cytometric immunophenotypic results in a series of patients with aggressive and indolent gamma delta T-cell malignancies with peripheral blood and/or bone marrow involvement.
  • METHODS: Gamma delta T-cell malignancies were detected based on flow cytometric demonstration of an abnormal T-cell population staining positive with T-cell receptor gamma delta and confirmed by morphologic and clinical reviews.
  • Hepatosplenic and cutaneous gamma delta T-cell lymphomas had an aggressive clinical course, whereas the gamma delta T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemias had an indolent course.
  • Expressions of CD5, CD8, CD16, and CD57 differed in gamma delta T-cell LGL leukemia compared with hepatosplenic and cutaneous gamma delta T-cell lymphomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma delta T-cell malignancies have a poor prognosis with the exception of gamma delta T-cell LGL leukemia (indolent process).
  • Because CD57 expression is specific for gamma delta T-cell LGL leukemias, expression of this antigen may be associated with a more indolent clinical course.
  • Because cutaneous gamma delta T-cell lymphoma can present with peripheral blood involvement, flow cytometric evaluation of peripheral blood is important in staging these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / immunology. Flow Cytometry. Immunophenotyping. Leukemia, T-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / immunology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Separation. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / immunology. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15973700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
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66. Oshimi K: Progress in understanding and managing natural killer-cell malignancies. Br J Haematol; 2007 Nov;139(4):532-44
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  • [Title] Progress in understanding and managing natural killer-cell malignancies.
  • The World Health Organization classification of haematolymphoid tumours recognizes three categories of natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms: blastic NK-cell lymphoma, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia, and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.
  • Recent studies indicate that CD4+CD56+ blastic NK-cell lymphoma is of plasmacytoid dendritic cell origin, and true tumours of precursor NK-cell origin may be present mainly in the CD4-CD56+ subset.
  • Myeloid/NK-cell precursor acute leukaemia may also develop from precursor NK cells.
  • However, because the developmental pathway of normal NK cells is not well understood, tumours of precursor NK-cell origin are not clearly identified.
  • Among mature NK-cell tumours, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma is relatively common in Asia and Latin America.
  • Aggressive NK-cell leukaemia is rare and has a poor prognosis.
  • Because NK-cell neoplasms are rare and difficult to manage, rigorous studies are required for their understanding and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Cell Lineage. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chronic Disease. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Preleukemia / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17916099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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67. Osuji N, Matutes E, Tjonnfjord G, Grech H, Del Giudice I, Wotherspoon A, Swansbury JG, Catovsky D: T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A report on the treatment of 29 patients and a review of the literature. Cancer; 2006 Aug 1;107(3):570-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A report on the treatment of 29 patients and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, there is no standard treatment for patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia.
  • METHODS: The authors report on the use of immunosuppressants (cyclosporin A [CSA] and low-dose oral methotrexate [MTX] given continuously) and cytotoxic agents in the treatment of 29 patients with T-cell LGL leukemia age over the past 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both MTX and CSA were efficacious in the treatment of T-cell LGL leukemia but generally required long-term maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2006 Dec 1;107(11):2744
  • (PMID = 16795070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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68. Rossi D, Franceschetti S, Capello D, De Paoli L, Lunghi M, Conconi A, Gaidano G: Transient monoclonal expansion of CD8+/CD57+ T-cell large granular lymphocytes after primary cytomegalovirus infection. Am J Hematol; 2007 Dec;82(12):1103-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transient monoclonal expansion of CD8+/CD57+ T-cell large granular lymphocytes after primary cytomegalovirus infection.
  • In this article, we describe a case of transient monoclonal CD8+/CD57+ T-cell lymphocytosis with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology occurring after primary CMV infection and review cases of virus-associated monoclonal CD8+ T-cell expansions reported in the literature.
  • Several clinical features shared by virus-associated monoclonal CD8+ T-cell expansions suggest the reactive nature of the lymphocytosis.
  • Based on this, our case report and those reported in the literature support the notion that T-cell receptor clonality per se is not necessarily indicative of malignancy.
  • These observations further corroborate the need for a close follow-up before assigning the diagnosis of LGL leukemia to individuals developing monoclonal CD8+ T-cell expansions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD57 / immunology. Antigens, CD8 / immunology. Cytomegalovirus Infections / immunology. Lymphocytosis / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17626255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD57; 0 / Antigens, CD8
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69. Chen X, Bai F, Sokol L, Zhou J, Ren A, Painter JS, Liu J, Sallman DA, Chen YA, Yoder JA, Djeu JY, Loughran TP, Epling-Burnette PK, Wei S: A critical role for DAP10 and DAP12 in CD8+ T cell-mediated tissue damage in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood; 2009 Apr 2;113(14):3226-34
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  • [Title] A critical role for DAP10 and DAP12 in CD8+ T cell-mediated tissue damage in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, or LGLL, is characterized by increased numbers of circulating clonal LGL cells in association with neutropenia, anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH).
  • Here, we show that LGLL cells from patients possess enhanced cytotoxic characteristics and express elevated levels of activating natural killer receptors as well as their signaling partners, DAP10 and DAP12.

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  • (PMID = 19075187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA11211201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA94872; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI056213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI056213
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, CD28; 0 / HCST protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, Natural Killer Cell; 0 / TYROBP protein, human; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665892
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70. Risitano AM, Maciejewski JP, Muranski P, Wlodarski M, O'Keefe C, Sloand EM, Young NS: Large granular lymphocyte (LGL)-like clonal expansions in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients. Leukemia; 2005 Feb;19(2):217-22
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte (LGL)-like clonal expansions in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients.
  • In vivo expansion of dominant T-cell clones can reflect an antigen-driven immune response but may also represent autonomous proliferation, such as in large granular lymphocytic (LGL)-leukemia.
  • T-cell clonality can be assessed by a combination of T-cell receptor (TCR) flow cytometry and complementarity-determining-region-3 (CDR3) molecular analysis.
  • We studied 24 PNH patients for evidence of in vivo dominant T-cell responses by flow cytometry; TCR-Vbeta-specific expansions were identified in all patients.
  • In four cases, extreme expansions of one Vbeta-subset of CD8+/CD28-/CD56+ (effector) phenotype mimicked subclinical LGL-disease.
  • We conclude that the molecular analysis of TCR-beta chain may demonstrate clonal LGL-like expansions at unexpected frequency in PNH patients.
  • Our observations blur the classical boundaries between different bone marrow failure syndromes such as AA, PNH, and LGL, and support the hypothesis that in PNH, the mutant clone may expand as a result of an immune-escape from antigen-driven lymphocyte attack on hematopoietic progenitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / etiology. Membrane Proteins / blood

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  • (PMID = 15668701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complementarity Determining Regions; 0 / Glycosylphosphatidylinositols; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / phosphatidylinositol glycan-class A protein
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71. Olteanu H, Karandikar NJ, Eshoa C, Kroft SH: Laboratory findings in CD4(+) large granular lymphocytoses. Int J Lab Hematol; 2010 Feb;32(1 Pt 1):e9-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laboratory findings in CD4(+) large granular lymphocytoses.
  • Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is an uncommon disorder of mature T or natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Most T-LGL proliferations are CD3(+)/CD8(+), although rare CD4(+) clonal T-LGL expansions have been reported.
  • We report the clinicopathologic features of eight patients with aberrant CD4(+), cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytoses.
  • Morphologic expansions of granulated lymphocytes were evident in 6/8.
  • Abnormal levels of expression of two or more T-cell antigens were seen in all cases.
  • Our results support that CD4(+) T-LGL lymphocytosis is a clonal disorder with clinicopathologic characteristics distinct from the more common CD8(+) variant.
  • [MeSH-major] CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20089001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD57
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72. Liu X, Ryland L, Yang J, Liao A, Aliaga C, Watts R, Tan SF, Kaiser J, Shanmugavelandy SS, Rogers A, Loughran K, Petersen B, Yuen J, Meng F, Baab KT, Jarbadan NR, Broeg K, Zhang R, Liao J, Sayers TJ, Kester M, Loughran TP Jr: Targeting of survivin by nanoliposomal ceramide induces complete remission in a rat model of NK-LGL leukemia. Blood; 2010 Nov 18;116(20):4192-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting of survivin by nanoliposomal ceramide induces complete remission in a rat model of NK-LGL leukemia.
  • The natural killer (NK) type of aggressive large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a fatal illness that pursues a rapid clinical course.
  • Here we report that the survivin was highly expressed in both aggressive and chronic leukemic NK cells but not in normal NK cells.
  • In vitro treatment of human and rat NK-LGL leukemia cells with cell-permeable, short-chain C₆-ceramide (C₆) in nanoliposomal formulation led to caspase-dependent apoptosis and diminished survivin protein expression, in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
  • Importantly, systemic intravenous delivery of nanoliposomal ceramide induced complete remission in the syngeneic Fischer F344 rat model of aggressive NK-LGL leukemia.
  • These data suggest that in vivo targeting of survivin through delivery of nanoliposomal C₆-ceramide may be a promising therapeutic approach for a fatal leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 20671121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098472; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Birc5 protein, rat; 0 / Ceramides; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993625
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73. Viny AD, Lichtin A, Pohlman B, Loughran T, Maciejewski J: Chronic B-cell dyscrasias are an important clinical feature of T-LGL leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 May;49(5):932-8
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Leukemia, B-cell, chronic.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic B-cell dyscrasias are an important clinical feature of T-LGL leukemia.
  • T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is characterised by semiautonomous proliferation of monoclonal cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which can result in neutropenia, splenomegaly, and is associated with various autoimmune disorders, particularly rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The coexistence of T-LGL leukemia with B cell abnormalities has previously been identified in case reports.
  • Analysis of 63 T-LGL patients revealed a frequent association with humoral immune system abnormalities.
  • We identified coexisting B cell dyscrasias in 17 T-LGL patients (27% of total), of whom 12 had monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) (19%), and 5 had chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (8%).
  • The presence of both MGUS and CLL was found in 2 patients (3%) and follicular lymphoma was identified with MGUS in another T-LGL patient (2%).
  • Additionally, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia was found in 10 additional LGL leukemia patients bringing the total frequency of B cell abnormalities in T-LGL leukemia to 43% in our cohort.
  • The co-association of B cell pathology with T-LGL suggests that either a common antigen drives clonal B and T cells, or that humoral malignancy could serve as the stimulus for lymphocyte expansion representing an overactive anti-tumour surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / etiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Agammaglobulinemia / complications. Comorbidity. Humans. Hypergammaglobulinemia / complications. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications. Lymphoma, Follicular / complications. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 May;49(5):845-6 [18464104.001]
  • (PMID = 18452068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Sabnani I, Zucker MJ, Tsang P, Palekar S: Clonal T-large granular lymphocyte proliferation in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Proc; 2006 Dec;38(10):3437-40
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clonal T-large granular lymphocyte proliferation in solid organ transplant recipients.
  • Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare disorder, usually caused by clonal proliferation of CD3+ CD57+ T-LGL cells.
  • T-cell clonality is confirmed by rearrangements of the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene.
  • Characteristic features of T-LGL leukemia include neutropenia, anemia, and constitutional symptoms such as fatigue.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of T-LGL proliferation in solid organ transplant recipients and demonstrate its association with leukopenia and anemia.
  • Ten of 14 (71%) cardiac transplant patients and 4 of 9 (44%) renal transplant patients, without evidence of either allograft rejection or a viral syndrome, were found to have clonal expansion of T-LGL cells.
  • Although TCR gene rearrangement is considered a hallmark of T-LGL leukemia, we believe that this monoclonality is not a true form of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / immunology. Kidney Transplantation / immunology. Lymphocyte Activation. T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / immunology. Antigens, CD3 / immunology. Cell Division. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Leukopenia / immunology. Postoperative Complications / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17175296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
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75. Sano T, Ozaki K, Kodama Y, Matsuura T, Narama I: Malignant Lymphoma with Severe Infiltrative Growth into Skeletal Muscles in WBN/Kob Rats. J Toxicol Pathol; 2009 Sep;22(3):173-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant Lymphoma with Severe Infiltrative Growth into Skeletal Muscles in WBN/Kob Rats.
  • Although spontaneously occurring neoplasms have been reported repeatedly in F344, SD and Wistar rats, which are commonly used strains for routine toxicologic and carcinogenicity studies, there are only a few reports of malignant lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia except for large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGL) in F344 rats.
  • Malignant lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is thought to be uncommon in F344 rats.
  • The authors encountered malignant lymphomas of the non-LGL leukemia type with characteristic pathologic features in WBN/Kob rats.
  • Immunohistochemically, all tumor cells were positive for B-cell markers (PAX-5, CD79a and CD45) and negative for CD3.
  • From the results of immunohistochemistry and morphological examination, these tumors were diagnosed as malignant B-cell lymphomas.

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  • (PMID = 22271991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-9198
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3251631
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; B cell / WBN/Kob rat / malignant lymphoma
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76. Wlodarski MW, Nearman Z, Jiang Y, Lichtin A, Maciejewski JP: Clonal predominance of CD8(+) T cells in patients with unexplained neutropenia. Exp Hematol; 2008 Mar;36(3):293-300

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: T-cell-mediated autoimmunity may be involved in some cases of idiopathic neutropenia.
  • We hypothesized that a precise T-cell receptor repertoire analysis may uncover cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) expansions that are less pronounced than those seen in T large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL), but are pathophysiologically analogous and thus can serve as markers of a T-cell-mediated process.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using rational algorithms for T-cell receptor analysis and in vivo tracking of CTL responses previously established in our laboratory, we studied patients with unexplained chronic neutropenia (n = 20), T-LGL (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 12).
  • In comparison to LGL leukemia, these clones were less immunodominant, but clearly discernible from subclinical lymphoproliferations in controls.
  • Oligogoclonal CTL expansions in chronic neutropenia may indicate an ongoing autoimmune process, while highly polarized monoclonalities in a subset of neutropenic LGL patients may represent the "extreme" end of the clonal continuum.

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  • (PMID = 18279717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-472X
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113972-04; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR 019391; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019397-05S16959; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 113972-01; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL 73429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113972; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR019397-05S16959; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL073429-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113972-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL073429-04; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019397; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL073429; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / S10 RR019391
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS83525; NLM/ PMC2643087
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77. Sokol L, Agrawal D, Loughran TP Jr: Characterization of HTLV envelope seroreactivity in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leuk Res; 2005 Apr;29(4):381-7
Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource. gene/protein/disease-specific - Related Immune Epitope Information .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of HTLV envelope seroreactivity in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.
  • We have previously reported that patients with T-LGL leukemia were seroreactive against BA21, a 34 amino acid peptide derived from HTLV-I envelope protein p21.
  • We tested sera from 70 patients with T-LGL leukemia and found that 21/70 (30%) of them were seroreactive against fusion peptide GST-BA21.
  • Competitive Western blot assay with use of fusion peptides revealed that the minimal HTLV-I epitope responsible for seroreactivity found in patients with T-LGL leukemia is a decapeptide PP10 (p21 env 417-426).
  • These results further define the epitope responsible for HTLV env seroreactivity observed in LGL leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Deltaretrovirus Antigens / blood. Leukemia, Lymphoid / virology. Viral Envelope Proteins / blood

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  • (PMID = 15725471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Deltaretrovirus Antigens; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins
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78. Gill H, Liang RH, Tse E: Extranodal natural-killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Adv Hematol; 2010;2010:627401

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extranodal natural-killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 2 main categories of natural killer (NK) cell-derived neoplasms, namely, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and aggressive NK-cell leukaemia.
  • Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is more frequent in the Far East and Latin America.
  • The role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is yet to be clearly defined.
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with the putative graft-versus-lymphoma effect, offers a potentially curative option in patients with advanced disease.

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  • (PMID = 21234094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9112
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018635
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79. Sprague WS, TerWee JA, VandeWoude S: Temporal association of large granular lymphocytosis, neutropenia, proviral load, and FasL mRNA in cats with acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2010 Mar 15;134(1-2):115-21
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  • [Title] Temporal association of large granular lymphocytosis, neutropenia, proviral load, and FasL mRNA in cats with acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • During acute feline immunodeficiency virus-C(PGammar) (FIV-C-PG) infection, we observed that cats develop large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis concurrent with a marked neutropenia that is temporally associated with the rise and fall of FIV-C-PG proviral loads.
  • LGLs, generally considered to be analogous to natural killer (NK) cells, can also be highly cytolytic CD8/CD57 T cells.
  • During HIV-1 infection, LGLs have been shown to be both CD16(+) NK cells and CD8(+)/CD57(+) T cells, but an association with neutropenia has not been described.
  • However, neutropenia with concurrent LGL lymphocytosis has been demonstrated in both LGL leukemia and common variable immunodeficiency syndrome in people, and in both syndromes, an increase in soluble Fas ligand (FasL) has been associated with neutrophil apoptosis leading to neutropenia.
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increases in CD56 and CD8 peripheral blood cell surface expression during acute FIV-C-PG infection.
  • We describe an interesting temporal association between innate immune responses and viral load during acute FIV-C-PG infection, which has similarities to HIV-1 infection and other immune dyscrasias of people, and which may contribute to the neutropenia and LGL lymphocytosis during FIV-C-PG infection.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19896217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2534
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL092791-07; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL092791; United States / PHS HHS / / 5 R01 AL-52055; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL092791-07; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / 5R0HL092791
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / CD8 antigen, alpha chain; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS152697; NLM/ PMC2821998
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80. Howe EC, Wlodarski M, Ball EJ, Rybicki L, Maciejewski JP: Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotype in immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes. Exp Hematol; 2005 Nov;33(11):1357-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotype in immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes.
  • OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have shown that killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and KIR ligand (KIR-L) genotype play a role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders.
  • The objective of this study is to establish the frequency of specific KIR genes and KIR-L alleles in aplastic anemia (AA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplasia (MDS), and large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL), as compared with healthy control patients.
  • METHODS: KIR genotyping was performed on DNA from 113 patients with AA, PNH, MDS, and LGL using sequence specific primer amplification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Aplastic / genetics. Anemia, Aplastic / immunology. Case-Control Studies. Gene Frequency. Genotype. Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal / genetics. Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics. Humans. Immunity. Leukemia, Lymphoid / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphoid / immunology. Ligands. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / immunology. Receptors, KIR. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16263420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-472X
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, KIR
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81. Ando M, Sugimoto K, Kitoh T, Sasaki M, Mukai K, Ando J, Egashira M, Schuster SM, Oshimi K: Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase. Br J Haematol; 2005 Sep;130(6):860-8
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  • [Title] Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase.
  • We examined the effectiveness of various anti-tumour agents to natural killer (NK)-cell tumour cell lines and samples, which are generally resistant to chemotherapy, using flow cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay.
  • Although NK-YS and NK-92 were highly resistant to various anti-tumour agents, l-asparaginase induced apoptosis in these two NK-cell lines.
  • NK-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) samples were selectively sensitive to l-asparaginase and to doxorubicin (DXR) respectively.
  • Samples of chronic NK lymphocytosis, an NK-cell disorder with an indolent clinical course, were resistant to both drugs.
  • Our study clearly separated two major categories of NK-cell disorders and ALL according to the sensitivity to DXR and l-asparaginase.
  • At least in nasal-type NK-cell lymphoma, there was a good correlation among asparagine synthetase expression, in vitro sensitivity and clinical response to l-asparaginase.
  • In aggressive NK-cell leukaemia, although asparagine synthetase expression was high at both mRNA and protein levels, l-asparaginase induced considerable apoptosis.
  • We confirmed rather specific anti-tumour activity of l-asparaginase against NK-cell tumours in vitro, which provides an experimental background to the clinical use of l-asparaginase for NK-cell tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Asparaginase / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / biosynthesis. Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Lymphocytosis / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16156856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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82. Murashige N, Kami M, Kishi Y, Kim SW, Takeuchi M, Matsue K, Kanda Y, Hirokawa M, Kawabata Y, Matsumura T, Kusumi E, Hirabayashi N, Nagafuji K, Suzuki R, Takeuchi K, Oshimi K: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a promising treatment for natural killer-cell neoplasms. Br J Haematol; 2005 Aug;130(4):561-7
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  • [Title] Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a promising treatment for natural killer-cell neoplasms.
  • The efficacy of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms is unknown.
  • We investigated the results of allo-HSCT for NK-cell neoplasms between 1990 and 2003 through questionnaires.
  • After reclassification by a haematopathologist, of 345 patients who underwent allo-HSCT for malignant lymphoma, 28 had NK-cell neoplasms (World Health Organization classification): extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (n=22), blastic NK-cell lymphoma (n=3), and aggressive NK-cell leukaemia (n=3).
  • Stem-cell source was bone marrow in eight and mobilised peripheral blood in 20.
  • In multivariate analysis, stem cell source (BM versus peripheral blood; relative risk 3.03), age (>or=40 years vs. <40 years; relative risk 2.85), and diagnoses (extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma versus others; relative risk 3.94) significantly affected PFS.
  • Allo-HSCT is a promising treatment for NK-cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16098071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Suzuki S, Uozumi K, Utsunomiya A, Ishitsuka K, Masamoto I, Owatari S, Makino T, White Y, Arima N: Aggressive NK cell leukaemia after splenectomy: association with CD95-resistant memory T-cell proliferation and recalcitrant clinical course of haemophagocytic syndrome. Eur J Haematol; 2008 Sep;81(3):236-41
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  • [Title] Aggressive NK cell leukaemia after splenectomy: association with CD95-resistant memory T-cell proliferation and recalcitrant clinical course of haemophagocytic syndrome.
  • We describe a 44-yr-old Japanese woman with persistent polyclonal T-cell proliferation and recalcitrant clinical course of haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).
  • T cells bearing alphabeta T-cell receptors (TCR) expressed increased amounts of CD95 and of CD45RO, which are phenotypically memory T cells.
  • Aggressive natural killer cell leukaemia (ANKL) without an association with Epstein-Barr virus was detected 1 month after therapeutic splenectomy that followed 3 yr of immunosuppressive therapy against HPS.
  • The immunophenotype of these leukaemia cells was CD56, CD16(dim), CD7, CD45RA and they expressed some CD2, CD8 and HLA-DR.
  • Latent NK-cell malignancy seemed to cause the CD95-resistant memory T-cell proliferation and splenectomy resulted in overt ANKL progression.
  • There should be careful consideration of the risks versus benefits of splenectomy in HPS, in light of the possibility of fatal leukaemia/lymphoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / physiology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia / immunology. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / immunology. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / therapy. Splenectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Chromosome Aberrations. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Karyotyping. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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84. Oshimi K, Kawa K, Nakamura S, Suzuki R, Suzumiya J, Yamaguchi M, Kameoka J, Tagawa S, Imamura N, Ohshima K, Kojya S, Iwatsuki K, Tokura Y, Sato E, Sugimori H, NK-cell Tumor Study Group: NK-cell neoplasms in Japan. Hematology; 2005 Jun;10(3):237-45
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  • [Title] NK-cell neoplasms in Japan.
  • Neoplasms putatively originating from precursor and mature natural killer (NK) cells are rare, and their clinical features are unclear.
  • A nationwide survey was performed in Japan to clarify the clinical features of these neoplasms diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and data for 237 patients who met the criteria for putative NK cell-lineage neoplasms were analyzed.
  • Among them, 11 had myeloid/NK-cell precursor acute leukemia, 15 blastic NK-cell lymphoma, 21 precursor NK-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 22 aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 149 nasal-type NK-cell lymphoma (123 nasal and 26 extranasal) and 19 chronic NK lymphocytosis.
  • The median overall survival time of patients with aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma was 2 months, which for chronic NK lymphocytosis was more than 8 years, and that for the other types of NK-cell neoplasms was between 6 and 22 months.
  • Nasal NK-cell lymphoma and extranasal NK-cell lymphoma share the same histology.
  • The age of affliction was the same, but the sex was different with males predominantly having nasal NK-cell lymphoma and females extranasal NK-cell lymphoma.
  • Patients with extranasal NK-cell lymphoma had the tendency to exhibit a more advanced state of disease, with significantly higher International Prognostic Index and LDH levels, and significantly lower hemoglobin and platelet levels.
  • Precursor NK-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic NK-cell lymphoma were arbitrarily defined by the presence or absence of 30% or more of blastic cells in the bone marrow or peripheral blood, but there were no significant differences for affected age, gender, involved sites or prognosis.
  • Aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma and extranasal NK-cell lymphoma were arbitrarily defined by the presence or absence of 30% or more of large granular lymphocytes in the bone marrow or peripheral blood and it is possible that aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a leukemic phase of extranasal NK-cell lymphoma.
  • The incidence of skin involvement, however, was significantly higher for extranasal NK-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the two diseases are different.
  • In nasal NK-cell lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus in tumor cells was detected in all patients tested, suggesting its causative role.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Lymphoma / mortality. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16019472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-5332
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Gandhi J: Natural killer cell leukaemia. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Natural killer cell leukaemia.
  • She was initially admitted with sepsis without an obvious cause but with a differential diagnosis of a haematological malignancy.
  • Her admission blood tests showed a mildly reduced white cell count and low platelets.
  • The patient underwent two bone marrow biopsies, a percutaneous liver biopsy and had flow cytometry of her ascitic fluid, which revealed the diagnosis of a natural killer cell leukaemia.

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  • [Cites] Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Dec;45(12):2427-38 [15621755.001]
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  • (PMID = 21886653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3031875
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86. Kwong YL: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in natural killer cell lymphoma and leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2010 Dec;92(5):702-7
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  • [Title] Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in natural killer cell lymphoma and leukemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas and leukemias are aggressive neoplasms.
  • Clinically, they can be classified into nasal, non-nasal and lymphoma/leukemia subtypes.
  • High-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may improve patient outcome.
  • For autologous HSCT, a critical review of the literature shows that most patients with nasal NK cell lymphoma in complete remission (CR) appear to do well without HSCT.
  • Therefore, identification of patients with nasal NK cell lymphoma in CR who are at high risk of relapse may be necessary before autologous HSCT can be recommended.
  • Patients with disseminated nasal NK cell lymphoma, non-nasal NK cell lymphoma and NK cell leukemia have poor outcome with autologous HSCT.
  • Continuous efforts should be devoted to risk stratification for identifying high-risk individuals for HSCT, and defining the optimal conditioning regimen for NK cell lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21107769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Nava VE, Jaffe ES: The pathology of NK-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Jan;12(1):27-34
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  • [Title] The pathology of NK-cell lymphomas and leukemias.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas and leukemias are a rare but clinically important group of neoplasms.
  • Most of these tumors are aggressive, with a high rate of mortality.
  • They include extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas of nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemias.
  • A closely related entity seen mainly in children is hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma, which also is EBV positive.
  • The differential diagnosis of NK-cell malignancies includes fulminant EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, a condition referred to in the past as fatal infectious mononucleosis.
  • Benign proliferations of NK cells can be seen in association with viral infection.
  • The disease formerly referred to as blastic NK-cell lymphoma is now considered to be a malignancy derived from a dendritic cell precursor.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia / physiopathology. Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15614162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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88. Lesport E, Baudhuin J, LeMaoult J, Sousa S, Doliger C, Carosella ED, Favier B: Human melanoma cell secreting human leukocyte antigen-G5 inhibit natural killer cell cytotoxicity by impairing lytic granules polarization toward target cell. Hum Immunol; 2009 Dec;70(12):1000-5
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  • [Title] Human melanoma cell secreting human leukocyte antigen-G5 inhibit natural killer cell cytotoxicity by impairing lytic granules polarization toward target cell.
  • The inhibitory role of HLA-G1 on NK cell cytotoxicity is well characterized; however, that of the HLA-G5 isoform secreted by tumor is poorly understood.
  • Our results indicate that the HLA-G5 isoform secreted by M8 melanoma cells is able to protect them from natural killer leukemia cell line (NKL) cytotoxicity.
  • Analysis of NKL/M8-HLA-G5 conjugates by confocal microscopy demonstrates that the inhibition of NKL cytotoxic activity resulted from an impairment of NKL actin reorganization and perforin granules polarization toward M8-HLA-G5 target cell.
  • This study also indicates that HLA-G5 soluble isoform remains evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of M8-HLA-G5 conjugated to NKL cells, suggesting that HLA-G5 does not require to polarize toward effector cell to induce efficient inhibition.
  • These results highlight the inhibitory mechanisms mediated through HLA-G5 leading to tumor escape from NK cell cytotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytoplasmic Granules / immunology. HLA Antigens / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Melanoma / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Tumor Escape
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / immunology. Actins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic / immunology. HLA-G Antigens. Humans. Perforin / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19654030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-G Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 126465-35-8 / Perforin
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89. Schellekens J, Tilanus MG, Rozemuller EH: The elucidation of KIR2DL4 gene polymorphism. Mol Immunol; 2008 Apr;45(7):1900-6

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  • The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells recognize defined groups of HLA class I alleles.
  • By this mechanism the NK cells fulfil a significant role in the first line of defense against infectious agents and cancer.
  • For the treatment of leukaemia this NK cell allorecognition is of great importance.

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  • (PMID = 18082267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5890
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / KIR2DL4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, KIR2DL4
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90. Kishimoto S, Muramatsu M, Gokoh M, Oka S, Waku K, Sugiura T: Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand induces the migration of human natural killer cells. J Biochem; 2005 Feb;137(2):217-23

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  • [Title] Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand induces the migration of human natural killer cells.
  • In this study, we first examined the effects of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on the motility of human natural killer cells.
  • We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the migration of KHYG-1 cells (a natural killer leukemia cell line) and human peripheral blood natural killer cells.
  • The migration of natural killer cells induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was abolished by treating the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the CB2 receptor is involved in the 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration.
  • It is conceivable that the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, that is, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, affects natural killer cell functions such as migration, thereby contributing to the host-defense mechanism against infectious viruses and tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonic Acids / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Glycerides / physiology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bornanes / pharmacology. Cell Line. Endocannabinoids. Humans. Ligands. Pyrazoles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15749836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-924X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arachidonic Acids; 0 / Bornanes; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / Glycerides; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2; 0 / SR 144528; 53847-30-6 / 2-arachidonylglycerol
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91. Gubbels JA, Felder M, Horibata S, Belisle JA, Kapur A, Holden H, Petrie S, Migneault M, Rancourt C, Connor JP, Patankar MS: MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells. Mol Cancer; 2010 Jan 20;9:11
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  • [Title] MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells.
  • Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets.
  • RESULTS: Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells.
  • MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls.
  • The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls.
  • CONCLUSION: MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets.
  • Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells.

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  • (PMID = 20089172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14520
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CD226 antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / KLRK1 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / MUC16 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2818693
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92. Guerrero A M, Lira V P, Bertin C P, Galleguillos V M, Ocqueteau T M: [Natural killer cell leukemia. Case report]. Rev Med Chil; 2005 Apr;133(4):457-60
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  • [Title] [Natural killer cell leukemia. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Leucemia de células natural killer. Caso clínico.
  • Natural killer leukemia is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm, is more common in young male patients and has a very poor prognosis, with a median survival of few weeks.
  • Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy showed an acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • The immunophenotype and immunohistochemistry revealed a natural killer acute leukemia.
  • The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died shortly after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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93. Jeon YK, Park CH, Kim KY, Li YC, Kim J, Kim YA, Paik JH, Park BK, Kim CW, Kim YN: The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, induces apoptotic cell death in Epstein-Barr virus-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma by Akt down-regulation. J Pathol; 2007 Oct;213(2):170-9
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  • [Title] The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, induces apoptotic cell death in Epstein-Barr virus-positive NK/T-cell lymphoma by Akt down-regulation.
  • NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) is strongly associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
  • Recently, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an EBV oncoprotein, was reported to activate the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway for cell survival.
  • Because geldanamycin (GA) and its derivative, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), exhibit anti-tumour activity by degrading HSP90 client proteins, including Akt, we investigated the effect of GA and 17-AAG on the survival of NKTL cell lines.
  • EBV-positive NKTL cell lines, Hank-1 and NK-YS, and an EBV-negative NK leukaemia cell line, NK-L, were treated with PI3K and Akt inhibitors, GA, and 17-AAG, and were subjected to apoptosis and cell viability assays, and immunoblot analysis.
  • EBV-positive B-lymphoblastoid cell lines IM9 and LMP1-transfected IM9 (IM9-LMP1) were also included.
  • Hank-1 and NK-YS cell viability was compromised and apoptosis was induced by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) or Akt inhibitor II.
  • The intrinsic level of pAkt was higher in EBV-positive NKTL cells than in EBV-negative NK-L, and GA or 17-AAG decreased the viability of NKTL cells more efficiently than NK-L.
  • Importantly, GA showed little effect on the viability of normal peripheral NK cells as non-neoplastic counterparts for comparison.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzoquinones / pharmacology. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Lactams, Macrocyclic / pharmacology. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / metabolism. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / physiology. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17768706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 4GY0AVT3L4 / tanespimycin; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; Z3K3VJ16KU / geldanamycin
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94. Nikolova M, Guenova M, Taskov H, Marie-Cardine A, Boumsell L, Bensussan A: SC3 monoclonal antibody defines a novel specific human B-cell surface antigen differentially expressed on B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas and involved in the proliferation of normal and malignant B lymphocytes. Cell Immunol; 2005 Jul-Aug;236(1-2):92-100
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  • [Title] SC3 monoclonal antibody defines a novel specific human B-cell surface antigen differentially expressed on B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas and involved in the proliferation of normal and malignant B lymphocytes.
  • The monoclonal antibody SC3 was raised against the NK leukaemia cell line YTindi.
  • It detected a 98-kDa surface antigen with weak expression on a restricted number of leukaemia cell lines under reducing conditions.
  • SC3 mAb labelled 5-10% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes corresponding almost exclusively to B lymphocytes, and 60-70% of tonsillar B cells.
  • Practically, all B-CLL studied expressed SC3 mAb reactive epitope although with variable intensity, while MCL and PLL were negative.
  • This effect was much weaker with B-CLL cells but was increased after cross-linking with an anti-IgM antibody.
  • The restricted expression pattern combined with molecular weight and functional data indicate that SC3 mAb may detect a novel B-cell antigen mostly expressed by early and naive B cells.
  • Although its expression in B-cell malignancies was not limited to a single differentiation stage, it might confer specific functional characteristics to the positive malignant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology. Antigens, Surface / immunology. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Leukemia, B-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16197933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-8749
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte
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95. Min HS, Hyun CL, Paik JH, Jeon YK, Choi G, Park SH, Seo JW, Kim CW: An autopsy case of aggressive CD30+ extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma initially manifested with granulomatous myositis. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Feb;47(2):347-52
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  • [Title] An autopsy case of aggressive CD30+ extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma initially manifested with granulomatous myositis.
  • This study reports an autopsy case of a 53 year-old male with rapidly progressive extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma accompanied with unusual clinical and pathologic features.
  • He was initially presented with localized swelling and tenderness in the right lower extremity and the biopsy from the calf muscle was interpreted as granulomatous myositis masquerizing lymphoma.
  • The biopsy from erythematous skin lesion of trunk showed infiltration of medium sized atypical lymphoid cells with relatively plump cytoplasm and immunophenotype of CD30+, CD56+/- and surface CD3-, which lead to the diagnosis of CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • After confirmation of EBV infection, he was finally diagnosed as extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma with peculiar immunophenotype of CD3 dim+ and CD30+.
  • At autopsy, disseminated angiocentric lymphoma was found all over the internal organs including the brain.
  • This case emphasizes that extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma should be considered as a cause of granulomatous myositis and can express CD30 positivity and CD3 weak positivity, which are unusual but rarely predominant feature of NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD30 / immunology. Granuloma / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Myositis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16321870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / CD3 antigen, zeta chain
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96. Zhang K, Prichard JW, Brown RE: Blastic natural killer (NK) cell leukemia (agranular CD4+CD56+ leukemia). Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(2):212-5
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  • [Title] Blastic natural killer (NK) cell leukemia (agranular CD4+CD56+ leukemia).
  • Blastic NK cell lymphoma is a rare hematolymphoid neoplasm.
  • This report illustrates an unusual presentation of this entity, namely as a primary leukemia, but without skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16682521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56
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97. Warnnissorn N, Kanitsap N, Kulkantrakorn K, Assanasen T: Natural killer cell malignancy associated with Epstein-Barr virus and hemophagocytic syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai; 2007 May;90(5):982-7
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  • [Title] Natural killer cell malignancy associated with Epstein-Barr virus and hemophagocytic syndrome.
  • Natural killer cell malignancy is a rare and aggressive lymphoid neoplasm encompassing extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKLN) and aggressive NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ANKL).
  • Ancillary techniques studied on paraffin embedded tissues of both cases demonstrated that the neoplastic cells exhibit cytoplasmic CD3+, CD56+ and cytotoxic granules + by immunohistochemistry, absence of T cell receptor gene rearrangement by PCR, and presence of Epstein-Barr virus mRNA (EBER) transcripts by in situ hybridization.
  • The authors reviewed the literature on natural killer cell neoplasm and compared the clinical characteristics, natural history, and association of Epstein-Barr virus infection with hemophagocytic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / physiopathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / physiopathology. Lymphoma / pathology


98. Le Gouill S, Milpied N, Buzyn A, De Latour RP, Vernant JP, Mohty M, Moles MP, Bouabdallah K, Bulabois CE, Dupuis J, Rio B, Gratecos N, Yakoub-Agha I, Attal M, Tournilhac O, Decaudin D, Bourhis JH, Blaise D, Volteau C, Michallet M, Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et de Thérapie Cellulaire: Graft-versus-lymphoma effect for aggressive T-cell lymphomas in adults: a study by the Société Francaise de Greffe de Moëlle et de Thérapie Cellulaire. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 10;26(14):2264-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Graft-versus-lymphoma effect for aggressive T-cell lymphomas in adults: a study by the Société Francaise de Greffe de Moëlle et de Thérapie Cellulaire.
  • PURPOSE: Aggressive T-cell lymphomas (ATCLs) represent 10% to 15% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) in adults.
  • ATCLs show a worse prognosis than B-cell lymphomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: On behalf of the Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et de Thérapie Cellulaire, we conducted a retrospective analysis including 77 ATCL patients who underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT).
  • RESULTS: The different diagnosis included anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL; n = 27), peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS; n = 27), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL; n = 11), hepatosplenic gamma/delta lymphoma (HSL; n = 3), T-cell granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-GLL; n = 1), nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (nasal-NK/L; n = 3) or non-nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (non-nasal-NK/L; n = 2), enteropathy-type T-cell (n = 1), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 lymphoma (n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that alloSCT is a potentially efficient therapy for NK/T lymphomas and is worth further investigation through prospective clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Tumor Effect / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18390969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Harousseau JL; Contentin N; Witz F; Guillerm G
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99. Zheng YY, Chen G, Zhou XG, Jin Y, Xie JL, Zhang SH, Zhang YN: [Retrospective analysis of 4 cases of the so-called blastic NK-cell lymphoma, with reference to the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;39(9):600-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective analysis of 4 cases of the so-called blastic NK-cell lymphoma, with reference to the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and pathologic features of 4 cases of the so-called blastic natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma, with reference to the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
  • METHODS: The clinical, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings (EliVision method) of 4 cases of blastic NK-cell lymphoma (previously diagnosed according to the 2001 WHO classification) were retrospectively analyzed and reclassified with a special reference to the 2008 WHO classification.
  • RESULTS: The 4 cases of hematologic malignancy studied were characterized by the presence of medium-sized blastic lymphoma cells, CD56 expression, and absence of lineage-specific B-cell, T-cell and myeloid cell markers.
  • According to the 2001 WHO classification, they fell into the category of blastic NK-cell lymphoma.
  • They are likely derived from the plasmacytoid dendritic cells rather than NK cells.
  • They were then, according to the 2008 WHO classification, reclassified as the blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.
  • This case was provisionally classified as a ambiguous lineage leukemia-NK cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The so-called blastic NK-cell lymphomas in the 2001 WHO classification are rare and represent a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders, with different clinical, pathologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / classification. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Humans. Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. World Health Organization. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21092587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit
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100. Bareau B, Rey J, Hamidou M, Donadieu J, Morcet J, Reman O, Schleinitz N, Tournilhac O, Roussel M, Fest T, Lamy T: Analysis of a French cohort of patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia: a report on 229 cases. Haematologica; 2010 Sep;95(9):1534-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of a French cohort of patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia: a report on 229 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder associated with autoimmune diseases and impaired hematopoiesis.
  • This study describes the clinical and biological characteristics of 229 patients with T-cell or NK-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The diagnosis was based on a large granular lymphocyte expansion (> 0.5x10(9)/L) lasting more than 6 months.
  • Monoclonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement was detected in all the cases of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Patients with chronic NK-cell lymphocytosis had an indolent disease, while those with multiorgan large granular lymphocyte infiltration and an aggressive clinical disease were considered to have NK-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia was confirmed in 201 cases, chronic NK-cell lymphocytosis in 27 cases and NK-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia in one case.
  • There were 15 large granular lymphocyte leukemia-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and chronic NK-cell lymphocytosis have similar clinical and biological features and responses to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / epidemiology. T-Lymphocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphocytosis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20378561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930955
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