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1. Bregani ER, Balzarini L, Cabibbe M: African Burkitt lymphoma successfully treated with CEOP polychemotherapy. Acta Trop; 2004 Sep;92(1):91-4
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  • [Title] African Burkitt lymphoma successfully treated with CEOP polychemotherapy.
  • African Burkitt lymphoma with abdominal "bulky" involvement was strongly suspected.
  • As a little amount of some antiblastic drugs were available, the patient was treated according to CEOP regime as salvage treatment.
  • Clinical general conditions improved.
  • CHOP nor CEOP regime have never been employed in the treatment of African Burkitt lymphoma.
  • This case report suggest the possibility of good responses in more critical or "bulky" Burkitt lymphoma of this combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15384237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-706X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta tropica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CEOP protocol 1
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2. Amusa YB, Adediran IA, Akinpelu VO, Famurewa OC, Olateju SO, Adegbehingbe BO, Komolafe EO, Faponle AF, Olasode BJ: Burkitt's lymphoma of the head and neck region in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. West Afr J Med; 2005 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-42
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  • [Title] Burkitt's lymphoma of the head and neck region in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: Burkitt's lymphoma is endemic in Nigeria; it forms about 39% of all childhood cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to look at the pattern of presentation of head and Neck Burkitt's lymphoma at a Nigerian Tertiary hospital and to evaluate current treatment modality.
  • DESIGN: It is a retrospective study of all confirmed Burkitt's lymphoma of the head and neck region seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Ile Ife (OAUTHC) between 1986 and 2002.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of all the patients with the histopathologically confirmed Burkitt's lymphoma over a 17-year period (1986-2002) were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: A total of 196 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma were seen over the period out of which 140 (71.4%) were in the head and neck region.
  • Frank drug resistance was found in (2.6%).
  • CONCLUSION: Head and neck remain the mostly affected parts in Burkitt's lymphoma in this environment.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] West Afr J Med. 2005 Jul-Sep;24(3):189. Adegbeingbe, OD [corrected to Adegbehingbe, BO]
  • (PMID = 16092315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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3. Hesseling P, Molyneux E, Kamiza S, Israels T, Broadhead R: Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a 28-day treatment schedule with cyclophosphamide and intrathecal methotrexate. Ann Trop Paediatr; 2009 Mar;29(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Endemic Burkitt lymphoma: a 28-day treatment schedule with cyclophosphamide and intrathecal methotrexate.
  • BACKGROUND: Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common childhood cancer in equatorial Africa and there is a need for affordable, effective treatment.
  • The initial diagnosis was made clinically and confirmed by fine-needle aspiration in 73%.
  • RESULTS: St Jude stage distribution was stage I, 1; II, 9; III, 24; and IV, 6.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19222931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3281
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical paediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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4. Phillips JA, Griffin BE: Pilot study of sodium phenylbutyrate as adjuvant in cyclophosphamide-resistant endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2007 Dec;101(12):1265-9
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  • [Title] Pilot study of sodium phenylbutyrate as adjuvant in cyclophosphamide-resistant endemic Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) accounts for the majority of childhood malignancies seen in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • In Malawi, cyclophosphamide (CPM), the mainstay of treatment for endemic BL, is effective in around 50% of cases.
  • Evidence exists in support of an association between activation of replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumour and response to this chemotheraupeutic agent.
  • It has also shown some success as adjuvant in treatment of chronic leukaemia and lymphoma.
  • We tested in African BL patients with CPM-resistant tumours, and thus unlikely to survive, the hypothesis that PB can reverse this resistance.
  • Findings suggested that for this effect PB pre-treatment should be given for a week before CPM treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Phenylbutyrates / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17915270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9203
  • [Journal-full-title] Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Phenylbutyrates; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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5. Kurokawa M, Andela V, Ghosh S, Barreto JE, Harrington W: Zidovudine: a targeted therapy for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. East Afr Med J; 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S150-4
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  • [Title] Zidovudine: a targeted therapy for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although cyclophosphamide based regimens can produce remission rates approaching 60 to 80% in endemic Burkitts lymphoma, relapses and refractory disease are fairly common in developing countries, due to advanced stage disease and cost-constraints in the implementation of optimal chemotherapeutic protocols.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an affordable, tolerable and targeted approach to chemotherapy for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma as would be desirable in resource poor settings such as Africa.
  • METHOD: We present data and review pertinent literature that indicates that the antiviral agent Zidovudine specifically targets this tumour through a unique and novel mechanism.
  • DATA EXTRACTION: A systematic review to identify studies relating to Zidovudine, EBV+ and Burkitt's lymphoma, indicating antiviral agents zidovudine targeting BL in a unique and novel mechanisms.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that the incorporation of Zidovudine into Burkitt's regimens may enhance tumour kill and abbreviate the duration of treatment necessary for this disease.
  • Furthermore, the addition of the widely available and inexpensive agent hydroxyurea, markedly potentiates the tumorcidal activity of Zidovudine in Epstein Barr virus positive Burkitt's lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Zidovudine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa. Brazil. Developing Countries. Drug Delivery Systems. Gene Targeting. Herpesvirus 4, Human / drug effects. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Humans. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 16619691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine
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6. Müller AM, Ihorst G, Mertelsmann R, Engelhardt M: Epidemiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): trends, geographic distribution, and etiology. Ann Hematol; 2005 Jan;84(1):1-12
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): trends, geographic distribution, and etiology.
  • While for most cancers incidence and mortality are decreasing, those of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are steadily increasing.
  • Differences in geographic distribution are striking for follicular lymphoma, which is more common in Western countries than elsewhere.
  • Asians have higher rates of aggressive NHL, T-cell lymphomas, and extranodal disease.
  • In the Middle East, high rates of intestinal extranodal disease are observed, whereas in Africa, endemic Burkitt's lymphoma accounts for a substantial proportion.
  • Risks for developing NHL include immunosuppression and a causal link between infectious agents, and lymphomagenesis has also been determined, particularly for human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Helicobacter pylori infections.
  • Exposure to environmental agents and occupational risks have been studied; however, their significance is as yet uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Environmental Exposure. Humans. Immune System Diseases / complications. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Infection / complications. Risk Factors. Topography, Medical

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  • (PMID = 15480663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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7. Magrath I: Lessons from clinical trials in African Burkitt lymphoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):462-8
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  • [Title] Lessons from clinical trials in African Burkitt lymphoma.
  • The present review focuses on the treatment of an AIDS-defining malignancy, Burkitt lymphoma, since the discovery of the tumor in 1958 to provide a backdrop to the increasing necessity of dealing with AIDS-associated Burkitt lymphoma in Africa.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In Africa, it appears that AIDS-associated Burkitt lymphoma is increasing, but although treatment outcome is presently poor, the demonstration that highly active antiretroviral therapy permits the same treatment results to those in AIDS-unassociated Burkitt lymphoma provides hope for the future.
  • SUMMARY: In the 1960s, the extraordinary response of Burkitt lymphoma to chemotherapy provided considerable encouragement to pioneer oncologists.
  • Within little more than a decade, the most active drugs, the value of combination chemotherapy, and the need for intrathecal treatment, as well as the risk of tumor lysis syndrome had been demonstrated, providing a platform on which further advances could be made in resource-rich countries.
  • The impact of the HIV epidemic on the epidemiology and treatment of African Burkitt lymphoma will receive increasing focus in the coming years.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19620863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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8. Hong T, Shimada Y, Kano M, Kaganoi Ji, Uchida S, Komoto I, Yamabe H, Imamura M: The Epstein-Barr virus is rarely associated with esophageal cancer. Int J Mol Med; 2000 Apr;5(4):363-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The Epstein-Barr virus is an agent that causes African Burkitt's lymphoma, infectious mononucleosis, and Hodgkin's disease.

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  • (PMID = 10719051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / RNA, Viral
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9. Zauner L, Melroe GT, Sigrist JA, Rechsteiner MP, Dorner M, Arnold M, Berger C, Bernasconi M, Schaefer BW, Speck RF, Nadal D: TLR9 triggering in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines suppresses the EBV BZLF1 transcription via histone modification. Oncogene; 2010 Aug 12;29(32):4588-98
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  • [Title] TLR9 triggering in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines suppresses the EBV BZLF1 transcription via histone modification.
  • Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is considered to preferentially develop in equatorial Africa because of chronic co-infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum.
  • Thus, we provide evidence for a possible interaction between P. falciparum and EBV at the B-cell level and the mechanism involved in suppressing lytic and thereby reinforcing latent EBV that has unique oncogenic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 9 / metabolism. Trans-Activators / genetics. Transcription, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. B-Lymphocytes / virology. Base Sequence. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands / genetics. Hemeproteins / metabolism. Hemeproteins / pharmacology. Humans. Ligands. Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 / genetics. Plasmodium falciparum / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Protozoan Proteins / metabolism. Protozoan Proteins / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Virus Activation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20514021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BZLF1 protein, Herpesvirus 4, Human; 0 / Hemeproteins; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88; 0 / Protozoan Proteins; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 0 / Trans-Activators; 39404-00-7 / hemozoin
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10. Koffi GK, Tolo A, Nanho DC, N'dathz E, Kouassi MY, N'Diaye FD, Kouakou B, Meité N, Ayemou R, Sekongo M, Kouehion P, Meité M, Tea ND, Sangaré A, Sanogo I: Results of treatment with CMA, a low intermediate regimen, in endemic Burkitt lymphomas in sub-Saharian Africa: experience of Côte d'Ivoire. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):838-43
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  • [Title] Results of treatment with CMA, a low intermediate regimen, in endemic Burkitt lymphomas in sub-Saharian Africa: experience of Côte d'Ivoire.
  • African Burkitt lymphomas (BL) are highly aggressive lymphomas mainly affecting children and young adults in Africa.
  • This lymphoma was marked by its high sensitivity to chemotherapy in comparison to Sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.
  • Eighty-five of the 105 children registered were evaluated for response; there were 46 boys and 39 girls, whose age at diagnosis ranged from 3 to 18 years (median 11 years), admitted to the Hematology National Teaching Hospital of Abidjan in the period 1998-2008 with a diagnosis of BL on histological review and who were given CMA chemotherapy with curative intent are included in this analysis.
  • CMA protocol is a low intermediate regimen of 3 drugs [Cytarabin (ara-C), Methotrexate (MTX), and Cyclophosphamide] with CNS-directed treatment by intrathecal MTX, ara-C and corticosteroid.
  • Fifty-three of patients were alive in first CR at a median survival rate period of 2 years (range 82 days to 9 years) and are continuously disease free from Burkitt lymphomas.
  • Twelve patients relapse after CR and died of lymphoma progression.
  • More than 32 patients died, as a result of lymphoma progression.
  • Among the 32 dead, 10 were in Murphy stage IV and all the patients who presented bone marrow involvement died.
  • In conclusion, CMA protocol shows the high sensitivity of African Burkitt lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use

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  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
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11. Tang W, Harmon P, Gulley ML, Mwansambo C, Kazembe PN, Martinson F, Wokocha C, Kenney SC, Hoffman I, Sigel C, Maygarden S, Hoffman M, Shores C: Viral response to chemotherapy in endemic burkitt lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 1;16(7):2055-64
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  • [Title] Viral response to chemotherapy in endemic burkitt lymphoma.
  • We studied whether cyclophosphamide chemotherapy induces EBV to switch from latent to lytic phases of infection in a series of EBV-associated Burkitt lymphomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Children with first presentation of an expanding, solid maxillary or mandibular mass consistent with Burkitt lymphoma underwent fine-needle aspiration just prior to the initiation of cyclophosphamide therapy and again 1 to 5 days later.
  • Aspirated cells were examined for latent and lytic EBV infection using in situ hybridization to EBV-encoded RNA (EBER), immunohistochemical analysis of the lytic EBV proteins BZLF1 and BMRF1, reverse transcription PCR targeting BZLF1 transcripts, and EBV viral load measurement by quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: Among 21 lymphomas expressing EBER prior to chemotherapy, 9 of 10 still expressed EBER on day 1 after therapy whereas only 2 of 11 (18%) specimens still expressed EBER at days 3 to 5, implying that chemotherapy was fairly effective at eliminating latently infected cells.
  • Neither of the lytic products, BZLF1 or BMRF1, were significantly upregulated at the posttherapy time points examined.
  • These findings provide the rationale for a trial testing synergistic tumor cell killing using cyclophosphamide with a drug like ganciclovir targeting lytically infected cells.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20233888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA066519; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA058853; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA066519-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA66519; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA066519-16
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS179000; NLM/ PMC2848899
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12. Koshibu-Koizumi J, Akazawa M, Iwamoto T, Takasaki M, Mizuno F, Kobayashi R, Abe A, Tomoda A, Hamatake M, Ishida R: Antitumor activity of a phenoxazine compound, 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one against human B cell and T cell lymphoblastoid cell lines: induction of mixed types of cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2002 Jul;128(7):363-8
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  • PURPOSE: We studied the antitumor activity of 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one (Phx), which was synthesized by the reactions of 2-amino-5-methylphenol with bovine hemoglobin, on human B cell lymphoblastoid cell lines, P3HR-1 and Raji derived from African Burkitt's lymphoma, and the human T cell lymphoblastoid cell line Molt-4.
  • RESULTS: Phx suppressed the viability of P3HR-1, Raji, and Molt-4 cells, though the suppression patterns were different, i.e., Phx suppressed the viability of P3HR-1, Raji, and Molt-4 cells at higher concentrations, while the drug enhanced the viability of Raji cells, but not those of P3HR-1 and Molt-4 cells at lower concentrations.
  • To investigate which type of cell death - apoptosis or necrosis - is induced by Phx, induction of DNA ladder, phosphatidylserine externalization, and propidium iodide-permeable cells were examined in Phx-treated cells.
  • Although Phx did not induce DNA ladder formation, it induced the phosphatidylserine externalization and propidium iodide-permeable cells, suggesting that Phx caused a mixed type of cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Oxazines / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 12136250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one; 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Oxazines
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13. Rochford R, Feuer G, Orem J, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Mwanda WO, Moormann A, Harrington WJ, Remick SC: Strategies to overcome myelotoxic therapy for the treatment of Burkitt's and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. East Afr Med J; 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S155-60
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  • [Title] Strategies to overcome myelotoxic therapy for the treatment of Burkitt's and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop effective non-myelotoxic therapies for Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • DATA EXTRACTION: A systematic review of the clinical problem of combination chemotherapy.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Review of published experience with some of these strategies including dose-modification of multi-agent chemotherapy; rationale for targeted therapies, and the preclinical development of a mouse model exploring the role of metronomic scheduling substantiate pragmatism and feasibility of these approaches.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelotoxic death rates using multi-agent induction chemotherapy approach 25% for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma and range between 20% to 60% for AIDS-related malignancy.
  • Investigations and alternative approaches that lessen or circumvent myelotoxicity of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy for the management of Burkitt's lymphoma and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the resource-constrained setting are warranted.
  • This can be achieved by developing targeted anti-viral and other strategies, such as the use of bryostatin 1 and vincristine, and by developing a preclinical mouse model to frame the clinical rationale for a pilot trial of metronomic therapy for the treatment of Burkitt's and AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Macrolides / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Bryostatins. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16619692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bryostatins; 0 / Macrolides; 37O2X55Y9E / bryostatin 1; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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14. Kelly GL, Milner AE, Baldwin GS, Bell AI, Rickinson AB: Three restricted forms of Epstein-Barr virus latency counteracting apoptosis in c-myc-expressing Burkitt lymphoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Oct 3;103(40):14935-40
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  • [Title] Three restricted forms of Epstein-Barr virus latency counteracting apoptosis in c-myc-expressing Burkitt lymphoma cells.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, transforms B cell growth in vitro through expressing six virus-coded Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and two latent membrane proteins (LMPs).
  • For example, endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) classically presents as a monoclonal, c-myc-translocation-positive tumor in which every cell carries EBV as an EBNA1-only (Latency I) infection; such homogeneity among EBV-positive cells, and the lack of EBV-negative comparators, hampers attempts to understand EBV's role in BL pathogenesis.
  • Here, we describe an endemic BL that was unusually heterogeneous at the single-cell level and, in early passage culture, yielded a range of cellular clones, all with the same c-myc translocation but differing in EBV status.
  • Our work suggests that EBV acts as an antiapoptotic rather than a growth-promoting agent in BL by selecting among three transcriptional programs, all of which, unlike the full virus growth-transforming program, remain compatible with high c-myc expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / metabolism. Herpesvirus 4, Human / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Virus Latency / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Clone Cells. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens / genetics. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Genome, Viral / genetics. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Viral Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Viral Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17001014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1595454
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