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6. Kajo K, Macháleková K, Laca L: [Unusual clinical presentation of hepatic yolk sac tumour in periappendical region. A case report and review of the literature]. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):113-6
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  • [Title] [Unusual clinical presentation of hepatic yolk sac tumour in periappendical region. A case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Nezvycajná klinická prezentácia pecenového yolk sac tumoru v periapendikálnej oblasti. Kazuistika a prehl'ad literatúry.
  • Primary hepatic yolk sac tumour (YST) is a very rare neoplasm.
  • Consequently, there was discovered a tumor in the liver and the patient underwent right hemihepatectomy, hemicolectomy and ovariectomy, from which the YST was disclosed in the liver and in the coecum with spread into regional lymph nodes.
  • It has been suggested that these YSTs might originate from the germ cells that escaped during migration course from the yolk sac to the genital ridge during embryogenesis with subsequent malignant transformation or from persistent pluripotent embryonic cells in the liver, which escaped from the influence of differentiation during embryogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendix / pathology. Female. Humans. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20301839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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7. Chen CH, Chen TC, Huang WC, Chen TY, Liu HC: An unusual successfully treated case of pulmonary yolk sac tumor. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 Feb;85(2):656-8
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  • [Title] An unusual successfully treated case of pulmonary yolk sac tumor.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are relatively rare, particularly malignant yolk sac tumors arising in the lung parenchyma.
  • We report a case of a huge malignant yolk sac tumor in the right middle lobe.
  • The patient was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by complete resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thoracotomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18222293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Kawamura N, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka I, Kiuchi H, Momohara S, Matsuoka Y, Ichimaru N, Nonomura N, Okuyama A, Kinoshita T: [A case of metachronous testicular tumor developing seven years after complete remission of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):635-8
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  • [Title] [A case of metachronous testicular tumor developing seven years after complete remission of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor].
  • Computed tomography revealed an aorto-caval retroperitoneal tumor.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT).
  • Right radical orchiectomy was performed and histology revealed seminoma with yolk sac tumor components.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19926951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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9. Pasternack T, Shaco-Levy R, Wiznitzer A, Piura B: Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor: case report and review of published work. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Aug;34(4 Pt 2):739-44
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  • [Title] Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor: case report and review of published work.
  • Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumors are rare, with only nine cases documented previously in the published work.
  • We report a case of extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor occurring synchronously with breast carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent resection of the pelvic tumor and hepatic implant, omentectomy and breast lumpectomy with sentinel axillary lymph node biopsy.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy for the yolk sac tumor included three cycles of the bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen.
  • It is concluded that in women with extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor who wish to preserve childbearing capacity, fertility-saving surgery followed by fertility-preserving cisplatin-based chemotherapy is adequate and appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18840194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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10. Bayar GR, Gulses A, Sencimen M, Aydintug YS, Arpaci F, Gunhan O: Oral metastasis of the mediastinal germ cell tumor (yolk sac). J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Nov;21(6):1828-30
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  • [Title] Oral metastasis of the mediastinal germ cell tumor (yolk sac).
  • A yolk sac tumor is a rare malignant tumor of germ cell origin.
  • Yolk sac tumors are malignant, tend to recur locally, and may present with widespread metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • In this study, we present the case of a 23-year-old man presenting with mandibular and adjacent gingival metastasis of a mediasatinal yolk sac tumor.
  • In this case report, clinical and histopathologic features of the oral metastases of a yolk sac tumor were briefly discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Masseter Muscle / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Temporal Bone / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21119432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Guzel A, Tatli M, Belen D, Seckin H: Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor. Spinal Cord; 2007 Mar;45(3):254-7
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  • [Title] Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report an adult male patient with a primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor presenting with acute spinal cord compression.
  • Posteriorly, the third lumbar vertebral body was destructed and the tumor was compressing the dural sac.
  • Pathological diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Yolk sac tumor should be considered in young adult male patients presenting with acute paraparesis even without any signs or medical history of a testis tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical. Humans. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Lumbosacral Region / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Paraparesis / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16733519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Kato N, Shibuya H, Fukase M, Tamura G, Motoyama T: Involvement of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in testicular yolk sac tumor of infants. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jan;37(1):48-53
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  • [Title] Involvement of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in testicular yolk sac tumor of infants.
  • The pathogenesis of testicular yolk sac tumor (YST) of infants is still unclear.
  • Infantile YSTs rarely show isochromosome 12p or aneuploidy, which are common in adult germ cell tumors.
  • On the other hand, recent epigenetic studies suggest the involvement of some tumor suppressor genes, including the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Genes, APC. Loss of Heterozygosity. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Silencing. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Testis / anatomy & histology. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16360415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Soleymani Majd H, Turner SA, Choji K, Lwin K, B-Lynch C: Acute abdomen secondary to rare yolk sac tumour. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 May;279(5):725-7
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  • [Title] Acute abdomen secondary to rare yolk sac tumour.
  • An emergency laparotomy was performed and she required a pelvic clearance for a Stage IIB ovarian tumour, later confirmed as a yolk sac tumour.
  • Accurate staging and tumour-reductive surgery strongly affects the prognosis of yolk sac tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Centralized Hospital Services. Clinical Competence. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Omentum / pathology. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy. Referral and Consultation. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18795306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Choi HJ, Moon MH, Kim SH, Cho JY, Jung DC, Hong SR: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Nov-Dec;33(6):736-9
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate computed tomographic (CT) findings of pathologically proven yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated CT findings of 10 yolk sac tumors in consensus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: On CT scans, ovarian yolk sac tumors appeared as large, unilateral, smooth marginated mass with bright dot sign and necrotic portion.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiography. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiography. Ovary / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Observer Variation. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18253781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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15. Futagami M, Yokoyama Y, Shigeto T, Mizunuma H: A case of recurrent yolk sac tumor as spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):690-3
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  • [Title] A case of recurrent yolk sac tumor as spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall.
  • Few studies report on tissue morphology in recurrence of yolk sac tumor.
  • The case of the recurrence of a yolk sac tumor as a spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall is presented.
  • A 27-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to suspicion of an ovarian tumor.
  • Right salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and extirpation of disseminated foci as fertility-preserving surgery was done since the intraoperative pathological diagnosis was yolk sac tumor.
  • Final pathological examination showed a germ cell tumor of which yolk sac tumor formed the major component including a small area that appeared to be immature nerve tissue.
  • Although residual tumor was not less than 1 cm, clinical complete remission was reached after the sixth course of BEP regimen.
  • However, the recurrence of a yolk sac tumor as an unclassified spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall was found about two years after the initial surgery.
  • The mesenchyme-like component of the yolk sac tumor is characterized by spindle cells originating from epithelial elements, and is likely to give rise to a chemoresistant, diversely differentiated sarcoma.
  • This report suggests that the sarcoma reported in the case here also arose when spindle cells of the mesenchyme-like component underwent sarcomatous change during or after chemotherapy, subsequently relapsed as a chemoresistant tumor, and metastasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 21319519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Basgul A, Gokaslan H, Kavak ZN, Eren FT, Bozkurt N: Primary yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) of the vulva: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(4):395-8
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  • [Title] Primary yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) of the vulva: case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Endodermal sinus tumor (EST) or primary yolk sac tumor (YST) of the vulva is extremely rare and a highly malignant germ cell tumor.
  • We present the tenth case of endodermal sinus tumor of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17009634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Razzi S, Luisi S, Gabbanini M, Lazzeri L, Mazzini M, Petraglia F: Yolk sac tumor in a young girl: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2005 Jun;20(6):334-5
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor in a young girl: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor is a rare neoplasm characterized by high malignancy given its premature metastasis, that is frequent in adolescence.
  • Following salpingo-oophorectomy, it was revealed as a yolk sac tumor by histological diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an interesting case of yolk sac tumor in a young girl, at an age typical for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy

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  • (PMID = 16019383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Hirashiki K, Kishimoto T, Ishiguro H, Nagai Y, Furuya M, Sekiya S, Ishikura H: Regulatory role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in the production of plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor. Exp Mol Pathol; 2005 Jun;78(3):247-56
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  • [Title] Regulatory role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in the production of plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor.
  • Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a malignant germ cell tumor characterized by AFP production, in which histologic foci similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occasionally coexist.
  • We assumed a possible contribution of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-beta, a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of plasma proteins in the liver, to the regulation of AFP production and to the expression of other plasma proteins in yolk sac tumor cells because our immunohistochemical analysis revealed nuclear expression of C/EBP-beta in human yolk sac tumors.
  • Overexpression of C/EBP-beta in a rat yolk sac tumor cell line, AT-2-TC, increased production of AFP and other plasma proteins, including albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, hepatoglobin, and transferrin.
  • These results indicate that C/EBP-beta plays a role in the production of plasma proteins of yolk sac tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / biosynthesis. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phosphorylation. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15924879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4800
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Transcription Factors
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19. Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Yamamoto E, Terauchi M, Ino K, Nawa A, Kikkawa F: Establishment and characterization of an ovarian yolk sac tumor cell line reveals possible involvement of Nkx2.5 in tumor development. Oncology; 2008;74(1-2):104-11
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of an ovarian yolk sac tumor cell line reveals possible involvement of Nkx2.5 in tumor development.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is rare and highly malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Line, Tumor. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. RNA, Small Interfering. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18547965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NKX2-5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factors
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20. Haibin Z, Yue J, Yaxian X: Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):682-4
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  • [Title] Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is the second most common malignant ovarian germ cell tumor, while a YST arising in the omentum is an exceedingly rare malignancy.
  • The case of omental YST must be seriously considered once the tumor shows omentum thickening with elevated AFP serum levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Omentum / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy. Peritoneum / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21319517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Kawabe M, Sasaki K, Shinoda T, Tanabe S, Handa M, Hirai S, Yamada N, Uesaka T, Morioka K, Ihaya A, Tanaka K, Imamura Y: [Yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum and pulmonary metastases; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Nov;58(12):1102-5
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  • [Title] [Yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum and pulmonary metastases; report of a case].
  • A 31-year-old female was clinically diagnosed as having a anterior mediastinal yolk sac tumor because of the elevation of the AFP (17,500 ng/ml), a large mass lesion (9 x 5 cm) in the anterior mediastinum and bilateral lung metastases.
  • The tumor was completely removed and there were no viable foci of the tumor in part of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Positron-Emission Tomography. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16281866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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27. Nogales FF, Buriticá C, Regauer S, González T: Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1247-51
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors.
  • We present, for the first time, two yolk sac tumors (YST) in women 37 and 18 years of age, one with a typical parietovisceral pattern and the other with a glandular pattern, which were associated with extensive areas of mucinous carcinoid (MC).
  • The tumor in the first case had numerous nodules of tubulopapillary YST that merged with well-differentiated MC.
  • The tumor in the second case consisted of an AFP-positive glandular YST, with a glandulopapillary pattern closely resembling fetal lung type adenocarcinoma, coexisting with an AFP-negative, cytokeratin 20-positive, atypical MC; transitional areas between the two components were also seen.
  • We think that, in these cases, MC represented an unusual form of endodermal differentiation of the YST.
  • It is important to differentiate the yolk sac and carcinoid components due to their different responses to chemotherapy and to evaluate the possibility of mucinous carcinoid developing into a highly aggressive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16096416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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28. Cheng L, Zhang S, Talerman A, Roth LM: Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and fluorescence in situ hybridization study of ovarian embryonal carcinoma with comparison to solid variant of yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. Hum Pathol; 2010 May;41(5):716-23
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  • [Title] Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and fluorescence in situ hybridization study of ovarian embryonal carcinoma with comparison to solid variant of yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma.
  • The results were compared to 4 cases of mixed germ cell tumor that were originally mistaken for embryonal carcinoma.
  • OCT4 marked the nuclei of 6 cases, among which 5 cases also showed glypican 3 expression indicative of an admixed yolk sac tumor component.
  • In 1 case of mixed germ cell tumor containing embryonal carcinoma, embryoid bodies from a component of polyembryoma were demonstrated to be both OCT4 and CD30 positive.
  • They were reclassified as solid variant of yolk sac tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD30 / genetics. Antigens, CD30 / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glypicans / genetics. Glypicans / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / genetics. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Prognosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / genetics. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20096442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors
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29. Kim SW, Park JH, Lim MC, Park JY, Yoo CW, Park SY: Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):189-92
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  • [Title] Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extraovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) arising in the omentum represent an exceedingly rare malignancy.
  • A review of the literature indicates that the diagnosis of YST requires proper evaluations of tumor makers and a skilled pathologist for analysis of frozen sections.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Omentum. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Appendectomy. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Lymph Node Excision. Ovariectomy. Peritoneum / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18648830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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30. Basoglu A, Sengul AT, Buyukkarabacak YB, Yetim TD, Yildiz L: Pure yolk-sac tumor of the lung. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann; 2008 Oct;16(5):410-1
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  • [Title] Pure yolk-sac tumor of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bronchoscopy / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fiber Optic Technology. Humans. Male. Pneumonectomy. Thoracotomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18812352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1816-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Bing Z, Pasha T, Tomaszewski JE, Zhang P: CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Oct;17(5):373-7
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  • [Title] CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Yolk sac tumor (YST) was identified by morphology and glypican 3 staining in 20 testicular mixed GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Glypicans / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19578052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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32. Ulbright TM, Young RH: Seminoma with tubular, microcystic, and related patterns: a study of 28 cases of unusual morphologic variants that often cause confusion with yolk sac tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):500-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seminoma with tubular, microcystic, and related patterns: a study of 28 cases of unusual morphologic variants that often cause confusion with yolk sac tumor.
  • The spaces often suggested reticular or microcystic patterns of yolk sac tumor, and the solid and hollow tubular patterns often added to the diagnostic confusion.
  • The hollow tubules appeared to result from central discohesion within nests of tumor.
  • The spaces, particularly when large, often contained occasional tumor cells or inflammatory cells within pale edema fluid.
  • The cytologic appearance of the cells lining the spaces, and in the surrounding tumor, retained the typical features of seminoma cells.
  • Distinction from yolk sac tumor is aided by the observation that the spaces of yolk sac tumor are often more irregular in their individual shapes and frequently form anastomosing channels.
  • Additionally, the spaces of yolk sac tumor randomly merge with various other yolk sac tumor patterns.
  • The cells lining spaces in yolk sac tumor are often flattened with compressed nuclei and lack the typical prominent nucleoli of seminoma cells.
  • Paucity of lymphocytes and intracystic edema, however, are not differentially helpful, although basophilic fluid favors yolk sac tumor.
  • A panel of immunostains (AE1/AE3, OCT-3/4, and alpha-fetoprotein) is helpful in the differential with yolk sac tumor in especially problematic cases.
  • The edema and paucity of lymphocytes may suggest spermatocytic seminoma, but the varied cell types of that neoplasm are absent.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15767805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Knezević V, Poljak M, Bradamante Z, Serman D, Levak-Svajger B, Svajger A: Yolk sac carcinoma derived from the rat epiblast as a renal isograft. Coll Antropol; 2005 Jun;29(1):189-97
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  • [Title] Yolk sac carcinoma derived from the rat epiblast as a renal isograft.
  • We report the novel observation that a biphasic, parieto-visceral (PYS/VYS) yolk sac carcinoma can develop from the isolated epiblast of the pre-primitive streak rat embryo in a prolonged cultivation in vivo as a renal isograft.
  • From the rest of the cylinder the 4 cell layers were isolated and transplanted separately under the kidney capsule of isogenic adult males.
  • After 4 weeks the hypoblast was resorbed, the extraembryonic ectoderm gave rise to hemorrhagic cysts and trophoblastic giant cells, the extraembryonic (visceral yolk sac) endoderm formed benign cystic PYS/VYS tumors, and the epiblast developed into a benign teratoma.
  • After prolonged (7-30 weeks) development of these teratomas as isografts, a malignant yolk sac carcinoma (YSC) developed in 45% of them.
  • It destroyed the teratoma and the recipient's kidney, metastasized to peritoneum and other sites, and caused abundant ascites containing clustered tumor cells.
  • The primary tumor was retransplantable subcutaneously as well as intraperitoneally, and displayed the characteristics of the mixed or biphasic PVYS carcinoma, with a progressive loss of the VYS component with time.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / veterinary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / veterinary. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ascites. Ectoderm. Embryo, Mammalian. Female. Kidney / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Experimental. Rats. Transplants

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  • (PMID = 16117321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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34. Petrakakou E, Grapsa D, Stergiou ME, Mikou P, Tsarpalis D, Polyzos A, Giahnaki A, Ioakim-Liossi A: Ascitic fluid cytology of yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):701-3
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  • [Title] Ascitic fluid cytology of yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare neoplasm typically affecting children and young women.
  • We describe the cytomorphology of this tumor in ascitic fluid and discuss its differential diagnosis from other neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascitic Fluid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Aggregation. Female. Humans. Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20014563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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35. McBee WC Jr, Brainard J, Sawady J, Rose PG: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary associated with endometrioid carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):244-7
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the ovary associated with endometrioid carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed yolk sac tumors of the ovary are biologically aggressive even in early stage disease.
  • CASE: A 41-year-old woman presented with a large pelvic mass and anterior vaginal wall tumor.
  • Pathology of the ovary revealed a primary yolk sac tumor associated with poorly differentiated endometrioid and undifferentiated carcinoma with vaginal metastasis only.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first case of a mixed ovarian germ cell tumor with vaginal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17316775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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36. Khunamornpong S, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Chitapanarux I: Yolk sac tumor of the vulva: a case report with long-term disease-free survival. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):238-42
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the vulva: a case report with long-term disease-free survival.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the vulva is extremely rare.
  • Three weeks after excision, right inguinal lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Local excision of tumor with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy can be justified for vulvar YST.
  • Tumor size of 5 cm or less may be a favorable prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15790466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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37. Tinica G, Butcovan D, Cimpeanu C, Târcoveanu E: A mediastinal germ cell tumor of yolk sac type--case report. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2010 Nov-Dec;105(6):831-4
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  • [Title] A mediastinal germ cell tumor of yolk sac type--case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report an extremely rare case of germ-cell tumor localized at the level of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Surgical intervention revealed an infiltrative mediastinal tumor involving the left subclavial vein, which was biopsied for morphological examination.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for alpha-fetoprotein were positive in the tumor cells while stains for carcinoembryonic antigen and placental like alkaline phosphatase were negative.
  • This supported the diagnosis of Yolk sac tumor, a rare primary tumor within the mediastinum.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary mediastinal Yolk sac neoplasm is a rare tumor.
  • In spite of modern chemotherapy, the prognosis of mediastinal yolk sac tumor remains poor.
  • The single most important prognostic indicator is whether the tumor mass can be completely excised before or after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Mediastinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21351701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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38. Ui T, Horie H, Sato H, Miyakura Y, Sakuma Y, Hyodo M, Togashi K, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Matsubara D: [Sigmoid colon cancer in a woman developing 22 years after radiation therapy for a yolk sac tumor]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 May;106(5):668-73
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  • [Title] [Sigmoid colon cancer in a woman developing 22 years after radiation therapy for a yolk sac tumor].
  • She had undergone surgical resection following chemotherapy for yolk sac tumor at the age of 12 years, and had received additional surgery and radiation therapy for a local recurrence at age 13.
  • Following evaluation, a sigmoid colon tumor was detected and was surgically resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiotherapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Sigmoid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chronic Disease. Colitis / etiology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovariectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19420871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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39. Ceyhan K, Utkan G, Dincol D, Erdogan N, Erekul S, Umudum H: Fine needle aspiration biopsy features with histologic correlation in mediastinal hepatoid yolk sac tumor presenting with sternum metastasis: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):610-5
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy features with histologic correlation in mediastinal hepatoid yolk sac tumor presenting with sternum metastasis: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor (H-YST) is an exceedingly rare and highly malignant neoplasm.
  • No tumor was found in the other organ systems.
  • Cytologically, the tumor was composed of monotonous, large, round to polygonal hepatoid cells forming solid sheets and trabeculae entrapped with endothelial cells resembling hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Histopathologic sections of tumor showed tumor cells with eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm arranged in a solid, trabecular growth pattern, with some acinar formations.
  • CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration cytology, together with the characteristic clinical presentations and specific tumor markers, is crucial to the initial diagnosis of H-YST.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Sternum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17718136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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40. Tong X, You Q, Li L, Cai L, Wang C, Zheng J: Prognostic factors of patients with ovarian yolk sac tumors: a study in Chinese patients. Onkologie; 2008 Dec;31(12):679-84
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of patients with ovarian yolk sac tumors: a study in Chinese patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of ovarian yolk sac tumors (YST) and the survival rates in Chinese patients.
  • Age, histologic type, preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level, fertility-sparing surgery, tumor size and lymphadenectomy did not affect the prognosis of YST in our study.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed cisplatin-based chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.945), chemotherapy courses > 3 (HR = 2.954), residual tumor < or = 2 cm (HR = 0.224) and ascites volume < or = 100 ml (HR = 0.389) as independent predictors for overall survival.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy, chemotherapy courses, residual tumor size and ascites volume were independent prognosis factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / mortality. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19060506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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41. Horneff G: [Malignancy and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2010 Aug;69(6):516-26
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  • [Title] [Malignancy and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] Malignome und Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor-Inhibitoren bei der juvenilen idiopathischen Arthritis.
  • RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2009 five cases of malignancy were documented in the German JIA Etanercept in Children Registry covering 1200 patients, including one case each of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, thyroid cancer, yolk sac cancer, and cervical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Juvenile / drug therapy. Biological Products / adverse effects. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etanercept. Germany. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Leukemia / chemically induced. Leukemia / epidemiology. Lymphoma / chemically induced. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Registries. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20532787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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42. de La Motte Rouge T, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Rey A, Morice P, Haie-Meder C, Kerbrat P, Culine S, Troalen F, Lhommé C: Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor. Ann Oncol; 2008 Aug;19(8):1435-41
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  • [Title] Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a very rare malignancy arising in young women.
  • However, given the rarity of this tumor, ovarian YST-specific survival and outcome after such treatment are not precisely known.

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  • (PMID = 18408223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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43. Tran TA, Ortiz HB, Holloway RW, Bigsby GE, Finkler NJ: Alpha-fetoprotein-producing serous carcinoma of the uterus metastasizing to the ovaries, mimicking primary ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):66-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein-producing serous carcinoma of the uterus metastasizing to the ovaries, mimicking primary ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • In the uterus, most alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing neoplasms belong to the categories of malignant mixed muellerian tumor, hepatoid carcinoma, and yolk sac tumor.
  • We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman who presented with vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and preoperative elevated AFP serum level, clinically suggestive of a primary ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • Upon review of the literature on primary endometrial neoplasms with AFP production, 2 categories with possibly different histogenesis and biological behavior become evident: the primary yolk sac tumor of the uterus in young patients (range, 24-49 years; mean, 34 years) and the common high grade endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac dedifferentiation or aberrant AFP production in elderly patients (range, 55-69 years; mean, 63.7 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Molecular Mimicry

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  • (PMID = 17197899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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44. Ohishi Y, Kaku T, Kaneki E, Wake N, Tsuneyoshi M: Malignant ovarian tumor composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, clear cell adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: a case study. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):548-52
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian tumor composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, clear cell adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation: a case study.
  • BACKGROUND: Cases of malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian-type epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor are extremely rare.
  • CASE: We herein report the case of a 34-year-old woman with an ovarian tumor which was composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCC), squamous cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and immature teratoma with prominent neuroectodermal and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation.
  • Even after systemic chemotherapy, this intriguing tumor recurred again and again, which is in contrast to pure germ cell tumor which is known to be sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • Correct diagnosis of this complex and aggressive tumor is paramount.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neuroectodermal Tumors / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology


45. Erdemoglu E, Ozen S: Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):516-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report.
  • This is the first case report of a pure endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary with gonodoblastoma in a 46 XX, female.
  • Fertility sparing surgery was undertaken and revealed a Stage IA endodermal sinus tumor and gonodoblastoma in the same ovary.
  • Tumor markers and immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these OGCTs with gonodoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Karyotyping

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  • (PMID = 18179152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Shim KW, Kim DS, Choi JU: Mixed or metachronous germ-cell tumor? Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Jun;23(6):713-8
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  • [Title] Mixed or metachronous germ-cell tumor?
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report the extremely rare occurrence of a second germ-cell tumor at a different site and with different histological types long after total resolution of a pineal germinoma.
  • Neuroradiological studies revealed a tumor in the pineal region.
  • The tumor was biopsied with endoscope, and third ventriculostomy was performed.
  • Histologically, the tumor proved to be a germinoma.
  • The tumor was totally resolute.
  • Neuroradiological studies showed a tumor in the right temporal lobe.
  • INTERVENTION: The second tumor was totally removed.
  • Histologically, the tumor proved to be a mixed germ-cell tumor, which consisted a yolk-sac tumor and a germinoma.
  • After the second course of chemotherapy, magnetic resonance image studies revealed no evidence of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The second tumor was considered to be a metachronous neoplasm rather than a recurrence of the original mixed germ-cell tumor, which consisted a yolk-sac tumor and a germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Ventriculostomy

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  • (PMID = 17187270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Kuroda N, Amano S, Shiotsu T, Tamura M, Hes O, Michal M, Lee GH: Mixed testicular germ cell tumor in an adult with cryptorchidism and Down's syndrome. APMIS; 2007 Nov;115(11):1292-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed testicular germ cell tumor in an adult with cryptorchidism and Down's syndrome.
  • We here present a case of mixed testicular germ cell tumor in an adult with cryptorchidism and Down's syndrome.
  • A 20-year-old Japanese man with a mass in the left inguinal region underwent orchidectomy as a left testicular tumor was suspected.
  • Histology showed a mixed germ-cell tumor with embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells occurring in a cryptorchid testis.
  • Our case provides further evidence that these three conditions-Down's syndrome, cryptorchidism and testicular germ cell tumor-may be closely associated.
  • To our knowledge this is the first case of mixed germ cell tumor arising in a patient with Down's syndrome and cryptorchidism.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18092963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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48. Bi WL, Bannykh SI, Baehring J: The growing teratoma syndrome after subtotal resection of an intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005;56(1):188
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The growing teratoma syndrome after subtotal resection of an intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report a rare complication after resection of a recurrent intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult.
  • The growing teratoma syndrome, as originally described with pediatric germ cell neoplasms, represents tumor recurrence, often cystic, that sometimes is observed after partial response to multimodality therapy and despite decreasing tumor serum markers.
  • The enlarging tumor consists of elements of a mature teratoma that presumably are refractory to chemotherapy or radiation.
  • To our knowledge, this is only the third case of the growing teratoma syndrome in an adult patient with nongerminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man had signs of recurrent obstructive hydrocephalus 6 months after multimodality treatment of a diencephalic yolk sac tumor and endoscopic third ventriculostomy.
  • Imaging studies revealed large multilocular cystic masses originating from the tumor bed and partially obstructing the ventriculostomy.
  • INTERVENTION: Near total tumor resection and fenestration was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15617603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Parada D, Peña KB, Moreira O, Cohen I, Parada AM, Mejías LD: Extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor: primary versus metastases? Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jul-Aug;60(6):713-9
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  • [Title] Extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor: primary versus metastases?
  • We describe two cases presenting as primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors without clinical evidence of testicular tumor.
  • METHODS: A 21 and 18 years-old patients presented retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Adult mature teratoma is infrequent and the retroperitoneal germ cell tumors should be considered to be metastases of a viable or burned-out testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17847753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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50. Amin RM, Kokubo T, Hiroshima K, Narita M, Itou K, Kuroki M, Tanizawa T, Nakatani Y: Metastatic germ cell tumor of the lung masquerading as primary rhabdomyosarcoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Oct;55(10):649-54
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  • [Title] Metastatic germ cell tumor of the lung masquerading as primary rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Two years after testicular resection was carried out in a 40-year-old man that revealed mixed germ cell tumor of more than one histological type (seminoma, embryonal cell carcinoma, and yolk sac tumor), he presented with an asymptomatic pulmonary nodule in his left lower lobe.
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic partial resection of the tumor revealed a 24 x 20 mm teratoma with somatic-type malignancy in which pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma was a major element.
  • One year later, asymptomatic tumor recurrence occurred at both edges of the stapler line as 22 x 20 mm and 10 x 5 mm nodules composed only of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Throughout the course there was no abdominal lymph node swelling detected by computed tomography (CT) and tumor markers were normal.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was started after the tumor recurrence.
  • Currently, the patient is still undergoing chemotherapy 5 months after the tumor recurrence.
  • In conclusion, despite the fact that primary pulmonary rhabdromyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm, metastatic pulmonary germ cell tumor with somatic-type malignancy showing predominantly rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions of the lung.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16185296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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51. Shibui S, Nomura K: Statistical analysis of pineal tumors based on the data of Brain Tumor Registry of Japan. Prog Neurol Surg; 2009;23:1-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Statistical analysis of pineal tumors based on the data of Brain Tumor Registry of Japan.
  • In this study, we present statistical analyses of pineal tumors based on the data from Brain Tumor Registry of Japan.
  • The most frequent tumor in the pineal region was germinoma, and it accounted for 49.2% of all pineal tumors; it was followed by pineocytoma (8.5%), glioma (6.5%), pineoblastoma (5.1%), malignant teratoma (5.2%) and teratoma (5.1%).
  • Germinoma is most frequent among patients between 10 and 19 years of age, and there are some patients aged >30 years; however, there are few patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, and yolk sac tumor who are aged >30 years.
  • The 5-year survival rate of germinoma was 89.4%, while those of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma were 35.3, 37.3 and 58.1%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Female. Glioma / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Teratoma / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19329857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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52. Korkola JE, Heck S, Olshen AB, Reuter VE, Bosl GJ, Houldsworth J, Chaganti RS: In vivo differentiation and genomic evolution in adult male germ cell tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Jan;47(1):43-55
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  • [Title] In vivo differentiation and genomic evolution in adult male germ cell tumors.
  • Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancy in young adult men, but the genes and genomic regions involved in their etiology are not fully defined.
  • Parallel expression profiling of these tumors identified potential oncogenes from gained regions (LYN and RAB25) and potential tumor suppressor genes in regions of loss (SYNPO2, TTC12, IGSF4, and EPB41L3).
  • Notably, we observed specific genomic alterations associated with histology, including gain of 17p11.2-q21.32 and loss of 2p25.3 in embryonal carcinoma, gain of 8p23.3-12 and loss of 5p15.33-35.3, 11q23.1-25, and 13q12.11-34 in seminoma, and gain of 1q31.3-42.3, 3p, 14q11.2-32.33, and 20q and loss of 8q11.1-23.1 in yolk sac tumors (YST).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial. Female. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17943972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. May M, Finkbeiner Y, Gunia S, Seehafer M, Knörig J, Hetzer R: Metastasizing testicular germ-cell tumor with infiltration of the right heart: indication for primary metastasectomy. Heart Vessels; 2006 Jan;21(1):63-5
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  • [Title] Metastasizing testicular germ-cell tumor with infiltration of the right heart: indication for primary metastasectomy.
  • The case of a 42-year-old male patient with a testicular germ cell tumor extending into the superior caval vein, the left brachiocephalic vein, and the right heart, which manifested as a mild form of pulmonary embolization, is presented.
  • Due to the perceived high risk of continuous embolization and the urgent need to begin systemic chemotherapy, a complete cardiac tumor resection was performed, utilizing a cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by a simultaneous orchiectomy.
  • Histology revealed a 61-cm long vascular tumor as a metastasis of a yolk sac tumor originating from the left testis.
  • There were no postoperative complications, and the patient is alive and without tumor recurrence 12 months after four cycles of systemic chemotherapy according to the PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) scheme.
  • We conclude that in this special case aggressive surgical management following chemotherapy was very effective in controlling the disseminated testicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Heart Atria / pathology. Heart Ventricles / pathology. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16440152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0910-8327
  • [Journal-full-title] Heart and vessels
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Heart Vessels
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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54. van de Geijn GJ, Hersmus R, Looijenga LH: Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 2009 Mar;87(1):96-113
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research.
  • TGCTs are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas, the latter consisting of the subgroups embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma.
  • The developmental capacity of their cell of origin, the primordial germ cells/gonocyte, is demonstrated by the different tumor histologies of the invasive TGCTs.
  • Somatic differentiation is seen in the teratomas (all lineages), whereas yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinoma represent extra-embryonal differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Child. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans. Male. MicroRNAs / metabolism. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19306344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-9768
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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55. Miyai K, Yamamoto S, Asano T, Tamai S, Matsubara O, Tsuda H: Protein overexpression and gene amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor in adult testicular germ cell tumors: potential role in tumor progression. Cancer Sci; 2010 Sep;101(9):1970-6
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  • [Title] Protein overexpression and gene amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor in adult testicular germ cell tumors: potential role in tumor progression.
  • From the primary tumor sites of a cohort of 110 TGCT cases, we obtained 209 histologically distinct components: 53 intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU) lesions, 83 seminomas (66 pure-form seminomas and 17 seminoma components in the mixed-form with nonseminomatous TGCTs), 27 embryonal carcinomas, eight choriocarcinomas, 18 yolk sac tumors, and 20 immature teratomas.
  • Overexpression of the EGFR protein was detected in 28% of seminomas (27% in the pure-form and 29% in the mixed-form), 11% of embryonal carcinomas, 88% of choriocarcinomas, 44% of yolk sac tumors, and none of the IGCNU lesions or immature teratomas.
  • A higher copy number (≥4 copies per cell) and amplification of the EGFR gene were detected in 20% and 10% of seminomas, 13% and 0% of embryonal carcinomas, 71% and 60% of choriocarcinomas, 15% and 8% of yolk sac tumors, and none of the IGCNU lesions or immature teratomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Progression. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.
  • (PMID = 20608935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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56. Luo LM, Huang HF, Pan LY, Shen K, Wu M, Xu L: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;43(12):923-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characters, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 42 patients diagnosed with primary malignant tumor in vagina in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between Jan 1984 and Aug 2006 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Primary malignant tumor accounted for 0.98% (42/4286) in the total gynecological malignant tumors during that period in PUMCH.
  • Thirteen cases were squamous carcinoma, 13 cases were malignant melanoma, 8 cases were adenocarcinoma, 3 cases were yolk sac tumor and 5 cases were other types.
  • The 2-year survival rate of patients with squamous carcinoma was 46.8%, malignant melanoma 72.9%, adenocarcinoma 20.0% and patients with yolk sac tumor were all alive tumor-free after 6 - 10 years' follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina is affected by clinical stage and histological type.
  • Patients with yolk sac tumor can be cured only with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Infant. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vagina / pathology. Vagina / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19134332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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57. Vladusic T, Hrascan R, Pecina-Slaus N, Vrhovac I, Gamulin M, Franekic J, Kruslin B: Loss of heterozygosity of CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in testicular germ cell tumors. Radiol Oncol; 2010 Sep;44(3):168-73
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent malignances in young adult men.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in TGCTs.
  • Both LOHs of the CDKN2A were found in nonseminomas with a yolk sac tumor component, and both LOHs of the RB1 were found in nonseminomas with an embryonal carcinoma component.

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  • [Cites] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 1;88(15):6662-6 [1862090.001]
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  • (PMID = 22933911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1581-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3423692
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CDKN2A / RB1 / loss of heterozygosity / nonseminomas / seminomas
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58. Luther N, Edgar MA, Dunkel IJ, Souweidane MM: Correlation of endoscopic biopsy with tumor marker status in primary intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Correlation of endoscopic biopsy with tumor marker status in primary intracranial germ cell tumors.
  • We retrospectively analyzed the results of eight patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy of a newly diagnosed primary intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT), and correlated tumor pathology with serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor markers and treatment outcome in order to determine the reliability of GCT sampling by this method.
  • A biopsy diagnosis was made in each patient, and the tumor histology correlated with tumor marker measurements for all six patients diagnosed with germinoma and for one with a yolk sac tumor.
  • One biopsy revealed only mature teratoma, an inconclusive result since the patient's serum and CSF tumor markers were elevated.
  • However, endoscopic biopsy may fail to yield an accurate diagnosis in cases of malignant non-germinomatous tumor.
  • We would thus conclude that when primary germ cell tumor is considered, endoscopic tumor biopsy is recommended in patients with a negative biochemical analysis, but not suggested for patients presenting with elevated tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endoscopy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16598424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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59. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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60. D'Antonio A, De Dominicis G, Addesso M, Caleo A, Boscaino A: Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):765-8
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of ovary is a rare type of epithelial tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells with abundant acidophilic cytoplasm, histologically indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report a previously unrecognized case of HC of ovary concurrent with a Sertoli cell tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman patient with a long-term history of hepatitis C presented with a mass of left ovary without evidence of hepatic tumor.
  • Histologically, the primary tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with "hepatoid features" in association with a sex cord stromal tumor of Sertoli-type.
  • A final diagnosis of HC concurrent with Sertoli-type tumor was made.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of this unreported association of HC with Sertoli-like tumor, the problems of differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of these tumors are the subject of this presentation.
  • A diagnosis of ovarian metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma is easy in patients with known primary tumor of liver and should be always excluded in these cases as an hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19856182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Al Masri W, Alhendal A, Al Mishaan M: A ruptured retroperitoneal germ cell tumor with invasion into the duodenum: a case report. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):69-72
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  • [Title] A ruptured retroperitoneal germ cell tumor with invasion into the duodenum: a case report.
  • We report a rare case of a retroperitoneal germ cell tumor in a 31 years old male who presented with an acute abdomen.
  • The final pathology revealed a yolk sac tumor.
  • We present this rare case of a primary para-aortic extragonadal yolk sac tumor and the differential diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 20084727.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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62. Collen J, Carmichael M, Wroblewski T: Metastatic malignant teratoma arising from mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report. Mil Med; 2008 Apr;173(4):406-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant teratoma arising from mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report.
  • Pathology confirmed NSGCT with yolk sac and teratomatous components.
  • Chemotherapy for GCT normalized serum tumor markers with little effect on the mediastinal mass.
  • Incomplete resection of the residual tumor revealed high-grade mixed sarcoma.
  • Serum tumor markers rose 3 months following resection with metastatic disease to bone and liver.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Male. Mesna / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology


63. Kanto S, Tokuyama S, Numahata K, Nakagawa H, Saito S, Arai Y: [Occult lumbar vertebral body metastasis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated by radiation and salvage surgery 9 years after initial onset]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):634-7
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  • [Title] [Occult lumbar vertebral body metastasis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated by radiation and salvage surgery 9 years after initial onset].
  • In this report we describe a case of late relapse non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated after 9 years of initial onset.
  • A 20-year-old man complaining of recent aches, vomiting and headaches was diagnosed with right testicular tumor with solitary brain and bilateral lung metastases.
  • Pathologically, the tumors were embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • The patient received 5 cycles of cisplatin-based PEP chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide and peplomycin) after which all the tumor markers fell to within the normal range.
  • The remaining right lung tumor was removed surgically and the remnant lesion was found to be scar tissue.
  • The tumor metastasis showed only HCG elevation responsive to chemotherapy each time followed by relapse and undetectable with all kinds of imaging examinations for 5 years.
  • Finally when the tumor became chemorefractory, conventional computed tomography scan on bone window detected the occult tumor in L4 corporal body.
  • After radiation therapy the tumor was removed by total spondylectomy and there was no viable tumor cells in the specimen pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17564107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Grozdanov PN, Petkov PM, Karagyozov LK, Dabeva MD: Expression and localization of PCSK9 in rat hepatic cells. Biochem Cell Biol; 2006 Feb;84(1):80-92
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  • We studied the expression and subcellular localization of PCSK9 in fetal and adult rat tissues associated with cholesterol homeostasis using quantitative reverse transcriptase--PCR, Western blot analysis, subcellular fractionation, and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy.
  • PCSK9 mRNA is most abundant in yolk sac and fetal liver, but the highest expression of the protein was found in differentiated hepatoma FAO-1 cell line, which also shows the highest expression of LDLR.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brefeldin A / pharmacology. COS Cells. Centrifugation, Density Gradient. Cercopithecus aethiops. Cholesterol / pharmacology. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Female. Fetus / enzymology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Liver / enzymology. Male. Pregnancy. Protein Transport / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Yolk Sac / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16462892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0829-8211
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK59321
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sulfonamides; 127243-85-0 / N-(2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide; 20350-15-6 / Brefeldin A; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 3.4.21.- / PCSK9 protein, rat; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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65. Zynger DL, Dimov ND, Luan C, Teh BT, Yang XJ: Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1570-5
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  • Recently, GPC3 was reported to be one of the over-expressed genes in testicular yolk sac tumors by gene expression microarray analysis.
  • Tumors from 71 patients were examined, including components of 42 seminomas, 37 embryonal carcinomas, 24 yolk sac tumors, 20 teratomas with mature elements, 16 teratomas with immature elements, and 7 choriocarcinomas.
  • All yolk sac tumor (24/24) and choriocarcinoma (7/7) components were immunoreactive for GPC3, whereas only 38% of teratomas with immature elements and 8% of embryonal carcinomas expressed GPC3.
  • Our findings suggest a possible role of GPC3 in tumor cell differentiation.
  • Furthermore, GPC immunostaining may be useful in the pathologic diagnosis of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17122513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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66. Dimov ND, Zynger DL, Luan C, Kozlowski JM, Yang XJ: Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):955-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Primary GCT specimens from 109 patients, including 57 seminomas and 52 mixed GCTs (41 embryonal carcinomas, 23 yolk sac tumors, 19 seminomas, 8 choriocarcinomas, 17 teratomas with immature elements, and 16 teratomas with mature elements), were obtained from our archives.
  • The metastatic lesions from 11 of the patients with mixed GCTs included seven teratomas with mature components, five embryonal carcinomas, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, and one teratoma with immature components.
  • RESULTS: Most embryonal carcinoma (100%), yolk sac tumor (95%), seminoma (88%), and choriocarcinoma (62%) components of the GCTs were TopoIIalpha immunoreactive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that TopoIIalpha is expressed in most seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinomas, suggesting a possible mechanism of sensitivity of these components to TopoIIalpha inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / enzymology. Testicular Neoplasms / enzymology. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / enzymology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sampling Studies. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / enzymology. Seminoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / enzymology. Teratoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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67. Mei K, Liu A, Allan RW, Wang P, Lane Z, Abel TW, Wei L, Cheng H, Guo S, Peng Y, Rakheja D, Wang M, Ma J, Rodriguez MM, Li J, Cao D: Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1628-36
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  • In this study we analyzed the diagnostic utility of a novel marker, SALL4, in 77 such tumors (59 pure and 18 mixed) consisting of the following tumors/tumor components: 49 germinomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas, 27 yolk sac tumors, 3 choriocarcinomas, and 14 teratomas.
  • We compared SALL4 with OCT4 in all germ cell tumors and compared SALL4 with alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 in all yolk sac tumors.
  • Strong SALL4 staining was observed in all 49 germinomas (4+ in 48, 3+ in 1), 7 embryonal carcinomas (all 4+), and 27 yolk sac tumors (1+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 3+ in 7, 4+ in 17).
  • Out of 27 yolk sac tumors, 26 showed positive alpha-fetoprotein staining (1+ in 9, 2+ in 7, 3+ in 5, and 4+ in 5).
  • All yolk sac tumors showed positive glypican-3 staining (1+ in 6, 2+ in 6, 3+ in 7, and 4+ in 8).
  • The mean percentage of yolk sac tumor cells stained was 84% with SALL4, 45% with alpha-fetoprotein, and 63% with glypican-3 (P<0.01).
  • SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 for yolk sac tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / chemistry. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / chemistry. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Glypicans / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Male. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19820689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SALL4 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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68. Franco R, Esposito F, Fedele M, Liguori G, Pierantoni GM, Botti G, Tramontano D, Fusco A, Chieffi P: Detection of high-mobility group proteins A1 and A2 represents a valid diagnostic marker in post-pubertal testicular germ cell tumours. J Pathol; 2008 Jan;214(1):58-64
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  • They are abundantly expressed during embryogenesis and in most malignant neoplasias, whereas their expression is low or absent in normal adult tissues.
  • In this study we have evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HMGA1 and HMGA2 in a series of post-pubertal testicular tumours of different histological types, including 30 seminomas, 15 teratomas, 15 embryonal carcinomas and 10 mixed germinal tumours with a prominent yolk sac tumour component.
  • HMGA1 protein expression was detected in all seminomas and embryonal carcinomas analysed, but not in teratomas or yolk sac carcinomas.
  • Conversely, HMGA2 was present only in embryonal carcinomas and yolk sac carcinomas, but not in seminomas or teratomas.
  • These findings indicate that HMGA1 and HMGA2 are differently expressed with respect to the state of differentiation of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), with over-expression of both proteins in pluripotential embryonal carcinoma cells and loss of expression of HMGA1 in yolk sac tumours and of both proteins in the mature adult tissue of teratoma areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. HMGA1a Protein / metabolism. HMGA2 Protein / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blotting, Western. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 17935122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein
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69. Harms D, Zahn S, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):296-302
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  • The biologic behaviour of teratomas depends on various interdependent clinical and epidemiologic variables such as the age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, histology which all correlate to different cytogenetic and molecular biologic aberrations.
  • The Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry includes 541 teratoma specimens, and among these, the most frequent tumor sites (in descending order) are: the sacrococcygeal region (33.8 %), the ovaries (31.2 %) and the testes (10.5 %).
  • The frequency of additional microscopic foci of malignant yolk sac tumor correlates with the grade of immaturity.
  • In sacrococcygeal teratomas, the yolk sac tumor microfoci may give rise to a malignant relapse after incomplete resection.
  • Here, molecular genetic analysis has demonstrated the origin of the somatic malignancy from a malignant transformation within the germ cell tumor with retention of the cytogenetic changes characteristic of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Cytogenetic Analysis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Ovary / pathology. Puberty. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. De Jong J, Weeda S, Gillis AJ, Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LH: Differential methylation of the OCT3/4 upstream region in primary human testicular germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jul;18(1):127-32
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  • Expression regulation of OCT3/4 has been extensively studied in murine and human cell lines, including embryonic stem cell lines and tumor derived cell lines.
  • Normal testis parenchyma, peripheral blood lymphocytes, spermatocytic seminoma, yolk sac tumor and teratoma, and JKT-1 showed a consistent hypermethylation.
  • In contrast, seminoma and embryonal carcinoma were hypomethylated, confirmed by analyses after tumor micro-dissection.
  • In conclusion, the results obtained from this set of adult normal and neoplastic in vivo derived samples is in accordance to the in vitro data that expression of OCT3/4 is associated with specific changes in methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Embryonal / genetics. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17549357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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71. Radhika S, Bakshi A, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Das A, Kakkar N, Joshi K, Marwaha RK, Rao KL: Cytopathology of uncommon malignant renal neoplasms in the pediatric age group. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 May;32(5):281-6
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  • These include the common Wilms' tumor/nephroblastoma and the uncommon neoplasms such as clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), rhabdoid tumor, renal-cell carcinoma, and others.
  • Aspirates from Wilms' tumor, which are mesenchyme predominant, show clusters of spindle cells associated with the matrix material.
  • Renal-cell carcinoma of childhood shows similar cytological features as its adult counterpart.
  • Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is characterized by a monomorphic population of cells with abundant cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei with prominent nucleoli.
  • Intrarenal yolk sac tumor is a rare neoplasm and shows severely pleomorphic cells on aspiration.
  • Further, non-Wilms' renal malignant neoplasms must be distinguished from the common Wilms' tumor so that appropriate chemotherapy protocols may be instituted in cases where the tumor is in an advanced stage of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Staining and Labeling. Wilms Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15830360.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Jin JS, Hsieh DS, Loh SH, Chen A, Yao CW, Yen CY: Increasing expression of serine protease matriptase in ovarian tumors: tissue microarray analysis of immunostaining score with clinicopathological parameters. Mod Pathol; 2006 Mar;19(3):447-52
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  • Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease expressed by cells of surface epithelial origin, including epithelial ovarian tumor cells.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of matriptase was performed in tissue microarrays of 164 ovarian neoplasms including 84 serous adenocarcinomas, 23 mucinous adenocarcinomas, 10 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, six yolk sac tumors, 12 clear cell carcinomas, six dysgerminomas, eight granulosa cell tumors, four transitional cell carcinomas, five fibromas, and six Brenner tumors.
  • The matriptase scores were significantly higher in the tumors than in their nontumor counterparts (304+/-26 for serous adenocarcinoma; 361+/-28 for mucinous adenocarcinoma; 254+/-17 for endometrioid adenocarcinoma; 205+/-19 for yolk sac tumor; 162+/-16 for clear cell carcinoma; 109+/-11 for dysgerminoma; 105+/-9 for granulosa cell tumor; and 226+/-18 for transitional cell carcinoma).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Brenner Tumor / enzymology. Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / enzymology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Child. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / enzymology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / enzymology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Dysgerminoma / enzymology. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Fibroma / enzymology. Fibroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16439987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.109 / ST14 protein, human
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73. Murugan P, Siddaraju N, Sridhar E, Soundararaghavan J, Habeebullah S: Unusual ovarian malignancies in ascitic fluid: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):611-7
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  • However, subsequent histopathologic examination showed them to be yolk sac tumor (YST) and juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20715666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Gupta R, Mathur SR, Arora VK, Sharma SG: Cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors: a study of 88 cases with aspiration cytology. Cancer; 2008 Dec 25;114(6):504-11

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  • Seminomas had dyscohesive tumor cells with well defined, vacuolated cytoplasm; prominent nucleolus; and background lymphocytes.
  • Yolk sac tumors revealed papillary fragments of tumor cells with metachromatic basement membrane-like material in the fragments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology can reliably offer a diagnosis of GCT at extragonadal sites, even in rare locations and in patients in whom metastatic tumor may be the first clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18980289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Kawauchi S, Yamamoto Y, Uchida K, Chochi Y, Kondo T, Oga A, Sasaki K: Significance of cyclin E and p27 expression in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: correlation with the cell proliferation activity and clinicopathologic features. Oncol Rep; 2006 Nov;16(5):1029-33
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  • The labeling index (LI) was calculated as a percentage of the positively stained tumor cells per total tumor cells counted. p27 LIs showed a significant inverse correlation with Ki-67 LIs in MOGCTs examined (p<0.05).
  • The cyclin E LIs of yolk sac tumors were significantly higher than those of dysgerminomas (p<0.01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Child. CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17016588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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76. Ataergin S, Ozet A, Arpaci F, Kilic S, Beyzadeoglu M, Komurcu S: Outcome of patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: results of a single center. Indian J Cancer; 2007 Jan-Mar;44(1):6-11

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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsy specimens of 58 patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors were analyzed by means of tumor histopathology, primary localization site of the tumor, relapse sites, initial serum tumor marker levels, the presence of persistent serum tumor marker elevation and the patients' outcome.
  • Analysis of the prognostic factors revealed that the localization site of the primary tumor (P<0.001), the initial beta-HCG level (p:0.0048), the presence of yolk sac and choriocarcinoma components in tumor (p:0.003 and p:0.004), relapse sites of tumor (lung versus other than lung) (p:0.003), persistent elevation of serum tumor markers (P<0.001) were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis.
  • However, in multivariate analysis, only the localization site of tumor (p:0.049) and the relapse site (p:0.003) were found statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study revealed that in advanced stage of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, the outcome is essentially related with the localization site of the tumor and the relapse site.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17401218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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77. Lau SK, Weiss LM, Chu PG: D2-40 immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study with KIT (CD117) and CD30. Mod Pathol; 2007 Mar;20(3):320-5
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  • Forty testicular germ cell neoplasms were examined, which included 19 seminomas, three embryonal carcinomas, three teratomas, one yolk sac tumor, and 14 mixed germ cell tumors.
  • The 14 cases of mixed germ cell tumors contained components of seminoma (n=7), embryonal carcinoma (n=11), teratoma (n=10), yolk sac tumor (n=2), and choriocarcinoma (n=1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 17277761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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78. Kinoshita Y, Tajiri T, Souzaki R, Tatsuta K, Higashi M, Izaki T, Takahashi Y, Taguchi T: Diagnostic value of lectin reactive alpha-fetoprotein for neoinfantile hepatic tumors and malignant germ cell tumors: preliminary study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Jun;30(6):447-50
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level has been used as a tumor marker for hepatoblastoma, and malignant germ cell tumors in pediatric patients.
  • The AFP has 3 isoforms (L1, L2, L3), and the usefulness of the L3 fraction as a diagnostic marker for the adult hepatocellular carcinoma is well known.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, two cases of hepatoblastoma, and 5 cases of germ cell tumor, all of which were neoinfantile, were treated in our department.
  • RESULTS: In all cases of hepatoblastoma and yolk sac tumor, both the total AFP and the L3 fraction were high, either before treatment or in the presence of malignant tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: Our results indicated that the level of the L3 fraction accurately confirmed the existence, or the malignant potential of hepatic tumor or germ cell tumor.
  • The L3 fraction is useful as a tumor marker during the neoinfantile period.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Hepatoblastoma / blood. Liver Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / blood. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18525461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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79. Pauls K, Jäger R, Weber S, Wardelmann E, Koch A, Büttner R, Schorle H: Transcription factor AP-2gamma, a novel marker of gonocytes and seminomatous germ cell tumors. Int J Cancer; 2005 Jun 20;115(3):470-7
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  • Therefore, identification of novel oncofetal markers is an important prerequisite to further our understanding of the etiology of this tumor entity.
  • Spermatocytic seminomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumors as well as normal adult testis and various control tissues were negative for AP-2gamma.
  • Finally, our results provide the basis for applying AP-2gamma immunohistochemistry to the detection of GCT, a tumor entity with a steadily growing incidence in the male population worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Fetus / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry. Testis / embryology. Testis / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15700319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TFAP2C protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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80. Chang MC, Vargas SO, Hornick JL, Hirsch MS, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):347-55
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  • SUMMARY: The embryonic stem cell transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT3/4 are involved in the regulation of germ cell tumor growth and differentiation.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (n=31) have distinct immunostaining profiles, depending on the type of differentiation as follows: dysgerminoma (SOX2-, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40+), embryonal carcinoma (SOX2+, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40-), immature teratomas (SOX2+, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-), yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinoma (SOX2-, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-).
  • OCT3/4 was positive in 4 of 9 adult granulosa cell tumors (15% to 85% of cells).
  • The inclusion of these markers should therefore be considered in cases of pure or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors that are difficult to classify, and to exclude nongerm cell tumor mimics.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19483629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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81. Nakamura H, Takeshima H, Makino K, Kuratsu J: C-kit expression in germinoma: an immunohistochemistry-based study. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):163-7
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  • All 3 cases negative for PLAP-staining were strongly positive and all embryonal carcinomas, immature teratomas, and yolk sac tumors were negative for c-kit staining.
  • C-kit and s-kit may be powerful tumor markers for germinomas with or without STGC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Germinoma / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Male. Retrospective Studies. Trophoblasts / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16132509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / germ-cell AP isoenzyme; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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82. Palmer RD, Barbosa-Morais NL, Gooding EL, Muralidhar B, Thornton CM, Pett MR, Roberts I, Schneider DT, Thorne N, Tavaré S, Nicholson JC, Coleman N, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group: Pediatric malignant germ cell tumors show characteristic transcriptome profiles. Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 1;68(11):4239-47
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  • They vary substantially in their natural history and show important clinical differences from their adult counterparts.
  • To address the biological basis for these observations, we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of global gene expression patterns in pediatric malignant GCTs and compared these findings with published data on adult testicular GCTs (TGCT).
  • Our study included 27 primary tumors and assessed the principal malignant histologic types of pediatric GCT, yolk sac tumor (YST; n = 18), and seminoma (n = 9).
  • In contrast, there was segregation of pediatric malignant GCTs and adult malignant TGCTs, most notably for the YSTs.

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  • (PMID = 18519683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE10615
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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83. Hartke DM, Agarwal PK, Palmer JS: Prepubertal male and testicular neoplasms: diagnosis and treatment. Drugs Today (Barc); 2006 Feb;42(2):127-33
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  • Prepubescent testicular tumors are far more likely to be benign than adult tumors.
  • However, malignant yolk sac tumors are still the most commonly reported testicular neoplasms in the literature.
  • Regardless of tumor type, with prompt diagnosis and treatment long-term survival is excellent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Puberty. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex

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  • (PMID = 16541189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3993
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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84. Shoji S, Shima M, Usui Y, Nagata Y, Uchida T, Terachi T: [A case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types--complete response after combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irrinotecan hydrochloride--]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Apr;52(4):303-6
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  • Histopathological examination of the excised tumors revealed seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma in the right testis and seminoma in the left testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16686361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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85. Han JY, Nava-Ocampo AA, Kim TJ, Shim JU, Park CT: Pregnancy outcome after prenatal exposure to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: report of 2 cases. Reprod Toxicol; 2005 Mar-Apr;19(4):557-61
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  • A pregnant woman with a stage Ic yolk-sac tumor underwent a right oophorectomy with omentectomy, and received five cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin from the 22nd week of pregnancy until delivery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Pregnancy Outcome. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15749271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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86. Salonen J, Leminen A, Stenman UH, Butzow R, Heikinheimo M, Heikinheimo O: Tissue AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4, and serum CA 125 as diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumour Biol; 2008;29(1):50-6
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  • Serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 125 were determined, and immunohistochemistry for CA 125 as well as the pluripotent stem cell markers AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4 was performed in tumor specimens and the NCC-IT human germinoma cell line.
  • Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that in most cases the elevated CA 125 levels originated from the tumor tissue.
  • Most dysgerminomas as well as the germinoma cell line were positive for AP-2gamma and Oct-3/4, whereas the majority of yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas were negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18497549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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87. Abood G, Bowen M, Potkul R, Aranha G, Shoup M: Hepatic resection for recurrent metastatic ovarian cancer. Am J Surg; 2008 Mar;195(3):370-3; discussion 373
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  • Primary tumor type included serous cystadenocarcinoma (n = 8), granulosa cell (n = 1), and yolk sac (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cystadenocarcinoma / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18207130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Saito J, Takayama H, Kakuta Y, Miyagawa Y, Tsujihata M, Nishimura K, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: [The growing teratoma syndrome report of a case]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Sep;97(6):796-800
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  • Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed yolk sac tumor and mature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Teratoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 17025213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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89. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S81-98
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  • One variant of Sertoli cell tumor, the large cell calcifying form, appears to be restricted to the male gonad and in contrast to other sex cord tumors is much more frequently bilateral and is associated in many cases with unusual clinical manifestations.
  • In females, it is in the form of the sex cord with annular tubules whereas in males, the lesion has features that are often intermediate between those of a sex cord tumor with annular tubules and a large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor.
  • Granulosa cell tumors are much more common in females and in both gonads are divided into adult and juvenile forms.
  • The juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis tends to occur in the first 6 months of life and should be carefully distinguished from the yolk sac tumor of the testis, which usually occurs in a slightly older age group.
  • In females, this is a relatively common placement for a neoplasm in a pregnant patient.
  • Unclassified tumors are overall more common in males and may entrap residual normal germ cells potentially leading to the erroneous placement of the tumor in the category of a mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15502809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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90. Iczkowski KA, Butler SL, Shanks JH, Hossain D, Schall A, Meiers I, Zhou M, Torkko KC, Kim SJ, MacLennan GT: Trials of new germ cell immunohistochemical stains in 93 extragonadal and metastatic germ cell tumors. Hum Pathol; 2008 Feb;39(2):275-81
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  • A total of 93 germ cell tumors (41 seminoma, 22 embryonal carcinoma, 18 teratoma, and 12 yolk sac tumor) were obtained from the central nervous system (30), mediastinum (23), retroperitoneum/abdomen (31), and other locations (9).
  • Epithelial membrane antigen discriminated teratoma from other nonseminomas with a sensitivity of 1 but reacted occasionally in embryonal carcinoma (3/15) and yolk sac tumor (2/7).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Germinoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Male. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Transcription Factor AP-2 / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2013 Dec;44(12):2873
  • (PMID = 18045648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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91. Sakurada K, Saino M, Mouri W, Sato A, Kitanaka C, Kayama T: Nestin expression in central nervous system germ cell tumors. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Apr;31(2):173-6; discussion 176-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in undifferentiated cells during CNS development and in CNS tumors and is used as a marker of immature elements of tumors, including brain tumor stem cells.
  • In this study, we examined for the first time nestin expression in 19 CNS germ cell tumors (nine pure germinomas, five germinomas with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, one embryonal carcinoma, and two mature teratomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germinoma / genetics. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nestin. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18092184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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92. Miller JS, Lee TK, Epstein JI, Ulbright TM: The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1293-8
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  • The submitting pathologists favored benign processes in 4 cases, Leydig cell tumor in 1, and lymphoma in 1.
  • Mean tumor size was 19 mm (range 7-53).
  • The combination of histologic features, immunostains and, in 1 case, serum AFP permitted classification of 8 tumors (4 seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas, 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • OCT4 stained 1 unclassifiable tumor, which lacked other specific markers.
  • We did not find placental alkaline phosphatase, AFP, and S100 stains useful, although S100 did highlight tumor "ghost" cells in 1 case.
  • Other features in most cases included intratubular germ cell neoplasia (6/11), tubular atrophy/hyalinization (10/11), tumor "ghost" cells (10/11), scar (9/11), and inflammation (10/11).
  • Of the 5 patients with available follow-up, 3 were free of disease at 1, 5, and 8 years after orchiectomy (2 necrotic seminomas and 1 germ cell tumor, unclassified).
  • One patient with yolk sac tumor (age 63 y) developed widespread metastases after 15 months and died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Seminoma / classification. Testicular Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Orchiectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19461507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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93. Chan JK, Tewari KS, Waller S, Cheung MK, Shin JY, Osann K, Kapp DS: The influence of conservative surgical practices for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug 1;98(2):111-6
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  • Fifty-five percent were immature teratomas, 32% dysgerminomas, and 13% yolk sac tumors.
  • The overall survival of women with dysgerminomas, immature teratomas, and yolk sac tumors was 99.5%, 94.3%, and 85.4%, respectively (P < 0.001).
  • In multivariate analysis, older age, advanced stage, and yolk sac tumor histology predicted for poorer survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. SEER Program. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18563734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA062203
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS579858; NLM/ PMC4111627
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94. Cao D, Li J, Guo CC, Allan RW, Humphrey PA: SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jul;33(7):1065-77
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Here we performed an immunohistochemical study of a novel stem cell marker SALL4 in a large series of 110 primary testicular GCTs (65 pure and 45 mixed) containing the following types of tumors and/or tumor components: 50 intratubular germ cell neoplasias (ITGCNs), 62 classic seminomas, 2 spermatocytic seminomas, 39 embryonal carcinomas (EC), 5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal yolk sac tumors (YST), 7 pediatric and 25 postpubertal teratomas, and 5 choriocarcinomas.
  • All ITGCNs, classic seminomas, and ECs demonstrated strong SALL4 and OCT4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells.
  • All 31 YSTs (5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal) showed strong positive SALL4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells but had negative OCT4 staining.
  • Both spermatocytic seminomas showed positive SALL4 staining in 80% to 95% tumor cells in all 3 types of tumor cells with weak-to-moderate staining intensity.
  • Of 275 nontesticular tumors, only 10 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma showed focal (<25% tumor cells) weak SALL4 staining.
  • Although all 31 YSTs showed glypican-3 staining, 14 (45%) show staining in less than 30% tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / SALL4 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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95. Robert-Moreno A, Espinosa L, Sanchez MJ, de la Pompa JL, Bigas A: The notch pathway positively regulates programmed cell death during erythroid differentiation. Leukemia; 2007 Jul;21(7):1496-503
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we show that the Notch/RBPjkappa signaling pathway induces erythroid apoptosis in different hematopoietic tissues, including yolk sac and bone marrow as well as in murine erythroleukemia cells.
  • In RBPjkappa(-/-) yolk sacs, erythroid cells have a decreased rate of cell death that results in increased number of Ter119(+) cells.
  • We demonstrate that incubation with Jagged1-expressing cells has a proapoptotic effect in erythroid cells from adult bone marrow that is prevented by blocking Notch activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium-Binding Proteins. Cell Line, Tumor. Homeostasis. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Membrane Proteins. Mice. Mice, Knockout

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  • (PMID = 17476283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Notch1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 134324-36-0 / Serrate proteins
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96. McKenney JK, Heerema-McKenney A, Rouse RV: Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a review with emphasis on pathologic features, clinical prognostic variables, and differential diagnostic considerations. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):69-92
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  • Their morphology varies widely and includes mature teratoma, immature teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and mixed GCTs.
  • This review attempts to dissect these issues by separating the discussion into 3 age groups: neonatal (congenital), children (prepubertal), and adult (postpubertal).
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17471115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 186
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97. Palmer RD, Murray MJ, Saini HK, van Dongen S, Abreu-Goodger C, Muralidhar B, Pett MR, Thornton CM, Nicholson JC, Enright AJ, Coleman N, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group: Malignant germ cell tumors display common microRNA profiles resulting in global changes in expression of messenger RNA targets. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 01;70(7):2911-23
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNA) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls, and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs.
  • The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted P < 0.00005), which were overexpressed regardless of histologic subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal), or patient age (pediatric/adult).
  • Sylamer revealed that the hexamer GCACTT, complementary to the 2- to 7-nucleotide miRNA seed AAGUGC shared by six members of the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters, was the only sequence significantly enriched in the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs downregulated in pediatric malignant GCTs (as a group), YSTs and ECs, and in adult YSTs (all versus nonmalignant tissue controls; P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Cluster Analysis. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20332240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1053.00.002(59875); United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9900837; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0700089; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3000593; NLM/ UKMS28624
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98. Mottet N, Berger N, Droz JP: [Diagnosis and staging of germ-cell tumours of the testis]. Rev Prat; 2007 Feb 28;57(4):365-78
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Non seminomatous tumours are heterogeneous, different sub-groups are described: embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumours, but components are often mixed.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Orchiectomy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiography, Thoracic. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17455738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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99. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Orchiectomy. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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100. Lin HC, Clark JY: Testicular teratoma presenting as a transilluminating scrotal mass. Urology; 2006 Jun;67(6):1290.e3-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

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  • Prepubertal testicular neoplasms are uncommon and differ from adult neoplasms in histopathologic features and presentation.
  • Although tumor registries cite yolk sac tumor as the most common prepubertal testis neoplasm, more recent studies have demonstrated benign tumors such as teratomas to be more common.

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  • (PMID = 16750249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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