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1. Ellouze S, Krichen-Makni S, Trabelsi K, Ayadi L, Sellami A, Khabir A, Hammami S, Mnif H, Sellami-Boudawara T: [Granulosa-cell tumor of the ovary: report of 16 cases]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Dec;35(8 Pt 1):767-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Granulosa-cell tumor of the ovary: report of 16 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur de la granulosa de l'ovaire: à propos de 16 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, pathological and clinical features of granulosa cell tumors and to study the different prognostic factors in order to determine an appropriate therapeutic attitude.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We proceeded with a retrospective study of 16 cases of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary diagnosed over a period of 10 years (1994-2003).
  • These cases included one case of juvenile type and 15 adult types.
  • RESULTS: Mean patient age was 46 years for the adult type (range 20-70 years) and 35 years for the juvenile type; 19% of the patients were nulliparous, 31% were menopausals.
  • Mean tumor size was 10.5 cm with a solido-cystic aspect in 50% of cases.
  • The juvenile tumor was at stage IV at time of diagnosis and only adjuvant chemotherapy was given.
  • No relapse nor recurrence were noted for the adult type after a mean follow up of 2 years 2 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • The adult form progresses slowly and often is diagnosed in an early stage of disease.
  • A prolonged post therapeutic follow-up is necessary because of the risk of recurrences, late and exceptional for the adult form but frequent and early for the juvenile form.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17151531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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2. Köbel M, Gilks CB, Huntsman DG: Adult-type granulosa cell tumors and FOXL2 mutation. Cancer Res; 2009 Dec 15;69(24):9160-2
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  • [Title] Adult-type granulosa cell tumors and FOXL2 mutation.
  • Little is known about the pathogenesis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • Recently, we reported the identification of a somatic FOXL2 402C-->G mutation that is present in virtually all adult-type granulosa cell tumors, but not in a wide range of other tumor types.
  • This finding has important implications for the diagnosis and classification of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, provides insight into the pathogenesis of adult-type granulosa cell tumors, and opens possibilities for the development of targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19996294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP 97735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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3. Jamieson S, Butzow R, Andersson N, Alexiadis M, Unkila-Kallio L, Heikinheimo M, Fuller PJ, Anttonen M: The FOXL2 C134W mutation is characteristic of adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Mod Pathol; 2010 Nov;23(11):1477-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The FOXL2 C134W mutation is characteristic of adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary represent ∼5% of malignant ovarian cancers.
  • It has recently been reported that 95-97% of adult granulosa cell tumors carry a unique somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene.
  • We undertook this study to verify the presence of the FOXL2 Cys134Trp mutation in two geographically independent cohorts of granulosa cell tumors and to examine the expression pattern of FOXL2 in these tumors.
  • A total of 56 tumors with the histological diagnosis of adult granulosa cell tumor from two centers, Melbourne and Helsinki, were examined for the presence of the mutation using direct sequence analysis.
  • Two granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, three juvenile granulosa cell tumors and control tissues were also examined.
  • We found that 52 of the 56 adult granulosa cell tumors harbor the mutation, of which three were hemi/homozygous.
  • Of the four cases with wild-type FOXL2 sequence, reappraisal suggests that three may have been misclassified at primary diagnosis.
  • The KGN cells were heterozygous for the mutation, whereas the COV434 cells had a wild-type FOXL2 genotype.
  • The expression levels of FOXL2 were similar across the adult granulosa cell tumors and the normal ovary controls; one mutation-negative granulosa cell tumor had high FOXL2 mRNA levels, whereas the COV434 cells and two of the three juvenile granulosa cell tumors lacked the expression of FOXL2.
  • Our data provide confirmation of the frequent presence of the FOXL2 C134W mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors and demonstrate that the mutation is not associated with altered FOXL2 expression.
  • The mutation analysis may be a useful tool to differentiate particularly between cell-rich diffuse granulosa cell tumors and mitotically active sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • This unique FOXL2 mutation appears to be characteristic of adult granulosa cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Finland. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genotype. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phenotype. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Victoria

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  • (PMID = 20693978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
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4. Benayoun BA, Caburet S, Dipietromaria A, Georges A, D'Haene B, Pandaranayaka PJ, L'Hôte D, Todeschini AL, Krishnaswamy S, Fellous M, De Baere E, Veitia RA: Functional exploration of the adult ovarian granulosa cell tumor-associated somatic FOXL2 mutation p.Cys134Trp (c.402C>G). PLoS One; 2010;5(1):e8789
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional exploration of the adult ovarian granulosa cell tumor-associated somatic FOXL2 mutation p.Cys134Trp (c.402C>G).
  • BACKGROUND: The somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene c.402C>G (p.Cys134Trp) has recently been identified in the vast majority of adult ovarian granulosa cell tumors (OGCTs) studied.
  • In addition, this mutation seems to be specific to adult OGCTs and is likely to be a driver of malignant transformation.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have sequenced the FOXL2 open reading frame in a panel of tumor cell lines (NCI-60, colorectal carcinoma cell lines, JEG-3, and KGN cells).
  • We found the FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation in the adult OGCT-derived KGN cell line.
  • All other cell lines analyzed were negative for the mutation.
  • In order to gain insights into the pathogenic mechanism of the p.Cys134Trp mutation, the subcellular localization and mobility of the mutant protein were studied and found to be no different from those of the wild type (WT).
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here, we confirm the specificity of the FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation in adult OGCTs and begin the exploration of its molecular significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysteine / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / physiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tryptophan / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Models, Molecular. Molecular Sequence Data. Open Reading Frames. Subcellular Fractions / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation

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  • (PMID = 20098707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2808356
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5. Shah SP, Köbel M, Senz J, Morin RD, Clarke BA, Wiegand KC, Leung G, Zayed A, Mehl E, Kalloger SE, Sun M, Giuliany R, Yorida E, Jones S, Varhol R, Swenerton KD, Miller D, Clement PB, Crane C, Madore J, Provencher D, Leung P, DeFazio A, Khattra J, Turashvili G, Zhao Y, Zeng T, Glover JN, Vanderhyden B, Zhao C, Parkinson CA, Jimenez-Linan M, Bowtell DD, Mes-Masson AM, Brenton JD, Aparicio SA, Boyd N, Hirst M, Gilks CB, Marra M, Huntsman DG: Mutation of FOXL2 in granulosa-cell tumors of the ovary. N Engl J Med; 2009 Jun 25;360(26):2719-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mutation of FOXL2 in granulosa-cell tumors of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Granulosa-cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common type of malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor (SCST).
  • METHODS: We analyzed four adult-type GCTs using whole-transcriptome paired-end RNA sequencing.
  • We identified putative GCT-specific mutations that were present in at least three of these samples but were absent from the transcriptomes of 11 epithelial ovarian tumors, published human genomes, and databases of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
  • RESULTS: All four index GCTs had a missense point mutation, 402C-->G (C134W), in FOXL2, a gene encoding a transcription factor known to be critical for granulosa-cell development.
  • The FOXL2 mutation was present in 86 of 89 additional adult-type GCTs (97%), in 3 of 14 thecomas (21%), and in 1 of 10 juvenile-type GCTs (10%).
  • The mutation was absent in 49 SCSTs of other types and in 329 unrelated ovarian or breast tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Whole-transcriptome sequencing of four GCTs identified a single, recurrent somatic mutation (402C-->G) in FOXL2 that was present in almost all morphologically identified adult-type GCTs.
  • Mutant FOXL2 is a potential driver in the pathogenesis of adult-type GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics


6. Ayhan A, Salman MC, Velipasaoglu M, Sakinci M, Yuce K: Prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a retrospective analysis of 80 cases. J Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;20(3):158-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a retrospective analysis of 80 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are rare malignancies with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathologic characteristics related with disease recurrence and mortality in adult type ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • METHODS: Eighty surgically staged patients with granulosa cell ovarian tumor treated at the Hacettepe University Hospital between 1982 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Granulosa cell ovarian tumors accounted for 4.3% of malignant ovarian neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Initial stage seems to be the single most important prognostic factor in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19809549.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2757560
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mortality / Ovarian granulosa cell tumors / Prognostic factors / Recurrence / Survival
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7. Fleming NI, Knower KC, Lazarus KA, Fuller PJ, Simpson ER, Clyne CD: Aromatase is a direct target of FOXL2: C134W in granulosa cell tumors via a single highly conserved binding site in the ovarian specific promoter. PLoS One; 2010;5(12):e14389
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aromatase is a direct target of FOXL2: C134W in granulosa cell tumors via a single highly conserved binding site in the ovarian specific promoter.
  • BACKGROUND: Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary often express aromatase and synthesize estrogen, which in turn may influence their progression.
  • Recently a specific point mutation (C134W) in the FOXL2 protein was identified in >94% of adult-type GCT and it is likely to contribute to their development.
  • Recently, it has been reported that FOXL2 forms a complex with steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) which is a known regulator of aromatase in granulosa cells.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, the human GCT-derived cell lines KGN and COV434 were heterozygous and wildtype for the FOXL2:C134W mutation, respectively.
  • Expression of exogenous FOXL2:C134W in COV434 cells induced higher expression of a luciferase reporter for the ovarian specific aromatase promoter, promoter II (PII) (-516bp) than expression of wildtype FOXL2, but did not alter induction of a similar reporter for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) promoter (-1300bp).
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that aromatase is a direct target of FOXL2:C134W in adult-type GCT via a single distinctive and highly conserved binding site in PII and therefore provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of this mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Mutation. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding Sites. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Point Mutation. Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid

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  • (PMID = 21188138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004790
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8. Iyibozkurt AC, Topuz S, Gungor F, Akhan SE, Demirci F, Salihoglu Y, Berkman S, Bengisu E: Factors affecting recurrence and disease-free survival in granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):667-71
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  • [Title] Factors affecting recurrence and disease-free survival in granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To determine risk factors for prognosis and recurrence in ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumor (GCT).
  • Stage and presence of residual tumor were calculated to be the only associated risk factors for recurrence and prognosis (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Recurrences in GCT might be associated with stage and presence of residual tumor during primary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Women's Health
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pelvic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Turkey. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21319513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Lee YK, Park NH, Kim JW, Song YS, Kang SB, Lee HP: Characteristics of recurrence in adult-type granulosa cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):642-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics of recurrence in adult-type granulosa cell tumor.
  • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is a very rare neoplasm, which is characterized by an indolent clinical course.
  • There were 35 cases showing adult-type GCT, which were available for evaluation.
  • GCT accounted for 3% of all ovarian malignancies in our institution during the study period.
  • Factors affecting the recurrence involved residual tumor and stage, but residual tumor was the only significant factor of recurrence in multivariate analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17868338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • There are two types of folliculoma: juvenile (5%) and adult (95%).
  • The juvenile type is mostly recognized (90%) in FIGO I stage and has a better prognosis.
  • The adult folliculoma is more aggressive in its nature.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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11. You XL, Yin RT, Li KM, Wang DQ, Li L, Yang KX: [Clinical and pathological analysis on ovarian granulosa cell tumors]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 May;41(3):467-70
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  • [Title] [Clinical and pathological analysis on ovarian granulosa cell tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify different clinical and pathological features for adult and juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical records of 42 patients with granulosa cell tumors of ovary, including pathological features, treatments and follow up results between April 2001 and September 2009 were reviewed. RESULTS:.
  • The 38 cases accounted for 3.13% of ovarian cancer cases treated in our hospital.
  • 2) Twenty nine of the 38 cases (76.3%) were Adult Type, while the other 9 (23.7%) were Juvenile Type.
  • The median onset age were 53 and 25 years old for the Adult Type and Juvenile Type, respectively, which shows significant difference (z = -2.990, P = 0.003).
  • Ten patients ng the underwent conservative unilateral oophorectomy or ovarian enucleation.
  • Inhibin, calretinin, and vimentin were demonstrated to be useful for the diagnosis of granulose cell tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: With low incidence rate, ovarian granulosa cell tumor is a low-grade malignant and functional tumor.
  • Most Adult-type granulosa cell tumors occur in middle aged and elderly people, while most juvenile granulosa cell tumors occur in adolescents and children.
  • Acute abdomen symptom may occur but ascites are less likely to occur in patients with granular cell tumors than those with epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are usually detected early, but easily relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20629323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Stevens TA, Brown J, Zander DS, Bevers MW, Gershenson DM, Ramondetta LM: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary in two first-degree relatives. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Sep;98(3):502-5
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  • [Title] Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary in two first-degree relatives.
  • BACKGROUND: Known inherited mutations are responsible for approximately 10% of all epithelial ovarian cancers; however, prior to this report, sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors had not been documented in related females.
  • CASE: We report here on a mother and daughter, each diagnosed with rare, adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • CONCLUSION: This novel report of granulosa cell tumors occurring in two first-degree relatives must be examined with reserve.
  • However, if additional cases are reported and future research is undertaken, biological markers and inherited mutations for certain sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors may be identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mothers. Nuclear Family

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  • (PMID = 15992917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Villella J, Herrmann FR, Kaul S, Lele S, Marchetti D, Natiella J, Odunsi K, Mhawech-Fauceglia P: Clinical and pathological predictive factors in women with adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Apr;26(2):154-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological predictive factors in women with adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare neoplasm hallmarked by a very indolent course and late recurrences.
  • We performed a retrospective study at our institution where we identified 48 patients with GCT from our tumor registry.
  • The degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic count, Ki-67 index, and DNA aneuploidy was not predictive of tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Ploidies. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17413982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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14. Rietveld L, Nieboer TE, Kluivers KB, Schreuder HW, Bulten J, Massuger LF: First case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in an adult with Ollier disease. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):464-7
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  • [Title] First case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in an adult with Ollier disease.
  • Granulosa cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors.
  • This is the first report of a patient in her fourth decade with a combination of OD and juvenile granulosa cell tumor.A 36-year-old woman with OD developed an ovarian tumor.
  • The tumor was found at a routine MRI scan.
  • During surgery a stage IIc granulosa cell tumor was removed; pathologic examination showed a juvenile type.
  • A review of literature showed 8 previous cases of (juvenile) granulosa cell tumor associated with OD.The coexistence of granulosa cell tumors in patients with OD is more frequent than expected by chance.
  • [MeSH-major] Enchondromatosis / complications. Granulosa Cell Tumor / complications. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19696617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Leuverink EM, Brennan BA, Crook ML, Doherty DA, Hammond IG, Ruba S, Stewart CJ: Prognostic value of mitotic counts and Ki-67 immunoreactivity in adult-type granulosa cell tumour of the ovary. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Aug;61(8):914-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of mitotic counts and Ki-67 immunoreactivity in adult-type granulosa cell tumour of the ovary.
  • AIMS: The identification of reliable prognostic factors in patients with ovarian stage 1 adult-type granulosa cell tumour (GCT) has proved problematic.
  • The number of mitotic figures and Ki-67 immunoreactive cells per 10,000 tumour cells was also assessed using an ocular cell counting graticule.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were stage 1 at presentation, and nine patients had high-stage disease (extra-ovarian spread).
  • Future studies should carefully specify the methods of assessing cell proliferation to ensure a reliable comparison of results.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mitotic Index. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18430757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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16. Lin YS, Eng HL, Jan YJ, Lee HS, Ho WL, Liou CP, Lee WY, Tzeng CC: Molecular cytogenetics of ovarian granulosa cell tumors by comparative genomic hybridization. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):68-73
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  • [Title] Molecular cytogenetics of ovarian granulosa cell tumors by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with stage I granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) may occasionally develop metastasis, which is hard to predict using pathologic criteria.
  • METHODS: CGH was used to identify CI(s) in 37 adult-type GCTs from 36 women.
  • One woman's tumor showed identical CIs to another tumor that occurred in contralateral ovary 2 years later, supporting a metastatic nature.
  • No tumor exhibited high-level amplification.
  • The associations between each CI and pathological features, including the growth pattern, tumor size, and mitotic activity, were not evident.
  • The role of loss-of-function mutation(s) of certain putative tumor suppressor gene(s) on 22q is worthy of further investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Monosomy / genetics. Monosomy / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15790439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Nasu K, Fukuda J, Yoshimatsu J, Takai N, Kashima K, Narahara H: Granulosa cell tumor associated with secondary amenorrhea and serum luteinizing hormone elevation. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun;12(3):228-30
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor associated with secondary amenorrhea and serum luteinizing hormone elevation.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common type of ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • Pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left ovarian tumor 4 cm in diameter.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as an adult-type GCT stage IIb (FIGO [International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists], 1988).
  • The tumor recurred in the pelvis 50 months after the initial conservative surgery, with elevated serum LH levels of 36.0 mIU/ml and amenorrhea.
  • Although LH elevation in patients with GCT is rare and its mechanism is unknown, monitoring of serum LH may provide an additional tumor marker after conservative surgery in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Amenorrhea / etiology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17566848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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18. Lee S, Kim TH, Won M, Ko JJ, Rho J, Lee K, Bae J: Absence of a FOXL2 mutation (402C→G) in the blood of adult-type granulosa cell tumor patients possessing the FOXL2 mutation. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Nov;20(8):1341-3
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  • [Title] Absence of a FOXL2 mutation (402C→G) in the blood of adult-type granulosa cell tumor patients possessing the FOXL2 mutation.
  • Recently, a new mutation in FOXL2, c.402C→G leading to a p.C134W change, was reported to be found in 97% of adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) tested.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Case-Control Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / blood. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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  • (PMID = 21051974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
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19. Korach J, Perri T, Beiner M, Davidzon T, Fridman E, Ben-Baruch G: Promising effect of aromatase inhibitors on recurrent granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jul;19(5):830-3
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  • [Title] Promising effect of aromatase inhibitors on recurrent granulosa cell tumors.
  • Recurring adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are usually treated by surgical resection followed by chemotherapy or radiation.
  • We describe 4 patients in whom recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumors were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, with promising results.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19574768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole
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20. Kaur H, Bagga R, Saha SC, Gainder S, Srinivasan R, Adhya AK, Dhaliwal LK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor, and the majority (90%) are reported in the prepubertal or under-30-year age group, in contrast to the adult type, which is more common in the fifth decade.
  • On histopathological examination, juvenile GCTs are distinct from the adult type of GCT, and have a lower risk for late recurrences than the latter.
  • Being solid tumors, they may be associated with ascites and pleural effusion (Meigs' syndrome), which resolve after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Tumor markers for GCT are still investigational (inhibin) and of not much use in making a preoperative diagnosis, unlike in the case of germ cell tumors.
  • We report this rare tumor with an aim of reviewing the diagnosis and management from the reported literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Oct;103(1):31-4 [16537089.001]
  • (PMID = 19225930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Miyazawa M, Yasuda M, Fujita M, Hirabayashi K, Hirasawa T, Kajiwara H, Muramatsu T, Miyazaki S, Harasawa M, Matsui N, Ogane N, Murakami M, Mikami M, Yanase T, Osamura RY: Granulosa cell tumor with activated mTOR-HIF-1alpha-VEGF pathway. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Apr;36(2):448-53
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor with activated mTOR-HIF-1alpha-VEGF pathway.
  • Among the tumors that were studied, there was a finding of a high level of DNA-binding HIF-1alpha activity, although it was limited to one case of adult type granulosa cell tumor (GCT).
  • To compare the expression profiles, 11 consecutive cases with adult type GCT were used.
  • Based on the evidence that downregulation of the mTOR pathway due to treatment with rapamycin (everolimus) would suppress tumor cell growth, an experimental study using the GCT cell line was designed to clarify whether HIF-1alpha and VEGF expressions decline.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Signal Transduction / physiology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 20492406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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22. Barrena Medel NI, Herzog TJ, Wright JD, Lewin SN: Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report. Anticancer Res; 2010 Nov;30(11):4767-8
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report.
  • Growing evidence points toward the key role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.
  • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) does not seem to be an exception.
  • This study presented the case of an adult-type GCT treated with neoadjuvant bevacizumab.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 21115938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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23. Stewart CJ, Brennan BA, Crook ML, Doherty DA, Hammond IG, Leuverink E, Ruba S: Comparison of proliferation indices in primary adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary and their corresponding metastases: an analysis of 14 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):423-31
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  • [Title] Comparison of proliferation indices in primary adult-type granulosa cell tumors of the ovary and their corresponding metastases: an analysis of 14 cases.
  • Adult-type granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are generally low-grade malignancies, but late metastases are relatively common.
  • Fourteen GCTs in which histologic material was available from both the primary tumor and one or more metastases were reviewed, and the mitotic index (MI) and Ki-67 labelling index (KI) were evaluated using carefully specified methodology.
  • The findings were also correlated with the time interval to tumor recurrence.
  • There were only minor differences in tumor morphology between the primary and metastatic GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19696611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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24. Abu-Rustum NR, Restivo A, Ivy J, Soslow R, Sabbatini P, Sonoda Y, Barakat RR, Chi DS: Retroperitoneal nodal metastasis in primary and recurrent granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Oct;103(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal nodal metastasis in primary and recurrent granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of retroperitoneal pelvic or paraaortic lymph node metastasis in patients with primary and recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • METHODS: At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors managed as inpatients from January 1991 to July 2005.
  • Sixty-four (94%) patients had adult type and 4 (6%) had juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • Thirty-four patients with recurrent granulosa cell tumors were managed during the study, 31 (91%) had adult type granulosa cell tumor, and 3 had juvenile histology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical staging was performed in approximately 1/5 women with ovarian granulosa cell tumors; however, in those initially surgically staged, no nodal metastasis was identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16537089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kostopoulou E, Angelidou S, Daponte A, Galani C, Chiotoglou I, Terzis A, Koukoulis G: Fascin can be an auxiliary immunomarker of ovarian granulosa cell tumors: comparison with calretinin and inhibin-alpha. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(6):638-42
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  • [Title] Fascin can be an auxiliary immunomarker of ovarian granulosa cell tumors: comparison with calretinin and inhibin-alpha.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor adult type (AGCT) can be supported by the use of established immunomarkers such as inhibin-alpha and calretinin.
  • Previously unreported data is presented on the detection of fascin in AGCT, in nonneoplastic granulosa cells and in other types of sex-cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19115695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FSCN1 protein, human; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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26. Patel SS, Carrick KS, Carr BR: Virilization persists in a woman with an androgen-secreting granulosa cell tumor. Fertil Steril; 2009 Mar;91(3):933.e13-5
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  • [Title] Virilization persists in a woman with an androgen-secreting granulosa cell tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a woman who presented with amenorrhea and masculinization secondary to an androgen-secreting granulosa cell (GC) tumor, with refractory masculinization.
  • RESULT(S): Pathologic examination revealed an inhibin stain positive GC tumor of the adult type.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Adult-type GC tumor is an extremely rare cause of virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / blood. Granulosa Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19062005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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27. Irving JA, Young RH: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary with a pseudopapillary pattern: a study of 14 cases of an unusual morphologic variant emphasizing their distinction from transitional cell neoplasms and other papillary ovarian tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):581-6
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary with a pseudopapillary pattern: a study of 14 cases of an unusual morphologic variant emphasizing their distinction from transitional cell neoplasms and other papillary ovarian tumors.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary with a pseudopapillary pattern have received only passing mention in the literature.
  • We have reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor and 4 cases of adult granulosa cell tumor with a pseudopapillary pattern.
  • Twelve cases were received in consultation; the referring pathologist favored a diagnosis of a transitional cell neoplasm in 3 of these cases, and a retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in 2 cases; in most of the remainder, the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor was considered but uncertainty expressed because of the unusual papillarylike pattern.
  • In all tumors, thorough sampling revealed areas with architectural patterns and cytomorphology typical of granulosa cell tumor.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of adult and juvenile type may have a pseudopapillary pattern that can be confused with other ovarian tumors with a papillary architecture.
  • Identification of areas that are more characteristic of granulosa cell tumor resolves most cases, although immunohistochemistry can be used in more problematic tumors.
  • This phenomenon seems to be related to the cystic change that is a feature of many granulosa cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18301054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Leibl S, Bodo K, Gogg-Kammerer M, Hrzenjak A, Petru E, Winter R, Denk H, Moinfar F: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors frequently express EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4: An immunohistochemical study. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Apr;101(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Ovarian granulosa cell tumors frequently express EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4: An immunohistochemical study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Up to 50% of patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) will develop recurrences; some of these recurrences can be seen as late as 30 years following the initial surgical treatment.
  • METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of EGFR (Her-1), Her-2, Her-3, and Her-4 was analyzed in a group of ovarian GCTs encompassing 38 adult type and 2 juvenile type.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, most of the ovarian GCTs express at least one of the receptors EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4.
  • These findings provide some evidence to further explore the potential use of agents targeting these receptors (particularly EGFR) in the treatment of ovarian GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16330088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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29. Kondi-Pafiti A, Grapsa D, Kairi-Vassilatou E, Carvounis E, Hasiakos D, Kontogianni K, Fotiou S: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(1):94-8
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To further study the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one cases (15 of the adult and 6 of the juvenile type) were retrieved.
  • Pathology revealed a concomitant theca-cell component in three cases, a Sertoli-Leydig component in one case, and a thecoma in one case.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20349790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • They resembled the architecture of normal adrenal gland, with formation of cell nests and trabeculae.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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31. Ota T, Choi KB, Gilks CB, Leung PC, Auersperg N: Cell type- and stage-specific changes in HOXA7 protein expression in human ovarian folliculogenesis: possible role of GDF-9. Differentiation; 2006 Feb;74(1):1-10

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  • [Title] Cell type- and stage-specific changes in HOXA7 protein expression in human ovarian folliculogenesis: possible role of GDF-9.
  • Homeobox (HOX) genes are important transcriptional regulators in development and in adult tissues.
  • We generated a thoroughly characterized polyclonal rabbit antibody against human HOXA7 and used it to study the distribution, role, and regulation of HOXA7 in human ovarian folliculogenesis and in granulosa cell tumors.
  • Granulosa cells were predominantly negative in primordial follicles, had uniformly HOXA7-positive nuclei in primary follicles, and, as follicles matured, the subcellular localization of HOXA7 changed from nuclear to predominantly cytoplasmic.
  • Granulosa cell tumors were mainly HOXA7 positive and, like in preovulatory follicles and theca interna, staining was predominantly cytoplasmic.
  • The change in HOXA7 expression from negative primordial to positive primary follicles suggested a relationship with granulosa cell proliferation.
  • To test this hypothesis, SV40 Tag-immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) were double stained with anti-HOXA7 antibody and with Ki-67 as proliferation marker.
  • This is the first report on the expression of any HOX gene in human ovarian follicles and granulosa cell tumors.
  • It shows that HOXA7 undergoes cell type- and stage-specific changes during ovarian folliculogenesis, likely regulates granulosa cell proliferation, and in subcellular location differs between proliferating and secretory cells.
  • The increase in HOXA7 protein in response to GDF-9 represents the first demonstration of a possible regulatory role of oocytes in ovarian follicular HOX gene expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Follicular Phase / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Ovarian Follicle / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Female. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Granulosa Cells / metabolism. Growth Differentiation Factor 9. Humans. Mice. Oocytes / cytology. Oocytes / growth & development. Oocytes / metabolism. Ovary / cytology. Ovary / growth & development. Ovary / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / immunology. RNA, Messenger. Rabbits. Recombinant Fusion Proteins. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Subcellular Fractions. Theca Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16466395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Differentiation; research in biological diversity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Differentiation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP15 protein, human; 0 / Bmp15 protein, mouse; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15; 0 / GDF9 protein, human; 0 / Gdf9 protein, mouse; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 9; 0 / HOXA7 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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32. Distelmaier F, Calaminus G, Harms D, Sträter R, Kordes U, Fleischhack G, Göbel U, Schneider DT: Ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type in children and adolescents: a prognostically unfavorable but curable disease. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2298-306
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  • [Title] Ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type in children and adolescents: a prognostically unfavorable but curable disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type is a rare neoplasm that is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • The objective of the current study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of this tumor and to develop preliminary diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines.
  • METHODS: Between 1994 and 2005, 11 girls (ages 9-22 years) who were registered on the German Maligne Keimzelltumoren studies and the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry were analyzed.
  • Prior to histopathologic review, 8 patients had been misdiagnosed with either germ cell tumor or juvenile granulosa cell tumor.
  • Salvage treatment after recurrence or tumor progression consisted of surgery and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type require multiagent chemotherapy during first-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16998935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Abood G, Bowen M, Potkul R, Aranha G, Shoup M: Hepatic resection for recurrent metastatic ovarian cancer. Am J Surg; 2008 Mar;195(3):370-3; discussion 373
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection for recurrent metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The role for liver resection in metastatic ovarian cancer has not been defined.
  • The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of hepatic resection as a treatment option in metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of a single institution's experience of patients undergoing hepatic resection for metastatic ovarian cancer from 1998-2006.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients underwent resection for metastatic ovarian cancer.
  • Primary tumor type included serous cystadenocarcinoma (n = 8), granulosa cell (n = 1), and yolk sac (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSION: Liver resection for metastatic ovarian cancer is safe and is associated with long-term survival in some patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cystadenocarcinoma / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18207130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Chang MC, Vargas SO, Hornick JL, Hirsch MS, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):347-55
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  • [Title] Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • SUMMARY: The embryonic stem cell transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT3/4 are involved in the regulation of germ cell tumor growth and differentiation.
  • They, and D2-40 (podoplanin), an antigen expressed in seminomas, are emerging as useful diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • This study evaluates the use of these markers in ovarian tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (n=31) have distinct immunostaining profiles, depending on the type of differentiation as follows: dysgerminoma (SOX2-, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40+), embryonal carcinoma (SOX2+, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40-), immature teratomas (SOX2+, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-), yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinoma (SOX2-, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-).
  • Nongerm cell tumors (n=57, including surface-epithelial stromal tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors) were negative for NANOG and D2-40.
  • OCT3/4 was positive in 4 of 9 adult granulosa cell tumors (15% to 85% of cells).
  • NANOG distinguished between either of these 2 tumors and nongerm cell tumors.
  • The inclusion of these markers should therefore be considered in cases of pure or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors that are difficult to classify, and to exclude nongerm cell tumor mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19483629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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35. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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36. Rund CR, Fischer EG: Perinuclear dot-like cytokeratin 20 staining in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary (pulmonary-type). Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Jun;14(2):244-8
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  • [Title] Perinuclear dot-like cytokeratin 20 staining in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary (pulmonary-type).
  • Primary ovarian small cell carcinomas are rare tumors that are subclassified into the hypercalcemic (HT) and the pulmonary type (PT), and each tumor type has different clinicopathologic characteristics.
  • The PT small cell carcinoma is very rare, with only one series and a few case reports published.
  • This staining pattern has been reported only for Merkel cell carcinoma and salivary gland small cell carcinoma.
  • The authors suggest that the punctate CK20 staining is a useful tool in the diagnostic distinction of PT small cell carcinoma from HT small cell carcinoma, from other primary ovarian tumors such as granulosa cell tumors, and from metastatic neuroendocrine tumors originating at primary sites such as the lung.

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  • [CommentIn] Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2008 Mar;16(2):205 [18227717.001]
  • (PMID = 16785798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20
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37. Jin JS, Hsieh DS, Loh SH, Chen A, Yao CW, Yen CY: Increasing expression of serine protease matriptase in ovarian tumors: tissue microarray analysis of immunostaining score with clinicopathological parameters. Mod Pathol; 2006 Mar;19(3):447-52
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  • [Title] Increasing expression of serine protease matriptase in ovarian tumors: tissue microarray analysis of immunostaining score with clinicopathological parameters.
  • Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease expressed by cells of surface epithelial origin, including epithelial ovarian tumor cells.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the expression of matriptase in ovarian tumors and to assign clinicopathological correlations.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of matriptase was performed in tissue microarrays of 164 ovarian neoplasms including 84 serous adenocarcinomas, 23 mucinous adenocarcinomas, 10 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, six yolk sac tumors, 12 clear cell carcinomas, six dysgerminomas, eight granulosa cell tumors, four transitional cell carcinomas, five fibromas, and six Brenner tumors.
  • All ovarian tumors except the fibromas and Brenner tumors showed significant expression of matriptase.
  • The matriptase scores were significantly higher in the tumors than in their nontumor counterparts (304+/-26 for serous adenocarcinoma; 361+/-28 for mucinous adenocarcinoma; 254+/-17 for endometrioid adenocarcinoma; 205+/-19 for yolk sac tumor; 162+/-16 for clear cell carcinoma; 109+/-11 for dysgerminoma; 105+/-9 for granulosa cell tumor; and 226+/-18 for transitional cell carcinoma).
  • Our findings demonstrate for the first time that matriptase is overexpressed in many malignant ovarian tumors.
  • It may be a novel biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of malignant ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Serine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Brenner Tumor / enzymology. Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / enzymology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Child. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / enzymology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / enzymology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Dysgerminoma / enzymology. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Fibroma / enzymology. Fibroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16439987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.109 / ST14 protein, human
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38. Zhao C, Vinh TN, McManus K, Dabbs D, Barner R, Vang R: Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):354-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Different immunohistochemical sex cord-stromal markers have been previously studied in various types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors; however, the sensitivity for sex cord-stromal lineage may vary between markers, and some markers may not be as sensitive in some types of sex cord-stromal tumors compared with other tumors in this spectrum of neoplasms.
  • The goals of this study were to determine which immunohistochemical markers are the most sensitive and immunohistochemically robust for sex cord-stromal lineage within a given type of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, and to establish whether there are substantial differences of expression of these markers between different types of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for markers which have known variable specificity for sex cord-stromal lineage [inhibin, calretinin, MART-1/melan-A, CD99, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, adrenal 4-binding protein), and WT1], were performed in 127 cases of 5 different types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor (n=32), Sertoli cell tumor (n=27), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (n=18), steroid cell tumor (n=25), and fibroma/fibrothecoma (n=25).
  • All cases in each type of sex cord-stromal tumor expressed SF-1.
  • All types of tumors except steroid cell tumor expressed WT1.
  • Fibroma/fibrothecoma was the only type of tumor that did not express CD99.
  • The only tumor groups that showed expression of MART-1 were Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (restricted to the Leydig cell component) and steroid cell tumor (94% and 96% of cases, respectively).
  • The type of sex cord-stromal tumor that was least frequently positive for several of the different markers studied was fibroma/fibrothecoma.
  • Among all tumor groups combined, inhibin and WT1 were the 2 markers showing the most diffuse expression.
  • Likewise, the single marker showing the most optimal combination of diffuse and strong staining (immunohistochemical composite score: possible range, 1 to 12) varied between tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor-inhibin (score 10.0); Sertoli cell tumor-WT1 (score 10.8); Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (Sertoli cell component)-WT1 (score 10.4); steroid cell tumor-inhibin (score 11.2); and fibroma/fibrothecoma-WT1 (score 8.9).
  • Although each of the different types of sex cord-stromal tumors has a slightly unique immunoprofile in terms of frequency and extent of expression, these differences are relatively minor for most types of tumors with certain exceptions (eg, WT1 is not diagnostically useful in steroid cell tumor; CD99 is not diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma; the only sex cord-stromal tumor for which MART-1 is diagnostically useful is steroid cell tumor; inhibin and calretinin are less diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma than in the other types of tumors, but expression in fibrothecoma was higher than in fibroma).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Jung SE, Rha SE, Lee JM, Park SY, Oh SN, Cho KS, Lee EJ, Byun JY, Hahn ST: CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jul;185(1):207-15
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  • [Title] CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to research the clinical and imaging features of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary to help in specific diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary are rare ovarian neoplasms, which arise from stromal cells and primitive sex cords in the ovary.
  • The common types are granulosa cell tumors, fibrothecomas, sclerosing stromal tumors, and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • They account for most of the hormonally active ovarian tumors.
  • They have characteristic imaging features in each type of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15972425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Cites] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1178-85; discussion 1185-7 [8475964.001]
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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S81-98
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  • Sertoli cell tumors occur in both gonads being more common in the testis where they usually exhibit a lobular pattern of hollow or solid tubules.
  • One variant of Sertoli cell tumor, the large cell calcifying form, appears to be restricted to the male gonad and in contrast to other sex cord tumors is much more frequently bilateral and is associated in many cases with unusual clinical manifestations.
  • In females, it is in the form of the sex cord with annular tubules whereas in males, the lesion has features that are often intermediate between those of a sex cord tumor with annular tubules and a large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are more morphologically diverse than pure Sertoli cell tumors and for practical purposes are an issue only in ovarian pathology being exceptionally rare in the testis.
  • Heterologous tumors most often contain mucinous epithelium, sometimes with small foci of carcinoid or less commonly, and generally in poorly differentiated neoplasms, rhabdomyosarcoma or fetal-type cartilage.
  • Granulosa cell tumors are much more common in females and in both gonads are divided into adult and juvenile forms.
  • In females, granulosa cell tumors and other sex cord tumors may have markedly bizarre nuclei potentially leading to overdiagnosis as more malignant neoplasms.
  • The juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis tends to occur in the first 6 months of life and should be carefully distinguished from the yolk sac tumor of the testis, which usually occurs in a slightly older age group.
  • Occasional sex cord-stromal tumors cannot be readily categorized into the Sertoli or granulosa families and are diagnosed as sex cord-stromal tumors unclassified.
  • Unclassified tumors are overall more common in males and may entrap residual normal germ cells potentially leading to the erroneous placement of the tumor in the category of a mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15502809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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42. Schrader KA, Gorbatcheva B, Senz J, Heravi-Moussavi A, Melnyk N, Salamanca C, Maines-Bandiera S, Cooke SL, Leung P, Brenton JD, Gilks CB, Monahan J, Huntsman DG: The specificity of the FOXL2 c.402C&gt;G somatic mutation: a survey of solid tumors. PLoS One; 2009 Nov 24;4(11):e7988
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: A somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene is reported to be present in almost all (97%; 86/89) morphologically defined, adult-type, granulosa-cell tumors (A-GCTs).
  • It was also found in a minority of other ovarian malignant stromal tumors, but not in benign ovarian stromal tumors or unrelated ovarian tumors or breast cancers.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we studied other cancers and cell lines for the presence of this mutation.
  • We screened DNA from 752 tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin and 28 ovarian cancer cell lines and 52 other cancer cell lines of varied origin.
  • We found the FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation in an unreported A-GCT case and the A-GCT-derived cell line KGN.
  • All other tumors and cell lines analyzed were mutation negative.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to proving that the KGN cell line is a useful model to study A-GCTs, these data show that the c.402C>G mutation in FOXL2 is not commonly found in a wide variety of other cancers and therefore it is likely pathognomonic for A-GCTs and closely related tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19956657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP 97735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2777318
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43. Whittemore DE, Grondahl RE, Wong K: Primary extraneural myxopapillary ependymoma of the broad ligament. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1338-42
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  • Primary extraneural ependymomas are rare tumors that arise in ectopic sites, including pulmonary, sacrococcygeal region, ovarian, and paraovarian tissues.
  • Here we describe a myxopapillary ependymoma of the broad ligament in a 22-year-old woman, which may be the first tumor of this type to be reported in this location.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16196528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin
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44. Turbiner J, Moreno-Bueno G, Dahiya S, Sánchez-Estevez C, Hardisson D, Prat J, Oliva E, Palacios J: Clinicopathological and molecular analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with tamoxifen. Mod Pathol; 2008 Aug;21(8):925-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A control group included 15 patients with endometrial carcinoma and associated ovarian hyperthecosis and one patient with endometrial carcinoma and adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary, chosen because both conditions are associated with increased production of estrogen and increased risk of endometrial carcinoma development.
  • There were 16 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, one mixed carcinoma and one clear cell carcinoma among patients in the tamoxifen group.
  • All patients with ovarian hyperthecosis and adult granulosa cell tumor had endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical and mutational analysis for beta-catenin showed abnormalities in 4/11 (36%) and 3/10 (30%) informative cases in the tamoxifen group; 7/16 (44%) and 4/15 (27%) informative cases, respectively in the ovarian hyperthecosis group and 1/27 random control cases (4%) (P<0.05).
  • In conclusion, there was a direct relationship between tamoxifen exposure and overexpression of beta-catenin oncoprotein, which is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of estrogen-driven, type I endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism. Survival Rate. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18500270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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45. Hersmus R, Kalfa N, de Leeuw B, Stoop H, Oosterhuis JW, de Krijger R, Wolffenbuttel KP, Drop SL, Veitia RA, Fellous M, Jaubert F, Looijenga LH: FOXL2 and SOX9 as parameters of female and male gonadal differentiation in patients with various forms of disorders of sex development (DSD). J Pathol; 2008 May;215(1):31-8

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  • In normal gonads, SOX9 was found to be restricted to the presence of (pre-)Sertoli cells, while FOXL2 was found in granulosa cells, and in stromal cells interpreted as early ovarian stroma.
  • Both proteins were found within a single patient, when testicular and ovarian development was present; and within the same gonad, when both differentiation lineages were identified, as in ovotesticular DSD (ie hermaphrodite).
  • In a limited number of DSD cases, FOXL2 was found within reasonably well-developed seminiferous tubules, but double staining demonstrated that it was never strongly co-expressed with SOX9 in the same cell.
  • All seminiferous tubules containing carcinoma in situ (CIS), the malignant counterpart of a primordial germ cell, ie the precursor of type II germ cell tumours of the testis, seminomas and non-seminomas, showed the presence of SOX9 and not FOXL2.
  • In contrast, gonadoblastomas (GBs), the precursor of the same type of cancer, in a dysgenetic gonad, showed expression of FOXL2 and no, or only very low, SOX9 expression.
  • These findings indicate that gonadal differentiation, ie testicular or ovarian, determines the morphology of the precursor of type II germ cell tumours, CIS or GB, respectively.
  • We show that in DSD patients, the formation of either ovarian or/and testicular development can be visualized using FOXL2 and SOX9 expression, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / chemistry. Female. Gonadoblastoma / chemistry. Gonadoblastoma / embryology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / chemistry. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / embryology. Ovary / chemistry. Ovary / embryology. SOX9 Transcription Factor. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry. Testis / chemistry. Testis / embryology

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  • (PMID = 18348162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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46. Chen F, Koenig C, Heller DS: A 26-year-old woman with right ovarian mass. Small cell carcinoma of ovary, hypercalcemic type. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Apr;130(4):e56-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A 26-year-old woman with right ovarian mass. Small cell carcinoma of ovary, hypercalcemic type.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16594761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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